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CSCW Tables of Contents: 02040608101112-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Proceedings of ACM CSCW 2014 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing

Fullname:Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing
Editors:Susan Fussell; Wayne Lutters; Meredith Ringel Morris; Madhu Reddy
Location:Baltimore, Maryland
Dates:2014-Feb-15 to 2014-Feb-19
Volume:1
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2540-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CSCW14-1
Papers:136
Pages:1573
Links:Conference Website
  1. CSCW 2014-02-15 Volume 1
    1. Keynote address
    2. Friendsourcing
    3. Crowdfunding: "show me the money!"
    4. Telepresence
    5. Blinding me with science
    6. Building communities and relationships
    7. Filter bubbles & news
    8. Performing crowd work
    9. Work in hospitals
    10. Craft, repair, and DIY
    11. Q&A
    12. Social media in the enterprise
    13. Values & social norms
    14. Social media: online and off
    15. Family
    16. Concurrency control
    17. Group dynamics
    18. Reflective research
    19. Social technologies and well-being
    20. Shopping and collecting
    21. ICT4D
    22. Leadership
    23. Technology and information workers
    24. Collaborative search and sharing
    25. Romance
    26. Crowds in crises
    27. Supporting communities
    28. Locations and maps
    29. Promoting participation and engagement
    30. Building on others
    31. Identifying opportunities for collaboration
    32. The office
    33. Collaborative software development
    34. Mobile apps for enhancing connectedness
    35. MOOCS
    36. Mobilizing for action
    37. Volunteering and doing good
    38. Parents and children
    39. Civic participation
    40. Gaming
    41. Multiple dimensions and displays
    42. Social media and politics
    43. Crowdsourcing complexity
    44. Personal health management
    45. Geographic distance
    46. Distributed teams
    47. Keynote address

CSCW 2014-02-15 Volume 1

Keynote address

Making a difference in and through playful design BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Mary Flanagan
How can design (broadly thought) and creative thought in technology, 'make a difference' empirically and conceptually from the point of view of design practice? In the world of social impact design, how do designers know if they have the right approach for the best outcomes? In this talk, Tiltfactor laboratory director and Dartmouth professor Mary Flanagan shares strategies for design, focusing on cooperative interactions and the unintended consequences of designers' actions. Urging designers to ask big questions about where our technology is heading and how we might improve it from a social justice perspective, Flanagan offers actionable approaches to these questions through design examples and case studies of specific projects from her innovative game design work at http://www.Tiltfactor.org.

Friendsourcing

Help is on the way: patterns of responses to resource requests on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 3-15
  Cliff Lampe; Rebecca Gray; Andrew T. Fiore; Nicole Ellison
Research suggests that social network sites can support social capital exchanges, which are often triggered by requests for assistance, such as seeking recommendations or asking for favors. Responsiveness to these requests for help is important to study because these interactions have the potential to affect users' overall satisfaction with the experience of using SNSs, signal social grooming functions that are an essential part of relationship maintenance, and affect social capital processes. In this paper, we study a corpus of public status updates posted to Facebook (N=7,466) in order to identify the pattern of responses to status updates that attempt to mobilize resources from the poster's Facebook network. Findings suggest that mobilization requests are treated differently than other kinds of posts; posts that attempt to mobilize help receive more comments than non-mobilization attempts. Additionally, responses occur more quickly and are shaped by the type of support requested (e.g., a recommendation vs. a favor). These findings help us better understand the role of help-seeking behaviors in the social capital conversion process as it unfolds via social media.
To search or to ask: the routing of information needs between traditional search engines and social networks BIBAFull-Text 16-27
  Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch; Brent Hecht; Meredith Ringel Morris; Jaime Teevan; Darren Gergle
In status message question asking (SMQA), members of social networking sites make use of status messages to express information needs to friends and contacts. We present findings from a laboratory study that examined 82 participants' SMQA behaviors in the broader context of online information seeking. When given the option of using a search engine and/or a social network, participants leveraged SMQA for 20% of their information needs, most often posing a question to their network in addition to issuing a query. We show the important roles played by the specificity of the information need and the perceived audience of a given network on routing decisions. We then demonstrate that routing decisions have varied effects on participants' satisfaction, information value, and trust of outcomes. In addition to highlighting the complementary advantages and disadvantages of search and SMQA, our findings suggest that search engines can better address a meaningful portion of people's information needs by integrating SMQA capabilities into their systems.
What do teens ask their online social networks?: social search practices among high school students BIBAFull-Text 28-37
  Andrea Forte; Michael Dickard; Rachel Magee; Denise E. Agosto
The majority of American teens use social network sites (SNSs) but little is known about how they leverage their online social networks to find information. As part of a larger study on social media and information behaviors, we surveyed 158 high school students to learn about their online question asking and answering practices. We describe which teens are most likely to ask and answer questions, what they ask about, on which sites they ask questions, and how useful they perceive SNSs to be as information sources. When possible, we draw comparisons with findings in the literature about adult populations. We contextualize these findings using early insights from interviews and focus groups with 80 teens and discuss how perceptions of audience, privacy concerns, and self-presentation all play a role in teens' use of SNSs to ask and answer questions.

Crowdfunding: "show me the money!"

Coordinating donors on crowdfunding websites BIBAFull-Text 38-48
  Rick Wash; Jacob Solomon
Crowdfunding websites like Kickstarter, Spot.Us and DonorChoose seek to fund multiple projects simultaneously by soliciting donations from a large number of donors. Crowdfunding site designers must decide what to do with donations to projects that don't reach their goal by the deadline. Some crowdfunding sites use an all-or-nothing return rule in which donations are returned to donors if a project doesn't meet its goal. Other sites use a direct donation structure where all donations are kept by the project even if the total is insufficient. We simulated a crowdfunding site using a threshold public goods game in which a set of donors tries to fund multiple projects that vary in riskiness. We find that the return rule mechanism leads to a marginal improvement in productivity of a site -- more money is donated in total -- by eliciting more donations. However, the return rule also leads to a potential loss in efficiency (percentage of projects funded) because donations become spread across too many projects and are not coordinated to achieve the maximum possible impact. The direct donation model, though, encourages donors to coordinate to creates a more efficient but slightly less productive marketplace.
The language that gets people to give: phrases that predict success on Kickstarter BIBAFull-Text 49-61
  Tanushree Mitra; Eric Gilbert
Crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter -- where entrepreneurs and artists look to the internet for funding -- have quickly risen to prominence. However, we know very little about the factors driving the 'crowd' to take projects to their funding goal. In this paper we explore the factors which lead to successfully funding a crowdfunding project. We study a corpus of 45K crowdfunded projects, analyzing 9M phrases and 59 other variables commonly present on crowdfunding sites. The language used in the project has surprising predictive power accounting for 58.56% of the variance around successful funding. A closer look at the phrases shows they exhibit general persuasion principles. For example, also receive two reflects the principle of Reciprocity and is one of the top predictors of successful funding. We conclude this paper by announcing the release of the predictive phrases along with the control variables as a public dataset, hoping that our work can enable new features on crowdfunding sites -- tools to help both backers and project creators make the best use of their time and money.
Understanding the role of community in crowdfunding work BIBAFull-Text 62-74
  Julie S. Hui; Michael D. Greenberg; Elizabeth M. Gerber
Crowdfunding provides a new opportunity for entrepreneurs to launch ventures without having to rely on traditional funding mechanisms, such as banks and angel investing. Despite its rapid growth, we understand little about how crowdfunding users build ad hoc online communities to undertake this new way of performing entrepreneurial work. To better understand this phenomenon, we performed a qualitative study of 47 entrepreneurs who use crowdfunding platforms to raise funds for their projects. We identify community efforts to support crowdfunding work, such as providing mentorship to novices, giving feedback on campaign presentation, and building a repository of example projects to serve as models. We also identify where community efforts and technologies succeed and fail at supporting the work in order to inform the design of crowdfunding support tools and systems.

Telepresence

Smart Face: enhancing creativity during video conferences using real-time facial deformation BIBAFull-Text 75-83
  Naoto Nakazato; Shigeo Yoshida; Sho Sakurai; Takuji Narumi; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
This study develops a method for improving creativity by changing the facial appearance of people during video conferences. We focus on enhancing creativity during human interactions, especially cooperative work situations such as video conferences. Psychological studies have revealed that the facial appearance of people can affect creativity, i.e., "emotion can affect creativity" and "the appearance of others can affect the emotions." Based on the knowledge, we hypothesized that the media technology which modifies the facial appearance of people appropriately can enhance our creativity during cooperative work. Therefore, we develop a method to affect creativity by changing the facial appearance in real-time, such as facial expressions and facial resemblance. We test the effectiveness of this method by building a system for collaborative video conferences. The user study show that the proposed method could enhance creativity.
Towards a questionnaire for measuring affective benefits and costs of communication technologies BIBAFull-Text 84-96
  Svetlana Yarosh; Panos Markopoulos; Gregory D. Abowd
As CSCW creates and investigates technologies for social communication, it is important to understand the emotional benefits and costs of these systems. We propose the Affective Benefits and Costs of Communication Technologies (ABCCT) questionnaire to supplement traditional qualitative methods of understanding communication media. We discuss the pilots of this survey with 45 children and 110 adults measuring the inter-item reliability of this instrument. We present the results of interviews with 14 children and 14 adults, which help confirm that the ABCCT measures the same constructs that may emerge through interview investigations. Finally, we demonstrate that the ABCCT is sensitive enough to discriminate between different communication technologies and has shown promise in some of its early adoption. Though the ABCCT is not without limitations, it may provide a way to compare technologies in field deployments, draw findings across investigations, and quantify the impact of specific design decisions.
How social cues shape task coordination and communication BIBAFull-Text 97-108
  Allison Sauppé; Bilge Mutlu
To design computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW) systems that effectively support remote collaboration, designers need a better understanding of how people collaborate face-to-face and the mechanisms that they use to coordinate their actions. While research in CSCW has studied how specific social cues might facilitate collaboration in specific tasks, such as the role of gestures in video instruction, less is known about how a range of communicative cues might facilitate activities across many collaborative settings. In this paper, we model the predictive relationships between facial, gestural, and vocal cues and collaborative outcomes in three different tasks, drawing conclusions on how each cue might contribute to these outcomes in a given task and how such relationships generalize across tasks. The resulting models provide a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of each type of social cue in predicting collaborative outcomes, as well as a more thorough understanding of how the role of each social cue changes across tasks. Additionally, our results provide confirmation and illumination of prior findings in face-to-face and computer-mediated communication research.

Blinding me with science

Planet hunters and seafloor explorers: legitimate peripheral participation through practice proxies in online citizen science BIBAFull-Text 109-119
  Gabriel Mugar; Carsten Østerlund; Katie DeVries Hassman; Kevin Crowston; Corey Brian Jackson
Making visible the process of user participation in online crowdsourced initiatives has been shown to help new users understand the norms of participation [2]. However, in many settings, participants lack full access to others' work. Merging the theory of legitimate peripheral participation [18] with Erickson and Kellogg's theory of social translucence [10, 11, 16] we introduce the concept of practice proxies: traces of user participation in online environments that act as resources to orient newcomers towards the norms of practice. Through a combination of virtual [14] and trace ethnography [12] we explore how new users in two online citizen science projects engage with these traces of practice as a way of compensating for a lack of access to the process of the work itself. Our findings suggest that newcomers seek out practice proxies in the social features of the projects that highlight contextualized and specific characteristics of primary work practice.
Study of electronic lab notebook design and practices that emerged in a collaborative scientific environment BIBAFull-Text 120-133
  Gerard Oleksik; Natasa Milic-Frayling; Rachel Jones
Prolific adoption of digital media across scientific fields has led to inevitable transformation of a traditional lab book into an electronic lab notebook (ELN). Research so far has focussed on designing ELN prototypes and learning from their limited deployments. At the same time, a variety of commercially available ELNs have been adopted by industrial and academic laboratories. That provides opportunities for situated research and a deeper understanding of the role that ELNs assumes as an integral part of a scientific environment. In this paper we present a study of ELN design that has emerged as scientists appropriated commercial off-the-shelf note-taking software and adapted it to their work. Through in-situ observations we analysed the interplay between the technology and emerging practices. Our study reveals a tension that is intrinsic to the digital nature of ELNs: a conflict between the flexibility, fluidity, and low threshold for modifying digital records and the requirement for persistence and consistency. This led to refined requirements and design considerations for ELNs.
Reconciling rhythms: plans and temporal alignment in collaborative scientific work BIBAFull-Text 134-145
  Stephanie B. Steinhardt; Steven J. Jackson
Plans and planning assume a central role and challenge of collaborative scientific work, bridging and coordinating often discordant rhythms and events emanating from the organizational, infrastructural, biographical and phenomenal dimensions of collaborative life. Plans align rhythms embedded in local practice with those operating at larger institutional levels, and establish shared temporal baselines around which local choice and action may be calibrated. This paper develops these arguments through ethnographic study of the Ocean Observatories Initiative, a prominent U.S.-based large-scale long-term collaborative research program in the ocean sciences. We emphasize the intersection between rhythms and plans at two crucial moments: formation ('plans-in-the-making'), and enactment ('plans-in-action') across complex fields of practice. Our findings hold important implications for CSCW research and practice around scientific and large-scale collaborative efforts, and for federal science policies meant to support productive forms of cooperation and discovery.

Building communities and relationships

Building loyalty to online communities through bond and identity-based attachment to sub-groups BIBAFull-Text 146-157
  Yla R. Tausczik; Laura A. Dabbish; Robert E. Kraut
Researchers and theorists have proposed that feelings of attachment to subgroups within a larger online community or site can increase users' loyalty to the site. They have identified two types of attachment, with distinct causes and consequences. With bond-based attachment, people feel connections to other group members, while with identity-based attachment they feel connections to the group as a whole. In two experiments we show that these feelings of attachment to subgroups increase loyalty to the larger community. Communication with other people in a subgroup but not simple awareness of them increases attachment to the larger community. By varying how the communication is structured, between dyads or with all group members simultaneously, the experiments show that bond- and identity-based attachment have different causes. But the experiments show no evidence that bond and identity attachment have different consequences. We consider both theoretical and methodological reasons why the consequences of bond-based and identity-based attachment are so similar.
Ethnography of scaling, or, how to a fit a national research infrastructure in the room BIBAFull-Text 158-170
  David Ribes
Ethnographers have traditionally studied people in particular times and places. However, sociotechnical systems are often long-term enterprises, spanning the globe and serving vast communities. Drawing from three cases of research infrastructure development, this paper demonstrates a methodology in which the ethnographer examines scalar devices: actors' techniques and technologies for knowing and managing large-scale enterprises. Such devices are enacted in and across concrete times and places; for the ethnographer they are observable as activities of scaling. By examining the enactment of scale we can better investigate diverse kinds of size and growth within sociotechnical systems.
Enabling relationship building in tabletop-supported advisory settings BIBAFull-Text 171-183
  Peter Heinrich; Mehmet Kilic; Felix-Robinson Aschoff; Gerhard Schwabe
Recent research has shown that financial advisory encounters can successfully be supported with IT-artifacts. Tabletop scenarios, for example, can increase the transparency of the advisory process for customers. However, we have also had the experience that the relationship quality as experienced by customers can suffer severely when IT-artifacts are introduced. Based on these experiences, we developed guidelines for both, the artifact-design itself as well as for the environment in order to avoid this effect, and implemented them in one of our prototypes. The evaluation reveals that these measures proved to be effective. With the reported study, we seek to enhance our design knowledge of IT-supported advisory scenarios with a special focus on relationship building. In a larger context, we argue that the use of IT during sensitive face-to-face encounters will be of growing significance in the future but, as yet, is hardly understood. We make a contribution in this area with our generic requirements, design principles and evaluation.

Filter bubbles & news

Can you hear me now?: mitigating the echo chamber effect by source position indicators BIBAFull-Text 184-196
  Q. Vera Liao; Wai-Tat Fu
We examined how a source position indicator showing both valences (pro/con) and magnitudes (moderate/extreme) of positions on controversial topics influenced users' selection and reception of diverse opinions in online discussions. Results showed that the indicator had differential impact on participants who had varied levels of accuracy motives -- i.e., motivation to accurately learn about the topic, by leading to greater exposure to attitude-challenging information for participants with higher accuracy motives. Further analysis revealed that it was mainly caused by the fact that the presence of position indicator increased the selection of moderately inconsistent sources for participants with high accuracy motives but decreased the selection of them for participants with low accuracy motives. The indicator also helped participants differentiate between sources with moderate and extreme positions, and increased their tendency to agree with attitude-challenging information from sources with moderately inconsistent positions. Participants with high accuracy motives were also found to learn significantly more about the arguments put forward by the opposite side with the help of the position indicator. We discussed the implications of the results for the nature of the echo chamber effect, as well as for designing information systems that encourage seeking of diverse information and common ground seeking.
Deep Twitter diving: exploring topical groups in microblogs at scale BIBAFull-Text 197-210
  Parantapa Bhattacharya; Saptarshi Ghosh; Juhi Kulshrestha; Mainack Mondal; Muhammad Bilal Zafar; Niloy Ganguly; Krishna P. Gummadi
We present a semantic methodology to identify topical groups in Twitter on a large number of topics, each consisting of users who are experts on or interested in a specific topic. Early studies investigating the nature of Twitter suggest that it is a social media platform consisting of a relatively small section of elite users, producing information on a few popular topics such as media, politics, and music, and the general population consuming it. We show that this characterization ignores a rich set of highly specialized topics, ranging from geology, neurology, to astrophysics and karate -- each being discussed by their own topical groups. We present a detailed characterization of these topical groups based on their network structures and tweeting behaviors. Analyzing these groups on the backdrop of the common identity and bond theory in social sciences shows that these groups exhibit characteristics of topical-identity based groups, rather than social-bond based ones.
Characterizing the life cycle of online news stories using social media reactions BIBAFull-Text 211-223
  Carlos Castillo; Mohammed El-Haddad; Jürgen Pfeffer; Matt Stempeck
This paper presents a study of the life cycle of news articles posted online. We describe the interplay between website visitation patterns and social media reactions to news content. We show that we can use this hybrid observation method to characterize distinct classes of articles. We also find that social media reactions can help predict future visitation patterns early and accurately. We validate our methods using qualitative analysis as well as quantitative analysis on data from a large international news network, for a set of articles generating more than 3,000,000 visits and 200,000 social media reactions. We show that it is possible to model accurately the overall traffic articles will ultimately receive by observing the first ten to twenty minutes of social media reactions. Achieving the same prediction accuracy with visits alone would require to wait for three hours of data. We also describe significant improvements on the accuracy of the early prediction of shelf-life for news stories.

Performing crowd work

Being a Turker BIBAFull-Text 224-235
  David Martin; Benjamin V. Hanrahan; Jacki O'Neill; Neha Gupta
Crowdsourcing is a key current topic in CSCW. We build upon findings of a few qualitative studies of crowdworkers. We conducted an ethnomethodological analysis of publicly available content on Turker Nation, a general forum for Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) users. Using forum data we provide novel depth and detail on how the Turker Nation members operate as economic actors, working out which Requesters and jobs are worthwhile to them. We show some of the key ways Turker Nation functions as a community and also look further into Turker-Requester relationships from the Turker perspective -- considering practical, emotional and moral aspects. Finally, following Star and Strauss [25] we analyse Turking as a form of invisible work. We do this to illustrate practical and ethical issues relating to working with Turkers and AMT, and to promote design directions to support Turkers and their relationships with Requesters.
The motivations and experiences of the on-demand mobile workforce BIBAFull-Text 236-247
  Rannie Teodoro; Pinar Ozturk; Mor Naaman; Winter Mason; Janne Lindqvist
On-demand mobile workforce applications match physical world tasks and willing workers. These systems offer to help conserve resources, streamline courses of action, and increase market efficiency for micro- and mid-level tasks, from verifying the existence of a pothole to walking a neighbor's dog. This study reports on the motivations and experiences of individuals who regularly complete physical world tasks posted in on-demand mobile workforce marketplaces. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with members (workers) of two different services. The analysis revealed the main drivers for participating in an on-demand mobile workforce, including desires for monetary compensation and control over schedules and task selection. We also reveal main reasons for task selection, which involve situational factors, convenient physical locations, and task requester profile information. Finally, we discuss the key characteristics of the most worthwhile tasks and offer implications for novel crowdsourcing systems for physical world tasks.
Information extraction and manipulation threats in crowd-powered systems BIBAFull-Text 248-256
  Walter S. Lasecki; Jaime Teevan; Ece Kamar
Crowd-powered systems have become a popular way to augment the capabilities of automated systems in real-world settings. Many of these systems rely on human workers to process potentially sensitive data or make important decisions. This puts these systems at risk of unintentionally releasing sensitive data or having their outcomes maliciously manipulated. While almost all crowd-powered approaches account for errors made by individual workers, few factor in active attacks on the system. In this paper, we analyze different forms of threats from individuals and groups of workers extracting information from crowd-powered systems or manipulating these systems' outcomes. Via a set of studies performed on Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform and involving 1,140 unique workers, we demonstrate the viability of these threats. We show that the current system is vulnerable to coordinated attacks on a task based on the requests of another task and that a significant portion of Mechanical Turk workers are willing to contribute to an attack. We propose several possible approaches to mitigating these threats, including leveraging workers who are willing to go above and beyond to help, automatically flagging sensitive content, and using workflows that conceal information from each individual, while still allowing the group to complete a task. Our findings enable the crowd to continue to play an important part in automated systems, even as the data they use and the decisions they support become increasingly important.

Work in hospitals

How physicians 'achieve overview': a case-based study in a hospital ward BIBAFull-Text 257-268
  Claus Bossen; Lotte Groth Jensen
Clinicians' work in hospitals is safety- and time-critical, and often stressful due to the number and complexity of patient cases they must attend to. Therefore, how clinicians gather information, identify problems and make decisions concerning patients is a crucial concern, a process that can be labelled 'achieving overview'. In the process, clinicians use various artefacts amongst which medical records are central. Decades of experience is embedded in the structure and use of paper-based records. However, the development of electronic patient records (EPR) will change both structure and use of medical records, including 'achieving overview'. We conducted an ethnographic study in a hospital ward using paper-based medical records in order to understand how clinicians achieve overview. Inspired by the approach of exnovation, we elicit the use of paper-based records in order to inform the design of EPRs. We propose five axes which span out the process of achieving overview and describe implications for design of EPRs.
Privacy practices in collaborative environments: a study of emergency department staff BIBAFull-Text 269-282
  Alison R. Murphy; Madhu C. Reddy; Heng Xu
Privacy research has long focused on the individual. Yet most organizations are highly collaborative where teamwork is the norm. To examine privacy practices in collaborative settings, we conducted an ethnographic study of a highly collaborative and information-intensive setting -- an emergency Dept. (ED). We found that ED staff's work practices did not always align with the organization's privacy policies and procedures. We then discuss the use of workarounds when privacy policies interfere with work practices, the challenge of assigning accountability for enforcing privacy in collaborative environments, and implications for technical and policy design. We conclude with some thoughts on the future of privacy research in collaborative settings.
Institutional logics of the EMR and the problem of 'perfect' but inaccurate accounts BIBAFull-Text 283-294
  Kathleen H. Pine; Melissa Mazmanian
Electronic Medical Records promise to simultaneously enhance coordination and provide transparency and accountability in work process. As such, EMR are purported to benefit both hospitals and patients. In this paper we use grounded empirical data to explore how this promise plays out in the everyday tasks of healthcare providers. Building on the small body of CSCW literature that suggests that the accounting functions of EMR are impinging on the ability of medical personnel to coordinate work, we draw on the theoretical lens of new institutionalism to outline how certain institutional logics around safety and accountability are shaping the experience of EMR systems in situ. We suggest that the institutional logics that currently characterize U.S. healthcare are embedded in the EMR design itself, structuring how institutional values such as 'safety' are achieved and evaluated. Using over one year of ethnographic research in an obstetrical unit, we find that the institutional logics of 'safety' embedded in the EMR create negative organizational outcomes, effectively undermining coordination and necessitating inaccurate accounts of work. We provide design implications to address these issues in the current institutional environment and envision how systems might be designed to promote alternate logics of safety that are social, dynamic, and cast humans as expert agents in the system.

Craft, repair, and DIY

"it's in your spinal cord, it's in your fingertips": practices of tools and craft in building software BIBAFull-Text 295-304
  Jessica Lingel; Tim Regan
Drawing on interviews with 12 software engineers, we investigate the relationship between developers and the tools they use to build code through the lens of craft. We analyze different conceptualizations of craft in accounts of software development, including craft as a process of building, craft as materiality, and craft as a community of practice. By working through these different facets of craft, we investigate tensions of perceiving coding work as, on the one hand, highly rational, and on the other, deeply personal and embodied. In working through these tensions of code as abstract and concrete, cerebral and intuitive, we note implications for craft, both as a theory relevant to computer human interaction, and for paradigms of education in computer science.
Cultivating practice & shepherding technology use: supporting appropriation among unanticipated users BIBAFull-Text 305-318
  Pablo-Alejandro Quinones
Previous work has shown that the successful appropriation of technology into practice depends heavily on users' understandings and narratives around the technology's use. Who drives the successful appropriation process is still ill-defined within the literature. In this paper, we present a case study conducted in a research university, using interviews to understand staff practices and technology appropriation within their work contexts. We found that the successful appropriation of collaborative IT relies on the invisible work conducted by those people within groups who formally or informally aid their colleagues in the successful 'cultivation' of practices and sensemaking around technology-people we call shepherds. We draw parallels to other work that suggest the need for similar types of agents and close with a dialog concerning the challenge of establishing shepherding practices within large organizations.
Designing for repair?: infrastructures and materialities of breakdown BIBAFull-Text 319-331
  Daniela K. Rosner; Morgan Ames
This paper explores issues that come up in practices of breakage and repair through two projects: the 'XO' laptops of One Laptop Per Child in Paraguay and public sites of facilitated repair in California, USA. Collectively drawing on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, 156 interviews, and archival research, we find that breakdown and repair are not processes that designers can effectively script ahead of time; instead, they emerge in everyday practice. These practices are shaped by material, infrastructural, gendered, political, and socioeconomic factors -- such as manufacturing limitations, access to repair parts and expertise, and environmental convictions -- which designers often did not, and may not have been able to, anticipate. We call the material realities and practices of repair negotiated endurance, which is illustrated by four themes from our findings: the negotiated identification of breakdown, collaborative definitions of worth, the fraught nature of collaborative expertise, and the gendered stakes of repair.

Q&A

Fast, functional, and fitting: expert response dynamics and response quality in an online newcomer help forum BIBAFull-Text 332-341
  Hon Jie Teo; Aditya Johri
In online communities a few experts are able to help a large number of help-seekers -- whether in Q&A communities or other forms of online forums. How is this efficiency achieved? How useful is this help? We show that expert help-giving can be characterized as: (1) Fast -- Most active help-givers gave response promptly and were most responsive during peak activity; (2) Functional -- There was little duplication of help-giving effort; and, (3) Fitting -- Initial responses were of high quality and reduced the need for further clarifications and corrections; high quality responses were provided earlier in the thread. Examination of differences across experts revealed that the most highly rated group of experts responded to 69% of the questions with a median response time of 16 minutes, twice as fast as other experts. Finally, we demonstrate the high quality of response through a taxonomy that characterizes expert responses as: framing, guiding, or engaged help.
How social Q&A sites are changing knowledge sharing in open source software communities BIBAFull-Text 342-354
  Bogdan Vasilescu; Alexander Serebrenik; Prem Devanbu; Vladimir Filkov
Historically, mailing lists have been the preferred means for coordinating development and user support activities. With the emergence and popularity growth of social Q&A sites such as the StackExchange network (e.g., StackOverflow), this is beginning to change. Such sites offer different socio-technical incentives to their participants than mailing lists do, e.g., rich web environments to store and manage content collaboratively, or a place to showcase their knowledge and expertise more vividly to peers or potential recruiters. A key difference between StackExchange and mailing lists is gamification, i.e., StackExchange participants compete to obtain reputation points and badges. In this paper, we use a case study of R (a widely-used tool for data analysis) to investigate how mailing list participation has evolved since the launch of StackExchange. Our main contribution is the assembly of a joint data set from the two sources, in which participants in both the r-help mailing list and StackExchange are identifiable. This permits their activities to be linked across the two resources and also over time. With this data set we found that user support activities show a strong shift away from r-help. In particular, mailing list experts are migrating to StackExchange, where their behaviour is different. First, participants active both on r-help and on StackExchange are more active than those who focus exclusively on only one of the two. Second, they provide faster answers on StackExchange than on r-help, suggesting they are motivated by the gamified environment. To our knowledge, our study is the first to directly chart the changes in behaviour of specific contributors as they migrate into gamified environments, and has important implications for knowledge management in software engineering.
Collaborative problem solving: a study of MathOverflow BIBAFull-Text 355-367
  Yla R. Tausczik; Aniket Kittur; Robert E. Kraut
The Internet has the potential to accelerate scientific problem solving by engaging a global pool of contributors. Existing approaches focus on broadcasting problems to many independent solvers. We investigate other approaches that may be advantageous by examining a community for mathematical problem solving -- MathOverflow -- in which contributors communicate and collaborate to solve new mathematical 'micro-problems' online. We contribute a simple taxonomy of collaborative acts derived from a process-level examination of collaborations and a quantitative analysis relating collaborative acts to solution quality. Our results indicate a diversity of ways in which mathematicians are reaching a solution, including by iteratively advancing a solution. A better understanding of such collaborative strategies can inform the design of tools to support distributed collaboration on complex problems.

Social media in the enterprise

Creepy but inevitable?: the evolution of social networking BIBAFull-Text 368-378
  Hui Zhang; Munmun De Choudhury; Jonathan Grudin
This paper focuses on the fifth year of a cross-sectional trend study of enterprise social networking. Several stable patterns are evident -- some activities have plateaued, others steadily increase in frequency. The fifth year did see a new development: As social networking companies visibly embraced behavior tracking and targeted advertising, concerns shifted from boundary regulation within personal networks to unsettling evidence of activity monitoring. However, benefits of use continue to outweigh drawbacks.
Understanding employee social media chatter with enterprise social pulse BIBAFull-Text 379-392
  N. Sadat Shami; Jiang Yang; Laura Panc; Casey Dugan; Tristan Ratchford; Jamie C. Rasmussen; Yannick M. Assogba; Tal Steier; Todd Soule; Stela Lupushor; Werner Geyer; Ido Guy; Jonathan Ferrar
The rise of social media in the enterprise has enabled new ways for employees to speak up and communicate openly with colleagues. This rich textual data can potentially be mined to better understand the opinions and sentiment of employees for the benefit of the organization. In this paper, we introduce Enterprise Social Pulse (ESP) -- a tool designed to support analysts whose job involves understanding employee chatter. ESP aggregates and analyzes data from internal and external social media sources while respecting employee privacy. It surfaces the data through a user interface that supports organic results and keyword search, data segmentation and filtering, and several analytics and visualization features. An evaluation of ESP was conducted with 19 Human Resources professionals. Results from a survey and interviews with participants revealed the value and willingness to use ESP, but also surfaced challenges around deploying an employee social media listening solution in an organization.
Most liked, fewest friends: patterns of enterprise social media use BIBAFull-Text 393-404
  Gloria Mark; Ido Guy; Shiri Kremer-Davidson; Michal Jacovi
Enterprise social media can provide visibility of users' actions and thus has the potential to reveal insights about users in the organization. We mined large-scale social media use in an enterprise to examine: a) user roles with such broad platforms and b) whether people with large social networks are highly regarded. First, a factor analysis revealed that most variance of social media usage is explained by commenting and 'liking' behaviors while other usage can be characterized as patterns of distinct tool usage. These results informed the development of a model showing that online network size interacts with other media usage to predict who is highly assessed in the organization. We discovered that the smaller one's online social network size in the organization, the more highly assessed they were by colleagues. We explain this inverse relationship as due to friending behavior being highly visible but not yet valued in the organization.

Values & social norms

Understanding individuals' personal values from social media word use BIBAFull-Text 405-414
  Jilin Chen; Gary Hsieh; Jalal U. Mahmud; Jeffrey Nichols
The theory of values posits that each person has a set of values, or desirable and trans-situational goals, that motivate their actions. The Basic Human Values, a motivational construct that captures people's values, have been shown to influence a wide range of human behaviors. In this work, we analyze people's values and their word use on Reddit, an online social news sharing community. Through conducting surveys and analyzing text contributions of 799 Reddit users, we identify and interpret categories of words that are indicative of user's value orientations. Using the same data, we further report a preliminary exploration on word-based prediction of Basic Human Values.
Cursing in English on Twitter BIBAFull-Text 415-425
  Wenbo Wang; Lu Chen; Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan; Amit P. Sheth
Cursing is not uncommon during conversations in the physical world: 0.5% to 0.7% of all the words we speak are curse words, given that 1% of all the words are first-person plural pronouns (e.g., we, us, our). On social media, people can instantly chat with friends without face-to-face interaction, usually in a more public fashion and broadly disseminated through highly connected social network. Will these distinctive features of social media lead to a change in people's cursing behavior? In this paper, we examine the characteristics of cursing activity on a popular social media platform -- Twitter, involving the analysis of about 51 million tweets and about 14 million users. In particular, we explore a set of questions that have been recognized as crucial for understanding cursing in offline communications by prior studies, including the ubiquity, utility, and contextual dependencies of cursing.
How to see values in social computing: methods for studying values dimensions BIBAFull-Text 426-435
  Katie Shilton; Jes A. Koepfler; Kenneth R. Fleischmann
Human values play an important role in shaping the design and use of information technologies. Research on values in social computing is challenged by disagreement about indicators and objects of study as researchers distribute their focus across contexts of technology design, adoption, and use. This paper draws upon a framework that clarifies how to see values in social computing research by describing values dimensions, comprised of sources and attributes of values in sociotechnical systems. This paper uses the framework to compare how diverse research methods employed in social computing surface values and make them visible to researchers. The framework provides a tool to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each method for observing values dimensions. By detailing how and where researchers might observe interactions between values and technology design and use, we hope to enable researchers to systematically identify and investigate values in social computing.

Social media: online and off

De-virtualizing social events: understanding the gap between online and offline participation for event invitations BIBAFull-Text 436-448
  Ai-Ju Huang; Hao-Chuan Wang; Chien Wen Yuan
One growing use of computer-based communication media is for gathering people to initiate or sustain social events. Although the use of computer-mediated communication and social network sites such as Facebook for event promotion is becoming popular, online participation in an event does not always translate to offline attendance. In this paper, we report on an interview study of 31 participants that examines how people handle online event invitations and what influences their online and offline participation. The results show that people's event participation is shaped by their social perceptions of the event's nature (e.g., public or private), their relationships to others (e.g., the strength of their connections to other invitees), and the medium used to communicate event information (e.g., targeted invitation via email or spam communication via Facebook event page). By exploring how people decide whether to participate online or offline, the results illuminate the sophisticated nature of the mechanisms that affect participation and have design implications that can bridge virtual and real attendance.
Awkward encounters of an "other" kind: collective self-presentation and face threat on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 449-460
  Eden Litt; Erin Spottswood; Jeremy Birnholtz; Jeff T. Hancock; Madeline E. Smith; Lindsay Reynolds
While we tend to think of self-presentation as a process executed by the self, reputation management on social network sites, like Facebook, is increasingly viewed as a collective endeavor. The information users share about one another can have significant impacts on impression formation, and at times this other-generated content may be face threatening, or challenging to one's desired self-presentation. However, we know little about the nature of these other-generated face threats and the ways that people perceive them. Using an online survey of 150 Facebook users, we report on what these users consider to be other-generated face threats and how they feel after experiencing them. Results suggest that many face threats result from other Facebook users neglecting or misunderstanding a target's audience and/or self-presentation goals, as well as a target's fear of creating an unwanted association with another Facebook user. Experience of these threats is affected by both individual and situational factors. We also report on a new unique measure capturing Facebook skills.
"You can't block people offline": examining how Facebook's affordances shape the disclosure process BIBAFull-Text 461-474
  Jessica Vitak; Jinyoung Kim
Guided by the underlying question of how -- if at all -- the self-disclosure process varies online, the present study explores the self-disclosure practices of 26 American graduate students on Facebook through in-depth interviews. Building on work by Derlega and Grzelak [12] on self-disclosure goals and focusing on the affordances of the site, findings reveal both commonalities with and extensions to existing communication research on self-disclosure, as users saw both benefits and drawbacks to the high visibility and persistence of content shared through the site. Furthermore, users employed a wide spectrum of strategies to help them achieve their disclosure goals while decreasing perceived risks associated with making disclosures in a public forum. Importantly, these strategies generally sought to recreate the offline boundaries blurred or removed by the technical structure of the site and allow users to engage in a more strategic disclosure process with their network.

Family

Family matters: control and conflict in online family history production BIBAFull-Text 475-486
  Heather L. Willever-Farr; Andrea Forte
Findagrave.com and Ancestry.com are sites that support the cooperative creation of public historical resources. These sites of cooperative production have attracted tens of thousands and millions of contributors respectively, yet they embrace content standards, social norms, and models of editorial control that differ radically from the well-studied exemplar of Wikipedia. In this study, we investigated how Ancestry.com and Findagrave.com support production of historical resources through analysis of message boards and interviews with participants. We found that these sites are not only places for building a historical resource, but simultaneously serve as opportunities for public memorialization and familial identity construction. Notably, we found that contributors to these websites embrace the idea of familial oversight of biographical information in order to maintain high standards of quality, and they harbor a corresponding skepticism of the open editing practices that have become a hallmark of many open collaboration projects.
"Our life is the farm and farming is our life": home-work coordination in organic farm families BIBAFull-Text 487-498
  Gilly Leshed; Maria Håkansson; Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye
We present a qualitative study of 13 farm families who intentionally merge their home and work lives. This is in contrast to most families studied in CSCW, who are urban/suburban, white-collar and often dual-income, where the goal is to balance separate home and work spheres. We analyze the farm families' coordination practices along three dimensions -- space, time, and roles -- and contrast their experiences to what is known in CSCW about family coordination practices. Through this, we reveal blind spots in CSCW's study of and support for family coordination toward building better tools to support such activities. We emphasize considering co-location rather than assuming geographic distribution across life spheres, the value of natural rhythms in understanding and supporting family life, and how taking on simultaneous roles can be viewed as a life goal rather than a source of conflict.
Account sharing in the context of networked hospitality exchange BIBAFull-Text 499-504
  Airi M. I. Lampinen
This paper examines account sharing in the context of networked hospitality exchange. I discuss the dynamics of account sharing based on a qualitative interview study with multi-person households who offer to host visitors via Couchsurfing.org. Findings reveal that multi-person households that engage in account sharing face several challenges, including presenting multiple people in one profile, coordinating negotiations over access to domestic space, and representing in a fair way the reputation hosts have accumulated together over time. Amidst the rising rhetoric of a 'reputation economy', this paper calls for engaging the inclusions, exclusions, and inequalities that reputation metrics may renew or create, especially if they fail to acknowledge people's account sharing practices. Furthermore, this paper encourages adopting a design focus beyond individuals in order to support maintaining shared accounts and interacting with others through them. The findings have implications for a variety of hospitality exchange services and other online systems.

Concurrency control

Achieving convergence in operational transformation: conditions, mechanisms and systems BIBAFull-Text 505-518
  Yi Xu; Chengzheng Sun; Mo Li
In this paper, we present a comprehensive and in-depth study on convergence preservation and avoidance in Operational Transformation (OT) systems. In this study, we discovered basic conditions, transformation patterns, and mechanisms for avoiding Convergence Property 2 (CP2), and established CP2-avoidance correctness of seven major OT systems. Furthermore, we proposed improvements to existing systems and designed a new OT system capable of avoiding CP2 with a unique combination of novel features. These results contribute significantly to the advancement of OT and collaboration-enabling technology.
Exhaustive search of puzzles in operational transformation BIBAFull-Text 519-529
  Chengzheng Sun; Yi Xu; Agustina Agustina
Operational Transformation (OT) is a collaboration-enabling technology and increasingly adopted in a wide range of real-world applications. One long-lasting issue in OT research is detecting and resolving puzzles -- subtle and characteristic collaborative editing scenarios in which an OT system may fail. After many years of extensive search and research, a variety of intricate puzzles have been detected and resolved. However, it remains open whether all puzzles, under certain well-defined conditions, have been discovered. To address this issue, we set out to devise a system of verification frameworks and a software tool, that are independent of specific OT algorithms and able to exhaustively cover all possible transformation cases in which puzzles (if any) will manifest themselves. With the support of these tools, we verified OT correctness and concluded: all puzzles, under basic data and operation models and established transformation properties, have been discovered and resolved. Our discoveries help resolve a number of long-standing mysteries surrounding OT correctness and contribute to the advancement of OT fundamental knowledge and technology.
A partial replication approach for anywhere anytime mobile commenting BIBAFull-Text 530-541
  Huanhuan Xia; Tun Lu; Bin Shao; Guo Li; Xianghua Ding; Ning Gu
Commenting systems play increasingly important roles in the interactive web applications. Meanwhile, more and more web applications are visited on mobile devices. However, the intermittent connection of mobile networks and resource limitation of mobile devices pose great challenges, mainly in terms of interactive responsiveness and data consistency. In this paper, we present the first work of partial replication solution based on collaborative editing techniques, which can address the issues of local responsiveness and resource limitation on mobile commenting systems. We report how we address the consistency maintenance challenges that come with the partial replication approach. With this approach, users are allowed to smoothly comment anywhere anytime. The comment thread can be incrementally updated and automatically synchronized with strong data consistency guarantees. We implemented a system prototype called Hydra and evaluated it on a real data set.

Group dynamics

Monitoring email to indicate project team performance and mutual attraction BIBAFull-Text 542-549
  Sean A. Munson; Karina Kervin; Lionel P., Jr. Robert
Many managers and mentors for project teams desire more efficient and more effective ways of monitoring and predicting the quality of social relationships and the performance of teams under their purview. A previous study found that one form of linguistic mimicry, linguistic style matching, and some lexical features indicated team performance and mutual attraction in short-term, laboratory tasks. In this paper, we evaluate whether these measures also work as indicators for performance, shared understanding, and team trust in longer-duration project teams, using only limited, unobtrusively obtained communication traces. In our four-month evaluation using student project team emails, we found no support for LSM or most of the previously identified measures as practical indicators in our field setting. We did find some support for using future-oriented words to indicate team performance over time.
Editing beyond articles: diversity & dynamics of teamwork in open collaborations BIBAFull-Text 550-563
  Jonathan T. Morgan; Michael Gilbert; David W. McDonald; Mark Zachry
We report a study of Wikipedia in which we use a mixed-methods approach to understand how participation in specialized workgroups called WikiProjects has changed over the life of the encyclopedia. While previous work has analyzed the work of WikiProjects in supporting the development of articles within particular subject domains, the collaborative role of WikiProjects that do not fit this conventional mold has not been empirically examined. We combine content analysis, interviews and analysis of edit logs to identify and characterize these alternative WikiProjects and the work they do. Our findings suggest that WikiProject participation reflects community concerns and shifts in the community's conception of valued work over the past six years. We discuss implications for other open collaborations that need flexible, adaptable coordination mechanisms to support a range of content creation, curation and community maintenance tasks.
Playing well with virtual classmates: relating avatar design to group satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 564-573
  Rabindra Ratan; Béatrice S. Hasler
Virtual environments facilitate group collaboration through avatars. While many studies have examined the effects of avatar attributes on users' behaviors and attitudes, few have explicitly tested how elements of avatar design relate to group collaboration satisfaction. The present study fills this gap using data from a field study with student groups in a collaborative virtual environment. Customizing an avatar to express identity was found to relate to more satisfaction with group collaboration, while similarity between the avatar and user's masculinity traits was related to less group collaboration satisfaction. Further, groups with fewer active members reported higher group collaboration satisfaction. Unexpectedly, number of customizations and using a face-similar were not related to group collaboration satisfaction, potentially due to limitations in the present design for which future research can account. These findings suggest that avatar design elements play an important role in collaborative virtual environments.

Reflective research

The kernel of a research infrastructure BIBAFull-Text 574-587
  David Ribes
Infrastructure makes it easier, faster or possible for investigators to study objects of research. It does so by making available consistent and stable resources and services such as data, collaboration tools, sites of sample collection, or calibrated instruments. This paper offers the concept of the kernel of a research infrastructure as a new unit of analysis for investigating the enabling capacities of infrastructure. The kernel is the core resources and services an infrastructure makes available (called the cache), as well as the work, techniques and technologies that go into sustaining that availability (called addressing). By inspecting and comparing the kernel of two long-term scientific enterprises, this paper demonstrates how focusing on the kernel can help explain key qualities of research infrastructure such as flexibility and persistence in the face of dramatic changes to the objects, methods and practice of science.
The policy knot: re-integrating policy, practice and design in cscw studies of social computing BIBAFull-Text 588-602
  Steven J. Jackson; Tarleton Gillespie; Sandy Payette
In CSCW and information science research today, the worlds of design, practice, and policy are often held separate, speaking to different audiences, venues, and fields of expertise. But many growing areas of CSCW work, including mobile, cloud, and social computing, run into problems precisely at this intersection. This paper presents a model for understanding processes of change and emergence in social computing in which policy, practice, and design show up in the form of complex interdependencies, or knots, that collectively determine the shape, meaning, and trajectory of shifting computational forms. We then apply this model to two recent social computing controversies: the 2011 privacy scandal surrounding the location-aware mobile app Girls Around Me; and controversies surrounding the 2010 launch of the Google Buzz social network. We argue that better attention to the mutually constitutive relations between design, practice and policy can expand the reach, depth, and impact of CSCW scholarship.
Can plans and situated actions be replicated? BIBAFull-Text 603-614
  John Rooksby
This paper discusses a repetition of a study presented in Suchman's book Plans and Situated Actions. There have been complaints about the lack of replication studies in disciplines related to CSCW (particularly Software Engineering and HCI). However, these complaints often become embedded in wider attempts to install a principled scientific method within these disciplines. Plans and Situated Actions was not a scientific text but drew upon naturalistic analysis. This paper shows there is value in recreating Plans and Situated Actions, and argues it would be helpful to recreate other studies. However, such repetition does not and need not constitute a scientific replication. The paper argues that while repetition and reanalysis may improve rigour in computing research, this need not be with a view to making it more scientific.

Social technologies and well-being

Social structure and depression in TrevorSpace BIBAFull-Text 615-625
  Christopher M. Homan; Naiji Lu; Xin Tu; Megan C. Lytle; Vincent M. B. Silenzio
We discover patterns related to depression in the social graph of an online community of approximately 20,000 lesbian, gay, and bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. With survey data on fewer than two hundred community members and the network graph of the entire community (which is completely anonymous except for the survey responses), we detected statistically significant correlations between a number of graph properties and those TrevorSpace users showing a higher likelihood of depression, according to the Patient Healthcare Questionnaire-9, a standard instrument for estimating depression. Our results suggest that those who are less depressed are more deeply integrated into the social fabric of TrevorSpace than those who are more depressed. Our techniques may apply to other hard-to-reach online communities, like gay men on Facebook, where obtaining detailed information about individuals is difficult or expensive, but obtaining the social graph is not.
Characterizing and predicting postpartum depression from shared Facebook data BIBAFull-Text 626-638
  Munmun De Choudhury; Scott Counts; Eric J. Horvitz; Aaron Hoff
The birth of a child is a major milestone in the life of parents. We leverage Facebook data shared voluntarily by 165 new mothers as streams of evidence for characterizing their postnatal experiences. We consider multiple measures including activity, social capital, emotion, and linguistic style in participants' Facebook data in pre- and postnatal periods. Our study includes detecting and predicting onset of post-partum depression (PPD). The work complements recent work on detecting and predicting significant postpartum changes in behavior, language, and affect from Twitter data. In contrast to prior studies, we gain access to ground truth on postpartum experiences via self-reports and a common psychometric instrument used to evaluate PPD. We develop a series of statistical models to predict, from data available before childbirth, a mother's likelihood of PPD. We corroborate our quantitative findings through interviews with mothers experiencing PPD. We find that increased social isolation and lowered availability of social capital on Facebook, are the best predictors of PPD in mothers.
Books as a social technology BIBAFull-Text 639-651
  Annika Hupfeld; Tom Rodden
E-books are becoming ubiquitous. Whether or not they will eventually replace books or merely complement them, there is a concern that something important might be lost in moving from print to digital books. While there is a wealth of research into the challenges and opportunities of e-reading, there is little research aiming to understand the broader role of books in everyday life. Rather than speculating on what books are in the digital age, in this paper, we wish to ask what books do. To do so, we conducted a series of in-depth interviews with ten UK households to understand everyday uses of books. Our findings suggest that books are not merely reading technologies but a resource for everyday social and personal engagements. We discuss re-framing books as social technologies and implications for the design of e-books.

Shopping and collecting

Framing the conversation: the role of Facebook conversations in shopping for eyeglasses BIBAFull-Text 652-661
  Karim Said; Michele Annmarie Burton; Amy Hurst; Shaun K. Kane
Individuals often leverage their social network to receive feedback from their peers about various decisions. Capitalizing on this trend, fashion retailers, such as the eyeglass frame retailer Warby Parker, have created 'home try-on' programs and encourage customers to solicit feedback from their friends before making a purchasing decision. In this paper, we investigate Warby Parker's Facebook page and explore the ways customers formulate questions and conversations as they shop for new eyeglass frames. Our research presents insights derived from a dataset of over 10,000 Facebook posts, consisting of photos, comments, and 'likes'. Using statistical analyses and qualitative coding techniques, we examine trends and patterns of conversation on the Warby Parker Facebook page. We find that contributors produce a broad range of content, and use the Warby Parker Facebook page as a platform for creative self-expression, and socially driven decision-making.
Remote shopping advice: enhancing in-store shopping with social technologies BIBAFull-Text 662-673
  Meredith Ringel Morris; Kori Inkpen; Gina Venolia
Consumers shopping in "brick-and-mortar" (non-virtual) stores often use their mobile phones to consult with others about potential purchases. Via a survey (n = 200), we detail current practices in seeking remote shopping advice. We then consider how emerging social platforms, such as social networking sites and crowd labor markets, could offer rich next-generation remote shopping advice experiences. We conducted a field experiment in which shoppers shared photographs of potential purchases via MMS, Facebook, and Mechanical Turk. Paid crowdsourcing, in particular, proved surprisingly useful and influential as a means of augmenting in-store shopping. Based on our findings, we offer design suggestions for next-generation remote shopping advice systems.
Specialization, homophily, and gender in a social curation site: findings from Pinterest BIBAFull-Text 674-686
  Shuo Chang; Vikas Kumar; Eric Gilbert; Loren G. Terveen
Pinterest is a popular social curation site where people collect, organize, and share pictures of items. We studied a fundamental issue for such sites: what patterns of activity attract attention (audience and content reposting) -- We organized our studies around two key factors: the extent to which users specialize in particular topics, and homophily among users. We also considered the existence of differences between female and male users. We found: (a) women and men differed in the types of content they collected and the degree to which they specialized; male Pinterest users were not particularly interested in stereotypically male topics; (b) sharing diverse types of content increases your following, but only up to a certain point; (c) homophily drives repinning: people repin content from other users who share their interests; homophily also affects following, but to a lesser extent. Our findings suggest strategies both for users (e.g., strategies to attract an audience) and maintainers (e.g., content recommendation methods) of social curation sites.

ICT4D

Making it "pay a bit better": design challenges for micro rural enterprise BIBAFull-Text 687-696
  Andy Crabtree; Alan Chamberlain
This paper reports on a field study of small market in Wales undertaken as part of broader research project aimed at developing IT solutions to support rural enterprise. The project is predicated on the assumption that the primary challenge facing rural enterprise is that of scale and that IT solutions could and should add value by enabling growth. The study suggests that many rural enterprises are micro in character, that they are not driven by the need to grow, and that value is and can be added in different ways that reflect the social values oriented to and employed by micro businesses and their consumers. The paper elaborates vernacular understandings of supply chains and their coordination, along with business and consumer motivations to consider alternative possibilities for design that place emphasis on making micro rural enterprise "pay a bit better" rather than scaling it up.
The role of data in aligning the 'unique identity' infrastructure in India BIBAFull-Text 697-709
  Aditya Johri; Janaki Srinivasan
We present findings from a qualitative field study of a national e-infrastructure project currently underway in India. We study how this large and complex infrastructure for issuing unique biometric-based identification numbers to the 1.2 billion residents of India was aligned across various stakeholders engaged in the project. We find that the focus on 'data' kept the entire infrastructure together and working. However, this narrow focus also made the design team view the people applying for IDs as numbers whose management could be standardized. In reality, the infrastructure encountered people with differing experiences and expectations of state-issued IDs, expectations that had to be managed by agents on the ground. With our focus on the nation state as a site for studying e-infrastructure, we extend the domains in which CSCW research takes place and contribute to the theory of infrastructure building in a context where state-citizen relations are at stake.
Enriching the distressing reality: social media use by Chinese migrant workers BIBAFull-Text 710-721
  Jingjing Liu; Alexander Boden; David William Randall; Volker Wulf
Based on a field study in Guangdong Province, this paper describes the social media use of Chinese migrant workers in the manufacturing sector. It was found that social media plays a significant role in the lives of young workers who have left their rural hometowns in early adulthood and struggle to survive in the urban centers. They buy expensive IT devices to gain a social reputation, as social media provides opportunities for self-expression; strengthens their self-consciousness; and to a certain extent, influences their world view. For most of the workers in our study, social media has become a very important part of leisure time and entertainment. Moreover, the life in virtual worlds provides them a psychological compensation mechanism to temporarily avoid the pressure of their daily lives.

Leadership

The role of founders in building online groups BIBAFull-Text 722-732
  Robert E. Kraut; Andrew T. Fiore
As a class, online groups are popular, but many die before they become successful. This research traced the fate of 472,231 new online groups. By the end of a 3-month observation period, 57% of the groups had died, ceasing to post new content. Founders' human and social capital before the group was formed, the decisions they made when they created the group and their behavior in the group during its first week all predicted group survival. Many of the results suggest that founders create more successful groups if they have more resources (e.g., more online friends) and opportunities for acquiring relevant skills (e.g., more experience with online groups) and are more active in their group. However, founders who are too controlling seem to present a threat their groups. Their groups are more likely to fail if they are the only group administrator, if they have ties to all group members and if they were responsible for adding all group members.
The communication patterns of technical leaders: impact on product development team performance BIBAFull-Text 733-744
  Kate Ehrlich; Marcelo Cataldo
Leaders are important for the smooth functioning of teams but their effect on team performance is less well established. Based on a sample of 55 software development teams from two companies we examined the association between technical leaders -- communication structure and the team's performance. Consistent with past research, we found that a team's productivity and quality improve when the team communication follows hierarchical and small-world patterns, respectively. However, there was significant additional improvement in both productivity and quality when technical leaders shared more information than they gathered, and when they were more central in the communication network. Surprisingly they were not necessarily the most "central" individuals in the team's communication structure. We discuss the implication of these results for new tools that provide feedback to leaders and the team.
Ensemble: exploring complementary strengths of leaders and crowds in creative collaboration BIBAFull-Text 745-755
  Joy Kim; Justin Cheng; Michael S. Bernstein
In story writing, the diverse perspectives of the crowd could support an author's search for the perfect character, setting, or plot. However, structuring crowd collaboration is challenging. Too little structure leads to unfocused, sprawling narratives, and too much structure stifles creativity. Motivated by the idea that individual creative leaders and the crowd have complementary creative strengths, we present an approach where a leader directs the high-level vision for a story and articulates creative constraints for the crowd. This approach is embodied in Ensemble, a novel collaborative story-writing platform. In a month-long short story competition, over one hundred volunteer users on the web started over fifty short stories using Ensemble. Leaders used the platform to direct collaborator work by establishing creative goals, and collaborators contributed meaningful, high-level ideas to stories through specific suggestions. This work suggests that asymmetric creative contributions may support a broad new class of creative collaborations.

Technology and information workers

The perception of others: inferring reputation from social media in the enterprise BIBAFull-Text 756-766
  Michal Jacovi; Ido Guy; Shiri Kremer-Davidson; Sara Porat; Netta Aizenbud-Reshef
The emergence of social media allows people to interact with others all over the world. During interaction, people leave many traces behind that can reveal things about themselves, or about how they perceive others: having many followers may indicate that one is an influencer; forum answers that gain high ranking, are likely to testify for expertise; people who gain high ranking in eCommerce sites are likely to be trustworthy. In this paper, we examine whether public online traces can be used for inferring the reputation of a person as perceived by others in relation to trustworthiness, influence, expertise, and impact. We describe a study performed on indicators of reputation that employees leave in a rich organizational social media platform. We compare different indicators, and report the results of an extensive user study with over 500 participants who provided their perception of thousands of others through a set of hypothetical scenarios.
Supporting task resumption using visual feedback BIBAFull-Text 767-777
  Yikun Liu; Yuan Jia; Wei Pan; Mark S. Pfaff
For information workers, maintaining high productivity relies on timely task resumption after interruptions, which are frequent. However, people's task resumption ability is compromised by disruptive environments and human cognitive limitations. We propose that a helpful intervention is to provide visual feedback about the duration of a suspended task. Results from a controlled study show significantly shorter average off-task time by adding visual feedback. Further, using emotionally attachable visual objects in the visualization has the additional benefit of decreasing off-task time without increasing stress. Punishment-oriented persuasion strategies produced faster resumption, but also caused higher stress levels. Combined with other related results, we discuss the implications for design as well directions for future study.
Geographical and organizational distances in enterprise crowdfunding BIBAFull-Text 778-789
  Michael Muller; Werner Geyer; Todd Soule; John Wafer
Enterprise crowdfunding offers a series of opportunities for voluntary or unplanned collaborations within organizations. In an enterprise crowdfunding experiment, we study the influence of interpersonal attributes-in-common on collaborations. Using ideas from Homophily Theory and Social Identity Theory, we analyze attributes-in-common in terms of multiple identity facets: of geography, of formal corporate structure, and of working groups/teams. We combine quantitative and self-report data to show how each identity facet has an influence on the likelihood of voluntary collaborations, and we show their "superadditive" combination. We propose new questions for theory, and we consider how our results can lead to new features and technologies to enhance voluntary collaborations in organizations.

Collaborative search and sharing

Teammate inaccuracy blindness: when information sharing tools hinder collaborative analysis BIBAFull-Text 797-806
  Ruogu Kang; Aimee Kane; Sara Kiesler
Asynchronous collaborative analysis is important in many fields, but information sharing can be a bottleneck. Tools for annotating, organizing, and summarizing information can help, but their value will likely depend on the accuracy of teammates' information. To document this claim, two experiments examined participants' performance on a complex detective task when they asynchronously received information from a teammate in a collaboration tool or received no such information. We found that receiving a progress report containing accurate information was associated with improved performance (vs. no information shared in a tool) but worse performance when the information was inaccurate. Teammates were evaluated as helpful even when they were not. Our findings point to a phenomenon of teammate inaccuracy blindness that arises when teammates provide inaccurate information. We propose some strategies for helping collaborators avoid or lessen this effect.
Collaborative web search in context: a study of tool use in everyday tasks BIBAFull-Text 807-819
  Ryan Kelly; Stephen J. Payne
Recent research efforts have led to the creation of a number of systems that provide specialised support for collaborative web search. However, the use of these tools has not been studied outside of the laboratory, and as collaborative search becomes increasingly commonplace in everyday life, there is a need to understand whether the support provided by collaborative search systems fits with real-world information seeking practices. In the present study, we deployed two collaborative search tools to pairs of searchers with genuine information needs. We report findings from in-depth interviews conducted after searchers had used their assigned system for an extended period of time. Our findings show how system features were used and appropriated in pursuit of collaboration, throwing light on the way in which collaborative search is conducted in quotidian settings. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Modeling search processes using hidden states in collaborative exploratory web search BIBAFull-Text 820-830
  Zhen Yue; Shuguang Han; Daqing He
Investigations of search processes that involve complex interactions, such as collaborative search processes, are important research topics. Previous approaches of directly applying individual search process models into collaborative settings have proven to be problematic. In this paper, we proposed an innovative approach to model collaborative search processes using Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is an automatic technique for analyzing temporal sequential data. Obtained through a user study, the data used in this paper consist of two different tasks in both collaborative exploratory Web search and individual exploratory Web search conditions. Our results showed that the identified hidden patterns of search process through HMM are compatible with previous well-known models. In addition, HMM generates detailed information on the transitions of hidden patterns in search processes, which demonstrated to be useful for analyzing task differences, and for determining the correlation of search process with search performance. The findings can be used for evaluating collaborative search systems as well as providing guidance for the system design.

Romance

Romantic partnerships and the dispersion of social ties: a network analysis of relationship status on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 831-841
  Lars Backstrom; Jon Kleinberg
A crucial task in the analysis of on-line social-networking systems is to identify important people -- those linked by strong social ties -- within an individual's network neighborhood. Here we investigate this question for a particular category of strong ties, those involving spouses or romantic partners. We organize our analysis around a basic question: given all the connections among a person's friends, can you recognize his or her romantic partner from the network structure alone? Using data from a large sample of Facebook users, we find that this task can be accomplished with high accuracy, but doing so requires the development of a new measure of tie strength that we term 'dispersion' -- the extent to which two people's mutual friends are not themselves well-connected. The results offer methods for identifying types of structurally significant people in on-line applications, and suggest a potential expansion of existing theories of tie strength.
Facebook makes the heart grow fonder: relationship maintenance strategies among geographically dispersed and communication-restricted connections BIBAFull-Text 842-853
  Jessica Vitak
The increasing ubiquity of information and communication technologies has dramatically impacted interpersonal communication and relationship maintenance processes. These technologies remove temporal and spatial constraints, enabling communication at a distance for low to no physical costs. Research has established that technologies such as email supplement other forms of communication in relationship maintenance, but to what extent do newer technologies -- which contain a unique set of affordances -- facilitate these processes? Furthermore, do SNS users engage in different practices through the site and obtain different relational benefits based on specific characteristics of the tie? Findings from a survey of adult Facebook users (N=415) indicate that geographically distant Facebook Friends, as well as those who rely on the site as their primary form of communication, engage in relationship maintenance strategies through the site to a greater extent and perceive the site to have a more positive impact on the quality of their relationships.
"Real, but Glossy": technology and the practical pursuit of magic in modern weddings BIBAFull-Text 854-865
  Michael Massimi; Richard Harper; Abigail J. Sellen
Planning a wedding is arguably one of the most complicated collaborative tasks people ever undertake. Despite the commonplace use of technologies in "wedding work," little research has looked at this from an HCI perspective. Based on an interview study, we illustrate how technology is used to deliver the sought-after fantasy and a practical, yet entertaining, affair. We identify four ways that technology helps people do this: (a) by allowing much of the practical planning work to become "invisible;" (b) by easing navigation through the delicate rules of family configurations made manifest in the guest list; (c) by helping create a spectacle-like event that adroitly balances excess and realism; and (d) by documenting the wedding in ways that allows re-experiencing the magic after the event. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of this pursuit on social graphs, place, and photography, contributing to the literature on technology and major life events.

Crowds in crises

Digital mobilization in disaster response: the work & self-organization of on-line pet advocates in response to hurricane sandy BIBAFull-Text 866-876
  Joanne I. White; Leysia Palen; Kenneth M. Anderson
This ethnographic study of a Facebook Page founded on 28 October 2012 in anticipation of Hurricane Sandy's US landfall reveals how on-line pet advocates -- a large but loosely organized social movement -- mobilized their ad hoc discretionary activities to more cooperative, organized work to assist numerous displaced pets. The investigation shows how innovations around 'crossposting' to create a more persistent form of visual data management were important. It describes how these innovations produced an improvised case management system around which members of the pet-advocacy crowd could collectively work to help displaced pets. The paper connects to the CSCW and organizational science literature to consider how this emergent community articulated work and structured the mission of the Page.
Collaboration surrounding beacon use during companion avalanche rescue BIBAFull-Text 877-887
  Audrey Desjardins; Carman Neustaedter; Saul Greenberg; Ron Wakkary
When facing an avalanche, backcountry skiers need to work effectively both individually and as a group to rescue buried victims. If they don't, death is likely. One of the tools used by each person is a digital beacon that transmits an electromagnetic signal. If buried, others use their beacons to locate victims by searching for their signals, and then dig them out. This study focuses on the collaborative practices of avalanche rescue and the interactions with beacons while backcountry skiing. We conducted interviews with backcountry recreationists and experts, and we observed avalanche rescue practice scenarios. Our results highlight aspects and challenges of mental representation, trust, distributed cognition, and practice. Implications include three considerations for the redesign of beacons: simplicity, visibility and practice.
Designing for the deluge: understanding & supporting the distributed, collaborative work of crisis volunteers BIBAFull-Text 888-899
  Camille Cobb; Ted McCarthy; Annuska Perkins; Ankitha Bharadwaj; Jared Comis; Brian Do; Kate Starbird
Social media are a potentially valuable source of situational awareness information during crisis events. Consistently, "digital volunteers" and others are coming together to filter and process this data into usable resources, often coordinating their work within distributed online groups. However, current tools and practices are frequently unable to keep up with the speed and volume of incoming data during large events. Through contextual interviews with emergency response professionals and digital volunteers, this research examines the ad hoc, collaborative practices that have emerged to help process this data and outlines strategies for supporting and leveraging these efforts in future designs. We argue for solutions that align with current group values, work practices, volunteer motivations, and organizational structures, but also allow these groups to increase the scale and efficiency of their operations.

Supporting communities

Beyond end user content to collaborative knowledge mapping: interrelations among community social tools BIBAFull-Text 900-910
  Tara Matthews; Steve Whittaker; Hernan Badenes; Barton Smith
Most studies of social tools examine usage of each tool in isolation. Instead, we explore how online communities (a) combine multiple social tools, and (b) use social tools together with external tools. Based on interviews with community leaders and quantitative analysis of 128 online community spaces, we explored the combined use of six social software tools -- wikis, blogs, forums, social bookmarks, social file repositories, and task-management tools. We contribute a detailed characterization of how enterprise online communities combine multiple social tools, adding to our understanding of community behaviors: Communities combine social tools to curate and organize complex information spaces. When combined, each tool is used for limited "core" functions; thus 'social' features are not always leveraged for every tool. Leaders and members divide labor by tool boundaries. Our results suggest that an important overlooked aspect of social media concerns how different tools can be effectively combined. While most prior work on communities emphasizes end user content, we identify additional important design activities where community participants curate and organize pre-existing content from multiple tools to serve their community needs.
Think globally, act locally: a case study of a free food sharing community and social networking BIBAFull-Text 911-921
  Eva Ganglbauer; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Özge Subasi; Florian Güldenpfennig
Social networking has a long history of supporting communities online. In this paper we are concerned with a specific community that has formed around free food sharing to save food from being wasted. Specifically, Foodsharing.de is a platform that enables consumers, farmers, organizations and retailers to offer and collect food. Associated with this is the Foodsharing Facebook group where broader community discussions take place. We report on a qualitative analysis of the Foodsharing Facebook group to understand its role in emerging and sustaining the community. The Facebook group is a place where the individual values and motives, socio-political discussions and mass media interrelate and create new social patterns through narratives and local community building. We present our findings as interplay between individual, community, organisational levels, public relations and media, the operational platform Foodsharing.de that enables local communities and the Facebook group where global ideological framing of the community takes place.
From rookie to all-star: professional development in a graphic design social networking site BIBAFull-Text 922-933
  Jennifer Marlow; Laura Dabbish
Communities of practice have traditionally supported learning and knowledge exchange within a professional field. However, little work to date has examined how individuals use social network functionality for professional development in these types of communities. We present a qualitative investigation into how the social transparency provided by SNS functionality influences two important components of professional activity: social learning and professional identity development. We focus on activity within Dribbble, a social media enabled community of practice for graphic designers. Through a series of interviews with novice and experienced Dribbble users who work within and outside of traditional organizations, we identified ways they leverage social media features for learning and skill development. We find that benefits of the site are dependent on extensive social capital development activities in order to garner attention for posted work. Our results inform the design of online social settings for professional development.

Locations and maps

Mind the map: the impact of culture and economic affluence on crowd-mapping behaviours BIBAFull-Text 934-944
  Giovanni Quattrone; Afra Mashhadi; Licia Capra
Crowd-mapping is a form of collaborative work that empowers citizens to collect and share geographic knowledge. OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a successful example of such paradigm, where the goal of building and maintaining an accurate global map of the changing world is being accomplished by means of local contributions made by over 1.2M citizens. While OSM has been subject to many country-specific studies, the relationship between national culture and economic affluence and users' participation has been so far unexplored. In this work, we systematically study the link between them: we characterise OSM users in terms of who they are, how they contribute, during what period of time, and across what geographic areas. We find strong correlations between these characteristics and national culture factors (e.g., power distance, individualism, pace of life, self expression), and well as Gross Domestic Product per capita. Based on these findings, we discuss design issues that developers of crowd-mapping services should consider to account for cross-cultural differences.
Aesthetic capital: what makes London look beautiful, quiet, and happy? BIBAFull-Text 945-955
  Daniele Quercia; Neil Keith O'Hare; Henriette Cramer
In the 1960s, Lynch's 'The Image of the City' explored what impression US city neighborhoods left on its inhabitants. The scale of urban perception studies until recently was considerably constrained by the limited number of study participants. We here present a crowdsourcing project that aims to investigate, at scale, which visual aspects of London neighborhoods make them appear beautiful, quiet, and/or happy. We collect votes from over 3.3K individuals and translate them into quantitative measures of urban perception. In so doing, we quantify each neighborhood's aesthetic capital. By then using state-of-the-art image processing techniques, we determine visual cues that may cause a street to be perceived as being beautiful, quiet, or happy. We identify effects of color, texture and visual words. For example, the amount of greenery is the most positively associated visual cue with each of three qualities; by contrast, broad streets, fortress-like buildings, and council houses tend to be associated with the opposite qualities (ugly, noisy, and unhappy).
Leveraging the contributory potential of user feedback BIBAFull-Text 956-966
  Mikhil Masli; Loren G. Terveen
Under contribution is an important problem in online social production communities: important tasks don't get done, and only a small minority of participants are active contributors. How can we remedy this situation? We explore the feasibility of using the act of consuming information as a gateway to contributing information; specifically, we investigate semi-automated means to extract useful information from standard types of user feedback. We explore this approach in the context of a geographic wiki and route-planning system for bicyclists. We analyzed naturally occurring textual route feedback, finding that the feedback was rich in information such as bikeability ratings, tags and notes that are useful to improve the system's route finding and navigational assistance capabilities. We also present a technique to extract such information by engaging users in dialogue immediately after they obtain a route. We believe that our results and ideas are applicable to a broad class of social production systems.

Promoting participation and engagement

A comparison of social, learning, and financial strategies on crowd engagement and output quality BIBAFull-Text 967-978
  Lixiu Yu; Paul André; Aniket Kittur; Robert Kraut
A significant challenge for crowdsourcing has been increasing worker engagement and output quality. We explore the effects of social, learning, and financial strategies, and their combinations, on increasing worker retention across tasks and change in the quality of worker output. Through three experiments, we show that 1) using these strategies together increased workers' engagement and the quality of their work; 2) a social strategy was most effective for increasing engagement; 3) a learning strategy was most effective in improving quality. The findings of this paper provide strategies for harnessing the crowd to perform complex tasks, as well as insight into crowd workers' motivation.
Motivating contribution in a participatory sensing system via quid-pro-quo BIBAFull-Text 979-988
  Anthony Tomasic; John Zimmerman; Aaron Steinfeld; Yun Huang
Participatory sensing systems (PSS) require frequent injection of information that has a short shelf-life. The use of crowds to gather information for PSS is therefore particularly challenging. In this study, we explore the impact of two policies on user contributions. A quid-pro-quo policy exchanges contributions from users for access to critical information in the system. A request policy simply reminds the user that information is needed to make the system function well. Prior research has shown that request for help in crowdsourced system is an effective mechanism to increase contributions. During a large-scale experimental study within a publicly deployed, crowdsourced, transit information system, we analyzed metrics associated with frequency of contribution and commitment to long-term use over a 10-month period. Our results confirmed that quid-pro-quo led to more contribution, but at a cost of faster departure from the study. When a participant was simply requested to contribute, but could still access community-generated data if they ignored a request, was largely ineffective and was statistically similar to the control condition where no request for contribution occurred. Thus crowdsource system designers should consider imposing quid-pro-quo type policies for PSS that concentrate on fewer users, but makes them more productive.
Crowd synthesis: extracting categories and clusters from complex data BIBAFull-Text 989-998
  Paul André; Aniket Kittur; Steven P. Dow
Analysts synthesize complex, qualitative data to uncover themes and concepts, but the process is time-consuming, cognitively taxing, and automated techniques show mixed success. Crowdsourcing could help this process through on-demand harnessing of flexible and powerful human cognition, but incurs other challenges including limited attention and expertise. Further, text data can be complex, high-dimensional, and ill-structured. We address two major challenges unsolved in prior crowd clustering work: scaffolding expertise for novice crowd workers, and creating consistent and accurate categories when each worker only sees a small portion of the data. To address these challenges we present an empirical study of a two-stage approach to enable crowds to create an accurate and useful overview of a dataset: A) we draw on cognitive theory to assess how re-representing data can shorten and focus the data on salient dimensions; and B) introduce an iterative clustering approach that provides workers a global overview of data. We demonstrate a classification-plus-context approach elicits the most accurate categories at the most useful level of abstraction.

Building on others

Standing on the schemas of giants: socially augmented information foraging BIBAFull-Text 999-1010
  Aniket Kittur; Andrew M. Peters; Abdigani Diriye; Michael Bove
People spend an enormous amount of time searching for complex information online; for example, consumers researching new purchases or patients learning about their conditions. As they search, people build up rich mental schemas about their target domains; which, if effectively shared, could accelerate learning for others with similar interests. In this paper we introduce a novel approach for integrating the schemas individuals develop as they gather information online and surfacing them for others with similar interests. Through a controlled experiment we show that having access to others' schemas while foraging for information helps new users to induce more useful, prototypical, and better-structured schemas than gathering information alone.
The antecedents of remix BIBAFull-Text 1011-1022
  Giorgos Cheliotis; Nan Hu; Jude Yew; Jianhui Huang
Reuse of the works of others has become common practice on the Internet and has formed the basis for collaboration in some online communities. However, some works are reused much more frequently than others. In this article we build a quantitative model that explains which factors are most salient in determining the likelihood that an author's work will be reused. Controlling for common factors, such as the work's popularity, we show that the probability of reuse depends on (a) the degree of derivativity of the work in question, (b) the specific ways in which it derives meaning from other works (intertextuality), (c) the audience's preferential attachment to authors of high fecundity, and (d) the author's social embededness in networks of reuse. We use trace data from an online community that was built for the purpose of demonstrating the ability of open sharing and reuse to spur collaboration and innovation in music. Although our model is designed for broad applicability, we explain that the size and direction of the effects reported in this paper may vary, when reuse is performed with other media or for different purposes.
Remixers' understandings of fair use online BIBAFull-Text 1023-1032
  Casey Fiesler; Amy S. Bruckman
How do online content creators make decisions about copyright law? In the course of day-to-day online activities, Internet users are forced to make subtle judgments about one of the most confusing and nuanced areas of law, copyright and fair use. In this study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eleven content creators who participate in remix and fan creation activities online, to try to probe their legal understandings and attitudes. We found that social norms that emerge among these content creators do not always track to what the law actually says, but are often guided more by ethical concerns. Our participants showed surprisingly similar patterns of understandings and confusions, impacting technology use and interaction online.

Identifying opportunities for collaboration

Unsupervised classification and visualization of unstructured text for the support of interdisciplinary collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1033-1042
  Lisa J. Miller; Rich Gazan; Susanne Still
We present a computer supported tool for cooperative work in interdisciplinary fields, which we tested within the area of astrobiology. Our document classification and visualization system is fully automated and data driven, based on unsupervised learning algorithms and network visualization tools. A new feature selection algorithm was created to aid this process that indicates which words should be used for mutual information-based clustering. Our system can extract information about collaborations from unstructured databases with no meta-data and reveals structure that can aid the planning of collaborative research. We analyzed publications produced by researchers from NASA's Astrobiology Institute. We presented this analysis as a cultural probe and recorded reactions from researchers that indicated that our method can help scientists from different disciplines to work together. We have made an interactive version of our visualization and analysis available as a website for long-term use.
Pair research: matching people for collaboration, learning, and productivity BIBAFull-Text 1043-1048
  Robert C. Miller; Haoqi Zhang; Eric Gilbert; Elizabeth Gerber
To increase productivity, informal learning, and collaborations within and across research groups, we have been experimenting with a new kind of interaction that we call pair research, in which members are paired up weekly to work together on each other's projects. In this paper, we present a system for making pairings and present results from two deployments. Results show that members used pair research in a wide variety of ways including pair programming, user testing, brainstorming, and data collection and analysis. Pair research helped members get things done and share their expertise with others.
Supporting group interactions in museum visiting BIBAFull-Text 1049-1059
  Peter Tolmie; Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh; Tom Rodden; Stuart Reeves
Ethnographic study in two contrasting museums highlights a widespread but rarely documented challenge for CSCW design. Visitors' engagement with exhibits often ends prematurely due to the need to keep up with or attend to fellow group members. We unpack the mechanics of these kinds of phenomena revealing how the behaviours of summoning, pressurizing, herding, sidelining, and rounding up, lead to the responses of following, skimming and digging in. We show how the problem is especially challenging where young children are involved. As an initial prompt we explore two ways in which CSCW could help address this challenge: enabling a more fluid association between information and exhibits; and helping reconfigure the social nature of visiting.

The office

Trustworthy by design BIBAFull-Text 1060-1071
  Bran Knowles; Mike Harding; Lynne Blair; Nigel Davies; James Hannon; Mark Rouncefield; John Walden
Driven by changes in working practices and technology trends, organizations are increasingly reliant on mobile workers and the data they capture. However, while significant work has been carried out on increasing the usability of mobile devices and applications, little attention has been paid to the quality of data captured by mobile workers. If this data is inaccurate or untrustworthy, serious consequences can ensue. In this paper we study a system targeted at mobile workers in the highways sector that is deliberately designed to increase the accuracy and trustworthiness of the data collected. The resulting Inspections application has been very positively received by workers and we present lessons that we believe can be applied to other applications of this type.
Tracking serendipitous interactions: how individual cultures shape the office BIBAFull-Text 1072-1081
  Chloë Brown; Christos Efstratiou; Ilias Leontiadis; Daniele Quercia; Cecilia Mascolo
In many work environments, serendipitous interactions between members of different groups may lead to enhanced productivity, collaboration and knowledge dissemination. Two factors that may have an influence on such interactions are cultural differences between individuals in highly multicultural workplaces, and the layout and physical spaces of the workplace itself. In this work, we investigate how these two factors may facilitate or hinder inter-group interactions in the workplace. We analyze traces collected using wearable electronic badges to capture face-to-face interactions and mobility patterns of employees in a research laboratory in the UK. We observe that those who interact with people of different roles tend to come from collectivist cultures that value relationships and where people tend to be comfortable with social hierarchies, and that some locations in particular are more likely to host serendipitous interactions, knowledge that could be used by organizations to enhance communication and productivity.
Capturing the mood: Facebook and face-to-face encounters in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 1082-1094
  Gloria Mark; Shamsi Iqbal; Mary Czerwinski; Paul Johns
What makes people feel happy, engaged and challenged at work? We conducted an in situ study of Facebook and face-to-face interactions examining how they influence people's mood in the workplace. Thirty-two participants in an organization were each observed for five days in their natural work environment using automated data capture and experience sampling. Our results show that online and offline social interactions are associated with different moods, suggesting that they serve different purposes at work. Face-to-face interactions are associated with a positive mood throughout the day whereas Facebook use and engagement in work contribute to a positive feeling at the end of the day. Email use is associated with negative affect and along with multitasking, is associated with a feeling of engagement and challenge throughout the day. Our findings provide initial evidence of how online and offline interactions affect workplace mood, and could inform practices to improve employee morale.

Collaborative software development

Social influences on secure development tool adoption: why security tools spread BIBAFull-Text 1095-1106
  Shundan Xiao; Jim Witschey; Emerson Murphy-Hill
Security tools can help developers build more secure software systems by helping developers detect or fix security vulnerabilities in source code. However, developers do not always use these tools. In this paper, we investigate a number of social factors that impact developers' adoption decisions, based on a multidisciplinary field of research called diffusion of innovations. We conducted 42 one-on-one interviews with professional software developers, and our results suggest a number of ways in which security tool adoption depends on developers' social environments and on the channels through which information about tools is communicated. For example, some participants trusted developers with strong reputations on the Internet as much as they trust their colleagues for information about security tools.
"Figure out how to code with the hands of others": recognizing cultural blind spots in global software development BIBAFull-Text 1107-1119
  Stina Matthiesen; Pernille Bjørn; Lise Møller Petersen
We report on an ethnographic study of an outsourcing global software development (GSD) setup between an Indian IT vendor and an IT development division of a Danish bank. We investigate how the local IT development work is shaped by the global setup in GSD and argue that the bank had cultural blind spots toward the changes in Denmark. Three critical issues were neglected due to the cultural blind spots: 1) increased number of interruptions, 2) lack of translucence of remote colleagues' work, and 3) the re-definition of boundaries between work and articulation work. The implications of these findings include considerations for how to organize GSD practices and prepare the organizational changes that occur when moving from a co-located software development organization to an inter-organizational geographically distributed organization. Also, our findings open up discussions about the professional identity of IT developers within GSD, including extending the qualifications for IT developers.
Articulation spaces: bridging the gap between formal and informal coordination BIBAFull-Text 1120-1130
  Alexander Boden; Frank Rosswog; Gunnar Stevens; Volker Wulf
The high complexity of knowledge-intensive work such as software development makes it beneficial to have spaces for formal and informal articulation work. Existing information systems (IS) tend to treat these different aspects of coordination separately, resulting in problems of awareness and coordination. To bridge this gap, we present the concept of Articulation Spaces which combines aspects of Coordination Mechanisms and Common Information Spaces (CIS) in order to provide a room for mediating between the formal and informal aspects of coordination. Based on a design study in the form of a lightweight public display that has been tested in a medium-sized German software company, we show how Articulation Spaces provide information for meta-coordination, encourage ad-hoc coordination and support decision-making processes. Our findings provide insights into the design of support systems for flexible and coordination-intensive contexts such as software development work.

Mobile apps for enhancing connectedness

Everyday dwelling with WhatsApp BIBAFull-Text 1131-1143
  Kenton P. O'Hara; Michael Massimi; Richard Harper; Simon Rubens; Jessica Morris
In this paper, we present a study of WhatsApp, an instant messaging smartphone application. Through our interviews with participants, we develop anthropologist Tim Ingold's notion of dwelling, and discuss how use of WhatsApp is constitutive of a felt-life of being together with those close by. We focus on the relationship "doings" in WhatsApp and how this togetherness and intimacy are enacted through small, continuous traces of narrative, of tellings and tidbits, noticings and thoughts, shared images and lingering pauses; this is constitutive of dwelling. Further, we discuss how an intimate knowing of others in these relationships, through past encounters and knowledge of coming together in the future, pertain to the particular forms of relationship engagements manifest through the possibilities presented in WhatsApp. We suggest that this form of sociality is likely to be manifest in other smartphone IM-like applications.
Enhancing community awareness of and participation in local heritage with a mobile application BIBAFull-Text 1144-1155
  Kyungsik Han; Patrick C. Shih; Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
One goal of local communities is to create and reinforce community identity by connecting residents to their local heritage. Technologies have enabled and facilitated the creation and consumption of digitized history content provided by official history institutions as well as individuals. Although much research has been conducted to understand technical and social aspects of digital cultural heritage, little empirical research has investigated how people perceive, experience, and interact with community content that is socially generated and tied to locations, particularly with respect to building community heritage. To address this, we developed a mobile application called Lost State College (LSC) and conducted a user study with 34 local residents. The study results indicate that meaningful historic places evoked special attention from the participants, and that those who have lived in the community longer tended to contribute more to the community heritage effort. Participants utilized social features as a way of learning local history, reflecting personal experiences and stories, and co-creating rich layers of local history information from their perspectives.
GEMS: the design and evaluation of a location-based storytelling game BIBAFull-Text 1156-1166
  Jason Procyk; Carman Neustaedter
It is now possible to capture geotagged photos and videos and share them with family and friends. Yet the reality is that applications for capturing and viewing this information are not particularly rich offering little more than maps and simple textual information about a location. Given this, we wanted to explore this design space to find new and exciting ways for people to document and share their experiences. We designed a location-based game called GEMS to support storytelling amongst family members and close friends. The game narrative and mechanics prompt players to reflect on meaningful places from their past and create geolocated digital memory. Other players can then visit the locations to collect and view the records. A user study revealed that location can provide a rich foundation for storytelling activities. We learned that location-based storytelling strategies often elicit a sense of discovery through exploration, sharing, and conscious reflection.

MOOCS

VidWiki: enabling the crowd to improve the legibility of online educational videos BIBAFull-Text 1167-1175
  Andrew Cross; Mydhili Bayyapunedi; Dilip Ravindran; Edward Cutrell; William Thies
Videos are becoming an increasingly popular medium for communicating information, especially for online education. Recent efforts by organizations like Coursera, edX, Udacity and Khan Academy have produced thousands of educational videos with hundreds of millions of views in their attempt to make high quality teaching available to the masses. As a medium, videos are time-consuming to produce and cannot be easily modified after release. As a result, errors or problems with legibility are common. While text-based information platforms like Wikipedia have benefitted enormously from crowdsourced contributions for the creation and improvement of content, the various limitations of video hinder the collaborative editing and improvement of educational videos. To address this issue, we present VidWiki, an online platform that enables students to iteratively improve the presentation quality and content of educational videos. Through the platform, users can improve the legibility of handwriting, correct errors, or translate text in videos by overlaying typeset content such as text, shapes, equations, or images. We conducted a small user study in which 13 novice users annotated and revised Khan Academy videos. Our results suggest that with only a small investment of time on the part of viewers, it may be possible to make meaningful improvements in online educational videos.
Should your MOOC forum use a reputation system? BIBAFull-Text 1176-1187
  Derrick Coetzee; Armando Fox; Marti A. Hearst; Björn Hartmann
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) rely primarily on discussion forums for interaction among students. We investigate how forum design affects student activity and learning outcomes through a field experiment with 1101 participants on the edX platform. We introduce a reputation system, which gives students points for making useful posts. We show that, as in other settings, use of forums in MOOCs is correlated with better grades and higher retention. Reputation systems additionally produce faster response times and larger numbers of responses per post, as well as differences in how students ask questions. However, reputation systems have no significant impact on grades, retention, or the students' subjective sense of community. This suggests that forums are essential for MOOCs, and reputation systems can improve the forum experience, but other techniques are needed to improve student outcomes and community formation. We also contribute a set of guidelines for running field experiments on MOOCs.

Mobilizing for action

Integrating on-demand fact-checking with public dialogue BIBAFull-Text 1188-1199
  Travis Kriplean; Caitlin Bonnar; Alan Borning; Bo Kinney; Brian Gill
Public dialogue plays a key role in democratic society. Such dialogue often contains factual claims, but participants and readers are left wondering what to believe, particularly when contributions to such dialogue come from a broad spectrum of the public. We explore the design space for introducing authoritative information into public dialogue, with the goal of supporting constructive rather than confrontational discourse. We also present a specific design and realization of an archetypal sociotechnical system of this kind, namely an on-demand fact-checking service integrated into a crowdsourced voters guide powered by deliberating citizens. The fact-checking service was co-designed with and staffed by professional librarians. Our evaluation examines the service from the perspectives of both users and librarians.
Tweet acts: how constituents lobby congress via Twitter BIBAFull-Text 1200-1210
  Libby Hemphill; Andrew J. Roback
Twitter is increasingly becoming a medium through which constituents can lobby their elected representatives in Congress about issues that matter to them. Past research has focused on how citizens communicate with each other or how members of Congress (MOCs) use social media in general; our research examines how citizens communicate with MOCs. We contribute to existing literature through the careful examination of hundreds of citizen-authored tweets and the development of a categorization scheme to describe common strategies of lobbying on Twitter. Our findings show that contrary to past research that assumed citizens used Twitter to merely shout out their opinions on issues, citizens utilize a variety of sophisticated techniques to impact political outcomes.
Catalyst: triggering collective action with thresholds BIBAFull-Text 1211-1221
  Justin Cheng; Michael Bernstein
The web is a catalyst for drawing people together around shared goals, but many groups never reach critical mass. It can thus be risky to commit time or effort to a goal: participants show up only to discover that nobody else did, and organizers devote significant effort to causes that never get off the ground. Crowdfunding has lessened some of this risk by only calling in donations when an effort reaches a collective monetary goal. However, it leaves unsolved the harder problem of mobilizing effort, time and participation. We generalize the concept into activation thresholds, commitments that are conditioned on others' participation. With activation thresholds, supporters only need to show up for an event if enough other people commit as well. Catalyst is a platform that introduces activation thresholds for on-demand events. For more complex coordination needs, Catalyst also provides thresholds based on time or role (e.g., a bake sale requiring commitments for bakers, decorators, and sellers). In a multi-month field deployment, Catalyst helped users organize events including food bank volunteering, on-demand study groups, and mass participation events like a human chess game. Our results suggest that activation thresholds can indeed catalyze a large class of new collective efforts.

Volunteering and doing good

Competing or aiming to be average?: normification as a means of engaging digital volunteers BIBAFull-Text 1222-1233
  Chris Preist; Elaine Massung; David Coyle
Engagement, motivation and active contribution by digital volunteers are key requirements for crowdsourcing and citizen science projects. Many systems use competitive elements, for example point scoring and leaderboards, to achieve these ends. However, while competition may motivate some people, it can have a neutral or demotivating effect on others. In this paper we explore theories of personal and social norms and investigate normification as an alternative approach to engagement, to be used alongside or instead of competitive strategies. We provide a systematic review of existing crowdsourcing and citizen science literature and categorise the ways that theories of norms have been incorporated to date. We then present qualitative interview data from a pro-environmental crowdsourcing study, Close the Door, which reveals normalising attitudes in certain participants. We assess how this links with competitive behaviour and participant performance. Based on our findings and analysis of norm theories, we consider the implications for designers wishing to use normification as an engagement strategy in crowdsourcing and citizen science systems.
Capturing quality: retaining provenance for curated volunteer monitoring data BIBAFull-Text 1234-1245
  S. Andrew Sheppard; Andrea Wiggins; Loren Terveen
The "real world" nature of field-based citizen science involves unique data management challenges that distinguish it from projects that involve only Internet-mediated activities. In particular, many data contribution and review practices are often accomplished "offline' via paper or general-purpose software like Excel. This can lead to integration challenges when attempting to implement project-specific ICT with full revision and provenance tracking. In this work, we explore some of the current challenges and opportunities in implementing ICT for managing volunteer monitoring data. Our two main contributions are: a general outline of the workflow tasks common to field-based data collection, and a novel data model for preserving provenance metadata that allows for ongoing data exchange between disparate technical systems and participant skill levels. We conclude with applications for other domains, such as hydrologic forecasting and crisis informatics, as well as directions for future research.
Understanding factors of successful engagement around energy consumption between and among households BIBAFull-Text 1246-1257
  Tawanna R. Dillahunt; Jennifer Mankoff
An increasing number of researchers are using social engagement techniques such as neighborhood comparison and competition to encourage energy conservation, yet community reception and experience with such systems have not been well studied. We also find that researchers have not thoroughly investigated how different households use these systems and how their uses differ from one another. We explore these questions in a 4-10 month field deployment of a social-energy monitoring application across 15 households, in two distinct locations. We contribute results that describe conditions under which these techniques were effective and ineffective. Our results imply that understanding factors such as a building, or community's layout, context knowledge of community members, accountability and adherence to social norms, trust, and length of residence are key for future design of social-energy applications.

Parents and children

Adolescent online safety: the "moral" of the story BIBAFull-Text 1258-1271
  Pamela J. Wisniewski; Heng Xu; Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
Adolescence is characterized by heightened risk-taking and independence from parents; these tendencies seem to be magnified by the opportunities afforded through online interactions. Drawing on Kohlberg's Cognitive Moral Development (CMD) theory, we conduct a qualitative study of 12 parent-adolescent dyads that examines the interplay between parenting behaviors and adolescent moral development. We show an association between adolescent moral judgment and online behavior, and we illustrate how parenting style and mediation strategies influence the teen's moral growth and decision making about online behaviors. We also note that parental mediation strategies are moderated by parents' digital literacy: reduced digital literacy is associated with more restrictive or indulgent strategies; while more digitally competent parents are more likely to monitor and mediate their teen's behaviors as they engage online. We also found that experience, not restriction, facilitates the teen's moral growth.
Social networking site use by mothers of young children BIBAFull-Text 1272-1282
  Meredith Ringel Morris
In this paper, we present the first formal study of how mothers of young children (aged three and under) use social networking sites, particularly Facebook and Twitter, including mothers' perceptions of which SNSes are appropriate for sharing information about their children, changes in post style and frequency after birth, and the volume and nature of child-related content shared in these venues. Our findings have implications for improving the utility and usability of SNS tools for mothers of young children, as well as for creating and improving sociotechnical systems related to maternal and child health.
TalkBetter: family-driven mobile intervention care for children with language delay BIBAFull-Text 1283-1296
  Inseok Hwang; Chungkuk Yoo; Chanyou Hwang; Dongsun Yim; Youngki Lee; Chulhong Min; John Kim; Junehwa Song
Language delay is a developmental problem of children who do not acquire language as expected for their chronological ages. Without timely intervention, language delay can act as a lifelong risk factor. Speech-language pathologists highlight that effective parent participation in everyday parent-child conversation is important to treat children's language delay. For effective roles, however, parents need to alter their own lifelong-established conversation habits, requiring extensive period of conscious effort and staying alert. In this paper, we present new opportunities for mobile and social computing to reinforce everyday parent-child conversation with therapeutic implications for children with language delays. Specifically, we propose TalkBetter, a mobile in-situ intervention service to help parents in daily parent-child conversation through real-time meta-linguistic analysis of ongoing conversations. Through extensive field studies with speech-language pathologists and parents, we report the multilateral motivations and implications of TalkBetter. We present our development of TalkBetter prototype and report its performance evaluation.

Civic participation

Giving is caring: understanding donation behavior through email BIBAFull-Text 1297-1307
  Yelena Mejova; Venkata Rama Kiran Garimella; Ingmar Weber; Michael C. Dougal
Every day, thousands of people make donations to humanitarian, political, environmental, and other causes, a large amount of which occur on the Internet. The solicitations for support, the acknowledgment of a donation and the discussion of corresponding issues are often conducted via email, leaving a record of these social phenomena. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive large-scale data-driven study of donation behavior. We analyze a two-month anonymized email log from several perspectives motivated by past studies on charitable giving: (i) demographics, (ii) user interest, (iii) external time-related factors and (iv) social network influence. We show that email captures the demographic peculiarities of different interest groups, for instance, predicting demographic distributions found in US 2012 Presidential Election exit polls. Furthermore, we find that people respond to major national events, as well as to solicitations with special promotions, and that social connections are the most important factor in predicting donation behavior. Specifically, we identify trends not only for individual charities and campaigns, but also for high-level categories such as political campaigns, medical illnesses, and humanitarian relief. Thus, we show the extent to which large-scale email datasets reveal human donation behavior, and explore the limitations of such analysis.
Civic action brokering platforms: facilitating local engagement with ACTion Alexandria BIBAFull-Text 1308-1322
  Derek L. Hansen; Jes A. Koepfler; Paul T. Jaeger; John C. Bertot; Tracy Viselli
Local communities are turning to new online systems to help motivate and coordinate local volunteerism and problem solving. Inspired by the American barn raising tradition, ACTion Alexandria is designed to help local residents and service-oriented organizations collectively take action to address pressing local needs. This paper introduces "civic action brokering" as a new theoretical concept and frames it within a year-long evaluation of ACTion Alexandria. A mixed-method, case study approach was used to understand how social practices, roles, and technologies helped or hindered successful action brokering. Successes were attributed to a competent community manager, institutional support from an existing nonprofit brokering agency, effective use of social media, a synergistic partnership with nonprofits that helped grow each group's donor network, and emphasis on promoting immediate actions and soliciting ideas for Community Challenges among residents and nonprofit organizations.
MyPosition: sparking civic discourse by a public interactive poll visualization BIBAFull-Text 1323-1332
  Nina Valkanova; Robert Walter; Andrew Vande Moere; Jörg Müller
We present the design and evaluation of MyPosition, a public display in the form of a large projection, featuring an interactive poll visualization. MyPosition aims at facilitating the deliberation and comparison of individual opinions on locally relevant topics in an opportunistic and engaging way. We evaluated MyPosition in an in-the-wild study and demonstrated that the engaging nature of the installation was effective in enticing public discussion. We found that (i) the increased identifiability of users positively impacted the engagement with and the social debate around the installation, however lowered the actual polling rate; (ii) people submitted their personal opinion instead of playing around with the interactive features; and (iii) the display led to considerable discussion as well as nudging among people, in particular in zones beyond the interaction area in front of the screen.

Gaming

How players value their characters in world of warcraft BIBAFull-Text 1333-1343
  Ian J. Livingston; Carl Gutwin; Regan L. Mandryk; Max Birk
Characters in games such as World of Warcraft allow players to act in the game world and to interact with others. Game characters and avatars are a mediated form of self-representation for the player, but some research suggests that players also view characters in other ways that have to do with the kinds of value that the characters provide. To better understand the ways that players value their characters in an online environment, we carried out a semi-structured interview study of twenty World of Warcraft players. From our data we identify ten kinds of value that characters can provide -- including utility, investment, communication, memory, enjoyment, and representations of relationships, as well as value as an opportunity for experience, creativity, sociability, and self-expression. The analytical lens of value provides a new understanding of the ways that players appreciate characters in online multi-user worlds. Our results can help developers understand and enhance an element of multi-player games that contributes greatly to player experience and satisfaction.
The effects of consistency maintenance methods on player experience and performance in networked games BIBAFull-Text 1344-1355
  Cheryl Savery; Nicholas Graham; Carl Gutwin; Michelle Brown
Network lag is a fact of life for networked games. Lag can cause game states to diverge at different nodes in the network, making it difficult to maintain the illusion of a single shared space. Traditional lag compensation techniques help reduce inconsistency in networked games; however, these techniques do not address what to do when states actually have diverged. Traditional consistency maintenance (CM) does not specify how to make game-critical decisions when players' views of the shared state are different, nor does it indicate how to repair inconsistencies. These two issues -- decision-making and error repair -- can have substantial effects on players' gaming experience. To address this shortcoming, we have characterized a range of algorithmic choices for decision-making and error repair. We report on a study confirming that these algorithms can have significant effects on player experience and performance, and showing that they are often more important than degree of consistency itself.
The identification of deviance and its impact on retention in a multiplayer game BIBAFull-Text 1356-1365
  Kenneth B. Shores; Yilin He; Kristina L. Swanenburg; Robert Kraut; John Riedl
Deviant behavior in online social systems is a difficult problem to address. Consequences of deviance include driving off users and tarnishing the system's public image. We present an examination of these concepts in a popular online game, League of Legends. Using a large collection of game records and player-given feedback, we develop a metric, toxicity index, to identify deviant players. We then look at the effects of interacting with deviant players, including effects on retention. We find that toxic players have several significant predictive patterns, such as playing in more competitive game modes and playing with friends. We also show that toxic players drive away new players, but that experienced players are more resilient to deviant behavior. Based on our findings, we suggest methods to better identify and counteract the negative effects of deviance.

Multiple dimensions and displays

Quick and dirty: streamlined 3D scanning in archaeology BIBAFull-Text 1366-1376
  Jarrod Knibbe; Kenton P. O'Hara; Angeliki Chrysanthi; Mark T. Marshall; Peter D. Bennett; Graeme Earl; Shahram Izadi; Mike Fraser
Capturing data is a key part of archaeological practice, whether for preserving records or to aid interpretation. But the technologies used are complex and expensive, resulting in time-consuming processes associated with their use. These processes force a separation between ongoing interpretive work and capture. Through two field studies we elicit more detail as to what is important about this interpretive work and what might be gained through a closer integration of capture technology with these practices. Drawing on these insights, we go on to present a novel, portable, wireless 3D modeling system that emphasizes "quick and dirty" capture. We discuss its design rational in relation to our field observations and evaluate this rationale further by giving the system to archaeological experts to explore in a variety of settings. While our device compromises on the resolution of traditional 3D scanners, its support of interpretation through emphasis on real-time capture, review and manipulability suggests it could be a valuable tool for the future of archaeology.
Support for deictic pointing in CVEs: still fragmented after all these years' BIBAFull-Text 1377-1387
  Nelson Wong; Carl Gutwin
Pointing gestures -- particularly deictic references -- are ubiquitous in face-to-face communication. However, deictic pointing can be much more difficult in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) than in everyday life -- early studies found that the 'fragmentation' caused by the environment greatly complicated object-based communication. In the fifteen years since these studies appeared, the technologies used in CVEs have improved substantially, and several techniques for improving pointing have been proposed or implemented. What these advances mean for the problems of fragmentation and deictic gesture, however, is not clear. To find out, we conducted a new observational study of deictic pointing in a CVE with several techniques that may reduce fragmentation: extra-wide and third-person views, precise control over an avatar's pointing arm, and visual enhancements such as object highlighting and laser pointing. Our study shows that although pointing has come a long way, problems of fragmentation still occur, and that visual and view enhancements can cause new problems for collaboration, even as they solve others. In addition, the visibility of a gesture's preparatory actions remained important to study participants, even when pointing was augmented. These results provide a richer understanding of the subtlety in avatar-based deictic communication, and of the ways that this critical communication mechanism can be better supported in CVEs.
Photoportals: shared references in space and time BIBAFull-Text 1388-1399
  André Kunert; Alexander Kulik; Stephan Beck; Bernd Froehlich
Photoportals build on digital photography as a unifying metaphor for reference-based interaction in 3D virtual environments. Virtual photos and videos serve as three-dimensional references to objects, places, moments in time and activities of users. Our Photoportals also provide access to intermediate or alternative versions of a scenario and allow the review of recorded task sequences that include life-size representations of the captured users. We propose to exploit such references to structure collaborative activities of collocated and remote users. Photoportals offer additional access points for multiple users and encourage mutual support through the preparation and provision of references for manipulation and navigation tasks. They support the pattern of territoriality with configurable space representations that can be used for private interaction, as well as be shared and exchanged with others.

Social media and politics

Managing political differences in social media BIBAFull-Text 1400-1408
  Catherine Grevet; Loren G. Terveen; Eric Gilbert
Most people associate with people like themselves, a process called homophily. Exposure to diversity, however, makes us more informed as individuals and as a society. In this paper, we investigate political disagreements on Facebook to explore the conditions under which diverse opinions can coexist online. Via a mixed methods approach comprising 103 survey responses and 13 interviews with politically engaged American social media users, we found that participants who perceived more differences with their friends engaged less on Facebook than those who perceived more homogeneity. Weak ties were particularly brittle to political disagreements, despite being the ties most likely to offer diversity. Finally, based on our findings we suggest potential design opportunities to bridge across ideological difference: 1) support exposure to weak ties; and 2) make common ground visible while friends converse.
Social media supporting political deliberation across multiple public spheres: towards depolarization BIBAFull-Text 1409-1421
  Bryan C. Semaan; Scott P. Robertson; Sara Douglas; Misa Maruyama
This paper reports on a qualitative study of social media use for political deliberation by 21 U.S. citizens. In observing people's interactions in the "sprawling public sphere" across multiple social media tools in both political and non-political spaces, we found that social media supported the interactional dimensions of deliberative democracy -- the interaction with media and the interaction between people. People used multiple tools through which they: were serendipitously exposed to diverse political information, constructed diverse information feeds, disseminated diverse information, and engaged in respectful and reasoned political discussions with diverse audiences. When people's civic agency was inhibited when using a tool, they often adopted, or switched to, alternative media that could afford what they were trying to achieve. Contrary to the polarization perspective, we find that people were purposefully seeking diverse information and discussants. Some individuals altered their views as a result of the interactions they were having in the online public sphere.
Hybrid media consumption: how tweeting during a televised political debate influences the vote decision BIBAFull-Text 1422-1432
  Misa T. Maruyama; Scott P. Robertson; Sara K. Douglas; Bryan C. Semaan; Heather A. Faucett
An increasing number of people are using microblogs to broadcast their thoughts in real time as they watch televised political events. Microblogging social network sites (SNSs) such as Twitter generate a parallel stream of information and opinion. It is presumed that the additional content enhances the viewing experience, but our experiment explores the validity of this assumption. We studied how tweeting, or passively observing Twitter during a debate, influenced affect, recall and vote decision. For most measures, participants' average feeling and recall toward the candidates did not depend on Twitter activity, but Twitter activity did matter for vote choice. People who actively tweeted changed their voting choice to reflect the majority sentiment on Twitter. Results are discussed in terms of the possibility that active tweeting leads to greater engagement but that it may also make people more susceptible to social influence.

Crowdsourcing complexity

Voyant: generating structured feedback on visual designs using a crowd of non-experts BIBAFull-Text 1433-1444
  Anbang Xu; Shih-Wen Huang; Brian Bailey
Feedback on designs is critical for helping users iterate toward effective solutions. This paper presents Voyant, a novel system giving users access to a non-expert crowd to receive perception-oriented feedback on their designs from a selected audience. Based on a formative study, the system generates the elements seen in a design, the order in which elements are noticed, impressions formed when the design is first viewed, and interpretation of the design relative to guidelines in the domain and the user's stated goals. An evaluation of the system was conducted with users and their designs. Users reported the feedback about impressions and interpretation of their goals was most helpful, though the other feedback types were also valued. Users found the coordinated views in Voyant useful for analyzing relations between the crowd's perception of a design and the visual elements within it. The cost of generating the feedback was considered a reasonable tradeoff for not having to organize critiques or interrupt peers.
Reviewing versus doing: learning and performance in crowd assessment BIBAFull-Text 1445-1455
  Haiyi Zhu; Steven P. Dow; Robert E. Kraut; Aniket Kittur
In modern crowdsourcing markets, requesters face the challenge of training and managing large transient workforces. Requesters can hire peer workers to review others' work, but the value may be marginal, especially if the reviewers lack requisite knowledge. Our research explores if and how workers learn and improve their performance in a task domain by serving as peer reviewers. Further, we investigate whether peer reviewing may be more effective in teams where the reviewers can reach consensus through discussion. An online between-subjects experiment compares the trade-offs of reviewing versus producing work using three different organization strategies: working individually, working as an interactive team, and aggregating individuals into nominal groups. The results show that workers who review others' work perform better on subsequent tasks than workers who just produce. We also find that interactive reviewer teams outperform individual reviewers on all quality measures. However, aggregating individual reviewers into nominal groups produces better quality assessments than interactive teams, except in task domains where discussion helps overcome individual misconceptions.
AskSheet: efficient human computation for decision making with spreadsheets BIBAFull-Text 1456-1466
  Alexander J. Quinn; Benjamin B. Bederson
The wealth of resources online has empowered individuals and businesses with an unprecedented volume of information to aid in decision making processes. However, finding the many details needed for a non-trivial decision can be very labor-intensive. We present AskSheet, a general system that leverages human computation to acquire the inputs to an arbitrary decision spreadsheet provided by the user. The key innovation is the ability to prioritize the inputs by analyzing the user's spreadsheet formulas to calculate value of information for each of the blanks. By directing workers to find the details that impact the end result most, it results in a conclusive decision without gathering all of the inputs.

Personal health management

Cancer navigation: opportunities and challenges for facilitating the breast cancer journey BIBAFull-Text 1467-1478
  Maia Jacobs; James Clawson; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Cancer navigation programs help patients overcome emotional, financial, and logistical challenges not typically addressed by the medical system. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a rural cancer navigation organization, specifically detailing the roles collaboration and technology play in supporting navigation work. Examining navigation from a CSCW perspective, we see that navigation is a collaborative care system requiring coordination with patients, providers, and other navigators. Our study reveals a number of design opportunities for supporting navigation in the areas of resource monitoring, knowledge transfer, case management, long term navigation, and development of best practices. Supporting cancer navigation will be a critical step towards improving the healthcare experience for cancer patients.
Craving, creating, and constructing comfort: insights and opportunities for technology in hospice BIBAFull-Text 1479-1490
  Robert Douglas Ferguson; Michael Massimi; Emily Anne Crist; Karyn Anne Moffatt
Hospice is a medical setting for patients with terminal illnesses where active treatment is withdrawn in favor of providing comfort and dignity at the end of life. Providing comfort extends beyond managing physical pain to include social, emotional, spiritual, and environmental aspects of care. We studied technology's role in achieving these multifaceted dimensions of comfort through interviews with 16 family members of past hospice patients. Comfort was an ongoing pursuit, requiring the involvement of diverse stakeholders; communication technologies were selectively chosen in service of this achievement. We provide opportunities and recommendations for technologies in hospice, including the need for varying degrees of richness and symmetry, and for support for life-affirming acts. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first study, in the CSCW and HCI literatures, of communication technology use during the final days of a person's life, with implications both for hospice and for the end of life more broadly.
Life transitions and online health communities: reflecting on adoption, use, and disengagement BIBAFull-Text 1491-1501
  Michael Massimi; Jackie L. Bender; Holly O. Witteman; Osman H. Ahmed
Online health communities are places where people can come together in order to exchange social support at a particular point in an individual's life. There are, however, relatively few accounts that look across multiple communities across the lifespan. In this paper, we reflect on four case studies of research on different online health communities in order to identify patterns in how individuals selectively adopt, use, and disengage from these communities throughout their lives. We argue that users leaving communities is not necessarily a failing of the site's design or purpose; rather, it is a logical reaction to changing life circumstances. In characterizing this pattern, we contribute a set of implications for design and management that bear consideration by online community designers, developers, moderators, and end users. Ultimately this may lead to a smoother transition from community to community and ensure that social support needs are being met more consistently in response to changing life circumstances.

Geographic distance

City, self, network: transnational migrants and online identity work BIBAFull-Text 1502-1510
  Jessica Lingel; Mor Naaman; danah m. boyd
This paper uses qualitative interviews with 26 transnational migrants in New York City to analyze socio-technical practices related to online identity work. We focus specifically on the use of Facebook, where benefits included keeping in touch with friends and family abroad and documenting everyday urban life. At the same time, many participants also reported experiences of fatigue, socio-cultural tensions and concerns about maintaining a sense of personal privacy. These experiences highlight how transnational practices complicate context collapse, where the geographic dispersal of participants' personal networks renders visible conflicts of 'flattened' online networks. Our findings also suggest a kind of technology-enabled code-switching, where transnational migrants leverage social media to perform identities that alternate between communities, nationalities and geographies. This analysis informs HCI research on transnationalism and technological practices, as well as the complexities of online identity work in terms of shifting social and spatial contexts.
Twitter ain't without frontiers: economic, social, and cultural boundaries in international communication BIBAFull-Text 1511-1522
  Ruth García-Gavilanes; Yelena Mejova; Daniele Quercia
With the advent of Twitter and other lightweight social-networking services, one might think that it is easier than ever to maintain geographically dispersed, weaker social ties. By contrast, in this study we show that the international Twitter communication landscape is not only still largely predetermined by physical distance, but that it also depends on countries' social, economic, and cultural attributes. We describe a study of an international Twitter mention network of 13 million users across over 100 countries. We show that the Gravity Model, which hypothesizes that the flow between two areas is proportional to their masses (which we approximate using internet penetration) and inversely proportional to the distance between them, is correlated (r=0.68) with the international communication flow. Using this model, along with other social, economic, and cultural variables, we predict the communication volume at Adjusted R2 of $0.80$, with trade, language and racial intolerance especially impacting communication. We discuss the implications of these barriers to communication in the contexts of collaborative work, software design, and recommendation systems.
Inferring the origin locations of tweets with quantitative confidence BIBAFull-Text 1523-1536
  Reid Priedhorsky; Aron Culotta; Sara Y. Del Valle
Social Internet content plays an increasingly critical role in many domains, including public health, disaster management, and politics. However, its utility is limited by missing geographic information; for example, fewer than 1.6% of Twitter messages (tweets) contain a geotag. We propose a scalable, content-based approach to estimate the location of tweets using a novel yet simple variant of gaussian mixture models. Further, because real-world applications depend on quantified uncertainty for such estimates, we propose novel metrics of accuracy, precision, and calibration, and we evaluate our approach accordingly. Experiments on 13 million global, comprehensively multi-lingual tweets show that our approach yields reliable, well-calibrated results competitive with previous computationally intensive methods. We also show that a relatively small number of training data are required for good estimates (roughly 30,000 tweets) and models are quite time-invariant (effective on tweets many weeks newer than the training set). Finally, we show that toponyms and languages with small geographic footprint provide the most useful location signals.

Distributed teams

Exploring the social-technological gap in telesurgery: collaboration within distributed or teams BIBAFull-Text 1537-1548
  Pieter Duysburgh; Shirley A. Elprama; An Jacobs
While its technical feasibility has been illustrated over a decade ago, today, robot-assisted telesurgery is not a part of everyday surgical practice. The thresholds for adoption of telesurgery are mostly seen as technical, legal and financial challenges. However, the aim of this paper is to understand collaboration within distributed OR teams, which seems to be under examined in research on telesurgery. By means of a proxy-technology assessment and a series of interviews, collaborative challenges for telesurgery have been identified. These include the unfamiliarity of the remote surgeon with the practices of the local operating room team and the patient. In addition, verbal and non-verbal communication have to be mediated in a telesurgery setting, making it difficult for the remote surgeon to have an overview and stay in control during surgery. With this research, we illustrate how trust issues in distributed teams manifest in OR teams in a telesurgery setting.
How beliefs about the presence of machine translation impact multilingual collaborations BIBAFull-Text 1549-1560
  Ge Gao; Bin Xu; Dan Cosley; Susan R. Fussell
Traditional communication tools tend to make their presence known, e.g., "when my collaborators and I are using IM to discuss our work, how could we not realize the actual presence of IM?" In the case of machine translation (MT) mediated collaborations, however, the absence or presence of MT is not obvious. English sentences with poor grammar can result from both a partner's lack of fluency and errors in the MT process. We hypothesize that partners' attributions about the source of the errors affects their collaboration experience. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which monolingual native English speaking participants collaborated with bilingual native-Mandarin speakers on a map navigation task. Participants were randomly assigned into a 2 (beliefs about MT: absence vs. presence) by 2 (actual mediation of MT: absence vs. presence) experiment design. Beliefs about presence of MT significantly impacted the collaboration experience, opening new opportunities for both research and design around MT-mediated collaborations.
Sounds of silence: exploring contributions to conversations, non-responses and the impact of mediating technologies in triple space BIBAFull-Text 1561-1572
  Joon Suk Lee; Deborah Tatar
We investigate collocated triads as they play a collaborative, problem-solving game using distributed technology on laptops. We examine how different triads attain and maintain mutual understanding in triple-space -- when working on a hard problem, with communicating technologies and face-to-face interaction. We present qualitative and quantitative evidence that demonstrates the descriptive adequacy of a model of triadic interaction in triple space. We use that model to argue that the notion of good-enoughness is not a group attribute, but rather tied to each dyadic pair. This intellectual framework allows us to examine how non-response operates within these triple-space interactions when interaction is supported by different media. The results related to non-response raise the possibility that different media may result in subtle influence on the balance of participant goals.

Keynote address

Next generation humanitarian computing BIBAFull-Text 1573
  Patrick Meier
Humanitarian organizations are completely unprepared to deal with the rise of Big (Crisis) Data -- the massive overflow of user-generated content posted on social media during disasters. To be sure, humanitarian organizations have no expertise in advanced computing. At the same time, the overflow of information during disasters can be as paralyzing to humanitarian response as the absence of information. This talk will highlight how the computing community can make a significant difference in humanitarian response. To demonstrate this, the talk will explain how we are experimenting with human and machine computing to make sense of -- and verify -- Big Crisis Data. For example, we can automatically extract crisis information from Twitter by combining microtasking with machine learning. This would enable UN information management officers to create their own classifiers on the fly. In terms of verification, we can draw on techniques from time-critical crowdsourcing to rapidly collect and triangulate evidence during disasters. This would allow emergency managers to quickly debunk rumors in the immediate aftermath of a crisis. In conclusion, the talk will outline how we can actively bridge the gap between humanitarian and computing communities.