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ACM SIGCHI Bulletin 23

Editors:Bill Hefley
Dates:1991
Volume:23
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISSN 0736-6906; QA 76.9 P75 555
Papers:107
Links:Table of Contents
  1. SIGCHI 1991 Volume 23 Issue 1
  2. SIGCHI 1991 Volume 23 Issue 2
  3. SIGCHI 1991 Volume 23 Issue 3
  4. SIGCHI 1991 Volume 23 Issue 4

SIGCHI 1991 Volume 23 Issue 1

Human Values and the Future of Technology: A Declaration of Responsibility BIBA 11-16
  Ben Shneiderman
"We must learn to balance the material wonders of technology with the spiritual demands of our human nature." John Naisbitt (1982).
   We can make a difference in shaping the future by ensuring that computers "serve human needs (Mumford, 1934)." By making explicit the enduring values that we hold dear we can guide computer system designers and developers for the next decade, century, and thereafter. After setting our high-level goals we can pursue the components and seek the process for fulfilling them.
   High-level goals might include peace, excellent health care, adequate nutrition, accessible education, communication, freedom of expression, support for creative exploration, safety, and socially constructive entertainment. Computer technology can help attain these high-level goals if we clearly state measurable objectives, obtain participation of professionals and design effective human-computer interfaces. Design considerations include adequate attention to individual differences among users, support of social and organizational structures, design, for reliability and safety, provision of access by the elderly, handicapped, or illiterate, and appropriate user controlled adaptation. With suitable theories and empirical research we can achieve ease of learning, rapid performance, low error rates, and good retention over time, while preserving high subjective satisfaction.
   To raise the consciousness of designers and achieve these goals, we must generate an international debate, stimulate discussions within organizations, and interact with other intellectual communities. This paper calls for a focus on the "you" and "I" in developing improved user interface (UI) research and systems, offers a Declaration of Responsibility, and proposes a Social Impact Statement for major computing projects.
Note: Originally appeared in the Proceedings of the Conference on Computers and the Quality of Life (CQL'90), New York: ACM, Sept. 13-16, 1990.

Workshop Report

Report on the CHI'90 Workshop on Computer-Human Interaction in Aerospace Systems BIB 17-23
  Sharon Irving; Christine M. Mitchell

CHI'90 Posters

Poster Paper Introduction BIB 24
  Joseph W. Sullivan
A Context for Designing Adaptations: The Multi-Oriented Structured Task Analysis (MOST) Methodology BIBA 25-29
  James A., Jr. Carter; James P. Hancock
The Multi-Oriented Structured Task analysis (MOST) methodology attempts to be most things to most of its users most of the time by balancing the needs for completeness and consistency of structured specifications with the needs of both system designers and system users for flexibility and adaptivity. The MOST methodology structures a task analysis and integrates it with other more formal specification methodologies including software engineering methodologies, human-computer interaction methodologies, and explicit user models. MOST stores these specifications in a knowledge base of four major interlinked foci for the information (users, tasks, data, and tools) and an optional foci (constraints) that can be linked to any of the major foci. The linkages in a MOST knowledge base facilitate the flexible structuring and restructuring of records. These linkages can model alternative designs and/or paths by which a system can adapt its interface while maintaining functional consistency. Various design heuristics (both software engineering and human factors) can be applied to an analysis recorded in a MOST knowledge base to assist in its transformation into a suitable design. The MOST methodology is designed to cooperate with and to assist the designer rather than to force the user to serve the methodology.
The Interface Specialist: Contrasting Opinions on Role Content BIBA 30-32
  Lorraine F. Normore
Through involvement in on-going development projects, we investigated issues brought about by having interface specialists rather than generally trained system development staff designing and developing interfaces. This article reports on some of the issues raised, discusses the activities associated with this project and points out differences in the perceptions of the tasks seen as relevant to this role by a human factors professional and by systems development staff.
Simulation and Information Order as Influences in the Development of Mental Models BIB 33-35
  Matthew A. Augustine; Michael D. Coovert
New User Interface Strategies for Public Telephones BIB 36-37
  Lisa Fast
Cognitive Issues in Representing Design Reasoning as Hypertext BIBA 38-40
  Simon Shum
Hypertext offers powerful facilities for representing and manipulating structure, but the cognitive task of parsing ideas into discrete chunks can be intrusive. This summary describes ongoing work looking at the use of semi-formal notations for representing design reasoning. One experiment highlighted a number of cognitive overheads in using the notation, but a subsequent study is indicating that with training, the notation can be used unobstrusively by computer scientists to record reasoning during design problem solving.
Four Generic Communication Tasks which Must be Supported in Electronic Conferencing BIBA 41-43
  John C. McCarthy; Victoria C. Miles; Andrew F. Monk; Michael D. Harrison; Alan J. Dix; Peter C. Wright
In this paper we describe and discuss the design implications of four Generic Communication Tasks which must be supported in electronic conferencing.
The Design and Maintenance of the Andrew Help System: Providing a Large Set of Information to a Large Community of Users BIB 44-47
  Ayami Ogura; Terilyn Gillespie
Helping the User by Helping the Developer: The Role of Guidelines in a Multimedia Context BIB 48-51
  Maria G. Wadlow; Christina Haas; Dan Boyarski; Paul G. Crumley
Claims, Observations and Inventions: Analysing the Artifact BIBA 52-54
  Andrew F. Monk; Peter C. Wright
This paper describes the use of observation-invention pairs to illustrate important general points about the way that users interact with computers. The technique can be viewed as a form of artifact analysis.
The Use of Think-Aloud Evaluation Methods in Design BIBA 55-57
  Peter C. Wright; Andrew F. Monk
This paper reports on two studies in which teams of two or three trainee designers evaluated a user interface by observing a user working through some set tasks. These users were instructed to think aloud as they worked. The instruction received by the designers took the form of a brief how-to-do-it manual. Study 1 demonstrates that this method is effective. Study 2 found that more problems were detected by the designers of the system than other groups. Also, designers cannot predict the problems users will experience in advance of user testing.
Specifying Metaphors Algebraically BIB 58-60
  Werner Kuhn; Jeffrey P. Jackson; Andrew U. Frank
A Methodology for Taking Account of User Tasks, Goals and Behavior for Design of Computerized Library Catalogs BIB 61-65
  N. J. Belkin
The Impact of Organisations on Computers BIBA 66-67
  Matthew R. Jones
The traditional way of looking at computers and organisations has been to study the impact of computer systems on organisations. This paper, however, describes the impact of organisations on computers. It is also argued that the focus of attention in HCI research needs to be changed from its traditional emphasis on usability to consider whether, why and how systems are actually used in practice.
   The influence of four organisational factors (culture, politics, practice and history) on the use of computer systems in organisations is discussed. It is argued that each of these factors can have a substantial effect on systems and therefore need to be considered in interface design and research. Changes to the training of information systems developers are proposed to increase awareness of these issues.
Initiating Usability Methods with a New Engineering Design Tool BIBA 68-70
  Aita Salasoo
Goals, methods, and results of initial usability work for a new, intelligent software product are described. The approach yielded a number of expected and unforeseen benefits, as well as lessons for [sic]
LEGALESE: A Legal Argumentation Tool BIB 71-74
  D. Charles Hair
KARMA: Knowledge Acquisition, Retention and Maintenance Analysis BIB 75-77
  M. Czerwinski; R. Schumacher; B. Duba
Psychometric Evaluation of an After-Scenario Questionnaire for Computer Usability Studies: The ASQ BIBA 78-81
  James R. Lewis
A three-item after-scenario questionnaire was used in three related usability tests in different areas of the United States. The studies had eight scenarios in common. After participants finished a scenario, they completed the After-Scenario Questionnaire (the ASQ). A factor analysis of the responses to the ASQ items revealed that an eight-factor solution explained 94 percent of the variability of the 24 (eight scenarios by three items per scenario) items. The varimax-rotated factor pattern showed that these eight were clearly associated with the eight scenarios. The benefit of this research to system designers is that this three-item questionnaire has acceptable psychometric properties of reliability, sensitivity, and concurrent validity, and may be used with confidence in other, similar usability studies.
Privacy, Anonymity and Interpersonal Competition Issues Identified During Participatory Design of Project Management Groupware BIBA 82-87
  Michael J. Muller; John G. Smith; J. Zachary Shoher; Harry Goldberg
Project Management Groupware (PMG) presents complex design challenges because the resulting system can act as both (a) a community for interpersonal collaboration and (b) an arena for interpersonal competition. This paper describes an application of the participatory design paradigm to explore these issues, and to track the contingent evolution of computing systems and social systems around the PMG. We describe work in progress on the design of an experimental prototype that appears to have novel attributes in the areas of interpersonal collaboration and competition, information filtration, privacy, and elective anonymity in interpersonal communications.
A New Framework for Separating User Interfaces from Application Programs BIBA 88-91
  Hisashi Nakatsuyama; Makoto Murata; Koji Kusumoto
We propose an object-oriented user interface framework that allows 1) easy development of user interfaces, 2) separation of user interfaces from application programs, and 3) simultaneous and coordinated usage of several user interfaces of one program. Daemons keep these user interfaces consistent with the status of the program, while hiding the user interfaces from the program. Mapping objects, which are parts of user interfaces, are introduced to map complicated status of application programs to visual presentation. Consistency among subwindows of one window is also kept by daemons of the window. Again, each subwindow is hidden from the other subwindows.
ConMod: A System for Conceptual Consistency Verification and Communication BIBA 92-94
  Robert E. Braudes; John L. Sibert
The ConMod system is a modelling tool for the construction, verification, and communication of user conceptual models. A basic premise behind the research is that consistency at the syntactic and lexical levels cannot counteract conceptual inconsistencies designed into a system, and a working definition of conceptual consistency is maintained in a user-extensible knowledge base. The system designer has the option to test the model for completeness and conceptual consistency based upon high-level knowledge of the types of objects in the model. ConMod also generates conceptual specifications for discussing the model with end users and prototyping and implementation teams. Finally, ConMod allows the conceptual structure of one model to be reused in a different model.
Properties of Thinking and Feeling Transferred from Human Computer Interaction to Social Interaction BIB 95
  Ethel H. Hanson
Auditory Icons in Large-Scale Collaborative Environments BIBA 96
  William W. Gaver; Randall B. Smith
We discuss the potential for auditory icons to address several common problems in large-scale, multiprocessing, and collaborative systems. These problems include those of confirming user-initiated actions, providing information about ongoing processes or system states, providing adequate navigational information, and signalling the existence and activity of other users who may be working in a part of the system that is not visible. We provide several examples of useful auditory icons drawn from a large, shared, multitasking environment called SharedARK, and discuss their implications for other systems.
Note: A comprehensive version of this research was published in INTERACT'90: Human-Computer Interaction, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 735-740, 1990.

SIGCHI 1991 Volume 23 Issue 2

WIMPs and NERDs: An Extended View of the User Interface BIB 15-21
  Mark H. Chignell; John A. Waterworth
GEdit: A Test Bed for Editing by Contiguous Gestures BIB 22-26
  Gordon Kurtenbach; Bill Buxton
User Interface Programming Survey BIB 27-30
  Brad A. Myers; Mary Beth Rosson

Trip Report

UIST'90, The Annual Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology Snowbird, Utah, October 3-5, 1990 BIB 31-36
  Ellis S. Cohen
Usability Metrics and Methodologies British Computer Society, London, U.K., 21 May 1990 BIB 37-39
  Jakob Nielsen

Workshop Report

Report on the INTERACT'90 Workshop on Education in HCI: Transcending Disciplinary and National Boundaries BIB 40-45
  Marilyn M. Mantei; Thomas Hewett
CHI'90 Workshop on Visual Interfaces to Geometry BIB 46-55
  Werner Kuhn; Max J. Egenhofer

CHI'90 Posters

Poster Paper Introduction BIB 56
  Joseph W. Sullivan
Information Exchange Patterns in a Computer-Supported Cooperative Work Environment BIB 57-58
  Gary J. Cook; Cheryl L. Dunn; Severin V. Grabski
Users' Errors and Error Handling: Its Relationships with Task Structure and Social Support BIB 59-62
  Michael Frese; Felix C. Brodbeck; Dieter Zapf; Jochen Prumper
Errors in Computerized Office Work: Differences Between Novice and Expert Users BIBA 63-66
  Jochen Prumper; Michael Frese; Dieter Zapf; Felix C. Brodbeck
This paper deals with errors by novices and experts when interacting with the computer in normal office work. Three criteria are discussed to determine the level of expertise: a) total length of time that the user has worked computers, b) number of programs known, and c) length of daily work-time with the computer. In contrast to widespread assumptions, experts did not make less errors than novices (except knowledge errors). On the other hand, experts spent less time handling the errors than novices. A cluster analysis produced groups of Occasional-, Frequent-, Beginning- and General Users in the work force.
Hand Gesture Coding Based on Experiments Using a Hand Gesture Interface Device BIB 67-74
  Tomoichi Takahashi; Fumio Kishino
Jeepers: An Interface Perception Research Tool BIBA 75-80
  Suzanne Weghorst; Werner Stuetzle
Jeepers is a software tool for conducting empirical studies of user perception of graphical interface features. It was developed in the context of a research program on dynamic interactive graphical techniques for data visualization and exploration. The tool was effectively applied in researching the problem of discerning point cloud highlighting patterns such as those that would be displayed in interactive data "painting". Other potential research uses for the software are discussed.

SIGCHI 1991 Volume 23 Issue 3

Papers

A Concern about the Samuelson-Glushko Survey BIBK 12-14
  Jef Raskin
Keywords: Legal issues, Copyright, Patent, Graphic user interface
The HCI Bibliography Project BIBAKWeb Page 15-20
  Gary Perlman
The HCI Bibliography project has just released its first collections of a free-access online extended bibliography on Human-Computer Interaction. The basic goal of the project is to put an online bibliography for most of HCI on the screens of all researchers and developers in the field through anonymous ftp access, mail servers, and Mac and DOS floppy disks. Through the efforts of volunteers, the bibliography is approaching 1000 entries, with abstracts and/or tables of contents; eventually, citation information and hypertext access will be added. The first release contains the complete contents of all the ACM CHI conferences, the complete journal Human-Computer Interaction, and several other important sources. Eventually, all of HCI will be online and freely accessible around the world.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Bibliographic information, Research aids, Distributed group work, Networks, Cooperative research, Information sharing, Hypertext, Information retrieval

Special Issue on Computer Supported Cooperative Work

Introduction to the Special Issue on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) BIBAK 21
  Marilyn M. Mantei
The CSCW field has grown so quickly that it is experiencing the same problems the early CHI community faced. These include, (1) widely scattered literature that is difficult to find, (2) different conflicting paradigms for approaching the CSCW subject area, (3) multiple approaches for building and studying groupware systems but no framework for how or where to use them, and (4) a lack of integration of the new CSCW approaches with current technology. Four articles have been selected for publication in this issue to provide useful (albeit incomplete) solutions to the problems CSCW researchers and practitioners are facing.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, CSCW
A Tale of Two Cities: Reflections on CSCW in Europe and the United States BIBK 22-24
  Jonathan Grudin
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, CSCW
Computer Systems Supporting Cooperative Work: A CSCW'90 Trip Report BIBAK 25-28
  Scott Henninger
Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) is a relatively young research field that concerns itself with issues of using computers to support working groups. The third meeting of this biannual conference, CSCW'90, held last October in Los Angeles, brought together a mix of researchers, primarily from social sciences, computer science, business, and psychology. Over 500 researchers and developers attended the conference. There were 30 papers presented in non-overlapping sessions. The papers were mostly either descriptions of groupware systems or empirical studies of human working groups. In what follows, I will give my personal highlights of the conference. My overall assessment is that while the systems presented weren't that exciting, the studies were well done and illuminated problems with current CSCW applications, giving some direction for future systems.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, CSCW
An Annotated Bibliography of Computer Supported Cooperative Work BIBAK 29-62
  Saul Greenberg
Computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) is a new multi-disciplinary field with roots in many disciplines. Due to the area's youth and diversity, few specialized books or journals are available, and articles are scattered amongst diverse journals, proceedings and technical reports. Building a CSCW reference library is particularly demanding, for it is difficult for the new researcher to discover relevant documents. To aid this task, this article compiles, lists and annotates some of the current research in computer supported cooperative work into a bibliography. Over 300 references are included.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, CSCW
A Reflective Perspective of CSCW BIBAK 63-68
  Andrew J. G. Cockburn; Harold Thimbleby
Personal computing has had a major effect on the way that many people work; whole organisations have been revolutionised by tools such as filing systems and word processors. Whilst personal computing has enhanced the execution of work it has largely failed to support the cooperative environment in which it is done. CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) aims to remove this artificial division caused by the systemic focus on the single user and to replace it with systems supporting the wider, social, web of cooperation. Unfortunately CSCW in practice has failed in this task. This paper briefly discusses the reasons for this failure, and proposes a "reflexive perspective" of CSCW as an emphasis shift in current CSCW research which, it is argued and demonstrated by example, will result in greater success for future cooperative systems.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, CSCW

SIGCHI 1991 Volume 23 Issue 4

International Perspectives

International Perspectives: Some Thoughts on Differences between North American and European HCI BIBK 9-10
  John Karat
Keywords: North American human-computer interaction, European human-computer interaction
The First Moscow International Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction BIBAK 11-12
  Allen Cypher; Jonathan Grudin; Allan MacLean; Michael Naimark; Ken-ichi Okada; Mukesh Patel; Larry Press; Blaine Price; Carlo Tarantola; Marilyn Welles
The First Moscow International Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction gathered approximately 15 non-Soviet and 75 Soviet computer professionals for a week-long workshop at the International Center for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) in Moscow. At this workshop, 50 paper presentations and 25 product and prototype demos were presented. This report provides a brief description of the workshop and opportunities for future interaction.
Keywords: Trip report, European human-computer interaction, Soviet human-computer interaction, Moscow International Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction

Papers

An Agenda for Human-Computer Interaction: Science and Engineering Serving Human Needs: Report of an Invitational Workshop Sponsored by The National Science Foundation BIBAK 17-32
  Gary Marchionini; John Sibert
Human-computer interaction (HCI) research is concerned with the design of interfaces that allow easy and efficient use of computer systems. This report is the result of a workshop held to define the state of the art and to identify HCI research directions. The workshop was held on March 4 and 5, 1991 at George Washington University. The participants considered four areas of HCI research: theory and models; input/output devices; tools and architectures; and computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). This report contains information about each of these areas. Discussions of infrastructure support for HCI focus on the requirements for special equipment and expertise and on difficulties associated with interdisciplinary research. Resource sharing strategies are recommended to minimize some of these problems.
Keywords: HCI research, Theory and models, Input/output devices, Tools and architectures, Computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW), Infrastructure support for HCI research

CHI'91 Posters and Short Talks

Abstracts of CHI'91 Interactive Posters and Short Talks BIBK 33
  Dennis E. Egan
Keywords: CHI'91, Interactive posters, Managing the design process, Experiments on design issues, User models, Development tools, Evaluation methods, Domain specific designs, Hypertext, Information retrieval, Short talks, User models and behavior, Practical design methods, Collaborative writing and multimedia authoring, Use of familiar things in the design of interfaces, User interface design process and evaluation, Design tools and methods, Pointing gesture and handwriting as input media, Programming, Multimedia systems, Sound

CHI'91 Posters: Managing the Design Process

Technology Transfer of User Centered Architecture in a Large U.S. Corporation BIB 34-35
  Kathleen D. Cebulka; Michael J. Muller; Lillian Ruston
Human-Computer Interaction Design Must be Embedded in System Design: Lessons from NASA Intelligent Systems BIB 35-36
  Jane Malin; Debra Schreckenghost; Carroll Thronesbery
Integrating Usability and Marketing Activities: A Method for Supporting Accelerated Design Strategies BIBA 36
  R. Jay Ritchie; Judith A. List
Although the practice of user-centered design is advocated in many organizations, engineering management issues may prevent early focus on system usability. Within the usability engineering cycle, practitioners consider task analysis and customer needs assessment a high priority. Market research activities occur early in the process, but usability information is not collected or passed to system developers. To improve and to accelerate the design process and to validate user preference findings, task analysis and market research surveys were performed concurrently during the design validation phase of a data communications product. The basic process steps included: forming a multidisciplinary team, identifying data sources, collecting data via interviews and event record review, transforming data into task models and product opinion matrices, and using the models and matrices to design a sample product. A number of benefits were observed using this method: improved economies of research and analysis time, increased strength of product opinion data, early product improvements, increased customer understanding of the product, and an improved product engineering process.
Artist-Designers and Interaction Design BIB 36-37
  Gillian Crampton Smith

CHI'91 Posters: Experiments on Design Issues

The Misunderstood Picture: A Study of Icon Recognition BIB 37-38
  Michael D. Byrne
The Effects of Warnings and Display Similarity on Interruption in Multitasking Environments BIB 38-39
  Mary Czerwinski; Steve Chrisman; Bob Schumacher
An Evaluation of Alternative Designs for Variable Selection Lists BIB 39
  Alan J. Happ; Sharon L. Stanners
Deciding through Doing: The Role of Sketching in Typographic Design BIB 39-40
  Rachel Hewson
Gesture Consistency for Text, Spreadsheet, Graphic and Form Fill Editing BIBA 40-41
  Mary J. LaLomia; Karen C. Cohen
Computer systems that simulate a paper and pen environment have been the focus of considerable development activity. One concern generated from this activity is whether a default set of hand-drawn gestures should be provided to the users. This paper examined whether individuals produced similar gestures for 32 editing functions across four application domains; text, spreadsheet, graphic, and form fill. The individuals (half computer novices and half computer-experienced) indicated gestures for each of the editing functions using each application domain. The results indicated that the consistency of hand-drawn gestures was not affected by the participant's computer experience, by the size and shape of the information to be modified or the application domain.
Consistency versus Mnemonics in Text Editor Command Sets BIB 41
  Adrienne Y. Lee; Peter W. Foltz; Peter G. Polson

CHI'91 Posters: User Models

User Testing a Programming Language: Experience and Methodology BIB 42
  Adriane Donkers; Marta Arnaldo; Richard Dillon; Jo Tombaugh
A Task Analytic Methodology for Predicting Ease of Learning of Interactive Computer Systems BIB 43
  Mohamed Khalifa
Understanding Errors in Human Computer Interaction BIB 43-45
  Kathy L. Lang; Arthur C. Graesser; Darold D. Hemphill
Transfer of General Skills Across Domains: Computer Program Debugging and Troubleshooting of Circuits BIBA 45
  Adrienne Y. Lee
A general finding in psychological studies is that little or no transfer occurs across domains. This research proposes four components as critical elements for finding across domain transfer: 1) examining a single level of skill, 2) transfer of domain general knowledge, 3) extensive practice, and 4) specific training on the strategies used. To test these components, the skill of diagnosis will be examined. General diagnostic skill should transfer, but specific knowledge such as computer programming knowledge or electronic component knowledge should not transfer.
Controlling Interaction with Meta-Acts BIBA 45-46
  David G. Novick
User models that are adequate for conversational interaction between human and machine must include meta-knowledge about the state of conversational control. This paper discusses the representation and use of such meta-knowledge, proposes a conversational model based on meta-locutionary acts, and presents a conversational simulation based on the model.
What Do Programmers Really Look At in a Program: A Pilot Study BIB 46-47
  Jean Scholtz; Julie Csoppenszky
Changes in User Task Strategy Due to System Response Delay BIB 47-48
  Steven L. Teal; Alexander I. Rudnicky

CHI'91 Posters: Development Tools

A Tour through the Avis UIMS BIB 49-50
  Michel Beaudouin-Lafon; Michel Thiellement
Empowering Industrial Designers BIBA 50-51
  L. Colgan; A. Gupta; P. J. Rankin; R. Spence
Industrial design is an important, but complex activity whose creative phases are poorly supported by computer aids. Numerical methods could assist the process of design innovation, but present many cognitive barriers to their exploitation. We describe an ambitious project aimed at bringing the power of one such method, optimisation, to analogue circuit engineers.
The Druid User Interface Management System BIB 51-52
  Eelco Vriezekolk
Task Protocol Specification: A Workstation Independent Specification Technique for Human-Computer Interaction BIB 52-53
  Paul M. Mullins; Siegfried Treu
Designing Graphical User Interfaces Using TAE Plus BIB 53-54
  Martha R. Szczur

CHI'91 Posters: Evaluation Methods

A Validation of Ergonomic Criteria for the Evaluation of User Interfaces BIB 54-55
  Christian Bastien; Dominique L. Scapin
Explanations of Artifacts for Design: The Use of Task Strategies BIB 55-56
  Rachel Bellamy
Use of the Eyegaze System in a Usability Laboratory BIB 56-57
  Denise C. R. Benel; Donald, Jr. Ottens; Richard Horst
Computerized Task Analysis BIB 57-58
  Maxine S. Cohen; David G. Payne; Richard E. Pastore
Empiricism versus Judgement: Comparing User Interface Evaluation Methods on a New Telephone-Based Interface BIB 58-59
  Heather Desurvire; Debbie Lawrence; Michael Atwood
Usability Analysis with Artifacts on Panels BIB 59-60
  Rumi Hiraga; Yeong-Chang Lien
Making Marks Self-Revealing BIB 60-61
  Gordon Kurtenbach
User Interface Design Expertise and Learning in the Software Industry BIB 61-62
  Lori Marchak; Teresa Forster; Robert Braudes

CHI'91 Posters: Domain Specific Designs

Electronic Mail Standards: Reconciling Technology with Usability BIB 62-63
  Nigel Bevan
Menix: A UNIX User Adaptable Interface BIBA 64-65
  Yves Chauvin
Menix is an adaptive user interface that presents to a user a limited set of Unix commands as a function of a predefined level of information. The commands presented in an adaptable menu are functions of the user and his/her past interaction with Unix. Menix infers the level of information of a command from information theoretic principles. Commands/units are also connected by adaptable weights. A level of activation is computed for each command and commands with high levels of activation (high information content) are then presented to the user. For each command typed by the user, Menix learns by adjusting the weights between commands. At first, each user is considered as an "average" user. Following a number of sessions, the system adapts and attempts to infer current knowledge and goals of each user. The theoretical principles can be adapted to other systems of complexity comparable to Unix.
Protocol Analysis of the Use of a CAD System in a Home Design Task BIB 65-66
  Armin Bruderlin; John Dickinson; John Dill; Lyn Bartram
VVM: An Exploration in Screen-Based Telephony BIBA 66
  Marc Fusco; Nicholas, Jr. Gattuso; Robert Schumacher
Communications technology has evolved so rapidly that many features provided to the average user are underutilized. One of our goals for the future is to provide the user with an easy-to-use interface to all network services and capabilities. Screen-based telephony may provide a practical and functional interface by which a user can access and control their voice communication services. VVM is a screen-based interface to a voice processing system currently implemented on a personal computer. Laboratory usability testing has enabled use to refine the present design and impending field trials will provide us with qualitative and quantitative data in order to assess if users utilize more system-provided capabilities for voice processing that is currently used. This endeavor will enable greater understanding of what underlies the success or failure of screen-based telephony and allow us to validate assumptions that screen-based telephony has the potential to improve a wide range of voice services.
The Evaluation of Cursor Control Devices for Space Station Freedom BIB 66-67
  Kritina L. Holden; Debra Muratore; Marianne Rudisill
ClearFace: Translucent Multiuser Interface for TeamWorkStation BIB 67-68
  Hiroshi Ishii; Kazuho Arita
Usability Problems of Residential Multifunction Terminals BIB 68-69
  Michel Nael

CHI'91 Posters: Hypertext and Information Retrieval

Children's Use of a Direct Manipulation Library Catalog BIB 69-70
  Christine L. Borgman; Virginia A. Walter; Jason B. Rosenberg; Andrea L. Gallagher
A Text Comprehension Model of Hypertext: A Theory Based Approach to Design and Evaluation BIB 70
  Peter W. Foltz
Hello Central: An Object-Oriented Data Browser BIB 71-72
  Hans Brunner; Steve Fogel; Robert Cuthbertson; Randall Sparks

CHI'91 Short Talks: User Models and Behavior

Identifying High-Level UNIX Tasks BIB 73-74
  Russell J. Branaghan; James E. McDonald; Roger W. Schvaneveldt
Underutilization of Archival Facilities in a UNIX Environment: A Resource Allocation Problem BIB 74-75
  M. Elliott Familant
Two Methods for Producing Discriminable Colour Sets for Computer Displays BIB 75
  Darren Van Laar; Richard Flavell

CHI'91 Short Talks: Practical Design Methods

Insight from Situated Action Analysis: The Case of Telephone Operating Company Engineers BIB 76
  Aita Salasoo; Mark Rosenstein; George H. Collier

CHI'91 Short Talks: Collaborative Writing and Multimedia Authoring

A Collaborative Negotiation Tool BIB 77
  Beth Adelson

CHI'91 Short Talks: Use of Familiar Things in the Design of Interfaces

Experimental Evaluation of Icon Quality BIB 78
  Paul F. Sorenson; Jayson M. Webb

CHI'91 Short Talks: User Interface Design Process and Evaluation

An After-Scenario Questionnaire for Usability Studies: Psychometric Evaluation Over Three Trials BIB 79
  James R. Lewis

CHI'91 Short Talks: Design Tools and Methods

What Makes a Good Design Question? BIB 80-81
  Victoria Bellotti; Allan MacLean; Thomas Moran
Storyboard-Based Programming Tools BIB 81-82
  Michelle Fineblum; Henry Lieberman
An Object User Interface for an Environmental Information System BIB 82
  Ken Yap

CHI'91 Short Talks: Pointing, Gesture and Handwriting as Input Media

An Empirically Developed System for the Selection of Computer Input Devices for Users with Physical Disabilities BIB 83
  Sherry Perdue Casali
Perceptual-Motor Control in Human-Computer Interaction BIB 83-84
  Erik Nilsen

CHI'91 Short Talks: Programming

Reusing Solutions in Software Design Activity: An Empirical Study BIB 84-85
  Francoise Detienne

CHI'91 Short Talks: Multimedia Systems

A Multimedia Interactive Cultural Simulation: Learning to Analyze and Construct Arguments BIB 85-86
  Beth Adelson; Evelyn Schlusselberg

CHI'91 Short Talks: Sound

Auralization of Parallel Programs BIB 86-87
  Larry Albright; Jay Alan Jackson; Joan Francioni
Screen, Phone, and Voice User Interfaces BIBA 87-88
  Richard Halstead-Nussloch; Mary Jacobson; Chan Chuongvan
Office principles often have multiple ways to complete typical tasks. For example, scheduling can be done on a paper calendar, electronically, by phone store-and-forward, etc. Each of the ways has unique user-interface characteristics and limitations, as well as a set of economic costs and benefits. We recently completed a study where 18 users compared traditional screen-based, phone-based, and voice-activated interfaces to calendar facilities. The voice-activated and phone-based user interfaces showed the highest level of usability among the comparison set, showing significantly smaller times to complete tasks and assistance requirements than screen-based facilities. With respect to preference 75% of the users preferred using a voice-activated or phone-based system for the typical calendaring task of signing out of the office, while only 5% stated a preference for a screen-based system.

CHI'91 Short Talks: Information Retrieval

Interest Driven Exploration of an Information Space BIB 88
  J. M. Slack; C. Conati
The Mutual Adaptation of Technology and Organization During the Implementation of an Automated Library System BIB 88-89
  Cynthia Lopata