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CSCW Tables of Contents: 868890929496980002040608101112-1

Proceedings of ACM CSCW'94 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:Proceedings of ACM CSCW'94 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Note:Transcending Boundaries
Editors:John B. Smith; F. Don Smith; Thomas W. Malone; Richard Furuta; Christine Neuwirth
Location:Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
Dates:1994-Oct-22 to 1994-Oct-26
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-689-1; ACM Order Number 612940; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CSCW94
  1. Workshops
  2. Tutorials
  3. Formal Video Program
  4. Formal Video Program: Prototypes and Enabling Technologies
  5. Formal Video Program: Applications and Methodologies
  6. Formal Video Program: Historical Records and Retrospectives
  7. Formal Video Program: Future Visions
  8. Formal Video Program: References
  9. From Video Phoning to Video Interacting
  10. Tailoring CSCW Systems to Organizations
  11. Models of Cooperative Work
  12. Workflow and Information Sharing
  13. Collaborative Editing and Reviewing
  14. Sharing Information and Creating Meaning
  15. Technologies for Sharing I
  16. Studies of Cooperative Work I
  17. Studies of Cooperative Work II
  18. Technologies for Sharing II
  19. Supporting Meetings
  20. Video Conferencing
  21. Ethnographic Methodologies
  22. Special Session Panel
  23. Panels
  24. Plenary Panel
  25. Panels


CSCW'94 Workshops BIBAPDF 1
  Prasun Dewan
A large number of workshops were organized this year to allow attendees to explore in-depth the many sub-areas emerging within CSCW. Some of them such as the work analysis, communication spaces and software architecture, workshops were continuations of CSCW '92 workshops while others such as the workflow, video, and cobbler's children workshops addressed new topics. Some of these workshops broadened the scope of the conference by exploring the relationships between CSCW and related disciplines such as software process, hypermedia, and distributed systems. A few topics were addressed by multiple workshops to allow these workshops to focus on different levels and subareas within the topic. For instance, one workshop on CSCW system design explored the range of useful design techniques while another focussed on a particular design technique. Summaries of the workshops are provided below, together with the e-mail address of the primary contact person.
Workflow = Office Information Systems? BIBAPDF 1
  Dirk Mahling; Carson Woo
Current workflow systems and their application in business process reengineering seem to resemble previous work in office information systems (OIS). The purpose of this workshop was to revisit and summarize experiences gained from OIS and to discuss how the workflow field can take advantage of some of the results gathered in office information systems. Commonalities and differences between workflow and office information system were addressed. With connections established, workflow systems and their deployment should be spared some of the problems office information systems encountered. Conceptual problems common to both types of systems might point at unresolved issues that are not yet fully understood in workflow systems.
Relationships between CSCW and Software Process BIBAPDF 1
  Balachander Krishnamurthy; K. Narayanaswamy
For several years, much research has been done independently in both CSCW and Software Process (broadly, support for the collaborative activity of producing software). There is now increased interest in the links between these two research areas. This one-day workshop brought together about 20 leading researchers (with about half from each discipline) to discuss the relationships between CSCW and Software Process.
   The different research concerns and approaches in Software Process and CSCW were examined. The workshop was the starting point for discussions on relating the research agendas in CSCW and Software Process in such areas as the use of formalized process descriptions, process visualization, style of user interaction with the support environment, monitoring of actual performance of the formal process, and CSCW frameworks for the software process.
Collaborative Realtime Process Management BIBAPDF 1
  Yvonne Wærn
Several situations in modern working life imply that people have to cooperate in order to handle dynamic systems in real time. Traffic control, emergency management, military command and control as well as process control in industrial plants are the most important examples of such situations. Approaches to such situations require expertise in several domains, particularly social, psychological, educational, and computer science, as well as the domains to be covered. A European COST project has started collecting research experience within this field. The one-day workshop identified key features of, critical needs of and opportunities for integrating computer support into collaborative realtime process management.
Approaches to Work Analysis for CSCW Systems Design BIBAPDF 1-2
  John A. Hughes; Kjeld Schmidt
CSCW has brought in a number of disciplines new to system design, such as sociology and anthropology, as well as encouraging further developments in cognitive science, such as distributed cognition, and in organizational studies, such as activity theory. This has also been associated with the development of 'new' methods for carrying out work analysis to inform design, most notably ethnography. However, approaches need to demonstrate what it is they inform designers of and which aspects of the design process they contribute to. Attendees discussed a range of approaches outlining the theoretical and methodological principles of each and illustrated them from field studies drawn from a variety of domains.
Scenario-Based Design Workshop BIBAPDF 2
  Wendy E. Mackay; Susanne Bødker
This workshop addressed a critique of participatory design: that observational field studies of individual work settings cannot be adequately generalized to provide input for general-purpose CSCW tools. The workshop brought together a diverse group of people who have studied users engaged in real-world cooperative work settings. The participants began by comparing scenarios drawn from their individual experiences and identified both common and unique work practices. They then produced generalized scenarios that highlighted areas most amenable to a general purpose solution, i.e., activities common across work settings, regardless of context. They also identified another, largely overlooked, set of scenarios that require individualized solutions or customizable interfaces, because the activities are more strongly influenced by local work context.
   The set of generalized scenarios provided a sound basis for designing technology to support these work practices, which can then be improved and extended through participatory design studies. We were interested both in testing the scenario-based design method and in producing useful results that can be incorporated into the ongoing EuroCODE design project.
Critical Considerations in the Creation and Control of Personal/Collective Communication Spaces BIBAPDF 2
  Andrew Clement; Lucy Suchman; Ina Wagner
The development of CSCW applications generally implies new ways of recording and making available information about individual users' behaviour. Frequently, this is associated with new forms of interpersonal access. This is the case for those working in settings as diverse as team based manufacturing environments and the "media spaces" of research labs.
   The workshop explored theoretical and practical considerations in developing various forms of communications spaces under the control of the individuals and groups concerned. It began with detailed examination of several realistic scenarios involving privacy/accessibility issues and later identified some general principles that can guide the design of technologies and inform working practices.
Video-Mediated Communication: Testing, Evaluation, and Design Implications BIBAPDF 2
  Kate Finn; Abi Sellen; Sylvia Wilbur
Video-mediated communication (VMC) has been touted as an invaluable tool for such applications as distance learning, collaboration, and communication. In trying to compare, evaluate, or improve upon these systems, various studies have found widely conflicting conclusions, marked by the absence of a common language or set of metrics. There were two main goals of this workshop: (1) to resolve discrepancies in research findings by comparing methods, metrics, and interpretations of results; and (2) to draft a set of guidelines for designers of VMC systems based on the results of our analysis of the research. The main topics addressed were: VMC evaluation methods, metrics, and terminology; interpretation of research results and assessment of impact of VMC on conversation and collaboration; and implications for design.
Where the Rubber Meets the Road: Human Interaction Issues in Technology Supported Environments BIBAPDF 2-3
  K. C. Burgess Yakemovic; Michael Harris; Rebecca Stephens; Welyne Thomas
Several years ago there were few commercially available tools specifically meant to support people working together in group settings. Today there are many, with more becoming available almost daily. However, both developers and users of this technology have pointed to "the people problem" as a significant barrier to achieving the potential effectiveness and efficiency improvements. There are at least two major sources of human interaction problems: pre-existing conditions that the technology reveals, and problems created by the technology. This workshop explored the human issues surrounding the use of technology to support groups and teams. The workshop provided a forum where people with experience using and designing group support technology could identify the "people problems" experienced in the use of group support technology; categorize and, where reasonable, prioritize, these problems; and identify possible solutions or research actions.
The Cobbler's Children: How Can and Should We Use CSCW Tools in Our Own Work? BIBAPDF 3
  Robert Halperin; Kevin Crowston; Jintae Lee
This year, Lotus Notes and World Wide Web were used as an information sharing and communication vehicle among a large number of the CSCW Program Committee members to support the paper review process. Approximately 45 committee members in 14 states and 7 countries were connected to a Lotus Notes server at the MIT Center for Coordination Science. The committee members used a Lotus Notes application to access information about the approximately 200 papers submitted to CSCW'94, and to compose reviews of assigned papers. Subcommittee chairs then collated the reviews, and carried on a structured discussion in Notes regarding which papers should be accepted, and how the conference and proceedings should be structured. One of the subcommittees experimented with Mosaic for similar tasks.
   The purpose of this workshop was to explore the practical ways CSCW tools are already being used or might be used by the CSCW research community itself. Participants discussed how CSCW tools can be used to support the research life cycle and how existing research practices and incentive systems promote or impede the wider adoption of CSCW tools in our own work. Several collaborative applications already in use in the CSCW research community were discussed, and debated, and their applicability to the CSCW community considered.
Collaborative Hypermedia Systems BIBAPDF 3
  Joerg M. Haake; Cathy Marshall; Douglas E. Shackelford; Uffe K. Wiil
The topic of this workshop was collaborative hypermedia systems and their impact/relevance for CSCW systems. To make hypermedia systems group aware or to exploit hypermedia techniques in collaborative systems, four areas need to be explored: work practice and collaborative hypermedia, layers and services in collaborative hypermedia system architectures, persistent object management in collaborative hypermedia systems, and collaborative hypermedia systems in a larger system context.
   The above four areas are not completely independent. Rather, they provide different foci for collaborative hypermedia systems. The goal of the workshop was to discuss these issues and thereby to produce a better understanding of the topic as well as to produce an agenda of open research questions together with an indication of possible directions to go, and a list of further areas to be explored.
Distributed Systems, Multimedia, and Infrastructure Support in CSCW BIBAPDF 3
  Atul Prakash; John Riedl
The goal of this workshop was to identify common services needed by CSCW systems and to explore whether the support provided by current generation of distributed systems is satisfactory for developing robust CSCW applications. The topics included design of specific services to support collaborative applications; communication and group membership services to support CSCW systems; access control and security in synchronous and asynchronous CSCW systems; concurrency control and replicated data management in collaborative applications; incorporation of multimedia in CSCW systems; window systems support for building CSCW applications and extensions for supporting multiple media.
Software Architectures for Cooperative Systems BIBAPDF 3
  Tom Rodden; Steve Benford; Philip Johnson; Alan Dix; Simon Kaplan
This workshop focused broadly on architectural issues in CSCW systems, including CSCW frameworks and mechanisms for interoperability. The topics included theoretical models of collaboration that inform the architecture of CSCW systems; issues relating to the architecture of both individual collaboration tools and larger composite collaboration systems; and problem-specific aspects of collaboration architectures such as collaborative user interfaces, new transaction models for collaboration servers and mechanisms for awareness support.


CSCW'94 Tutorials BIBAPDF 5
  Lee Sproull
As we learn more about CSCW, education and professional development can help leverage our knowledge and experience. CSCW'94 tutorials provide a key to this leverage. They cover some of the most important topics in CSCW today, in formats designed for managers, practitioners, educators and researchers.
Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Groupware: A Survey of Systems and the Behavioral and Social Issues that Affect Development and Use BIBAPDF 5
  Jonathan Grudin; Steven Poltrock
Objective: To survey the definition and scope of the field; the current state of research and development in several application areas; design and evaluation issues, including problems and promising approaches for addressing them.
   Content: How do we ensure that changes in communication and coordination enhance productivity and job satisfaction? We describe specific challenges that have led to groupware failures and research and development approaches that address them. We illustrate applications through descriptions and numerous videotapes of prototype and commercial systems. We focus on the interplay between technology and group work.
Designing Groupware for Realtime Collaboration BIBAPDF 5
  Tom Brinck; Ralph D. Hill
Objective: To present an overview of issues involved in designing and implementing synchronous groupware applications.
   Content: An overview of different types of synchronous groupware applications will be presented, followed by a taxonomy of design issues, with case studies demonstrating alternative architectural choices. Participants will acquire experience through an extensive small-group design exercise.
Working Through Meetings: A Framework for Designing Meeting Support BIBAPDF 5
  John L. Bennett; John Karat
Objective: Through this tutorial, participants will: understand the importance of partnership for achieving team results in meetings; understand distinctions among various types of meetings and the role of various types of conversations in successful meetings; formulate plans for successful technological support of meetings.
   Content: Through joining in a series of connected exercises, participants will experience an ad hoc meeting designed to highlight what is important about meetings. Out of this experience, various theories that apply to meetings will become relevant. From an integration of experience and theory, we will explore how technology can be used innovatively and effectively to support meetings.
Designing and Implementing Collaborative Applications BIBAPDF 5-6
  Prasun Dewan
Objective: To summarize important parts of the collaboration design space, and identify and compare collaborative architectures and tools.
   Content: Survey and examples of collaborative applications, architectures, and tools.
Applications of Distributed Hypermedia Technology BIBAPDF 6
  Rob Akscyn; Don McCracken
Objective: To provide an in-depth look at how distributed hypermedia technology can be applied to a number of important application areas -- including document development, online publishing, software engineering, law, issue analysis, database engineering and access, and education/training -- with a focus on how to support collaboration work in these areas.
   Content: Lessons and principles relevant to the development and use of hypermedia will be described both in general terms and by case studies that highlight actual applications developed in a broad range of areas and clientele.
Computer Support for Collaborative Learning: Theoretical Foundations BIBAPDF 6
  Timothy Koschmann; Claire O'Malley
Objective: To familiarize participants with relevant theories of collaboration in psychology and education and to describe possible roles technology could serve in supporting these theories.
   Content: Survey of leading theoretical traditions within CSCL including Piagetian sociocognitive learning, constructivist learning, Vygotsky's sociocultural learning, and theories of situated learning. Discussion will highlight the implications of these theories for instruction and technology.
Ethnography and Collaborative Systems Development Part 1: Learning to Work Together BIBAPDF 6
  Dave Randall; Richard Bentley; Michael Twidale
Objective: To introduce participants to the nature of ethnographic analysis, its relevance in the collaborative domain, and its use in systems development.
   Content: An overview of ethnographic methods, issues related to ethnographic practice in the CSCW community, issues related to integrating ethnography and collaborative systems development.
"Bifocals" for Participatory Analysis, Design, and Assessment of Work and Computer Systems BIBAPDF 6
  Michael J. Muller
Objective: To provide hands-on experience in techniques for participatory analysis, design, and assessment.
   Content: Practicum exercises through which participants will learn both broad-focus and narrow-focus techniques for participatory analysis, design, and assessment.
Computer Supported Cooperative Learning: Making it Happen BIBAPDF 6-7
  Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Murray Turoff
Objective: To provide examples and practical advice on the promises and pitfalls of asynchronous learning networks.
   Content: Extended case example of designing, teaching in, and evaluating a collaborative learning environment constructed within a computer conferencing system, steps for putting your classes online, probable developments in the next ten years.
CSCW in the Real World: A Management Information Systems Perspective on CSCW BIBAPDF 7
  M. Lynne Markus; J. D. Eveland
Objective: To distill insights from the field of Management Information Systems into a form readily accessible to software developers, computer scientists and specialists in computer-human interaction.
   Content: How the MIS expert sees the world, how organizations acquire and manage information technology, how people in organizations use information technology, and what these realities have to do with the development, purchase, and use of CSCW applications.
Networking for Collaboration: Video Telephony and Media Conferencing BIBAPDF 7
  Robert S. Fish
Objective: To provide a grounding in the fundamentals -- both technical and social -- of video/audio conferencing.
   Content: This tutorial will offer an introduction to the concepts and terminology of video, audio, digital compression, transmission networks, and station equipment. It will also describe what people like and dislike about these systems and how these networks fit within an organizational context.
Collaborative Writing: Practical Problems and Prospective Solutions BIBAPDF 7
  Jolene Galegher; Christine Neuwirth
Objective: To describe recent research in collaborative writing; to analyze software designed to solve specific problems in collaborative writing and to make possible new writing relationships.
   Content: The instructors will interweave contemporary analyses of problems in writing with demonstrations and descriptions of software intended to confront these problems.
Computer Support for Collaborative Learning: Applications BIBAPDF 7
  Timothy Koschmann; Claire O'Malley
Objective: To offer a detailed survey of types of CSCL applications and to highlight current research issues in CSCL.
   Content: A series of CSCL applications will be organized and presented via a taxonomy based on the role of the technology and the locus of use. Each application will serve as a case study for discussion. The tutorial will conclude with a survey of current research issues in CSCL.
Ethnography and Collaborative Systems Development Part 2: Practical Application in a Commercial Context BIBAPDF 7-8
  Dave Randall; Richard Bentley; Michael Twidale
Objective: To understand the pragmatics of ethnographic analysis in a commercial context.
   Content: We will extend the ideas embodied in the use of ethnography as a tool for research to consider additional factors necessary for its practical application. We will discuss the complicating factors which influence the form and focus of ethnographic studies in this context, and show how such studies can usefully be applied to needs analysis, system development, system evaluation, and training.
Behavioral Evaluation of CSCW Technologies BIBAPDF 8
  Gary M. Olson; Judith S. Olson; Tom Finholt
Objective: To survey techniques of behavioral evaluation that can be used to improve user-centered design, choice among competing applications, and assessment of performance.
   Content: How to frame behavioral questions in the context of group applications, how to collect data to answer those questions, costs and benefits of alternative methods.
Strategies for Encouraging Adoption of Group Technologies BIBAPDF 8
  Susan E. Rudman; Ellen Francik
Objective: To provide detailed practical advice for introducing innovative communication systems into organizations.
   Content: In-depth case studies of the introduction of voice mail in the early 1980's and more recent introduction of multimedia mail and desktop conferencing systems will be used to illustrate the issues. Participants will evaluate a case study for the introduction of desktop video conferencing and are encouraged to bring their own case studies for discussion.
The Law of Computer Communications and Networked Communities BIBAPDF 8
  David Johnson
Objective: To describe the legal environment in which networked communities currently operate and to highlight problem areas in this environment.
   Content: The tutorial will explore such issues as privacy, piracy, pornography, defamation, liability for negligent behavior, intellectual property rights, protection of proprietary interests in factual data, on line discussions and computer conferencing.

Formal Video Program

CSCW'94 Formal Video Program BIBAPDF 9
  Saul Greenberg; Beverly Harrison
Much of the experimental work in CSCW involves highly interactive systems and complex group interactions. While paper can convey the academic details of CSCW work, video is far more appropriate for capturing the true flavor and details of interactions. The CSCW conference has recognized the importance of video by including a refereed formal video program. These are published as videotapes in the SIGGRAPH Video Review series -- this year's program is in Issue 106, while the CSCW'92 program was in Issue 87.

Formal Video Program: Prototypes and Enabling Technologies

Montage: Multimedia Glances for Distributed Groups BIBAPDF 9
  John C. Tang; Monica Rua
Montage is a research prototype that uses video to help remote collaborators find opportune times to interact with each other. Montage uses momentary, reciprocal glances among networked workstations to make it easy to peek into someone's office. From a Montage glance, users can quickly start a full-featured desktop video conference. If the glance shows that the person is not in her office, Montage provides quick access to browse her on-line calendar, send her e-mail, or send her an electronic note that pops up on her screen. In this way, Montage supports the pre-interaction coordination that is often needed to negotiate a time to establish contact. Montage tries to provide lightweight access to group members while also conveying enough visual and aural cues to enable users to protect their privacy [9].
GroupKit -- A Groupware Toolkit BIBAPDF 9
  Saul Greenberg; Mark Roseman
GroupKit is a toolkit for developing real-time groupware for desktop conferencing. GroupKit developers build groupware applications, such as shared text and graphics editors, games, and meeting support tools. They also build registration interfaces that allow participants to create, join and monitor meetings. The scenes in this video describe GroupKit's design goals, show what an end-user of GroupKit applications may see, step through GroupKit's run-time architecture, illustrate its main programming constructs (multicast remote procedure calls, conference event handling, and groupware widgets), and display different registration interfaces. By presenting a variety of GroupKit applications and discussing their code complexity, we argue that building groupware in GroupKit is only slightly harder than building conventional applications [8].
   GroupKit is based upon the Tcl/TK language. It is available via anonymous ftp from: ftp.cpsc.ucalgary.ca /pub/projects/grouplab/software/groupkit
Teleporting -- Making Applications Mobile BIBAPDF 9-10
  Tristan Richardson; Frazer Bennett; Glenford Mapp; Andy Harter; Andy Hopper
The ORL TELEPORTING SYSTEM augments the standard X Window System with a mechanism for migrating an individual's computer environment between X displays. TELEPORTING allows people to be mobile within the workplace yet maintain full access to their complete applications environment. TELEPORTING also provides a simple way in which people can share information and work together. The system makes use of ORL's ACTIVE BADGE, which provides location information about personnel and equipment within a building. TELEPORTING is in daily use both within the organisation and in suitably equipped homes. In this way, teleporting makes the movement of an individual's application environment between work and home a simple process. This is a step towards realising universal "follow-me" applications. [7]

Formal Video Program: Applications and Methodologies

Courtyard: Integrating a Shared Large Screen and Individual Screens BIBAPDF 10
  Masayuki Tani; Masato Horita; Kimiya Yamaashi; Koichiro Tanikoshi; Masayasu Futakawa
The operation of complex real-world systems requires that multiple users cooperate in monitoring and controlling large amounts of information. The Courtyard system supports such cooperative work by integrating an overview on a shared large display and per-user detail on individual displays. Courtyard allows a user to move a mouse pointer between the shared and individual screens as though they were contiguous, and to access per-user detailed information on the user's individual screen simply by pointing to an object on the shared screen. Courtyard selects the detailed information according to the tasks assigned to the point user [10].
Combining Reatime Multimedia Conferencing with Hypertext Archives in Distance Education BIBAPDF 10
  Per Einar Dybvik; Hakon W. Lie
The video demonstrates how real-time multimedia conferencing systems are combined with hypertext archives in a course offered at the University of Oslo. Traditional video conferencing systems transfer audio and video information between sties. However, this is only a limited part of the communication that naturally takes place during a course. Handouts, copies of transparencies and high-quality images are examples of data that are not easily transferable over a video link. By adding a networked hypertext system (World Wide Web) to this setup, we are able to render higher quality text and images in the electronic classrooms. Also, presentations are available for review by students at any time. By combining a hypertext system with real-time multimedia communication, we are seeing the contours of a rich, distributed groupware environment where distance education will thrive [4].
CSCW for Government Work: Polikom-Video BIBAPDF 10
  Uta Pankoke-Babatz
This video is a live performance of a scenario demonstrating telecommunication and telecooperation in a work setting. The scenario shows several geographically distributed members -- located in Bonn and Berlin -- of a government construction commission working on modifications to the parliament building. The integrated use of a variety of system prototypes supporting both asynchronous and real-time cooperation is illustrated. Access and interaction security are managed by SECUDE using smart-card technology. The ACTIVITY ASSISTANT facilitates asynchronous cooperation through coordination of shared to-do lists. The SEPIA hypertext system allows asynchronous and real-time joint editing of documents. Detailed discussions are supported using the LIVE video-conferencing tool. Orientation assistance is provided by the TOSCA organization information system which handles user queries concerning an organization's regulations and responsible cooperation partners [3].
Multimedia Folklore: Capturing Design History and Rationale with Raison d'Etre BIBAPDF 10
  John M. Carroll; Mary S. Van Deusen; Geoff Wheeler; Sherman Alpert; John Karat; Mary Beth Rosson
Raison d'Etre is a multimedia design history application. It provides access to a database of video clips containing stories and personal perspectives of design team members, recorded at various times through the course of a project. The system is intended to provide a simple framework for capturing and organizing the informal history and rationale that design teams create and share in the course of their collaboration. Raison d'Etre makes possible a richer and more engaging kind of history and rationale: the personalities and attitudes of the design team members are directly observed and experienced by the user, not merely inferred from the disembodied textual content [1].

Formal Video Program: Historical Records and Retrospectives

Historic Video: A Research Center for Augmenting Human Intellect BIBAPDF 11
  Douglas C. Engelbart; William K. English
This invited video is an edited record of Douglas Engelbart's historic presentation of the NLS system at the Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco, December 8, 1968. Many concepts in today's interfaces were first introduced and/or demonstrated in NLS. These include word processing, outlining, hierarchical hypermedia, mouse and one-hand keyboards, shared documents, messaging, electronic mail and filtering, video conferencing, and desktop conferencing through shared displays. The video captures what was projected onto a very large screen at the convention center. On stage was Engelbart at the control of NLS, whose output was displayed onto the public screen. Behind the scenes, Bill English and crew manned cameras and signal switchers connecting the convention center to their Menlo Park laboratory 30 miles away [2].
   Engelbart's original 1.5 hour presentation was edited for the CSCW'94 video program by Saul Greenberg.
CAVECAT: Computer Audio Video Enhanced Collaboration at Toronto BIBAPDF 11
  Gifford Louie; Marilyn Mantei
The CAVECAT video contains a retrospective of the media space research conducted by the University of Toronto from 1989-1992. The CAVECAT project focused on understanding underlying human communication processes in order to build tools to support these processes at a distance. As such, the tape details the research on meetings and making contact that was done to support conversation, the research on shared work tools that was done to support collaboration, and the research on evaluation tools that were needed to analyze the user communication data we were collecting [6].

Formal Video Program: Future Visions

Seamless Media Design BIBAPDF 11
  Hiroshi Ishii
This is a vision video that illustrates our dreams of the future of ClearBoard for creative collaborative tasks. Our focus of interest is not on the technology, but on how future collaboration media can empower the dynamic process of collaborative creation by people. This video presents three scenes of collaborative creation: a joint drawing by kids, a design session by engineers, and an artistic session by a musician and a painter. The philosophy of "seamless media design" is also described in this video. The envisionment is based on our design experience of the ClearBoard-1 and ClearBoard-2 systems that were presented at CSCW'92 as a paper and a video [5].

Formal Video Program: References

See Greenberg & Harrison, p. 9:
  • 1. Carroll, J. M., Alpert, S. R., Karat, J., Van Deusen, M. D., and Rosson, M.
        B. (1994). Capturing design history and rationale in multimedia
        narratives. In Proceedings of CHI'94, Boston, April 24-28, pp. 192-197.
  • 2. Engelbart, D. C. and English, W. K. (1968). A research center for
        augmenting human intellect. Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer
        Conference, 33(1), ASIPS Press. Reprinted in Greif, I. (ed.) Computer
        Supported Cooperative Work: A book of readings. Morgan-Kaufmann, 1988.
  • 3. Hoschka, P., Butscher, B., and Streitz, N. (1992). Telecooperation and
        telepresence: Technical challenges of a government distributed between Bonn
        and Berlin. Informatization and the Public Sector, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp.
  • 4. Hovig, I. and Lie, H. W. (1993). Teleteaching in a graduate seminar:
        Practical experiences and a look ahead. In Proceedings of the IFIP TC3
        International Conference: Teleteaching 93, Trondheim, Norway, 1993.
  • 5. Ishii, H., Kobayashi, M. and Grudin, J. (1993). Integration of
        Interpersonal Space and Shared Workspace: ClearBoard Design and
        Experiments. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, Vol. 11, No. 4,
        October 1993, ACM, New York, pp. 349-375.
  • 6. Mantei, M. M., Baecker, R. M., Sellen, A. J., Buxton, W. A. S., Milligan,
        T., and Wellman, B. (1991). Experiences in the use of a media space. In
        Proceedings of CHI'91, New Orleans, April 28-May 2, pp. 127-138.
  • 7. Richardson, T., Bennett, F., Mapp, G., Hopper, A. (1994). Teleporting in an
        X Window System Environment. IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, Third
        Quarter 1994.
  • 8. Roseman, M. and Greenberg, S. (1992). GROUPKIT: A groupware toolkit for
        building real-time conferencing applications. In Proceedings of the ACM
        CSCW Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Toronto, Nov 1-4,
        pp. 43-50.
  • 9. Tang, J. and Rua, M. (1994). Montage: Providing teleproximity for
        distributed groups. In Proceedings of CHI'94, Boston, April 24-28, pp.
  • 10. Tani, M., Horita, M., Yamaashi, K., Tanikoshi, K. and Futakawa, M. (1994).
        Courtyard: Integrating shared overview on a large screen and per-user
        detail on individual screens. In Proceedings of CHI'94, Boston, April
        24-28, pp. 44-49.
  • From Video Phoning to Video Interacting

    Life and Death of New Technology: Task, Utility and Social Influences on the Use of a Communication Medium BIBAPDF 13-21
      Robert E. Kraut; Colleen Cool; Ronald E. Rice; Robert S. Fish
    This field experiment investigates individual, structural and social influences on the use of two video telephone systems. One system flourished, while an equivalent system died. We use a time series design and multiple data sources to test media richness theory, critical mass theory, and social influence theories about new media use. Results show that the fit between tasks and features of the communications medium influences use to a degree, but cannot explain why only one system survived. Critical mass -- the numbers of people one can reach on a system -- and social influence -- the norms that grow up around a new medium -- can explain this phenomenon.
    Supporting Distributed Groups with a Montage of Lightweight Interactions BIBAKPDF 23-34
      John C. Tang; Ellen A. Isaacs; Monica Rua
    The Montage prototype provides lightweight audio-video glances among distributed collaborators and integrates other applications for coordinating future contact. We studied a distributed group across three conditions: before installing Montage, with Montage, and after removing Montage. We collected quantitative measures of usage as well as videotape and user perception data. We found that the group used Montage glances for short, lightweight interactions that were like face-to-face conversations in many respects. Yet like the phone, Montage offered convenient access to other people without leaving the office. Most glances revealed that the person was not available, so it was important to integrate other tools for coordinating future interaction. Montage did not appear to displace the use of e-mail, voice-mail, or scheduled meetings.
    Keywords: Awareness, Media space, Informal communication, Video, Remote collaboration
    GestureCam: A Video Communication System for Sympathetic Remote Collaboration BIBAKPDF 35-43
      Hideaki Kuzuoka; Toshio Kosuge; Masatomo Tanaka
    An approach supporting spatial workspace collaboration via a video-mediated communication system is described. Based on experimental results, the following were determined to be the system requirements to support spatial workspace collaboration: independency of a field of view, predictability, confidence in transmission and sympathy toward the system. Additionally, a newly developed camera system, the GestureCam System, is introduced. A camera is mounted on an actuator with three degrees of freedom. It is controlled by master-slave method or by a touch-sensitive CRT. Also, a laser pointer is mounted to assist with remote pointing. Preliminary experiments were conducted and the results are described herein.
    Keywords: Remote collaboration, CSCW, Groupware, Field of view, Video-mediated communication, Confidence in transmission, Sympathy, SharedView, GestureCam

    Tailoring CSCW Systems to Organizations

    From Implementation to Design: Tailoring and the Emergence of Systematization in CSCW BIBAKPDF 45-54
      Randall H. Trigg; Susanne Bødker
    In this paper, we look at how people working in a governmental labor inspection agency tailor their shared PC environment. Starting with standard off-the-shelf software, the tailors adapt that software to the particular workplace in which they are embedded, at the same time that they modify and extend the practices of that workplace. Over time, their adaptations and the tailoring processes themselves become structured and systematized within the organization. This tendency toward systematization is in part a response to the requirement that the results of tailoring be sharable across groups of users. Our study focuses on several dimensions of the work of tailoring: construction, organizational change, learning, and politics. We draw two kinds of lessons for system development: how better to support the work of tailors, and how system developers can learn from and cooperate with tailors.
    Keywords: Tailoring, Customization, Emergent use of standard technology, Development and use of shared standards
    Helping CSCW Applications Succeed: The Role of Mediators in the Context of Use BIBAKPDF 55-65
      Kazuo Okamura; Masayo Fujimoto; Wanda J. Orlikowski; JoAnne Yates
    This study found that the use of a computer conferencing system in an R&D lab was significantly shaped by a set of intervening actors -- mediators -- who actively guided and manipulated the technology and its use over time. These mediators adapted the technology to its initial context and shaped user interaction with it; over time, they continued to modify the technology and influence use patterns to respond to changing circumstances. We argue that well-managed mediation may be a useful mechanism for shaping technologies to evolving contexts of use, and that it extends our understanding of the powerful role that intervenors can play in helping CSCW applications succeed.
    Keywords: Computer conferencing system, Contextualizing technology, Intervention, Technology use
    Exploring Obstacles: Integrating CSCW in Evolving Organisations BIBAKPDF 67-77
      Yvonne Rogers
    Integrating CSCW systems to organisations is highly complex. This paper examines the co-evolution process involved in tailoring a CSCW system to fit in with the current organisational structure, whilst concurrently adapting the working practices to enable the system to support collaboration. A study is presented which analyses the various obstacles and inequities that ensue when a multi-user system is implemented in a company. To facilitate the management and resolution of the emergent problems, a preliminary conceptual framework is outlined. Finally, a case is presented for involving intermediaries in helping companies customise CSCW systems and adapt their work practices.
    Keywords: CSCW systems, Implementation, Evaluation, Situation use, Conceptual framework, Field studies

    Models of Cooperative Work

    A Conceptual Model of Groupware BIBAKPDF 79-88
      Clarence (Skip) Ellis; Jacques Wainer
    This paper discusses a conceptual model of groupware consisting of three complementary components or models: a description of the objects and operations on these objects available in the system; a description of the activities (and their orderings) that the users of the system can perform; and a description of the interface of users with the system, and with other users.
    Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Collaboration technology, System modelling, Ontological model, Coordination model, User interface model
    Situating Conversations within the Language/Action Perspective: The Milan Conversation Model BIBAKPDF 89-100
      Giorgio De Michelis; M. Antonietta Grasso
    The debate on the language/action perspective has been receiving attention in the CSCW field for almost ten years. In this paper, we recall the most relevant issues raised during this debate, and propose a new exploitation of the language/action perspective by considering it from the viewpoint of understanding the complexity of communication within work processes and the situatedness of work practices. On this basis, we have defined a new conversation model, the Milan Conversation Model, and we are designing a new conversation handler to implement it.
    Keywords: Language/action perspective, Conversation, Work process, Commitment
    The Organization of Cooperative Work: Beyond the "Leviathan" Conception of the Organization of Cooperative Work BIBAPDF 101-112
      Kjeld Schmidt
    This paper examines the relationship between cooperative work and the wider organizational context. The purpose of the exploration is not to contribute to organizational theory in general, but to critique the transaction cost approach to organizational theory from the point of view of cooperative work. The paper posits that the formal conception of organization -- organization conceived of in terms of "common ownership" -- is inadequate as a conceptual foundation for embedding CSCW systems in a wider organizational context. The design of CSCW systems for real-world application must move beyond the bounds of organizational forms conceived of in terms of "common ownership."

    Workflow and Information Sharing

    Experiences with Workflow Management: Issues for the Next Generation BIBAKPDF 113-120
      Kenneth R. Abbott; Sunil K. Sarin
    Workflow management is a technology that is considered strategically important by many businesses, and its market growth shows no signs of abating. It is, however, often viewed with skepticism by the research community, conjuring up visions of oppressed workers performing rigidly-defined tasks on an assembly line. Although the potential for abuse no doubt exists, workflow management can instead be used to help individuals manage their work and to provide a clear context for performing that work. A key challenge in the realization of this ideal is the reconciliation of workflow process models and software with the rich variety of activities and behaviors that comprise "real" work. Our experiences with the InConcert workflow management system are used as a basis for outlining several issues that will need to be addressed in meeting this challenge. This is intended as an invitation to CSCW researchers to influence this important technology in a constructive manner by drawing on research and experience.
    Keywords: Workflow, Business process reengineering
    Interpreted Collaboration Protocols and Their Use in Groupware Prototyping BIBAKPDF 121-131
      Richard Furuta; P. David Stotts
    The correct and timely creation of systems for coordination of group work depends on the ability to express, analyze, and experiment with protocols for managing multiple work threads. We present an evolution of the Trellis model that provides a formal basis for prototyping the coordination structure of a collaboration system. In Trellis, group interaction protocols are represented separately from the interface processes that use them for coordination. Protocols are interpreted (rather than compiled into applications) so group interactions can be changed as a collaborative task progresses. Changes can be made either by a person editing the protocol specification "on the fly" or by a silent "observation" process that participates in an application solely to perform behavioral adaptations.
       Trellis uniquely mixes hypermedia browsing with collaboration support. We term this combination a hyperprogram, and we say that a hyperprogram integrates the description of a collaborative task with the information required for that task. As illustration, we describe a protocol for a moderated meeting and show a Trellis prototype conference tool controlled by this protocol.
    Keywords: Dynamic protocol, Moderated meeting, Trellis, Process-based hypertext/hypermedia, Colored Petri net, Coordination structure, Formal methods
    Experience with the Virtual Notebook System: Abstraction in Hypertext BIBAKPDF 133-143
      Jerry Fowler; Donald G. Baker; Ross Dargahi; Vram Kouramajian; Hillary Gilson; Kevin Brook Long; Cynthia Petermann; G. Anthony Gorry
    The Virtual Notebook System (VNS) is a distributed collaborative hypertext system that has made a successful transition from research prototype to commercial product. Experience in developing and deploying the VNS in diverse settings including biomedical research, undergraduate education, and collaborative system prototyping has developed insight into the use of systems for computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). This paper provides a brief overview of the VNS, discusses some of its strengths and weaknesses with respect to collaboration, and draws some conclusions about the impact of metaphor and extensibility on the collaborative process.
    Keywords: CSCW, Collaboration, Consortium, Dexter model, Hypertext, Memento, Metaphor, VNS, VOM

    Collaborative Editing and Reviewing

    Computer Support for Distributed Collaborative Writing: Defining Parameters of Interaction BIBAKPDF 145-152
      Christine M. Neuwirth; David S. Kaufer; Ravinder Chandhok; James H. Morris
    This paper reports research to define a sat of interaction parameters that collaborative writers will find useful. Our approach is to provide parameters of interaction and to locate the decision of how to set the parameters with the users. What is new in this paper is the progress we have made outlining task management parameters, notification, scenarios of use, as well as some implementation architectures.
    Keywords: Parameters of interaction, Synchronous/asynchronous, Collaborative writing, Computer-supported cooperative work
    DistView: Support for Building Efficient Collaborative Applications using Replicated Active Objects BIBAKPDF 153-164
      Atul Prakash; Hyong Sop Shim
    The ability to share synchronized views of interactions with an application is critical to supporting synchronous collaboration. This paper suggests a simple synchronous collaboration paradigm in which the sharing of the views of user/application interactions occurs at the window level within a multi-user, multi-window application. The paradigm is incorporated in a toolkit, DistView, that allows some of the application windows to be shared at a fine-level of granularity, while still allowing other application windows to be private. The toolkit is intended for supporting synchronous collaboration over wide-area networks. To keep bandwidth requirements and interactive response time low in such networks, DistView uses an object-level replication scheme, in which the application and interface objects that need to be shared among users are replicated. We discuss the design of DistView and present our preliminary experience with a prototype version of the system.
    Keywords: Groupware, Multi-user interfaces, Collaboration technology, Shared windows, Active objects, Distributed objects, Replicated objects, Concurrency control
    Duplex: A Distributed Collaborative Editing Environment in Large Scale BIBAKPDF 165-173
      Francois Pacull; Alain Sandoz; Andre Schiper
    DUPLEX is a distributed collaborative editor for users connected through a large-scale environment such as the Internet. Large-scale implies heterogeneity, unpredictable communication delays and failures, and inefficient implementations of techniques traditionally used for collaborative editing in local area networks. To cope with these unfavorable conditions, DUPLEX proposes a model based on splitting the document into independent parts, maintained individually and replicated by a kernel. Users act on document parts and interact with co-authors using a local environment providing a safe store and recovery mechanisms against failures or divergence with co-authors. Communication is reduced to a minimum, allowing disconnected operation. Atomicity, concurrency, and replica control are confined to a manageable small context.
    Keywords: Collaborative editing, Distributed groupware, Large scale networks, Concurrency control

    Sharing Information and Creating Meaning

    GroupLens: An Open Architecture for Collaborative Filtering of Netnews BIBAKPDF 175-186
      Paul Resnick; Neophytos Iacovou; Mitesh Suchak; Peter Bergstrom; John Riedl
    Collaborative filters help people make choices based on the opinions of other people. GroupLens is a system for collaborative filtering of netnews, to help people find articles they will like in the huge stream of available articles. News reader clients display predicted scores and make it easy for users to rate articles after they read them. Rating servers, called Better Bit Bureaus, gather and disseminate the ratings. The rating servers predict scores based on the heuristic that people who agreed in the past will probably agree again. Users can protect their privacy by entering ratings under pseudonyms, without reducing the effectiveness of the score prediction. The entire architecture is open: alternative software for news clients and Better Bit Bureaus can be developed independently and can interoperate with the components we have developed.
    Keywords: Collaborative filtering, Information filtering, Electronic bulletin boards, Social filtering, Usenet, Netnews, User model, Selective dissemination of information
    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Using CLARE: The Approach and Experimental Findings BIBAKPDF 187-198
      Dadong Wan; Philip M. Johnson
    Current collaborative learning systems focus on maximizing shared information. However, "meaningful learning" is not simply information sharing but, more importantly, knowledge construction. CLARE is a computer-supported learning environment that facilitates meaningful learning through collaborative knowledge construction. CLARE provides a semi-formal representation language called RESRA and an explicit process model called SECAI. Experimental evaluation through 300 hours of classroom usage indicates that CLARE does support meaningful learning, and that a major bottleneck to computer-mediated knowledge construction is summarization. Lessons learned through the design and evaluation of CLARE provide new insights into both collaborative learning systems and collaborative learning theories.
    Keywords: Computer supported collaborative learning, collaborative work, Knowledge representation, Knowledge construction, Meaningful learning
    Meaning-Making in the Creation of Useful Summary Reports BIBAKPDF 199-206
      Barbara Katzenberg; John McDermott
    Summary reports are the periodic assemblings of text, numbers, and other data, drawn from diverse sources to present a picture of some aspect of an organization's state. They have become ubiquitous in organizations with the advent of computers, but are not always as useful as their readers would like them to be. This paper focuses on the meaning-making work that report contributors and readers must do in order for reports to be useful and presents some examples drawn from everyday interactions in a business unit of a large corporation. The paper uses these examples as a foundation for asking what it might mean to purposefully support meaning-making in organizational reporting.
    Keywords: Summary reports, Spreadsheets, Meaning-making, Conversation analysis, Ethnography

    Technologies for Sharing I

    Real Time Groupware as a Distributed System: Concurrency Control and its Effect on the Interface BIBAKPDF 207-217
      Saul Greenberg; David Marwood
    This paper exposes the concurrency control problem in groupware when it is implemented as a distributed system. Traditional concurrency control methods cannot be applied directly to groupware because system interactions include people as well as computers. Methods, such as locking, serialization, and their degree of optimism, are shown to have quite different impacts on the interface and how operations are displayed and perceived by group members. The paper considers both human and technical considerations that designers should ponder before choosing a particular concurrency control method. It also reviews our work-in-progress designing and implementing a library of concurrency schemes in GROUPKIT, a groupware toolkit.
    Keywords: Real time groupware, Computer supported cooperative work, Distributed systems, Concurrency control algorithms
    The Use of Adapters to Support Cooperative Sharing BIBAKPDF 219-230
      Jonathan Trevor; Tom Rodden; John Mariani
    This paper examines the importance of providing effective management of sharing in cooperative systems and argues for a specialised service to support the cooperative aspects of information sharing. The relationship between features of the cooperative shared object service and existing services is briefly examined. A number of management services of particular importance to CSCW systems are identified. The paper presents a technique of realising a shared object service by augmenting existing object facilities to provide management of their cooperative use. These facilities are realised through object adapters that provide additional cooperative facilities and greater control over the supporting infrastructure.
    Keywords: Information sharing, Distributed systems support, Cooperative systems infrastructure
    A Flexible Object Merging Framework BIBAKPDF 231-242
      Jonathan P. Munson; Prasun Dewan
    The need to merge different versions of an object to a common state arises in collaborative computing due to several reasons including optimistic concurrency control, asynchronous coupling, and absence of access control. We have developed a flexible object merging framework that allows definition of the merge policy based on the particular application and the context of the collaborative activity. It performs automatic, semi-automatic, and interactive merges, supports semantics-determined merges, operates on objects with arbitrary structure and semantics, and allows fine-grained specification of merge policies. It is based on an existing collaborative applications framework and consists of a merge matrix, which defines merge functions and their parameters and allows definition of multiple merge policies, and a merge algorithm, which performs the merge based on the results computed by the merge functions. In conjunction with our framework we introduce a set of merge policies for several useful kinds of merges we have identified. This paper motivates the need for a general approach to merging, identifies some important merging issues, surveys previous research in merging, identifies a list of merge requirements, describes our merging framework and illustrates it with examples, and evaluates the framework with respect to the requirements and other research efforts in merging objects.
    Keywords: Diff, Flexible coupling, Optimistic concurrency control, Merging, Undo, Versions

    Studies of Cooperative Work I

    Augmenting the Organizational Memory: A Field Study of Answer Garden BIBAKPDF 243-252
      Mark S. Ackerman
    A growing concern for organizations and groups has been to augment their knowledge and expertise. One such augmentation is to provide an organizational memory, some record of the organization's knowledge. However, relatively little is known about how computer systems might enhance organizational, group, or community memory.
       This paper presents findings from a field study of one such organizational memory system, the Answer Garden. The paper discusses the usage data and qualitative evaluations from the field study, and then draws a set of lessons for next-generation organizational memory systems.
    Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Organizational memory, Corporate memory, Group Memory, Information retrieval, Information access, Information systems, CSCW
    Steps Towards an Ecology of Infrastructure: Complex Problems in Design and Access for Large-Scale Collaborative Systems BIBAKPDF 253-264
      Susan Leigh Star; Karen Ruhleder
    This paper analyzes the initial phases of a large-scale custom software effort, the Worm Community System (WCS), a collaborative system designed for a geographically dispersed community of geneticists. Despite high user satisfaction with the system and interface, and extensive user feedback and analysis, many users experienced difficulties in signing on and use, ranging from simple lack of resources to complex organizational and intellectual tradeoffs. Using Bateson's levels of learning, we characterize these as levels of infrastructural complexity which challenge both users and developers. Usage problems may result from different perceptions of this complexity in different organizational contexts.
    Keywords: Infrastructure, Collaboratory, Organizational computing, Participatory design, Ethnography
    The Role of "Help Networks" in Facilitating Use of CSCW Tools BIBAPDF 265-274
      J. D. Eveland; Anita Blanchard; William Brown; Jennifer Mattocks
    The pattern of CSCW system users helping other users to resolve problems and make more effective use of such tools has been observed in a variety of settings, but little is known about how help patterns develop or their effects. Results from a pre-post study of the implementation of CSCW tools among university faculty, staff and administration indicate that the network of helping relationships is largely disaggregated and generally follows work group alignments rather than technical specialization. A relatively small group of "high providers" is responsible for most help to users, and tends to act as a liaison between central support staff and work group members. These providers are not systematically different from other personnel except in terms of their expertise. Implications of these findings for the development and cultivation of help relationships in support of CSCW are developed.

    Studies of Cooperative Work II

    Working with "Constant Interruption": CSCW and the Small Office BIBAKPDF 275-286
      Mark Rouncefield; John A. Hughes; Tom Rodden; Stephen Viller
    Ethnographic studies of CSCW have often seemed to involve the investigation of relatively large-scale and highly specific systems, consequently ignoring the small office within which many people spend much of their working lives and which is a major site for the introduction and implementation of IT. This paper is concerned with a "quick and dirty" ethnographic study of a small office that was considering the introduction of greater levels of IT. Generic features of office work are outlined: the process of work in a small office and its recurrent features, notably the massive volume of paperwork; the importance of local knowledge in the accomplishment of work; and the phenomenon of "constant interruption." This paper suggests that despite the obvious contrasts with work settings analysed in other ethnographic studies, similar features of cooperative work can be observed in the small office. It further suggests that the issues of cooperation and the sociality of work cannot be ignored even in small-scale system design.
    Keywords: Cooperative systems, Information sharing, Observational studies of work, Systems development
    The Work to Make a Network Work: Studying CSCW in Action BIBAPDF 287-298
      John Bowers
    This paper reports on a field study of the procurement, implementation and use of a local area network devoted to running CSCW-related applications in an organization within the U.K.'s central government. In this particular case, the network ran into a number of difficulties, was resisted by its potential users for a variety of reasons, was faced with being withdrawn from service on a number of occasions and (at the time of writing) remains only partly used. The study points to the kinds of problems that a project to introduce computer support for cooperative work to an actual organization is likely to face and a series of concepts are offered to help manage the complexity of these problems. In so doing, this paper adds to and extends previous studies of CSCW tools in action but also argues that experience from the field should be used to re-organise the research agenda of CSCW.
    The Effects of Interactive Graphics and Text on Social Influence in Computer-Mediated Small Groups BIBAKPDF 299-310
      Jozsef A. Toth
    Computer-mediated small group research has focused efforts on the medium of electronically networked text-based messages. An experiment which instead combines a synchronous text-based messaging medium with two-dimensional interactive computer graphics is detailed. Three-person groups participated in a risk-taking choice-dilemma task involving a discussion of the dilemma and consensus attainment. The groups' prediscussion and postdiscussion opinions were collected. Two conditions, one where groups received graphics-based feedback of their individual prediscussion opinions, and a second, which included a graphical representation of the prediscussion average, were coupled with a text-based communication medium. The text-based medium, without interactive graphics, served as control. In the condition involving the graphical prediscussion opinions and average, groups sent proportionately more messages containing persuasive-style arguments and proportionately fewer messages containing normative-style arguments. In the graphical condition without the average, roughly the inverse was found to occur. In the control, the discussion parameters fell proportionately between the two graphics conditions. In both graphics conditions, the first discussant to advocate a decision proposal had a stronger influence on the group decision than in the control. The data suggests that the inclusion of two-dimensional graphics can either augment or inhibit normative and informational forms of social influence during the group decision-making process.
    Keywords: Computer-mediated small group, Discourse analysis, Human factors, Interactive computer graphics, Perceptual and cognitive persistence, Small group decision-making, Social influence

    Technologies for Sharing II

    Communication Control in Computer Supported Cooperative Work Systems BIBAKPDF 311-321
      Robert Simon; Robert Sclabassi; Taieb Znati
    This paper presents AlphaDeltaPhi-groups (ADP-group) as a communication tool for connection level management in distributed CSCW systems. In order to accurately model CSCW communication patterns, an ADP-group is a related set of cooperating processes whose communication is supported by allowing a spectrum of quality-of-service, message delivery reliability, atomicity and causal ordering options to co-exist within the same group. ADP-group communication provides appropriate connection management support and network control within distributed CSCW environments characterized by a heterogeneous mixture of equipment types, network performance and user activity levels. This efficiency is achieved by defining a small set of canonical group communication operations, by automatically making appropriate connections between data sources and sinks, and by using a receiver-based method of connection specification, monitoring and modification.
    Keywords: CSCW, Group communication, Multimedia, Network connection management
    Session Management for Collaborative Applications BIBAKPDF 323-330
      W. Keith Edwards
    Session management systems for collaborative applications have required a great deal of reimplementation work by developers because they have been typically created on a case-by-case basis. Further, artifacts of this development process have limited the flexibility of session management systems and their ability to cooperate across applications, resulting in the fairly formalized, heavy-weight session management found in most collaborative systems today. We present a model for a light-weight form of session management, the theoretical foundation for this model (based on the sharing of information about user and system activity), and details of a collaboration support environment which implements our session management model.
    Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Collaboration support environments, Session management, Itermezzo
    Integrating Communication, Cooperation and Awareness: The DIVA Virtual Office Environment BIBAKPDF 331-343
      Markus Sohlenkamp; Greg Chwelos
    DIVA, a novel environment for group work, is presented. This prototype virtual office environment provides support for communication, cooperation, and awareness in both the synchronous and asynchronous modes, smoothly integrated into a simple and intuitive interface which may be viewed as a replacement for the standard graphical user interface desktop. In order to utilize the skills that people have acquired through years of shared work in real offices, DIVA is modeled after the standard office, abstracting elements of physical offices required to support collaborative work: people, rooms, desks, and documents.
    Keywords: Groupware, Communication, Cooperation, Awareness, Synchronous/asynchronous, Virtual office, Integration, CSCW

    Supporting Meetings

    DOLPHIN: Integrated Meeting Support Across Local and Remote Desktop Environments and LiveBoards BIBAKPDF 345-358
      Norbert A. Streitz; Jorg Geissler; Jorg M. Haake; Jeroen Hol
    This paper describes DOLPHIN, a fully group aware application designed to provide computer support for different types of meetings: face-to-face meetings with a large interactive electronic whiteboard with or without networked computers provided for the participants, extensions of these meetings with remote participants at their desktop computers connected via computer and audio/video networks, and/or participants in a second meeting room also provided with an electronic whiteboard as well as networked computers. DOLPHIN supports the creation and manipulation of informal structures (e.g., freehand drawings, handwritten scribbles), formal structures (e.g., hypermedia documents with typed nodes and links), their coexistence, and their transformation.
    Keywords: Electronic meeting rooms, Document-based cooperation, Shared workspaces, Collaborative writing/drawing, Brainstorming, Planning, Hypermedia, Pen-based interaction, Interactive whiteboards
    Meet Your Destiny: A Non-Manipulable Meeting Scheduler BIBAKPDF 359-371
      Eithan Ephrati; Gilad Zlotkin; Jeffrey S. Rosenschein
    In this paper we present three scheduling mechanisms that are manipulation-proof for closed systems. The amount of information that each user must encode in the mechanism increases with the complexity of the mechanism. On the other hand, the more complex the mechanism is, the more it maintains the privacy of the users.
       The first mechanism is a centralized, calendar-oriented one. It is the least computationally complex of the three, but does not maintain user privacy. The second is a distributed meeting-oriented mechanism that maintains user privacy, but at the cost of greater computational complexity. The third mechanism, while being the most complex, maintains user privacy (for the most part) and allows users to have the greatest influence on the resulting schedule.
    Keywords: Meetings scheduling, Game theory
    Automated Assistance for the Telemeeting Lifecycle BIBAKPDF 373-384
      Neil W. Bergmann; J. Craig Mudge
    We analyse eighteen months of national and international deployment of a prototype telemeeting system supporting synchronous remote meetings which make extensive use of shared documents as well as video and audio conferencing. Logistics of a telemeeting include scheduling people and equipment, document format conversion, pre-sending documents, training, equipment and call setup, and meeting followup. The logistics burden is much larger than expected and can be a barrier to adoption of telemeeting technology. Using a process model that recognises moving between solo and group, asynchronous and synchronous work modes, the paper explores the amenability of individual logistics tasks to automated assistance, proposes a framework for such assistance, and develops a set of design principles.
    Keywords: CSCW, Group work, Automated assistance

    Video Conferencing

    Multiparty Videoconferencing at Virtual Social Distance: MAJIC Design BIBAKPDF 385-393
      Ken-ichi Okada; Fumihiko Maeda; Yusuke Ichikawaa; Yutaka Matsushita
    This paper describes the design and implementation of MAJIC, a multi-party videoconferencing system that projects life-size video images of participants onto a large curved screen as if users in various locations are attending a meeting together and sitting around a table. MAJIC also supports multiple eye contact among the participants and awareness of the direction of the participants' gaze. Hence, users can carry on a discussion in a manner comparable to face-to-face meetings. We made video-tape recordings of about twenty visitors who used the prototype of MAJIC at the Nikkei Collaboration Fair in Tokyo. Our initial observations based on this experiment are also reported in this paper.
    Keywords: MAJIC, Multi-party videoconferencing, Multiple eye contact, Gaze awareness, Groupware, Networked realities, Tele-presence
    High Performance Infrastructure for Visually-Intensive CSCW Applications BIBAKPDF 395-403
      Stephen Zabele; Steven L. Rohall; Ralph L. Vinciguerra
    We describe a scalable CSCW infrastructure designed to handle heavy-weight data sets, such as extremely large images and video. Scalability is achieved through exclusive use of reliable and unreliable multicast protocols. The infrastructure uses a replicated architecture rather than a centralized architecture, both to reduce latency and to improve responsiveness. Use of 1) reliable (multicast) transport of absolute, rather than relative, information sets, 2) time stamps, and 3) a last-in-wins policy provide coherency often lacking in replicated architectures. The infrastructure allows users to toggle between WYSIWIS and non-WYSIWIS modes. That, coupled with effective use of multicast groups, allows greatly improved responsiveness and performance for managing heavy-weight data.
    Keywords: CSCW infrastructure, Reliable multicast, Scalable architecture
    A Forum for Supporting Interactive Presentations to Distributed Audiences BIBAKPDF 405-416
      Ellen A. Isaacs; Trevor Morris; Thomas K. Rodriguez
    Computer technology is available to build video-based tools for supporting presentations to distributed audiences, but it is unclear how such an environment affects participants' ability to interact and to learn. We built and tested a tool called Forum that broadcasts live audio, video and slides from a speaker, and enables audiences to interact with the speaker and other audience members in a variety of ways. The challenge was to enable effective interactions while overcoming obstacles introduced by the distributed nature of the environment, the large size of the group, and the asymmetric roles of the participants. Forum was most successful in enabling effective presentations in cases when the topic sparked a great deal of audience participation or when the purpose of the talk was mostly informational and did not require a great deal of interaction. We are exploring ways to enhance Forum to expand the effectiveness of this technology.
    Keywords: Broadcast video, Distributed presentations, Distance learning, Remote collaboration, User interface design, Multimedia

    Ethnographic Methodologies

    The Limits of Ethnography: Combining Social Sciences for CSCW BIBAKPDF 417-428
      Dan Shapiro
    This paper addresses some of the divergences between social sciences, and proposes the development of hybrid forms of participation in CSCW. It offers a critique of the theoretical isolationism of some ethnomethodological ethnography. It reviews the prospects for interdisciplinary collaboration, and seeks to motivate it with some "core propositions" which expose the inescapable character of the problems (although not necessarily of the solutions) which are "owned" by different disciplines. It illustrates hybrid forms with discussion of some issues in two areas: the cognitive versus the ethnographic; it further describes the politics of participation.
    Keywords: CSCW, Interdisciplinary relations, Ethnography, Ethnomethodology, Cognitive science, Participative design, Distributed cognition
    Moving Out from the Control Room: Ethnography in System Design BIBAKPDF 429-439
      John Hughes; Val King; Tom Rodden; Hans Andersen
    Ethnography has gained considerable prominence as a technique for informing CSCW systems development of the nature of work. Experiences of ethnography reported to date have focused on the use of prolonged on-going ethnography to inform systems design. A considerable number of these studies have taken place within constrained and focused work domain. This paper reflects more generally on the experiences of using ethnography across a number of different projects and in a variety of domains of study. We identify a number of ways in which we have used ethnography to inform design and consider the benefits and problems of each.
    Keywords: Systems design and development, Ethnographic study, Design methods, Studies of work
    Situated Evaluation for Cooperative Systems BIBAKPDF 441-452
      Michael Twidale; David Randall; Richard Bentley
    This paper discusses an evaluation of the MEAD prototype, a multi-user interface generator tool particularly for use in the context of Air Traffic Control (ATC). The procedures we adopted took the form of opportunistic and informal evaluation sessions with small user groups, including Air Traffic Controllers (ATCOs). We argue that informal procedures are a powerful and cost effective method for dealing with specific evaluation issues in the context of CSCW but that wider issues are more problematic. Most notably, identifying the "validity" or otherwise of CSCW systems requires that the context of use be taken seriously, necessitating a fundamental re-appraisal of the concept of evaluation.
    Keywords: Evaluation, Ethnographic observation, Rapid prototyping, Multi-user interface design, Air traffic control

    Special Session Panel

    The Role of CSCW Technology in Ad Hoc Groups BIBPDF 453-454
      Kate Ehrlich; Sara Bly; Jonathan Grudin; Chris Schmandt; Andrea Saveri


    Corporate Memory: What Does it Mean in Today's Organizations? BIBPDF 455-456
      Joanne Yates; Jeff Conklin; Marjorie Horton; Gerardine DeSanctis; Peter Rothstein

    Plenary Panel

    Groupware and Open Information Networks: Are They Ready to Merge or are They Competing for the Same Turf? BIBPDF 457
      Terry Winograd


    CSCW and K-12 Education: Will Technology "Take Off" Once it's Used for Collaboration? BIBPDF 459-460
      Irene Greif; Beverly Hunter; D. Midian Kurland; Peter Rowley; Steve Reder