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ACM SIGCHI Bulletin 29

Editors:Steven Pemberton
Dates:1997
Volume:29
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISSN 0736-6906; QA 76.9 P75 555
Papers:97
Links:Table of Contents
  1. SIGCHI 1997 Volume 29 Issue 1
  2. SIGCHI 1997 Volume 29 Issue 2
  3. SIGCHI 1997 Volume 29 Issue 3
  4. SIGCHI 1997 Volume 29 Issue 4

SIGCHI 1997 Volume 29 Issue 1

From the Editor

Achieving the Future BIBHTML 1
  Steven Pemberton

From the Chairs

The Future of SIGCHI BIBHTML 2-3
  Mike Atwood; Guy Boy

World-Wide CHI

Future Ethics BIBHTML 4-6
  John Karat; Clare-Marie Karat

Education

HCI Education: Where is it Headed? BIBHTML 7-9
  Andrew Sears

Visual Interaction Design

The Future of Visual Interaction Design? BIBHTML 10-11
  Shannon Ford; Frank M. Marchak

Local SIGs

Ensuring a Local SIG's Future: Fitting Into and Creating a Culture BIBHTML 12
  Richard Anderson

Kids and Computers

Children, Creativity and Computers BIBHTML 13
  Allison Druin
CHI Ten Year View: Creating and Sustaining Common Ground BIBHTML 14-17
  Catherine R. Marshall; David Novick
CHI 97, Looking to the Future: A Conference Preview BIBHTML 18-19
  Peter Stevens

Standards

User Interface Standards in the ISO Ergonomics Technical Committee BIBHTML 20-22
  Harry E. Blanchard
AVI '96: An International Workshop BIBHTML 23-24
  Peter Pirolli
HCI in Australasia: Towards INTERACT'97 BIBHTML 25-27
  Rachel Croft; Susan Wolfe
The CHI 96 Basic Research Symposium BIBHTML 28-30
  Alan Dix; Francesmary Modugno
Erratum: HCI in Italy: Task-Centred Design: Turning Task Modelling into Design BIB 30
  P. Marti

HCI and Requirements Engineering

Human Computer Interaction and Requirements Engineering: Papers from an Interdisciplinary Workshop, 15th January, 1996 BIBHTML 31
  Chris Johnson; Sara Jones
Exploring Human-Computer Interaction and Software Engineering Methodologies for the Creation of Interactive Software BIBAHTML 32-35
  Judy Brown
This paper explores the methodologies for the development of interactive systems proposed by software engineers and human-computer interaction specialists. This paper calls for better methodologies that highlight and value the important contributions of both software engineering and HCI (human-computer interaction) designers.
People, Places and Interfaces: Using Physiological Constraints to Inform the Design of Safety-Critical User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 36-40
  C. W. Johnson
A range of techniques have been developed to plan the layout of computer systems within complex working environments. For instance, computer aided design (CAD) tools can be used to simulate operators' posture at a particular workstation. Fitting studies can then be used to provide empirical validation. Unfortunately, few of these techniques also support the development of interactive dialogues. This is an important problem because the position of a display can determine whether users are able to monitor its information. The physical location of input devices can also have a profound impact upon error rates. This paper presents techniques that support interface development and workstation layout for safety-critical systems. First-order logic can be used to represent and reason about human computer dialogues. The same formalism can also be used to identify appropriate locations for input and output devices within control rooms and offices. The findings of ergonomic studies can then be applied to analyze the mental and physical demands that are imposed by interactive dialogues within a particular working environment.
Keywords: Dialogue design, Environmental layout, Safety-critical systems, Formal methods
Integrating HCI and Software Engineering Requirements Analysis: A Demonstration of Task Analysis Supporting Entity Modeling BIBAKHTML 41-50
  Dan Diaper
Illustrated within the context of SSADM, a demonstration is described that shows how the task analysis method TAKD can support requirements analysis by improving entity modeling. Entity Life History Matrices are generated directly from TAKD, thus demonstrating one form of method integration. TAKD is shown to be able to support Entity Life History modeling, at a minimum, as a QA process to test the validity of Entity Life Histories.
Keywords: Requirements analysis, SSADM, Task analysis, TAKD
Generating Requirements in a Courier Despatch Management System BIBHTML 51-53
  Jocelyn Keep; Hilary Johnson
Formal User-Centered Requirements Engineering BIBAHTML 54-55
  Barbara Paech
In this extended abstract we discuss the combination of formal and user-centered requirements engineering. Formal methods like Z [Wor92], VDM [AI91], LOTOS, ESTELLE and SDL [Tur93] focus on requirements specification in terms of an abstract behaviour description of the software system to be built. User-centered requirements engineering is concerned with identifying the users of the software system and understanding the tasks to be supported by the system. Here we propose
  • a formal enterprise model and a formal interface model as a means of closing
       the gap between the informal description of users and tasks and the formal
       description of the software system and
  • the use of scenarios as first-class modelling elements as a means of deriving
       the enterprise and interface model systematically.
  • Towards a Framework for Investigating Temporal Properties in Interaction BIBAKHTML 56-60
      Helen Parker; Chris Roast; Jawed Siddiqi
    This paper surveys the issues involved in obtaining a clearer understanding of the formal definition of factors which affect the usability of systems. It explores the concerns raised in applying traditional engineering approaches to the treatment of usability requirements and focuses, in particular, on the role that formalisms play in an analysis of trade-offs between usability and system requirements.
       A comparative review of the conceptual frameworks for expressing usability is presented. Consideration is then given to assessing current formalisms for representing usability. Finally, a justification for the investigation of temporal properties of interaction, and their formal representation, is proposed.
    Keywords: Usability, Requirements engineering, Formal methods, Temporal properties
    Eliciting Interactive Systems Requirements in a Language-Centred User-Designer Collaboration: A Semiotic Approach BIBAHTML 61-65
      Marcelo Soares Pimenta; Richard Faust
    This paper presents our semiotic approach to interactive systems requirements elicitation and it is structured as follows. Section 2 presents an brief comparison with other semiotic approaches. Section 3 introduces the user-designer communication problem during the elicitation phase as a motivation for our work. Section 4 presents an overview of the semiotic framework and the main characteristics of our requirements elicitation strategy. In the section 5, a short but comprehensive example illustrates some aspects of semiotic approach usage. Finally, some final remarks are drawn.
    Specifying Cognitive Interface Requirements BIBAHTML 66-67
      Chris Roast
    One goal of requirements engineering is to ensure that a consistent and feasible requirements specification can be developed, while ensuring that the specification is a valid reflection of user requirements. Requirements engineering for human computer interface development is particularly complex since requirements regarding ease of use are often poorly expressed at the specification stage. At worst usability requirements are stated and their satisfaction (or otherwise) cannot be assessed until a design's completion. We address this problem by analysing the incorporation of human factors requirements at the level of abstract system specifications. In particular, the specification of usability requirements that are based upon cognitive characterisations of interaction (termed 'cognitive dimensions') can be investigated. Examining the influences of a cognitive theory in this way has two valuable outcomes. First, it illustrates how human factors issues can be incorporated into requirements specification and exploited early in interface development. As a result, it is possible to, say, assess trade-offs and conflicts between alternative requirements prior to specification. Second, the rigor of formal modelling provides a framework in which the cognitive domain itself can be clarified and possibly refined.
    OOE: A Compound Document Framework BIBAKHTML 68-75
      Bjorn E. Backlund
    A compound document system allows different applications to work together. For example, a word processor need not be forced to implement its own equation editor, instead it could employ compound document technology to co-operate with any equation editor available.
       In this paper I present an object-oriented compound document system with a couple of unique features: the system allows embedded objects to be treated as a combination of characters and embedded objects, which can seamlessly be divided into parts and can then be presented on different pages during the pagination process.
    Keywords: Compound document systems, Object-oriented, OLE, OpenDoc, OOE, NEXTSTEP, PostScript, Objective-C, Client-server
    "Finding and Reminding" Revisited: Appropriate Metaphors for File Organization at the Desktop BIBHTML 76-78
      Bonnie Nardi; Deborah Barreau
    Report on the Financial Status of ACM SIGCHI BIBHTML 79-80
      Clare-Marie Karat
    SIGCHI News BIBHTML 82-86
     
    CHI 97 Workshops BIBHTML 87-92
     

    The Real World

    Children BIBHTML 95
      Lon Barfield

    Views and Feelings

    Quick! The Future is Coming! BIBAHTML 96
      Steven Pemberton
    We have the good fortune to work in a relatively predictable field. If we don't take advantage of this, we run the risk of making the same old mistakes.

    SIGCHI 1997 Volume 29 Issue 2

    From the Editor

    New SIGCHI Email Addresses BIBHTML 1
      Steven Pemberton

    From the Chairs

    Global, International, World-wide, National, Regional, and Local BIBHTML 2-3
      Mike Atwood; Guy Boy

    World-Wide CHI

    The Internet and HCI in Australasia BIBHTML 4-5
      Dean Wood; Susan Wolfe

    Education

    Forums for Improving HCI Education BIBHTML 6-7
      Andrew Sears

    Standards

    HCI Standards in the United States BIBHTML 8-10
      Harry E. Blanchard

    Visual Interaction Design

    Beyond the Interface Metaphor BIBHTML 11-15
      Ken Mohnkern

    Local SIGs

    The Social Design of a Local SIG BIBHTML 16-17
      Richard Anderson

    Kids and Computers

    Why Do We Make Technology for Kids? BIBHTML 18-19
      Allison Druin

    Students

    The Evolution of CSCW: Past, Present and Future Developments BIBHTML 20-27
      David Crow; Sara Parsowith; G. Bowden Wise
    A Semiotic Framework for Multi-User Interfaces BIBAHTML 28-39
      Raquel Oliveira Prates; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza; Ana Cristina Bicharra Garcia
    Semiotic approaches to user interface designs have shown that system interfaces are messages sent from the designers to the users. It is through the system's interface that the designers tell the users the problems the system is able to solve and how the users should interact with it to solve these problems. In a multi-user's environment this message is more complex, since the designers must also tell the users how to interact in the group. To create such a message is not an easy task and designers should be provided with a good design tool. In this article we present a semiotic framework that is the first step in the direction of the construction of a multi-user interface design environment. The framework has three dimensions: action, communication and observation and provides support for the analysis of multi-users system's interface and understanding of interactions in the group. It can also be a helpful guide to designers of multi-users interfaces.
    SIGCHI Mailing Lists and Aliases BIBHTML 40-43
      Gary Perlman
    SIGCHI News BIBHTML 44-46
     
    Publications BIBHTML 47-48
      Karen McGraw

    Dissertations

    "Context and Consciousness: Activity Theory and Human-Computer Interaction," edited by Bonnie Nardi BIBHTML 49-62
      Mary Brenner; Shilpa Shukla

    The Real World

    Powerful Functions BIBHTML 67
      Lon Barfield

    Views and Feelings

    If Six Were Nine BIBAHTML 68
      Steven Pemberton
    If technology is going to take responsibility over from us, it had better do it right.

    SIGCHI 1997 Volume 29 Issue 3

    From the Editor

    Goodbye Diane Darrow BIBHTML 1
      Steven Pemberton

    From the Chairs

    SIGCHI Leadership BIBHTML 2-3
      Mike Atwood

    Education

    The SIGCHI Educational Resource Development Group BIBHTML 4-6
      Andrew Sears; Julie A. Jacko; Marilyn Mantei

    Standards

    Standards for Multimedia, Accessibility, and the Information Infrastructure BIBHTML 7-10
      Harry E. Blanchard
    Letter to the Editor: ISOMETRICS BIBHTML 11
      Peter Gorny

    Visual Interaction Design

    Design as a Cultural Activity BIBHTML 12-14
      Steve Portigal

    Local SIGs

    Dealing with Change BIBHTML 15-17
      Richard Anderson

    Kids and Computers

    Kids Are Not "Adults-In-Waiting" BIBHTML 18-19
      Allison Druin

    Students

    How To Get a Ph.D. and Have a Life, Too BIBHTML 20-22
      Richard E. Baker
    An Interview with Diane Darrow BIBHTML 23-26
      Steven Pemberton
    Widening the Net: Workshop Report on the Theory and Practice of Physical and Network Communities BIBHTML 27-30
      Steve Whittaker; Ellen Isaacs; Vicki O'Day
    Design and Use of MUDs for Serious Purposes: Report from a Workshop at the CSCW Conference in Boston 16th November '96 BIBHTML 31-33
      Christer Garbis; Yvonne Wærn
    Web Design & Development '97: San Francisco, California BIBHTML 34-35
      Peter Morville
    Human-Computer-Human Interaction: Trust in CSCW BIBAKHTML 36-40
      Steve Jones; Steve Marsh
    We suggest that trust is a key factor in the efficacy of both intra-group and inter-group activities, and that it can be formalised and then exploited in the design and analysis of CSCW systems. We call our formal description Trust in order to differentiate it from wider definitions. Potential uses of Trust in a group work context include the following:
  • it can be used as a tool for the discussion of the design of CSCW systems;
  • it can be embedded in computer systems to mediate cooperative computer based
       activities;
  • it can be used to record and analyze group activity;
  • it provides a tool for the discussion and clarification of trust, and its
       role in group activities. The development of the formalism addresses the need for support beyond technical issues for designers involved in the development of multi-user-centered systems.
    Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, Groupware, Trust
  • A Critical Examination of Separable User Interface Management Systems: Constructs for Individualization BIBAKHTML 41-45
      Carson Reynolds
    The existing framework for separable user interface management systems (UIMS) currently lacks an integrated abstraction of the user and the user's preferences. Without this abstraction, separable interface theory fails to provide a theoretical framework for automatic customization of user interfaces according to the individual user's needs. The purpose of this paper is threefold: to present perceived limitations with existing UIMS models, to suggest a solution to these limitations, and finally to introduce a theoretical tool for constructing this solution.
    Keywords: Separable interface, UIMS, Intelligent interfaces, User modelling, Persona, Agents

    Publications

    "Designing Large-Scale Web Sites" by Darrel Sano BIBHTML 46
      Karen McGraw
    SIGCHI News BIBHTML 47-54
     

    The Real World

    Safety Catches BIBHTML 63
      Lon Barfield

    Views and Feelings

    Programmers are Humans Too, 2 BIBAHTML 64
      Steven Pemberton
    An argument for using HCI principles to design programming languages.

    SIGCHI 1997 Volume 29 Issue 4

    From the Editor

    CHI 97 BIBHTML 1
      Steven Pemberton

    From the Chairs

    Reflections on CHI 97 BIBHTML 2-3
      Mike Atwood; Guy Boy

    World-Wide CHI

    The SIGCHI International Advisory Task Force: Preliminary Report BIBHTML 4-5
      Guy Boy; David G. Novick

    Standards

    Information Technology Standards in ISO/IEC JTC1 BIBHTML 6-8
      Harry E. Blanchard

    Education

    HCI Education and CHI 97 BIBHTML 9-12
      Andrew Sears; Marian Williams

    Visual Interaction Design

    CHI 97: A Visual Interaction Design Perspective BIBHTML 13-15
      Shannon Ford

    Kids and Computers

    Reflection on CHIkids... BIBHTML 16-17
      Allison Druin

    Local SIGs

    Coming Together & Learning from Each Other BIBHTML 18-19
      Richard Anderson

    Students

    Values of the CHI Conference to Students BIBHTML 20-21
      David Crow; Mike Byrne; Erika Dawn Gernand
    CHI 97: Interviews with the Conference Co-Chairs BIBHTML 22-23
      Steven Pemberton
    The CHI 97 Doctoral Consortium: A Review BIBHTML 24-26
      Brian H. Philips; La Tondra A. Murray; Jason E. Stewart
    The CHI 97 Development Consortium BIBHTML 27-29
      Austin Henderson; Gerrit van der Veer
    A Meeting of Research Minds: The 1997 Basic Research Symposium at CHI 97 BIBHTML 30-33
      Leon Watts; Susanne Jul
    Issues in Wearable Computing: A CHI 97 Workshop BIBHTML 34-39
      Len Bass; Steve Mann; Dan Siewiorek; Chris Thompson
    Usability Testing of World Wide Web Sites: A CHI 97 Workshop BIBHTML 40-43
      Michael D. Levi; Frederick G. Conrad
    Navigation in Electronic Worlds: A CHI 97 Workshop BIBHTML 44-49
      Susanne Jul; George W. Furnas
    Entertainment is a Human Factor: A CHI 97 Workshop on Game Design and HCI BIBHTML 50-54
      Lynn Cherny; Chuck Clanton; Erik Ostrom
    Object Models in User Interface Design: A CHI 97 Workshop BIBHTML 55-62
      Mark van Harmelen; John Artim; Keith Butler; Austin Henderson; Dave Roberts; Mary Beth Rosson; Jean-Claude Tarby; Stephanie Wilson
    Testing for Power Usability: A CHI 97 Workshop BIBHTML 63-67
      Keith S. Karn; Thomas J. Perry; Marc J. Krolczyk
    Awareness in Collaborative Systems: A CHI 97 Workshop BIBHTML 68-71
      Susan E. McDaniel; Tom Brinck
    Evaluation Methodology Telematics Systems: Quality for Users and Context, A CHI 97 Special Interest Group BIBHTML 72-75
      Albert G. Arnold; Fred W. G. van den Anker
    Distance Learning: A CHI 97 Special Interest Group BIBHTML 76-78
      Lisa Neal; Judith Ramsay; Jenny Preece
    HCI Design for Network and System Management: A CHI 97 Special Interest Group BIBHTML 79-80
      Thomas M. Graefe; Dennis Wixon
    The HCI Educator's Open House: A CHI 97 Special Interest Group on Exchanging Resources, Delivery Formats, Learning Strategies, and Future Concerns BIBHTML 81-83
      Laurie P. Dringus; Maxine S. Cohen
    End-User Computing: A CHI 97 Special Interest Group BIBHTML 84-86
      Howie Goodell; Carol Traynor
    Catching the Eye: Management of Joint Attention in Cooperative Work BIBAHTML 87-92
      Roel Vertegaal; Boris Velichkovsky; Gerrit van der Veer
    In this paper, we show how different elements of awareness information in groupware systems can be defined in terms of conveying attentive states of the participants. Different kinds of awareness are distinguished: at macro- and micro-level, the latter consisting of workspace awareness and conversational awareness. We summarize the functional elements of micro-level awareness, organizing them hierarchically in terms of their relation to the attention of participants. We further discuss how groupware systems can capture and represent awareness by means of attention-based metaphors, and give an example of a virtual meeting room in which the gaze direction of the participants is conveyed by means of modern 'imaging' eyetracking technology.
    Structured Programmers Learning Object-Oriented Programming: Cognitive Considerations BIBAHTML 93-99
      John Minor Ross; Huazhong Zhang
    With object-oriented programming (OOP) in Java and C++ increasing in popularity, retraining current structured programmers (e.g., users of C or COBOL) is of considerable interest in the computer discipline. One commonly expressed problem with this training task is that the interaction between programmers and their programming language environment appears to be significantly altered during both design and coding phases when using an OOP language versus earlier, so-called structured, approaches. Programmers using existing techniques experience confusion, frustration, and sometimes fail in their attempts to acquire new OOP skills. After comparing and contrasting object-oriented approaches with structured design and programming, the authors review the cognitive difficulties novice and expert structured programmers encounter in switching to OOP technology and suggest ways to ameliorate the troubles. Finally, preliminary research is presented which indicates that, contrary to commonly expressed views, experts do not find it more difficult to change paradigms than do novices. They may, however, experience more frustration as they are temporarily reduced to near-novices again.

    Publications

    "An Introduction to GUI Design Principles and Techniques," by Wilbert O. Galitz BIBHTML 100-101
      Karen McGraw
    SIGCHI Annual Report: July 1997 BIBHTML 102-103
      Mike Atwood
    SIGCHI News BIBHTML 104-107
     

    The Real World

    Cafes BIBHTML 111
      Lon Barfield

    Views and Feelings

    Hell and Documentation BIBAHTML 112
      Steven Pemberton
    Documentation has a user interface, and should be designed to reflect this.