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CSCW Tables of Contents: 929496980002040608101112-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Proceedings of ACM CSCW'11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:Proceedings of ACM CSCW'11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Editors:Pamela Hinds; John C. Tang; Jian Wang; Jakob Bardram; Nicolas Ducheneaut
Location:Hangzhou, China
Dates:2011-Mar-19 to 2011-Mar-23
Standard No:ISBN: 1-4503-0556-3, 978-1-4503-0556-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CSCW11
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Showcase I
  2. Social computing in China
  3. The ICT that binds
  4. Making invisible visible
  5. Comment here
  6. Showcase II
  7. Real-time groupware
  8. Personalities & profiles
  9. Distributed teams
  10. Creating context for collaboration
  11. Enterprise
  12. Social computing
  13. Identity and self-disclosure
  14. Interfering patterns from usage date in programming and search
  15. Shared workspace
  16. Health care
  17. Showcase III
  18. E-science
  19. Under the hood
  20. Video abstracts
  21. Interactive presentations

Showcase I

Urban informatics BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Marcus Foth; Jaz Hee-jeong Choi; Christine Satchell
The increasing ubiquity of digital technology, internet services and social media in our everyday lives allows for a seamless transitioning between the visible and the invisible infrastructure of cities: road systems, building complexes, information and communication technology, and people networks create a buzzing environment that is alive and exciting. Driven by curiosity, initiative and interdisciplinary exchange, the Urban Informatics Research Lab at Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Australia, is an emerging cluster of people interested in research and development at the intersection of people, place and technology with a focus on cities, locative media and mobile technology. This paper seeks to define, for the first time, what we mean by 'urban informatics' and outline its significance as a field of study today. It describes the relevant background and trends in each of the areas of people, place and technology, and highlights the relevance of urban informatics to the concerns and evolving challenges of CSCW. We then position our work in academia juxtaposed with related research concentrations and labels, followed by a discussion of disciplinary influences. The paper concludes with an exposé of the three current research themes of the lab around augmented urban spaces, urban narratives, and environmental sustainability in order to illustrate specific cases and methods, and to draw out distinctions that our affiliation with the Creative Industries Faculty affords.
Technology for emerging markets at MSR India BIBAFull-Text 9-16
  Edward Cutrell
The Technology for Emerging Markets (TEM) group at Microsoft Research India seeks to address the needs and aspirations of people in the world's developing communities. Our research targets people who are just beginning to use computing technologies and services as well as those for whom access to computing still remains largely out of reach. Most of our work falls under the rubric of the relatively young field of Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICTD or ICT4D). Reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of ICTD, TEM is a multidisciplinary group engaged in a range of technical and social-science research. We work in the areas of cultural anthropology, sociology, political science, economics, and psychology, all of which help us understand the social context of technology and how it relates to communities and individual users. We combine this understanding with technical research in hardware and software to devise solutions for underserved communities in rural and urban environments around the world.
Mixed reality lab Singapore: a genealogy of lab projects employing the blue sky innovation research methodology BIBAFull-Text 17-24
  Adrian David Cheok; Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh; Roshan Lalintha Peiris; Owen Noel Newton Fernando
In this paper we outline a genealogy of Mixed Reality Lab (MXR) projects, their influencing factors both from the Asian region and also within the lab, the employment of "Blue-Sky Innovation" by the lab for ideation, collaboration and project generation, as well as discuss some major points of inspiration for MXR from various sources.

Social computing in China

Microblogging after a major disaster in China: a case study of the 2010 Yushu earthquake BIBAFull-Text 25-34
  Yan Qu; Chen Huang; Pengyi Zhang; Jun Zhang
In this work, we conducted a case study of a popular Chinese microblogging site, Sina-Weibo, to investigate how Chinese netizens used microblogging in response to a major disaster: the 2010 Yushu Earthquake. We combined multiple analysis methods in this case study, including content analysis of microblog messages, trend analysis of different topics, and an analysis of the information spreading process. This study helped us understand the roles played by microblogging systems in response to major disasters and enabled us to gain insight into how to harness the power of microblogging to facilitate disaster response. In addition, this work supplements existing works with an exploration of a non-Western socio-cultural system: how Chinese Internet users used microblogging in disaster response.
Enterprise blogging in a global context: comparing Chinese and American practices BIBAFull-Text 35-44
  Qinying Liao; Shimei Pan; Jennifer C. Lai; Chang Yang
We present three studies that compare adoption and appropriation between China and the United States of BlogCentral, an internal blogging tool employed by a large global enterprise. We first analyzed 23 months of usage logs for users in both countries and found that compared to the U.S., Chinese users were much less active, with less activity and sparser user interaction. We then conducted 25 interviews and surveyed 213 bloggers in both countries to understand user motivations and behaviors of corporate blogging in more detail. The results show that Chinese employees use internal blogs for organizing personal work and short term team formation, unlike U.S. users who are driven more by the goal of sharing information to a broad community. The Chinese users were seeking (and not finding) greater social interaction and felt instead a sense of alienation from the global blogging community. We further identify a gap between Chinese users' requirement for local community and the existing global aspect of enterprise blogging tools. Lastly we discuss implications from the data analysis.
Virtual gifts and guanxi: supporting social exchange in a Chinese online community BIBAFull-Text 45-54
  Jiang Yang; Mark S. Ackerman; Lada A. Adamic
Significant cultural differences persist between East and West. Software systems that have been proven to operate efficiently within one culture can fail in the context of the other, especially if they are intended to support rich social interactions. In this paper we demonstrate how a virtual currency system, not unlike ones employed by many US-based websites, evolved within a thriving Chinese online forum into an essential medium for extremely diverse and culturally specific social exchange activities. The social interactions reflect the traditional Chinese idea of guanxi, or interpersonal influence and connectedness, while at the same time incorporating the norms of a new generation of Internet users.

The ICT that binds

Understanding technology choices and values through social class BIBAFull-Text 55-64
  Morgan G. Ames; Janet Go; Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; Mirjana Spasojevic
This ethnographic study of 22 diverse families in the San Francisco Bay Area provides a holistic account of parents' attitudes about their children's use of technology. We found that parents from different socioeconomic classes have different values and practices around technology use, and that those values and practices reflect structural differences in their everyday lives. Calling attention to class differences in technology use challenges the prevailing practice in human-computer interaction of designing for those similar to oneself, which often privileges middle-class values and practices. By discussing the differences between these two groups and the advantages of researching both, this research highlights the benefits of explicitly engaging with socioeconomic status as a category of analysis in design.
CoupleVIBE: mobile implicit communication to improve awareness for (long-distance) couples BIBAFull-Text 65-74
  Elizabeth Bales; Kevin A. Li; William Griwsold
Long-distance couples face considerable communication challenges in their relationships. Unlike collocated couples, long-distance couples lack awareness cues associated with physical proximity and must use technologies such as SMS or telephony to stay in sync. We posit that long-distance couples have needs that are not met by prevailing communication technologies, which require explicit action from the sender as well as the receiver. We built CoupleVIBE to explore the properties of an implicit messaging channel and observe how couples would use such a technology. CoupleVIBE is a mobile application that automatically pushes a user's location-information to her partner's mobile phone via vibrotactile cues. We present qualitative results of a four-week user study, studying how seven couples used CoupleVIBE. A key result is that CoupleVIBE's implicit communication modality operated as a foundation that helps keep couples in sync, with other modalities being brought into play when further interaction was needed.
(Whose) value-sensitive design: a study of long- distance relationships in an Arabic cultural context BIBAFull-Text 75-84
  Tamara Alsheikh; Jennifer A. Rode; Siân E. Lindley
This paper describes a qualitative study of how 11 Arab individuals use technology in the context of their long-distance romantic relationships. Our participants' communication practices bear similarities to previous findings on the mediation of intimacy in the West, but also highlight key differences. We show how these differences relate to expectations of men and women in Arabic culture, and describe how our participants used technologies to enact conventional roles according to these expectations. We note implications for cross-cultural research and value-sensitive design, demonstrating how our participants' practices relate to Islamic values of support and protection of women. We apply various analytical lenses, including Islamic feminist theories, in interpreting the data.

Making invisible visible

Chalk sounds: the effects of dynamic synthesized audio on workspace awareness in distributed groupware BIBAFull-Text 85-94
  Carl Gutwin; Oliver Schneider; Robert Xiao; Stephen Brewster
Awareness of other people's activity is an important part of shared-workspace collaboration, and is typically supported using visual awareness displays such as radar views. These visual presentations are limited in that the user must be able to see and attend to the view in order to gather awareness information. Using audio to convey awareness information does not suffer from these limitations, and previous research has shown that audio can provide valuable awareness in distributed settings. In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of synthesized dynamic audio information, both on its own and as an adjunct to a visual radar view. We developed a granular-synthesis engine that produces realistic chalk sounds for off-screen activity in a groupware workspace, and tested the audio awareness in two ways. First, we measured people's ability to identify off-screen activities using only sound, and found that people are almost as accurate with synthesized sounds as with real sounds. Second, we tested dynamic audio awareness in a realistic groupware scenario, and found that adding audio to a radar view significantly improved awareness of off-screen activities in situations where it was difficult to see or attend to the visual display. Our work provides new empirical evidence about the value of dynamic synthesized audio in distributed groupware.
Improving visibility of remote gestures in distributed tabletop collaboration BIBAFull-Text 95-104
  Naomi Yamashita; Katsuhiko Kaji; Hideaki Kuzuoka; Keiji Hirata
Collaborative distributed tabletop activities involving real objects are complicated by invisibility factors introduced into the workspace. In this paper, we propose a technique called "remote lag" to alleviate the problems caused by the invisibility of remote gestures. The technique provides people with instant playback of remote gestures to recover from the missed context of coordination. To examine the effects of the proposed technique, we studied four-person groups who engaged in two mentoring tasks using physical objects with and without remote lags. Our results show that remote lags effectively alleviated the invisibility problems, resulting in fewer questions/confirmations and redundant instructions during collaboration. The technique also decreased the overall workload of workers as well as the temporal demands for both helpers and workers.
A GPU based, projective multi-texturing approach to reconstructing the 3D human form for application in tele-presence BIBAFull-Text 105-112
  Robert A. Aspin; David J. Roberts
This paper reports a GPU based, projective texturing approach to reconstructing the human form, from multiple images, at a quality and frame rate close to high end video conferencing. The ultimate aim is to support spatially grounded, non-verbal communication through a video based medium. This will, we hope, enable us to balance image quality and update rate to deliver highly realistic and dynamic 3D human representations that offer the visual quality of high end video conferencing with the spatial and temporal characteristics of immersive virtual environments. The output of this will enhance communication by enabling a remote actor to be realistically projected into another person's local space, projected into an extension of the local space, or projected into a shared virtual space. This extends previous work by incorporating texture into the reconstructed form and evaluating the optimized process within our established simulation system.

Comment here

The politics of comments: predicting political orientation of news stories with commenters' sentiment patterns BIBAFull-Text 113-122
  Souneil Park; Minsam Ko; Jungwoo Kim; Ying Liu; Junehwa Song
Political views frequently conflict in the coverage of contentious political issues, potentially causing serious social problems. We present a novel social annotation analysis approach for identification of news articles' political orientation. The approach focuses on the behavior of individual commenters. It uncovers commenters' sentiment patterns towards political news articles, and predicts the political orientation from the sentiments expressed in the comments. It takes advantage of commenters' participation as well as their knowledge and intelligence condensed in the sentiment of comments, thereby greatly reduces the high complexity of political view identification. We conduct extensive study on commenters' behaviors, and discover predictive commenters showing a high degree of regularity in their sentiment patterns. We develop and evaluate sentiment pattern-based methods for political view identification.
"We will never forget you [online]": an empirical investigation of post-mortem MySpace comments BIBAFull-Text 123-132
  Jed R. Brubaker; Gillian R. Hayes
The proliferation of social network sites has resulted in an increasing number of profiles representing deceased users. In this paper, we present the results of a mixed-methods empirical study of 205,068 comments posted to 1,369 MySpace profiles of users who have died. Our results reveal interesting practices surrounding issues of authorship and audience, temporal patterns in posting, and continued social networking with the dead. These results suggest that post-mortem commenting behavior blends memorializing practices with existing practices and communication patterns for social network sites. We conclude by outlining future directions for research and implications for the understanding and use of social network sites in light of a deeper understanding of post-mortem comments.
Towards quality discourse in online news comments BIBAFull-Text 133-142
  Nicholas Diakopoulos; Mor Naaman
With the growth in sociality and interaction around online news media, news sites are increasingly becoming places for communities to discuss and address common issues spurred by news articles. The quality of online news comments is of importance to news organizations that want to provide a valuable exchange of community ideas and maintain credibility within the community. In this work we examine the complex interplay between the needs and desires of news commenters with the functioning of different journalistic approaches toward managing comment quality. Drawing primarily on newsroom interviews and reader surveys, we characterize the comment discourse of SacBee.com, discuss the relationship of comment quality to both the consumption and production of news information, and provide a description of both readers' and writers' motivations for usage of news comments. We also examine newsroom strategies for dealing with comment quality as well as explore tensions and opportunities for value-sensitive innovation within such online communities.

Showcase II

Empirical software engineering at Microsoft Research BIBAFull-Text 143-150
  Christian Bird; Brendan Murphy; Nachiappan Nagappan; Thomas Zimmermann
We describe the activities of the Empirical Software Engineering (ESE) group at Microsoft Research. We highlight our research themes and activities using examples from our research on socio technical congruence, bug reporting and triaging, and data-driven software engineering to illustrate our relationship to the CSCW community. We highlight our unique ability to leverage industrial data and developers and the ability to make near term impact on Microsoft via the results of our studies. We also present the collaborations our group has with academic researchers.
Ubiquitous awareness and intelligent solutions lab: Lanzhou University BIBFull-Text 151-158
  Bin Hu; Fang Zheng; Li Liu
Smarter social collaboration at IBM research BIBAFull-Text 159-166
  Changyan Chi; Qinying Liao; Yingxin Pan; Shiwan Zhao; Tara Matthews; Thomas Moran; Michelle X. Zhou; David Millen; Ching-Yung Lin; Ido Guy
In this paper we feature a set of research projects done at several IBM Research laboratories across the world. The work featured here focuses on the topic of smart social collaboration, which studies, designs, and develops social collaboration principles and technologies that can help customize and enhance existing social collaboration tools to suit specific user needs, including cultural, business, and personal needs.

Real-time groupware

Real-time groupware in the browser: testing the performance of web-based networking BIBAFull-Text 167-176
  Carl A. Gutwin; Michael Lippold; T. C. Nicholas Graham
Standard web browsers are becoming a common platform for delivering groupware applications, but until recently, the only way to support real-time collaboration was with browser plug-ins. New networking approaches have recently been introduced -- based on re-purposed techniques for delivering web pages (Comet), or integration of real-time communication directly into the browser (HTML5 WebSockets). Little is currently known, however, about whether these new approaches can support real-time groupware. We carried out a study to assess the performance of the three different networking approaches, based on a framework of groupware requirements, in several network settings. We found that web-based networking performs well -- better than plug-in approaches in some cases -- and can support the communication requirements of many types of real-time groupware. We also developed two groupware applications using Comet and WebSockets, and showed that they provided fast and consistent performance on the real-world Internet. Our studies show that web-based networking can support real-time collaboration, and suggest that groupware developers should consider the browser as a legitimate vehicle for real-time multi-user systems.
It's about time: confronting latency in the development of groupware systems BIBAFull-Text 177-186
  Cheryl Savery; T. C. Nicholas Graham
The presence of network latency leads to usability problems in distributed groupware applications. Example problems include difficulty synchronizing tightly-coupled collaboration, jarring changes in the user interface following the repair of conflicting operations, and confusion when participants discuss state that appears differently to each of them. Techniques exist that can help mitigate the effects of latency, both in the user interface and the groupware application. However, as these techniques necessitate the manipulation of state over time, the effort required to implement them can be significant. In this paper, we present timelines, a programming model allowing the explicit treatment of time in groupware applications. The model has been implemented as part of the Janus toolkit.
Back to the future: a hybrid approach to transparent sharing of video games over the internet in real time BIBAFull-Text 187-196
  Sili Zhao; Du Li; Tun Lu; Ning Gu
This paper presents a collaboration transparency system that allows for distributed sharing of legacy collocated video games in real time without modifying the original games. Our system has attracted two million registered players since it was launched in late 2008. As the system went beyond a research prototype and reached a large number of real users, we observed performance issues that were mainly caused by unpredicted networking latencies over the public Internet and opportunistic distinction of roles such as active players and passive observers. To address these issues, we propose a novel hybrid consistency control approach that combines the merits of optimistic methods, which help achieve interactivity, and pessimistic methods, which guarantee consistency. As a result, the system can tolerate network round-trip time up to 230 ms, improving the latest work by 43.7%. In addition, the system can support over 1,000 simultaneous observers when a video game is played over the Internet.

Personalities & profiles

Sociable killers: understanding social relationships in an online first-person shooter game BIBAFull-Text 197-206
  Yan Xu; Xiang Cao; Abigail Sellen; Ralf Herbrich; Thore Graepel
Online video games can be seen as medium for the formation and maintenance of social relationships. In this paper, we explore what social relationships mean under the context of online First-Person Shooter (FPS) games, how these relationships influence game experience, and how players manage them. We combine qualitative interview and quantitative game log data, and find that despite the gap between the non-persistent game world and potentially persistent social relationships, a diversity of social relationships emerge and they play a central role in the enjoyment of online FPS games. We report the forms, development, and impact of such relationships, and discuss our findings in light of design implications and comparison with other game genres.
"I'll press play, but I won't listen": profile work in a music-focused social network service BIBAFull-Text 207-216
  Suvi Silfverberg; Lassi A. Liikkanen; Airi Lampinen
We offer the concept of profile work to illustrate the effort people invest in their public profiles in social network services (SNSs). In our explorative study, we investigated profile work in Last.fm, an SNS that automatically publishes music listening information. We found that, instead of simply not publishing things they might rather keep private, users tend to change their music listening behavior in order to control their self-presentation. Four dimensions of profile work were identified, including detailed mechanisms to regulate one's profile. We suggest ways to support users' profile work in the context of automated sharing of behavior information.
Blog tells what kind of personality you have: egogram estimation from Japanese weblog BIBAFull-Text 217-220
  Atsunori Minamikawa; Hiroyuki Yokoyama
In this paper, we investigate personality estimation from Japanese weblog text. Among various personality types, we focus on Egogram, which has been used in Transactional Analysis and is strongly related to the communicative behavior of individuals. Estimation is performed using the Multinomial Naïve Bayes classifier with some feature words that are selected based on the information gain. The validity of this approach was evaluated with real weblog text of 551 subjects. The results show that our approach achieved 12-25% improvement from baseline. The feature words selected for the estimation are strongly correlated with the characteristics of Egogram.
Contact stratification and deception: blackberry messenger versus SMS use among students BIBAFull-Text 221-224
  Lindsay Reynolds; Samantha Gillette; Jason Marder; Zachary Miles; Pavel Vodenski; Ariella Weintraub; Jeremy Birnholtz; Jeff Hancock
The proliferation of communication technology has led to potential stratification of contacts across different media, which has important implications for interpersonal dynamics, such as deception. The present study examines how two text-based communication media, BBM and SMS, involve different kinds of social contact networks, and how these differences lead to changes in the frequency and nature of lies. The results reveal that BBM social contacts are relationally closer and include more friends but fewer family and acquaintances than SMS. More deception was also observed in BBM, which included more lies about managing social interactions. The results have important implications for the impact of design features, such as PIN exchange, in text messaging.

Distributed teams

From ethnographic study to mixed reality: a remote collaborative troubleshooting system BIBAFull-Text 225-234
  Jacki O'Neill; Stefania Castellani; Frederic Roulland; Nicolas Hairon; Cornell Juliano; Liwei Dai
In this paper we describe how we moved from ethnographic study to design and testing of a Mixed Reality (MR) system, supporting collaborative troubleshooting of office copiers and printers. A key CSCW topic is how remotely situated people can collaborate around physical objects which are not mutually shared, without introducing new interactional problems. Our approach, grounded in an ethnographic study of a troubleshooting call centre, was to create a MR system centred on a shared 3D problem representation, rather than to use video or Augmented Reality (AR)-based systems. The key drivers for this choice were that given the devices are sensor equipped and networked, such a representation can create reciprocal viewpoints onto the current state of this particular machine without requiring additional hardware. Testing showed that troubleshooters and customers could mutually orient around the problem representation and found it a useful troubleshooting resource.
Your time zone or mine?: a study of globally time zone-shifted collaboration BIBAFull-Text 235-244
  John C. Tang; Chen Zhao; Xiang Cao; Kori Inkpen
We conducted interviews with sixteen members of teams that worked across global time zone differences. Despite time zone differences of about eight hours, collaborators still found time to synchronously meet. The interviews identified the diverse strategies teams used to find time windows to interact, which often included times outside of the normal workday and connecting from home to participate. Recent trends in increased work connectivity from home and blurred boundaries between work and home enabled more scheduling flexibility. While email use was understandably prevalent, there was also general interest in video, although obstacles remain for widespread usage. We propose several design implications for supporting this growing population of workers that need to span global time zone differences.
Collaborative rhythm: temporal dissonance and alignment in collaborative scientific work BIBAFull-Text 245-254
  Steven J. Jackson; David Ribes; Ayse Buyuktur; Geoffrey C. Bowker
CSCW studies of large-scale distributed practice in the sciences and elsewhere have taught us important things about space and place as props and barriers to distributed collective action, but they have had relatively less to say about time. This paper develops a heuristic of collaborative rhythms and points to the work of temporal alignment as a neglected but crucial element underpinning distributed collective practice in the sciences (and other spheres of collective activity). Specifically, we argue that joint scientific work is organized around four separate registers, or 'rhythms' -- organizational, infrastructural, biographical, and phenomenal -- and that efforts to align such rhythms constitute an important and under-recognized aspect of collaborative work. The ideas and examples are drawn from our own field studies around IT infrastructure and collaborative practice across a range of scientific fields.

Creating context for collaboration

Creating a context of trust with ICTs: restoring a sense of normalcy in the environment BIBAFull-Text 255-264
  Bryan Semaan; Gloria Mark
This paper reports on an ethnographic study of the technology-enabled behavior that took place amongst a citizen population living in a conflict zone. We interviewed 65 Iraqi citizens who experienced the current Gulf War beginning in March 2003. In the context of a disrupted environment, trust in people and institutions can erode. We find that trust is contextual-as aspects of the physical world change, conceptions of trust can also change. We show how people were able to create a context of trust in the environment by using ICTs to manage their public identity, to conduct background checks, and to develop collaborative practices that relied on those with whom interpersonal trust previously existed. These new practices, in turn, enabled people to maintain work collaborations, to determine whether or not to continue interacting with others in public, to be able to travel safely, and to find trustworthy jobs. In developing these new practices we argue that technology enabled people to restore a sense of normalcy in an environment that had radically changed.
From diversity to creativity: stimulating group brainstorming with cultural differences and conversationally-retrieved pictures BIBAFull-Text 265-274
  Hao-Chuan Wang; Susan R. Fussell; Dan Cosley
Group brainstorming, or collaboratively generating ideas through idea sharing, demands diverse contributions to spark more ideas and improve creativity. One approach to supporting group brainstorming is to introduce conceptual diversity. In this study, we evaluate the effects of two sources of diversity on group brainstorming: cultural differences internal to multicultural groups and pictures related to the conversation retrieved by a computer agent. The pictures generally enhanced performance as measured by both originality and diversity of ideas. The pictures also helped to convert cultural diversity into a creative outcome, the diversity of ideas generated. We argue that with appropriate technology mediation, cultural diversity may be used strategically to enhance task outcomes.
Designing incentives for inexpert human raters BIBAFull-Text 275-284
  Aaron D. Shaw; John J. Horton; Daniel L. Chen
The emergence of online labor markets makes it far easier to use individual human raters to evaluate materials for data collection and analysis in the social sciences. In this paper, we report the results of an experiment -- conducted in an online labor market -- that measured the effectiveness of a collection of social and financial incentive schemes for motivating workers to conduct a qualitative, content analysis task. Overall, workers performed better than chance, but results varied considerably depending on task difficulty. We find that treatment conditions which asked workers to prospectively think about the responses of their peers -- when combined with financial incentives -- produced more accurate performance. Other treatments generally had weak effects on quality. Workers in India performed significantly worse than US workers, regardless of treatment group.


Do you want to know?: recommending strangers in the enterprise BIBAFull-Text 285-294
  Ido Guy; Sigalit Ur; Inbal Ronen; Adam Perer; Michal Jacovi
Recent studies on people recommendation have focused on suggesting people the user already knows. In this work, we use social media behavioral data to recommend people the user is not likely to know, but nonetheless may be interested in. Our evaluation is based on an extensive user study with 516 participants within a large enterprise and includes both quantitative and qualitative results. We found that many employees valued the recommendations, even if only one or two of nine recommendations were interesting strangers. Based on these results, we discuss potential deployment routes and design implications for a stranger recommendation feature.
Browse and discover: social file sharing in the enterprise BIBAFull-Text 295-304
  N. Sadat Shami; Michael Muller; David Millen
There is a growth in the popularity of social file sharing systems. This paper describes the design of Cattail, a social file sharing system for the enterprise. Through a 'Recent Events' stream, Cattail supports social navigation and exploratory search by inferring relevant social connections rather than purely relying on user-specified contacts. Social navigation is further supported through pivot browsing from a consolidated history of user actions on an individual's files. Through usage log analysis over an 8-month period, we found that Cattail's novel network inference and social navigation features enabled a net gain of clickthroughs. Interviews with users revealed that this led to increased discovery of relevant people and content. We conclude with a discussion of several possible enhancements to the system. Findings from our research provide a strong foundation for the design of social file sharing systems for enterprise settings.
Look ma, no email!: blogs and IRC as primary and preferred communication tools in a distributed firm BIBAFull-Text 305-308
  Aditya Johri
Email has been the primary communication medium in organizations for decades and despite studies that demonstrate its obvious disadvantages, the prevailing thinking is that email is irreplaceable. In this paper I challenge that view through a field study of a distributed firm that is highly successful in developing and delivering products without regular use of email in the workplace. Group blogging and IRC were the primary tools used and they allowed improved coordination and knowledge sharing compared to email. This paper contributes to scant literature in CSCW on firm-level technology use.
Working around official applications: experiences from a large engineering project BIBAFull-Text 309-312
  Mark J. Handel; Steven Poltrock
We describe facets of specialized software applications developed to support a large collaborative engineering program. Although many of the applications were bespoke efforts, designed to the requirements of users, virtually all major applications have an unofficial spreadsheet or database backing up the official application. These tools invariably play a critical but unofficial role in the day-to-day work, acting as more than just as a work-around, while the official applications are used primarily for mandated record keeping and auditing purposes. Surprisingly, there is often management approval for these unofficial applications, but at the same time, desire to elimination these applications and only use the official applications. We discuss the implications of this finding for future collaborative applications and long-term record keeping.
Organizational acculturation and social networking BIBAFull-Text 313-316
  Jennifer Thom-Santelli; David R. Millen; Darren Gergle
For large global enterprises, providing adequate resources for organizational acculturation, the process in which employees learn about an organization's culture, remains a challenge. We present results from a survey of 802 users from an enterprise social networking site that identifies two groups of employees (new to the company and geographically distant from headquarters) that perceive higher benefit from using a SNS to learn about the organization's values and beliefs. In addition, we observe regional differences in viewing behaviors between two groups of new employees. These results suggest that a SNS can also potentially contribute to the information-seeking and sense-making activities that underlie organization acculturation.
Photo sharing in diverse distributed teams BIBAFull-Text 317-320
  Jennifer Marlow; Laura Dabbish
In this research we examined the impact of photo sharing on attitudes and behaviors towards local versus distant team members. In an online experiment, we varied content and presentation of photos shared by a hypothetical team spanning two locations. We found similarity in shared photo content promoted pro-social behaviors towards team members regardless of location. We also found that the way the photos were organized moderated the impact of photo similarity, with diverging effects towards local versus distant team members. Our results indicate that photo sharing can promote positive behavior towards distant others under certain conditions. These results can inform the nature of photo sharing for team building.

Social computing

Increasing commitment to online communities by designing for social presence BIBAFull-Text 321-330
  Rosta Farzan; Laura A. Dabbish; Robert E. Kraut; Tom Postmes
The existence and survival of online communities depends upon the commitment and retention of their members. This paper compares alternative ways of designing online sites to increase member commitment. We report the results of two experiments conducted within a Facebook game application. The results show that designs can increase commitment and retention of players either by visually highlighting individual members, or by emphasizing the community as a whole. These designs influence commitment through different routes.
Thanks and tweets: comparing two public displays BIBAFull-Text 331-340
  Sean A. Munson; Emily Rosengren; Paul Resnick
Two public display systems, with different methods of posting, were deployed over several years. One, the Thank You Board, was designed to give people an outlet specifically for publicly thanking and acknowledging others in the community. The other, SI Display, showed any Twitter post directed to the display and did not have explicit usage guidelines. People preferred the flexibility of the latter, but ambiguity about its purpose and norms of usage persisted even six months after deployment and made some people hesitant to post. Also, using Twitter as the posting mechanism facilitated participation for some but also created barriers for those not using Twitter and for Twitter users who were wary of mixing their professional and non-professional contexts.
It's not that I don't have problems, I'm just not putting them on Facebook: challenges and opportunities in using online social networks for health BIBAFull-Text 341-350
  Mark W. Newman; Debra Lauterbach; Sean A. Munson; Paul Resnick; Margaret E. Morris
To understand why and how people share health information online, we interviewed fourteen people with significant health concerns who participate in both online health communities and Facebook. Qualitative analysis of these interviews highlighted the ways that people think about with whom and how to share different types of information as they pursue social goals related to their personal health, including emotional support, motivation, accountability, and advice. Our study suggests that success in these goals depends on how well they develop their social networks and how effectively they communicate within those networks. Effective communication is made more challenging by the need to strike a balance between sharing information related to specific needs and the desire to manage self-presentation. Based on these observations, we outline a set of design opportunities for future systems to support health-oriented social interactions online, including tools to help users shape their social networks and communicate effectively within those.
Forget online communities?: revisit cooperative work! BIBAFull-Text 351-354
  Yong Ming Kow; Bonnie Nardi
The term community does not have an exact equivalent in Chinese. Therefore, we may ask: To what extent do standard premises of online community research apply in China? In our ethnographic studies of two Chinese websites, we found that small "core teams" organized and managed work, and were sustained by offline and behind the scenes interactions. We urge that research on online communities examine preconceptions that may overlook important realities, and that we be mindful that small close-knit groups may be relevant, in the original spirit of studies of cooperative work.
Peaks and persistence: modeling the shape of microblog conversations BIBAFull-Text 355-358
  David A. Shamma; Lyndon Kennedy; Elizabeth F. Churchill
A microblogged stream is delivered over time, providing an ongoing commentary of topics, trends, and issues. In this article, we present two methods of finding temporal topics within these Twitter streams. Using a normalized term frequency, we demonstrate how an effective table of contents can be extracted by finding localized "peaky topics". Second, we find "persistent conversations" which have a lower general salience but sustain and persist over the tweet corpus, in effect the whispering conversation that lingers in the background. These methods are demonstrated on a Twitter corpus of 53,000 tweets and a second Twitter corpus of 1.1 million tweets; the methods are generalizable to apply to any normalized scoring metric across a temporal corpus. We propose our method's implications on social media research and systems from a textual and social network analysis perspective.

Identity and self-disclosure

Faceted identity, faceted lives: social and technical issues with being yourself online BIBAFull-Text 359-368
  Shelly D. Farnham; Elizabeth F. Churchill
This paper explores key issues people experience managing personal boundaries within and across social technologies. We look in particular at email and online social networks. We offer a theoretical framework for understanding the errors in assumptions about the singularity of identity that are currently inscribed into the sharing models of social technology systems. Through a questionnaire study we examine how people facet their identities and their lives, and how these facets are expressed through use of email and Facebook. We found family was an extremely important context for sharing online, and that email was still a preferred form of communication for private sharing across facets of life. Single, working men had the highest level of incompatible facets, and a higher level of facet incompatibility was correlated with increased email usage and worry about sharing in the context of social networks.
SELECT * FROM USER: infrastructure and socio-technical representation BIBAFull-Text 369-378
  Jed R. Brubaker; Gillian R. Hayes
As use of, and experiences with, social media continue to grow, the systems of representation that underlie their use become increasingly influential. In this paper, we present results from empirical studies of two online communities-Facebook and craigslist Missed Connections-that highlight the ways in which this underlying infrastructure and the user practices on these sites are inherently intertwined. We make particular use of a framework first introduced by Agre that focuses on the influence of eight underlying features of computing practice: ontology, standards, instrumentation, authentication, interpretation, selection, bias, and performance. The results of this analysis indicate how representational systems do more than simply represent the physical world; they are deeply intertwined with the social and material practices of everyday life.
Network properties and social sharing of emotions in social awareness streams BIBAFull-Text 379-382
  Funda Kivran-Swaine; Mor Naaman
The relationship between social sharing of emotions, social networks and social ties is an ongoing topic of research. Such sharing of emotions occurs frequently in "social awareness streams" platforms like Twitter and Facebook. We use Twitter to address research questions about the association of properties of a user's network, such as size and density, with expression of emotion in the user's Twitter posts. Our analysis suggests that expression of emotion can explain some of the variance in users' Twitter networks, and that the use of emotion in interactions between users is a strong explaining factor.
Me and my avatar: exploring users' comfort with avatars for workplace communication BIBAFull-Text 383-386
  Kori M. Inkpen; Mara Sedlins
This paper describes results from a large-scale survey to explore users' comfort with different styles of avatars for workplace communication. Thirty-one avatars were evaluated based on users' ratings along several dimensions and grouped into five different clusters. The highest rated cluster was the set of formal, realistic avatars that users did not feel were creepy. These avatars were ranked comparatively with webcam photos, and users felt that they would be appropriate for work. Our results also revealed that realism is nuanced, as avatars in another cluster were also rated high on realism, but were felt to be inappropriate for work. Finally, this work also demonstrates that people are more particular concerning which type of avatar they are represented by, compared to ones they interact with.
A tale of two languages: strategic self-disclosure via language selection on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 387-390
  Dai Tang; Tina Chou; Naomi Drucker; Adi Robertson; William C. Smith; Jeffery T. Hancock
In this paper, we analyze the way in which international Facebook users who had recently moved to the United States used different languages to selectively self-disclose to their old (native-language) and new (English-speaking) social circles. We found significantly more intimate self-disclosure, covering a broader range of cognitive and emotional topics, in native-language status updates compared to updates in English. Self-disclosure was also more positive in English. These patterns support our hypotheses that users exploit language barriers to serve different self-presentational goals for different social circles and generate implications for SNS privacy control.
With a little help from my friends: can social navigation inform interpersonal privacy preferences? BIBAFull-Text 391-394
  Sameer Patil; Xinru Page; Alfred Kobsa
Recent privacy controversies surrounding social networking sites demonstrate that the mere availability of settings is not enough for effective privacy management. We investigated whether the aggregated privacy choices of one's social circle might guide users in making informed privacy decisions. We conducted an experiment in which users specified preferences for six privacy-relevant settings in Instant Messaging. In one condition, users were provided with information indicating the privacy preferences of the majority of their ''buddies." Our results suggest that while this information did influence user choices, the effect was secondary to that of the ''privacy-sensitivity" of the system feature controlled by the particular setting. Frequency of IM usage was also associated with privacy choices. The experiment data coupled with user comments suggest several usability improvements in interfaces for specifying privacy preferences.

Interfering patterns from usage date in programming and search

"Not my bug!" and other reasons for software bug report reassignments BIBAFull-Text 395-404
  Philip J. Guo; Thomas Zimmermann; Nachiappan Nagappan; Brendan Murphy
Bug reporting/fixing is an important social part of the software development process. The bug-fixing process inherently has strong interpersonal dynamics at play, especially in how to find the optimal person to handle a bug report. Bug report reassignments, which are a common part of the bug-fixing process, have rarely been studied.
   In this paper, we present a large-scale quantitative and qualitative analysis of the bug reassignment process in the Microsoft Windows Vista operating system project. We quantify social interactions in terms of both useful and harmful reassignments. For instance, we found that reassignments are useful to determine the best person to fix a bug, contrary to the popular opinion that reassignments are always harmful. We categorized five primary reasons for reassignments: finding the root cause, determining ownership, poor bug report quality, hard to determine proper fix, and workload balancing. We then use these findings to make recommendations for the design of more socially-aware bug tracking systems that can overcome some of the inefficiencies we observed in our study.
Peer interaction effectively, yet infrequently, enables programmers to discover new tools BIBAFull-Text 405-414
  Emerson Murphy-Hill; Gail C. Murphy
Computer users rely on software tools to work effectively and efficiently, but it is difficult for users to be aware of all the tools that might be useful to them. While there are several potential technical solutions to this difficulty, we know little about social solutions, such as one user telling a peer about a tool. To explore these social solutions in one particular domain, we describe a series of interviews with 18 programmers in industry that explore how tool discovery takes place. These interviews provide a rich set of qualitative data that give us detailed insights into how programmers discover tools. One finding was that, while programmers believe that discovery from peers is effective, they actually discover tools from peers relatively infrequently. Another finding was that programmers can effectively discover tools from their peers both in a co-located and remote settings. We describe several implications of our findings, such as that discovery from peers can be enhanced by improving programmers' ability to communicate openly and concisely about tools.
Three sequential positions of query repair in interactions with internet search engines BIBAFull-Text 415-424
  Robert J. Moore; Elizabeth F. Churchill; Raj Gopal Prasad Kantamneni
Internet search engines display understanding or misunderstanding of user intent in and through the particular batches of results they retrieve and their perceived relevance. Yet understanding is not simply an automatic outcome but a joint interactional achievement between human and machine. If potential troubles with search queries emerge, either the user or the search engine may initiate repair on the query in ways that resemble repair in human conversation as described in conversation analysis. Users can repair their own queries in first or third position, while search engines can initiate repair from second position. However search-engine interactions currently contain no fourth-position repair. Finally search engines may also complete queries collaboratively with users in ways that are similar to but distinct from repair. In this study we examine interactions between users and search engines using a novel approach we call "computer interaction analysis," which utilizes eye-tracking screen video and a novel notation scheme for transcribing it.

Shared workspace

Supporting air traffic control collaboration with a TableTop system BIBAFull-Text 425-434
  Stéphane Conversy; Hélène Gaspard-Boulinc; Stéphane Chatty; Stéphane Valès; Carole Dupré; Claire Ollagnon
Collaboration is key to safety and efficiency in Air Traffic Control. Legacy paper-based systems enable seamless and non-verbal collaboration, but trends in new software and hardware for ATC tend to separate controllers more and more, which hinders collaboration. This paper presents a new interactive system designed to support collaboration in ATC. We ran a series of interviews and workshops to identify collaborative situations in ATC. From this analysis, we derived a set of requirements to support collaboration: support mutual awareness, communication and coordination, dynamic task allocation and simultaneous use with more than two people. We designed a set of new interactive tools to fulfill the requirements, by using a multi-user tabletop surface, appropriate feedthrough, and reified and partially-accomplishable actions. Preliminary evaluation shows that feedthrough is important, users benefit from a number of tools to communicate and coordinate their actions, and the tabletop is actually usable by three people both in tightly coupled tasks and parallel, individual activities. At a higher level, we also found that co-location is not enough to generate mutual awareness if users are not engaged in meaningful collaboration.
See what i'm saying?: using Dyadic Mobile Eye tracking to study collaborative reference BIBAFull-Text 435-444
  Darren Gergle; Alan T. Clark
To create intelligent collaborative systems able to anticipate and react appropriately to users' needs and actions, it is crucial to develop a detailed understanding of the process of collaborative reference. We developed a dyadic eye tracking methodology and metrics for studying the multimodal process of reference, and applied these techniques in an experiment using a naturalistic conversation elicitation task. We found systematic differences in linguistic and visual coordination between pairs of mobile and seated participants. Our results detail measurable interactions between referential form, gaze, and spatial context and can be used to enable the development of more natural collaborative user interfaces.
Using F-formations to analyse spatial patterns of interaction in physical environments BIBAFull-Text 445-454
  Paul Marshall; Yvonne Rogers; Nadia Pantidi
There are few conceptual tools available to analyse physical spaces in terms of their support for social interactions and their potential for technological augmentation. In this paper, we describe how we used Adam Kendon's characterisation of the F-formation system of spatial organisation as a conceptual lens to analyse the social interactions between visitors and staff in a tourist information centre. We describe how the physical structures in the space encouraged and discouraged particular kinds of interactions and discuss how F-formations might be used to think about augmenting physical spaces.

Health care

Activity analysis: applying activity theory to analyze complex work in hospitals BIBAFull-Text 455-464
  Jakob Bardram; Afsaneh Doryab
This paper presents "Activity Analysis" as a method for conducting and analyzing field studies based on Activity Theory. Two cases of activity analysis of work in a hospital ward and inside an operating room are presented. Guidelines for moving from Activity Analysis to systems design is presented and illustrated with the design of a context-aware system for hospitals.
Coordinating time-critical work with role-tagging BIBAFull-Text 465-474
  Aleksandra Sarcevic; Leysia A. Palen; Randall S. Burd
A Level-1 US trauma center introduced role-tags in their trauma resuscitation rooms to help team members identify respective medical functions, and to limit the number of people in the rooms to required staff only. We use this in situ experiment with a paper prototype to investigate the role-driven nature of coordination and to identify system requirements for computerized support of role-based coordination in time-critical work. While role information is useful in coordinating time-critical work, our findings show that the current low-tech solution did not provide significant improvement in team coordination. The situations that were most in need of role-identification were the least likely to achieve it because role-tags required work by trauma team members. Similarly, because role-tags allowed workarounds and misuse, they proved ineffective in controlling the number of people in the room. We suggest technological ways of identifying roles to help coordination in the trauma bay.
Improving communication and social support for caregivers of high-risk infants through mobile technologies BIBAFull-Text 475-484
  Leslie S. Liu; Sen H. Hirano; Monica Tentori; Karen G. Cheng; Sheba George; Sun Young Park; Gillian R. Hayes
Upon leaving the hospital, parents of high-risk infants experience a variety of challenges in providing care at home. In this work, we present results from a qualitative study to understand the role of social interaction and information-sharing surrounding high-risk infants among both home caregivers and health professionals. These results demonstrate challenges in communication and social support for caregivers of these infants. Based on these results, we present design guidelines for collaborative communication technologies for this population and a prototype system design that demonstrates how these design guidelines might be met in a mobile application. Finally, we discuss how collaborative technologies can serve to improve communication with professionals as well as provide much-needed social support.
Health information use in chronic care cycles BIBAFull-Text 485-488
  Yunan Chen
A qualitative field study was conducted to explore the use of health information in the chronic care process. The findings show that health information is organized and used based on what we called chronic care cycles -- the repeated rotations of a routine medical visit with the subsequent homecare period. We suggest that future system design consider chronic care cycles to facilitate the use of health information in managing chronic diseases.

Showcase III

The global interaction research initiative at the IT university of Copenhagen, Denmark BIBAFull-Text 489-496
  Jakob E. Bardam; Pernille Bjørn; Arne John Glenstrup; Thomas Pederson
This showcase paper describes the Global Interaction Research Initiative -- GIRI -- recently inaugurated at the IT University of Copenhagen. It presents the motivation for this initiative, namely that the use of information technology is the core enabling factor for global collaboration and business. We argue that there is a fundamental need for understanding and providing next generation technologies for this ultra large-scale interaction paradigm. GIRI is organized around a set of research themes and projects, focusing on different application areas. Themes and projects are loosely coupled in the sense that each research project is defined in its own right with a specific set of challenges, vision, approach, partners, and funding scheme. At the time of writing, GIRI has 3 research themes and are hosting 6 projects, but these numbers are expected to increase as GIRI grows. GIRI is an open research initiative, and we invite other researchers to join.
The multidisciplinary design group in Vienna BIBAFull-Text 497-504
  Ina Wagner; Hilda Tellioglu
This showcase paper describes the research of the Multidisciplinary Design Group, Vienna University of Technology, over the course of more than 20 years. It discusses this research and the contributions to CSCW resulting from it, under four headings: work practices in health care; studies of design practice and development of supporting technologies; coordination work and technologies; and gender studies, identifying the factors that shaped the group's engagement in specific projects and the analytical frameworks they developed in collaboration with international cooperation partners.
Engaging with practices: design case studies as a research framework in CSCW BIBAFull-Text 505-512
  Volker Wulf; Markus Rohde; Volkmar Pipek; Gunnar Stevens
Information and communications technology (ICT) pervades most aspects of our lives and changes everyday's practices in work and leisure time. When designing innovative ICTs, we need to engage with given practices, institutional arrangements, and technological infrastructures. We describe the research framework used at the University of Siegen. It is based on a collection of design case studies in particular fields of practice and identifies cross-cutting issues to compare and aggregate insights between these cases. To illustrate this framework, we describe our research activities and discuss three themes which became important in different design case studies.


Scientific software production: incentives and collaboration BIBAFull-Text 513-522
  James Howison; James D. Herbsleb
Software plays an increasingly critical role in science, including data analysis, simulations, and managing workflows. Unlike other technologies supporting science, software can be copied and distributed at essentially no cost, potentially opening the door to unprecedented levels of sharing and collaborative innovation. Yet we do not have a clear picture of how software development for science fits into the day-to-day practice of science, or how well the methods and incentives of its production facilitate realization of this potential. We report the results of a multiple-case study of software development in three fields: high energy physics, structural biology, and microbiology. In each case, we identify a typical publication, and use qualitative methods to explore the production of the software used in the science represented by the publication. We identify several different production systems, characterized primarily by differences in incentive structures. We identify ways in which incentives are matched and mismatched with the needs of the science fields, especially with respect to collaboration.
Research team integration: what it is and why it matters BIBAFull-Text 523-532
  Aruna D. Balakrishnan; Sara Kiesler; Jonathon N. Cummings; Reza Zadeh
Science policy across the world emphasizes the desirability of research teams that can integrate diverse perspectives and expertise into new knowledge, methods, and products. However, integration in research work is not well understood. Based on retrospective interviews with 55 researchers from 52 diverse research projects, we categorized teams as co-acting (50%), coordinated (15%), and integrated (35%). Integration, when it existed, usually began when PIs chose collaborators and pursued integration throughout the project. We describe researchers' experiences and research climates that discouraged or encouraged integration. Implications for policy choices and design include changes in team structuring and technology support.
The value of data: considering the context of production in data economies BIBAFull-Text 533-542
  Janet Vertesi; Paul Dourish
In this paper we argue that how scientific collaborations share data is bound up in the ways in which they produce and acquire that data. We draw on ethnographic work with two robotic space exploration teams to show how each community's norms of "data-sharing" are best understood as arising not from the context of the use or exchange of data, but from the context of data production. Shifting our perspective back to the point of production suggests that digital artifacts are embedded in a broader data economy. We present implications for analysis of data in interactional context, and for introducing systems or policies that conflict with the value of data in its context of production.

Under the hood

Scheduling in variable-core collaborative systems BIBAFull-Text 543-552
  Sasa Junuzovic; Prasun Dewan
The performance of a collaborative system depends on how two mandatory collaborative tasks, processing and transmission of user commands, are scheduled. We have developed multiple policies for scheduling these tasks on computers that have (a) one processing element on the network interface card and (b) one or more processing cores on the CPU. To compare these policies, we have a developed a formal analytical model that predicts their performance. It shows that the optimal scheduling policy depends on several factors including the number of cores that is available. We have implemented a system that supports all of the policies and performed experiments to validate the formal model. This system is a component of a self-optimizing scheduler we have developed that improves response times by automatically choosing the scheduling policy based on number of cores and other factors.
ReConMUC: adaptable consistency requirements for efficient large-scale multi-user chat BIBAFull-Text 553-562
  Pedro Alves; Paulo Ferreira
Multi-user chat (MUC) applications raise serious challenges to developers concerning scalability and efficient use of network bandwidth, due to a large number of users exchanging lots of messages in real-time. We propose a new approach to MUC message propagation based on an adaptable consistency model bounded by three metrics: Filter, Time and Volume. In this model, the server propagates some messages as soon as possible while others are postponed until certain conditions are met, according to each client consistency requirements. These requirements can change during the session lifetime, constantly adapting to each client's current context.
   We developed a prototype called ReConMUC (Relaxed Consistency MUC) as an extension to a well-known MUC protocol, which, by attaching a special component to the server, filters messages before they are broadcast, according to client consistency requirements.
   The performance results obtained show that ReConMUC effectively reduces the server outbound bandwidth, without significant increase in memory and CPU usage, thus improving scalability.
An operational transformation based synchronization protocol for web 2.0 applications BIBAFull-Text 563-572
  Bin Shao; Du Li; Tun Lu; Ning Gu
Current Web 2.0 services are making mass collaboration a reality. Using a Web browser, people can participate in cooperative work anytime, anywhere from any computing device as long as there is an Internet connection. Lying in the heart of some well-known services is an optimistic consistency control technique called operational transformation (OT). This paper proposes TIPS, a novel sync protocol that adapts OT for Web 2.0 applications. Based on a recent theoretical framework called ABT, it ensures not only convergence but also the right object order for linear documents. Designed to address the HTTP style of communication, TIPS allows clients to sync with the server by independent time intervals and dynamically join and leave at any time. When processing do operations, its time complexity is linear in the total number of operations generated by all clients during one server interval and independent of the size of history. TIPS is efficient for supporting a spectrum of (near-)realtime to asynchronous collaboration editing tasks.

Video abstracts

Privacy and sharing information on spherical and large flat displays BIBAFull-Text 573-574
  John Bolton; Kibum Kim; Roel Vertegaal
It is important for users to understand the fundamental tradeoff between sharing information and preserving privacy in collaboration. The more information is shared about one's actions, the less privacy is preserved. Sharing information may, in fact, counter-intuitively result in increased social stress in some cases. Maintaining privacy while allowing for the sharing of information is an important consideration for successful collaboration and we believe display form factor matters for this tradeoff. New form factors such as spherical displays support privacy naturally, by limiting a user's view to at most one hemisphere. In this video we show how different types of interactive large display form factor can provide a balance between privacy and the sharing of information in a cooperative game.
SISO: simple service orchestration (video showcase) BIBAFull-Text 575-576
  Christian Doerner; Torben Wiedenhoefer; Mary-Ann Sprenger; Volkmar Pipek
This video showcase presents our new business process modeling environment, called SiSO, that enables end users to model and adapt business processes. SiSO enhances Service Oriented Architectures through non-technical data, such as usage descriptions of the services and their functions, ratings, and keywords. It uses the box-and-wire UI design principle in a new way to enable end users to collaboratively model business processes in the context of Enterprise Resource Planning systems.
Communico: overhearing conversations in a virtual office BIBAFull-Text 577-578
  Kevin Dullemond; Ben van Gameren
This extended abstract accompanies our submission to the video track of the conference. We briefly introduce Communico, a tool which enables the overhearing of conversations in a distributed setting and describe how it fits the CSCW literature and audience.
   This extended abstract accompanies our submission to the video track of the conference. We briefly introduce Communico, a tool which enables the overhearing of conversations in a distributed setting and describe how it fits the CSCW literature and audience.
Intercultural collaboration with the language grid toolbox BIBAFull-Text 579-580
  Ari Hautasaari; Nadia Bouz-Asal; Rieko Inaba; Toru Ishida
In this demonstration video, we introduce the Language Grid Toolbox, an open source multilingual communication tool, and two community sites based on the Language Grid Toolbox. The G30 Community Site aims to create a multilingual and multicultural community to accommodate the needs of Japanese and international students. The Pangaea Community Site is used by facilitators of NPO Pangaea located in different countries around the world to communicate in their native languages through machine translation supported multilingual BBS.
Cambiera: collaborative tabletop visual analytics BIBAFull-Text 581-582
  Petra Isenberg; Danyel Fisher
Cambiera is a tabletop system designed for co-located collaborative visual analytics. As a tabletop system, Cambiera encourages analysts to face each other around the tabletop to analyze large text document collections collaboratively. Cambiera allows analysts to search for documents and read them, organize documents on the tabletop, and to monitor each other's' work. The video illustrates the major collaborative features of Cambiera.
The video of Xland: two core use cases of 3D blog BIBAFull-Text 583-584
  Yufei Jiang; Ruizhi Gao; Yuan Huang
In this paper we describe the basic profile of our project Xland: a 3D blog community and the content of our video. Besides, we would also make some annotation in this paper to compensate some information that is not presented by the video.
   In this paper we describe the basic profile of our project Xland: a 3D blog community and the content of our video. Besides, we would also make some annotation in this paper to compensate some information that is not presented by the video.
SPARSH: touch the cloud BIBAFull-Text 585-586
  Pranav Mistry; Suranga Nanayakkara; Pattie Maes
SPARSH presents a seamless way of passing data among multiple users and devices. The user touches a data item they wish to copy from a device, conceptually saving it in the user's body. Next, the user touches the other device they want to paste/pass the saved content. SPARSH uses touch-based interactions as indications for what to copy and where to pass it. Technically, the actual transfer of media happens via the information cloud. Accompanying video shows some of the SPARSH scenarios.
A real-time tweet diffusion advisor for #Twitter BIBAFull-Text 587-588
  Peyman Nasirifard; Conor Hayes
In this paper we describe our novel Twitter assistant called Tadvise. Tadvise helps users to know their Twitter communities better and also assists them to identify community hubs for propagating their community-related tweets. Tadvise video describes different parts of Tadvise and how it is used for propagating tweets in Twittersphere.
DIADEM: a system for collaborative environmental monitoring BIBAFull-Text 589-590
  Andi Winterboer; Merijn A. Martens; Gregor Pavlin; Frans C. A. Groen; Vanessa Evers
Environmental monitoring and emergency response projects in urban-industrial areas increasingly rely on efficient collaboration between experts in control rooms and at incident locations, and citizens who live or work in the area. In the video accompanying this abstract we present a system that uses distributed sensor technology, Bayesian decision tools, and advanced map-based interfaces to facilitate collaboration between environmental experts and the public for environmental monitoring and early detection of chemical incidents.

Interactive presentations

MagicMirror: towards enhancing collaborative rehabilitation practices BIBAFull-Text 593-596
  Naveen Bagalkot; Tomas Sokoler
In this paper we highlight our realization of the entangled role played by the aspects of self-monitoring and collaborative articulation in facilitating a successful rehabilitation process. We describe the process of sketching-driven-co-exploration with therapists and senior citizens leading to our ongoing work in MyReDiary: a personal device for the senior citizens. While supporting self-monitoring of the rehab process for the senior citizens, it simultaneously acts as a tool for collaboration. Importantly, it aims to provide a language for the senior citizens to discuss their experiences from home.
Bidirectional gaze in remote computer mediated collaboration: setup and initial results from pair-programming BIBAFull-Text 597-600
  Roman Bednarik; Andrey Shipilov; Sami Pietinen
We investigate the role of gaze in communication and collaboration between humans in computerised environments. In this paper we describe a software solution to a multidirectional gaze display in shared-display collaborative tasks and we report on initial results of an experiment in which the system was applied to allow gaze display in a remote pair-programming lecture. Remotely, an expert was explaining two algorithms to a novice who then attempted to apply the algorithm on an unseen problem. We report on an analysis of data from the conditions when there was a gaze transmitted and displayed to the peer with the no-gaze condition. The remote gaze display reliably affected the variability of novices visual attention patterns and they were better able to focus on the information presented. Without the experts gaze display their strategies contained greater variety.
Towards support for collaborative navigation in complex indoor environments BIBAFull-Text 601-604
  Anders Bouwer; Frank Nack; Vanessa Evers
In this paper we present first results of an observation study on indoor navigation behaviour of visitors at a large public fair. As an outcome we present a number of requirements for mobile indoor navigation systems that support collaborative destination and path finding tasks.
Analyzing patterns in composing teaching materials from the web BIBAFull-Text 605-608
  Nadia Bouz-Asal; Rieko Inaba; Toru Ishida
We present the research and work carried out towards analyzing patterns in creating teaching materials from the Web and how this leads to the model of the multilingual learning resource system using Web service technologies for today's educators, to efficiently share, reuse and translate existing teaching materials into minority languages and make new ones.
Web-based multipointer interaction on shared displays BIBAFull-Text 609-612
  Muriel Bowie; Oliver Schmid; Agnes Lisowska Masson; Béat Hirsbrunner
Interaction with multiple mouse pointers is becoming widespread for collocated collaboration on shared displays, but most technologies used to implement it do not support telepresent users. While web technologies are a common standard for applications that enable telepresent collaboration, they do not support the multipointer interaction needed for collaboration in collocated settings. We propose an approach to provide multipointer interaction in web applications by adding multipointer support to the web browser and addressing pointer handling in a JavaScript framework.
Designing for context-aware health self-monitoring, feedback, and engagement BIBAFull-Text 613-616
  Frank Chen; Eric Hekler; Jinhui Hu; Shen Li; Candy Zhao
There is a novel opportunity to increase awareness of health activities in a person's daily life. One way to do that is through context-aware self-monitoring. We explore design insights from field work and field testing different methods for self-monitoring. We present an innovative design for establishing context-aware self-monitoring that has the potential to improve health.
Working with 'mission control' in scientific fieldwork: supporting interactions between in situ and distanced collaborators BIBAFull-Text 617-620
  Tim Coughlan; Anne Adams; Trevor Collins; Sarah Davies; John Lea; Yvonne Rogers
Interaction between in situ and distanced collaborators focused on the physical environment is an under-explored research area, where there is potential for novel mobile and indoor technologies to enhance activities. This paper describes research in progress to explore how new forms of collaborative learning in scientific fieldwork can be supported. We describe field trials of a prototype system designed to connect higher education students engaged in earth science fieldwork with peers based in a 'mission control' type environment. We discuss how analysis of these trials is leading us to identify new requirements to support effective collaboration between users based across contrasting locations, including issues of spatial coherence, deictic communication and reflection.
Kinected conference: augmenting video imaging with calibrated depth and audio BIBAFull-Text 621-624
  Anthony DeVincenzi; Lining Yao; Hiroshi Ishii; Ramesh Raskar
The proliferation of broadband and high-speed Internet access has, in general, democratized the ability to commonly engage in videoconference. However, current video systems do not meet their full potential, as they are restricted to a simple display of unintelligent 2D pixels. In this paper we present a system for enhancing distance-based communication by augmenting the traditional video conferencing system with additional attributes beyond two-dimensional video. We explore how expanding a system's understanding of spatially calibrated depth and audio alongside a live video stream can generate semantically rich three-dimensional pixels containing information regarding their material properties and location. We discuss specific scenarios that explore features such as synthetic refocusing, gesture activated privacy, and spatiotemporal graphic augmentation.
Surprise Grabber: a co-located tangible social game using phone hand gesture BIBAFull-Text 625-628
  Mingming Fan; Xin Li; Yu Zhong; Li Tian; Yuanchun Shi; Hao Wang
Social network games (SNGs) are among the most popular games recently. Different from the asynchronous and online based SNGs, we present Surprise Grabber to see how tangible gesture interface could benefit the synchronous co-located social game. In Surprise Grabber, users control a virtual grabber's moving in 3D game to catch the gifts by using their camera phone. An efficient code running on the phone detects hand motion, delivers results to Serve PC and provides feedbacks in real time. Distinguished from online SNGS, all players stand together in front of a public display. The results of the pilot user studies showed that: 1) Gesture interface was easy to catch up and made the game more immersive; 2) Occasionally inaccuracy in hand motion detection made the game more competitive instead of frustrating players; 3) Players' performances were obviously influenced by the social atmosphere; 4) In most cases, players' performances became better or worse at the same time.
PRIMIExperience: experience sampling via instant messaging BIBAFull-Text 629-632
  Mirko Fetter; Tom Gross
In this paper we present the PRIMIExperience system, proposing the use of instant messaging as a mean for carrying out cost-effective Experience Sampling studies with a minimised setup effort.
   In this paper we present the PRIMIExperience system, proposing the use of instant messaging as a mean for carrying out cost-effective Experience Sampling studies with a minimised setup effort.
Clinical journal: a collaborative shared medical workspace BIBAFull-Text 633-636
  Kristina Groth; Oscar Frykholm; Alexander Yngling
We describe our findings from a cooperative design effort of a shared medical workspace used in multi-disciplinary team meetings, as well as during other activities in a patient care pathway for highly specialised care. In collaboration with surgeons, sketches of such a system have been developed and evaluated. Our findings point out the importance of overview and visualisation of the information.
Using multiple scores for transcribing the distributed activities of a family BIBAFull-Text 637-640
  Julien Guibourdenche; Jacqueline Vacherand-Revel; Michèle Grosjean; Myriam Fréjus; Yvon Haradji
Describing distributed activities in multiple spaces of a home with multiple inhabitants is a methodological challenge which is important for the design of services. Recent works have recorded synchronized multi-video data of space-distributed activities. How could design-oriented researchers now take advantage of these data? We present our multi-score transcript methodology and discuss the types of analysis it allows.
Social Infobox: collaborative knowledge construction by social property tagging BIBAFull-Text 641-644
  Masahiro Hamasaki; Masataka Goto; Hideaki Takeda
We propose a novel style of social tagging to construct knowledge collaboratively called Social Property Tagging and introduce the prototype system Social Infobox. Structured data is useful for computer system, however defining structure of knowledge for representing data semantics is usually a costly and time consuming task. In general, data structures are constructed by experts of knowledge engineering. Our method aims to construct not only structured data but also structure of data collaboratively by simple user input.
i-sensor inference model for assessing trustworthiness in computer-mediated communications BIBAFull-Text 645-648
  Shuyuan Mary Ho; Xiangmin Zhang
This paper presents a modeling strategy for an intelligence sensor system, or i-Sensor, which can comprehend human's virtual dialogues in Computer Mediated Communications (CMC) and process those dialogues to understand trustworthiness detected among humans in a virtual collaborative group. The model proposed here is built on research that demonstrated how human "sensors" can detect unusual or unexpected changes in a psychological construct, trustworthiness, based on observed virtual behavior.
Environmental jolts: impact of exogenous factors on online community participation BIBAFull-Text 649-652
  Aditya Johri; Oded Nov; Raktim Mitra
Few studies of online communities take exogenous factors into account while explaining community participation. We present preliminary results from a study investigating the impact of steward companies' actions on online community participation. We identified two events: (1) open sourcing of Java by Sun and (2) acquisition of Sun (and consequently of Java) by Oracle, and examined participation in their developer online communities. We found significant change in participation levels around each event with both significant increases and decreases. We conjecture that participation increased if the action was perceived as supportive by developers (e.g. Sun's open sourcing of Java) whereas it decreased if the action was perceived as detrimental by developers (e.g. Oracle's acquisition of Sun).
Your and my little sprout BIBAFull-Text 653-656
  Joy Wei Jung; Kai Wang
While the significance of teamwork is becoming increasing important in many settings, many teams in schools have problems working together. The "Your and My Little Sprout" design aims to address factors affecting the success of team collaborations, such as lack of participation and unbalanced distribution of workload. We hope our design can help raise awareness of team objectives amongst team members.
Defining ontology by using users collaboration on social media BIBAFull-Text 657-660
  Saman Kamran; Fabio Crestani
This novel method is proposed for building a reliable ontology around specific concepts, by using the immense potential of active volunteering collaboration of detected knowledgeable users on social media.
   This novel method is proposed for building a reliable ontology around specific concepts, by using the immense potential of active volunteering collaboration of detected knowledgeable users on social media.
A menu-planning support system to facilitate communication among neighbors BIBAFull-Text 661-664
  Hideaki Kanai; Kei Kitahara
The emergence of social networking services on the Internet has facilitated communication between people located far away from each other. Through a variety of Web services, people can get together on a virtual platform to video chat, edit documents, and engage in other activities; however, neighboring residents do not always have a chance to meet each other face-to-face. In our research, we focus on people living close to each other and try to encourage them to get together. We have attempted to encourage people to bring along their own ingredients to a get-together for cooking and eating according to "Osusowake," a traditional Japanese ritual. We propose a menu-planning support system that utilizes the shared information of cooking ingredients owned by individuals.
The Tree of Knowledge: a localized collective intelligence tool BIBAFull-Text 665-668
  Gyu Hyun Kwon; Yoon Suk Lee; Mithilesh Kumar
In this work, we implemented a localized collective intelligence tool called the Tree of Knowledge that represents the on-going knowledge activities in a building. The Tree of Knowledge can increase the awareness of who knows what in the building and trigger more face-to-face interactions and collaborations. We pointed out the importance of localized, motivation, informal, and openness in designing such collective intelligence tools. Further applications and implications are discussed.
Supporting generation Y interactions: challenges for office work BIBAFull-Text 669-672
  Wei Liu; Pieter Jan Stappers; Gert Pasman; Jenneke Taal-Fokker
With Generation Y entering the workforce, for the first time IT supported tools at home are more advanced than these tools at work. This project aims to understand and model this friction and its challenges through a sequence of literature review and interviews. We identified six qualities of interactions and how they occur in private and work contexts. Based on these findings, we aim to develop guidelines as well as demonstrators that support Generation Y interactions in future office work.
Evaluating a smart working environment with a digital card game prototype BIBAFull-Text 673-676
  Oleksandr Lobunets; Wolfgang Prinz
This paper presents a digital card game that utilizes different multi-touch interaction devices to experience and evaluate cooperative user interactions. Goal of this approach is the exploration of a smart cooperation environment of interconnected devices. We present the system design and implementation as well as an initial user study that indicates the applicability of our approach.
Towards requirements engineering for a tumour removing robot: work-practice observation of surgical teams performing brain tumour surgery BIBAFull-Text 677-680
  Anthony Masih
In brain tumour surgery factors critical to success include the accuracy, expedition and consistency with which the task is performed; surgical robots have been developed to better meet these success factors. In this paper we describe preliminary results of a small, innovative, student research study, which is yet to be validated with subsequent user studies. Its aim is to identify requirements for the task of brain tumour surgery, toward a wider project considering the development of a tumour removing robot. 5 brain tumour operations are observed using the ethnographic approach of work-practice observation informed by an ethnomethodological orientation. 4 observations are noted and corroborated with examples in evidence. We conclude that this study has identified potential requirements for a surgical robot, which would not have been highlighted using traditional approaches employed in the field of surgical robotics. These requirements may need to be validated with user-studies before being added to a requirements specification for a surgical robot.
Eliciting risk perceptions with an online game: preliminary results BIBAFull-Text 681-684
  William L. McGill; Yan Cao; Miao Jiang; Jorge J. Calle; Stephen Broomell; Gale Lauser
We describe a scientific casual browser game called LinkIT for eliciting societal risk perceptions in the form of mental models represented as influence diagrams. Given this knowledge, we can highlight similarities and differences across demographic groups as well as compare individual responses with expert models. These comparisons inform how risk should be best communicated to resolve knowledge gaps and misperceptions. Here we introduce the LinkIT concept, present preliminary results and propose future work.
Are artificial team-mates scapegoats in computer games BIBAFull-Text 685-688
  Tim R. Merritt; Kian Boon Tan; Christopher Ong; Aswin Thomas; Teong Leong Chuah; Kevin McGee
In cooperative games that involve team-mates that are controlled by either a computer or another human player, is there a difference in how humans assign credit or blame? There has been some related work on computers as team-mates and credit/blame assignment, but there does not seem to have been work to show whether the belief that a team-mate is human or not affects this. A qualitative study was conducted, in which 16 participants played variations of a team-based game with one of four kinds of team-mates: human (real or perceived) or AI (real or perceived). The two main findings of this research are that the perception of whether a team-mate is human or computer results in different credit/blame assignment and results in inaccurate skill assessment.
SPARSH: passing data using the body as a medium BIBAFull-Text 689-692
  Pranav Mistry; Suranga Nanayakkara; Pattie Maes
SPARSH explores a novel interaction method to seamlessly transfer data among multiple users and devices in a fun and intuitive way. The user touches a data item they wish to copy from a device, conceptually saving in the user's body. Next, the user touches the other device they want to paste/pass the saved content. SPARSH uses touch-based interactions as indications for what to copy and where to pass it. Technically, the actual transfer of media happens via the information cloud.
Automatic adjustment of a virtual teacher's model in a learning support system BIBAFull-Text 693-696
  Mamoun Nawahdah; Tomoo Inoue
It is known that a virtual teacher-model's position and orientation influence (a) the number of errors, and (b) the accomplishment time, in physical-task learning using mixed reality (MR) environments. This paper proposes an automatic method to adjust the virtual teacher's orientation according to a given task motion. Through always showing the physical task's critical features regardless of changes in position, mimicking errors regarding the respective task are expected to be minimized. Thus this research is considered to advance transferring skills of physical tasks. It can also be applied to remote collaborative work.
Interactions with real and digital elements for collaborative document creation BIBAFull-Text 697-700
  Mariano Perez Pelaez; Ikuro Choh
We present a workspace based on a large interactive desktop that provides interaction with digital information and physical objects. This environment is designed to support the tasks that usually are performed at our laboratory work desk, such as workgroup, brainstorming sessions and meetings, for users who can be at the laboratory or accessing to it from a remote location. Digital and real object share the same space and mixed manipulation is easily achieved. Users can transfer information from a real document or any object to create digital versions, or can augment objects with digital information. Also real objects, even others than documents, can be used to perform programmed actions. Any task can be performed with the most ideal physical tool for a given action. Our objective is to use the available technologies to eliminate the barrier between real and digital when interacting with a computer.
Different time management behaviors of Germans, Chinese and Japanese BIBAFull-Text 701-704
  Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Jun Liu; Stephan Verhasselt; Toshikazu Kato; Christopher M. Schlick
We are studying how to design a collaborative time management system to facilitate intercultural collaborations considering cultural differences. In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study comparing time management behaviors of Germans, Chinese and Japanese. The results revealed that Germans and Japanese use time management mechanics and goal setting and priorities more frequently than Chinese. Japanese and Chinese have higher preference for organization than Germans. All three groups use more time management mechanics than goal setting and priorities. The implications for time management system design were discussed.
Intellectual property policy and attractiveness: a longitudinal study of free and open source software projects BIBAFull-Text 705-708
  Carlos Denner, Jr. Santos; Marcos Bonci Cavalca; Fabio Kon; Julio Singer; Victor Ritter; Damaris Regina; Tamy Tsujimoto
This paper reports early findings of a longitudinal study designed to evaluate the impact of changes in the intellectual property policy of 756 free and open source projects on their attractiveness over 44 months.
   This paper reports early findings of a longitudinal study designed to evaluate the impact of changes in the intellectual property policy of 756 free and open source projects on their attractiveness over 44 months.
Temporal patterns of cohesiveness in virtual groups BIBAFull-Text 709-712
  Victoria L. Schwanda; Kyle Barron; Jennifer Lien; Gretchen Schroeder; Ashley Vernon; Jeffrey T. Hancock
Group cohesiveness is a vital social dynamic that is difficult to achieve in virtual teams, but leadership can help groups move past these challenges. We used the Language Style Matching metric to measure group cohesiveness over the course of interaction while groups with either assigned or emerging leaders worked via online chat to complete a collaborative task. We find that overall, successful groups are more cohesive than unsuccessful groups at all times. For groups with assigned leaders, we find this same pattern of cohesiveness. For groups with emerging leaders we find that successful groups and unsuccessful groups are similar in group cohesiveness during the first two-thirds of interaction, but during the final third successful groups are more cohesive than unsuccessful groups.
A production monitoring and data processing system for the textile enterprise based on multi-Agent BIBAFull-Text 713-716
  Jingfeng Shao; Jinfu Wang; Liping Yang
According to actual requirements of the textile enterprise, a production management structure model based on multi-Agent is proposed by using the multi-Agent technology, relationship model, decision theory and expert system. Then, through comparing the existing information management system, the advantages of the system is also reflected, and the functional structure model of the system is optimized. Third, a flexible, dynamic, efficient collaboration management platform is designed. As verified by real application, production management and decision model based on multi-Agent strengthens the interactivity role both the user and the system, meets the requirements of the production management, intelligent decision and personalized service, and promotes the informatization development of production management of the textile enterprise.
Types of newcomers in an online developer community BIBAFull-Text 717-720
  Vandana Singh; Aditya Johri; Raktim Mitra
In this interactive paper we present preliminary results from an analysis of help seeking interactions of newcomers in an online developer community for beginners. We develop the distinctions among newcomers to create different profiles of newcomers which are often clubbed together in a homogeneous group. These profiles are generalizations of activities, behavior and attitudes of newcomers in these communities and they highlight the differences among members of this group.
Study of user interruptibility estimation based on focused application switching BIBAFull-Text 721-724
  Takahiro Tanaka; Kinya Fujita
In this study, we propose a user-interruptibility estimation method based on focused application switching (AS) during PC work. It was experimentally demonstrated that the interruptions of AS are more acceptable than those during continuous work. Therefore, we constructed an algorithm that estimates the interruptibility of AS at three levels based on 19 selected indexes. The feasibility of the interruptibility estimation of AS was demonstrated by an estimation experiment using another dataset of 11 users.
A dive into online community properties BIBAFull-Text 725-728
  Patrick Wagstrom; Jacquelyn Martino; Juerg von Kaenel; Marshini Chetty; John Thomas; Lauretta Jones
As digital communities grow in size their feature sets also grow with them. Different users have different experiences with the same tools and communities. Enterprises and other organizations seeking to leverage these communities need a straightforward way to analyze and compare a variety of salient attributes of these communities. We describe a taxonomy and tool for crowd-sourcing user based evaluations of enterprise relevant attributes of digital communities and present the results of a small scale study on its usefulness and stability across multiple raters.
Express location: supporting coordination of mobile delivery work BIBAFull-Text 729-732
  Markus Westerlund; Maria Normark; Lars Erik Holmquist
This paper introduces Express Location, a mobile web application, supporting drivers in delivery service in the daily coordination of work. Remote communication and cooperation takes place on a shared map view around the drivers' locations and next stop, through a drawing/doodling tool and multiple visual object representations. The aim is to understand the working situation and the use of locations in the daily work to better support the coordination of mobile delivery work.
Integrating Twitter into Wiki to support informal awareness BIBAFull-Text 733-736
  Xuan Zhao; Wenpeng Xiao; Changyan Chi; Min Yang
In the current study, we explored Twitter as a useful and practical extension to a wiki-based collaborative work space. A two-week experiment and a survey study shed some light on the potential benefits of integrating Twitter, or other existing social networking tools with a formal collaborative work space in encouraging meta-data level communication and promoting informal awareness.