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ACM SIGCHI Bulletin 20

Editors:Peter Orbeton
Dates:1988-89
Volume:20
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISSN 0736-6906; QA 76.9 P75 555
Papers:55
Links:Table of Contents
  1. SIGCHI 1988 Volume 20 Issue 1
  2. SIGCHI 1988 Volume 20 Issue 2
  3. SIGCHI 1989 Volume 20 Issue 3
  4. SIGCHI 1989 Volume 20 Issue 4

SIGCHI 1988 Volume 20 Issue 1

History, State and Future of User Interface Management Systems BIBA 32-44
  Jonas Lowgren
This paper is an attempt to survey the topic of User Interface Management Systems (UIMSs). We give a short account of the historical development of UIMSs, try to capture what is regarded as state of the art in the area, and examine the role of a UIMS in the process of software development. We also summarize several future research directions commonly recognized as important.
Noobie: The Animal Design Playstation BIBAK 45-53
  Allison Druin
For a year and a half, I lead a group of researchers in building an alternative to the traditional computer terminal. Instead of building a design workstation complete with keyboard and mouse, we built an animal design playstation complete with fur, feathers, and an irridescent fish tail. We used the tools of puppetry, animation, and computer electronics, to build what is now called Noobie (short for "New Beast"). By sitting or standing in the lap of this computer creature, a child can build fantasy or real animals. When one squeezes a part on Noobie, the selected animal part can be seen on the screen in Noobie's stomach, and a sound can be heard.
   This paper documents the ideas behind the conception and creation of Noobie, along with how it fits into the short history of the Vivarium research group. This group is a collection of people, ideas, and projects that focus on creating a multi-media environment for children to learn about animal behavior.
Keywords: Vivarium, Noobie, User interface, Animal behavior, Furry computer, Playstation, Squeezing
Once More, with Meaning BIB 54-58
  Scott Luebking

CHI'88 Poster Session Papers and Abstracts

CHI'88 Interactive Poster Session Papers and Abstracts: Introduction BIB 59-69
  Susan M. Evans
An Online Manual for a Programming Language: A Case Study in Computer Interface Design BIB 59-62
  Robert Barr
Some Lessons from an Exercise in Specification Using Foley and Van Dam's Interface Specification Method BIBA 63
  D. M. Frohlich; P. Luff
Formulating precise descriptions of human-computer interactions is a prerequisite for the principled design, implementation and evaluation of interactive systems. This poster reports an exercise in interaction specification using Foley and Van Dam's (1982) multi-layered method of documenting the design of a user-computer interface. The specification was used to communicate the intended behaviour of a Forms Helper system from a design team to an implementation team. The ease with which the interaction could be represented at each of Foley and Van Dam's four levels of abstraction is discussed, and recommendations are made for improving the method in places where its guidance was unclear or inadequate. The value of the specification to the implementors of the system is examined prior to a discussion of the potential role of such specifications in the design and development cycle.
   The main conclusions of the exercise are as follows. The power of the method for expressing system behaviour was lacking at the semantic and syntactic levels, and checking the specification for consistency was difficult between levels. However, with regard to the understandability of the specification our impression is that the multi-layered descriptions worked well as a vehicle for communication. In general, the specification was precise enough to allow the complete Forms Helper system to be implemented from it. The fact that it could be produced from a description of the interaction alone indicates that for certain systems at least, the Foley and Van Dam method of interface documentation can serve as a means of interactive system specification.
The Human Interface in a Multimedia Communication Terminal BIB 63-66
  Hajime Kamata; Akihiko Obata; Motomitsu Adachi
Help for the Designers on Online Help Systems BIB 66-69
  Brad Mehlenbacher; Tom Duffy; Jim Palmer; Maria Truschel; Karen Denchfield; Ann Aaron

SIGCHI 1988 Volume 20 Issue 2

CHI'88 Poster Session Papers and Abstracts

CHI'88 Poster Session Papers and Abstracts: Introduction BIB 22-57
  Susan M. Evans
Designing Conceptual Models of Dialog: A Case for the Dialog Charts BIB 23-27
  Gad Ariav; Linda-Jo Calloway
The Effectiveness of a Keystroke Line in Interactive Tutorials BIB 27-29
  Gwendolyn Campbell
Navigational Aids and Learning Styles: Structural Optimal Training for Computer Users BIB 30-32
  Lori A. Cohan; Sandra L. Newsome
Increasing Personal Productivity of Adults with Brain Injuries through Interface Design BIB 32
  Elliot Cole; Marilyn M. Bergman; Parto Dehdashti
Preferences for Power in Expert Systems by Novice Users BIB 32-33
  Michael D. Coovert; Kathleen McNelis; Kamesh Ramakrishna; Eduardo Salas
Evaluation of Mental Models and Meta Models through Interactions between Users and Helpers about Software Problems BIB 33
  Parto Dehdashti
Dialing a Name: Alphabetic Entry through a Telephone Keypad BIB 34
  Lisa Fast; Roy Ballantine
An Authoring System for the Creation of Interfaces for Disabled Users BIB 35-38
  Linda Ferrier; Harriet Fell
Fine Tuning Selection Semantics in a Structure Editor Based Programming Environment: Some Experimental Results BIBA 38-43
  Dennis R. Goldenson; Marjorie B. Lewis
Structure editing holds much promise for improving the quality of introductory programming education. However early structure editors have often been clumsy and counter intuitive to use. This study reports the results of a laboratory experiment in which the user interface of a structure editing environment was modified in several ways to make the semantics more closely resemble what students seem naturally to expect. Analysis suggests that it is possible to improve students' editing performance, without getting bogged down in unnecessary details of language and environmental semantics.
Computer Aids for Vision and Employment (CAVE) BIB 43-45
  Douglas Griffith; Hodge Doss; David Winfree
Articulating the Experience of Transparency: An Example of Field Research Techniques BIBA 45-47
  Karen A. Holtzblatt; Sandy Jones; Michael Good
Over the past two years, our field research with users has indicated that elements of an application design can disrupt users' work. Understanding how applications disrupt users' work has helped us to articulate the meaning of interface transparency. Interface transparency and related concepts have previously been explored from theoretical perspectives, but have not been grounded in user data.
   The relationship between the user's work and interface transparency is a key element of our understanding. Disruptive systems distract users from their task. Systems can disrupt users by fragmenting the task into elements which do not match the user's view of the task. Insufficient functionality and awkward interface mechanisms for a particular task also disrupt users. We need to understand users' work in much richer detail than we do now in order to build systems that assist them with that work.
Problem Solving Performance and Display Preference for Information Displays Depicting Numerical Functions BIB 47-51
  Mary J. LaLomia; Michael D. Coovert; Eduardo Salas
User Interface Primitives to Allow Full Functional Use of Computers by Physically Disabled Persons BIB 51-52
  Jeff McDougall; Deb Fels; Morris Milner
Development of a Three Dimensional Auditory Display System BIBA 52-57
  Elizabeth M. Wenzel; Frederic L. Wightman; Scott H. Foster
We propose that the most powerful method of auditory cueing takes direct advantage of human perceptual capabilities, providing a dynamic, multidimensional pattern of events which conveys meaning about objects in the spatial world. Applications of such a three-dimensional auditory display involve any context in which the user's situational awareness is critical, particularly when visual cues are limited or absent. Examples include air traffic control displays, advanced teleconferencing environments, and monitoring telerobotic activities in hazardous situations.
   This type of display system requires the ability to generate localized sound cues in a flexible and dynamic manner. Whereas this can be achieved with an array of real sound sources or loudspeakers, the prototype device being developed at NASA-Ames maximizes flexibility and portability by synthetically generating three-dimensional sound cues in realtime for delivery through headphones. Unlike conventional stereo, sources can be perceived outside the head at discrete distances and directions from the listener. When completed, the device will be integrated with the Virtual Interactive Environment Workstation (VIEW), a head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice, and gesture (Fisher, et. al. 1986).
   Previous research in psychoacoustics suggests that perceptually-veridical localization over headphones is possible if both the direction-dependent pinna cues and the more well understood cues of interaural time and intensity are adequately synthesized. Although the realtime device is not yet finished, recent studies at the University of Wisconsin have confirmed the perceptual adequacy of the basic approach to synthesis.

Trip Report

CHI'88, Washington, D.D., 15-19 May 1988 BIB 58-66
  Jakob Nielsen
Designing Real-Time, Decision Support Computer-Human Interaction BIBA 67-69
  William E. Hefley
Many complex software-intensive systems are being developed today. When developing complex systems, operations and support development must form a third complementary component of system development, along with hardware and software development. This paper proposes four key components of operations and support development which are needed for successful design of real-time, decision support computer-human interaction.
Color in Screen Display: A Draft International Standard BIB 70-71
  Wanda Smith
The Cutplane: A Tool for Interactive Solid Modeling BIBA 72-77
  Laurence Edwards; William Kessler; Larry Leifer
Today, most solid modeling systems are used only in the final stages of design, where iterations are driven by analysis rather than creative exploration of alternative solutions. These systems have complex interfaces, slow response, and do not provide a convenient way of specifying a three dimensional position using a two dimensional display screen. As such they are not viable alternatives to visualization methods traditionally used in early design.
   This paper presents a geometric modeling system which incorporates a new concept for intuitively and unambiguously specifying and manipulating points or features in three dimensional space. The central concept, the Cutplane, consists of a plane that moves through space under control of a mouse or similar input device. The intersection of the plane and any object is highlighted, and only this highlighted section can be selected for manipulation. Selection is accomplished with a crosshair that is constrained to remain within the plane, so that the relationship between the crosshair and the feature of interest is immediately evident. Although the idea of a section view is not new, previously it has been used as a way to reveal hidden structure, not as a means of manipulating objects or indicating spatial position, as is proposed here.
Designing Menu Display Format to Match Input Device Format BIBA 78-82
  Gary Perlman; Leo C. Sherwin
We report the results of an experiment designed to measure the effects of modeling menu format to match the format of input devices. Subjects were presented with menus in layouts of varying compatibility with two common input devices: IBM PC function keys in a matrix format and the digit keys at the top of standard keyboards. The results showed that the better the match between formats of menus and devices, the lower the selection times. Guidelines for the design of displays suggest that the best way to show items is in a vertical sorted list, which is incompatible with the format of IBM function keys. We conclude that software designers should model menu display formats after the selection hardware.
Word Processing Learning Techniques and User Learning Preferences BIBAK 83-87
  Amiram Raban
This study compared guided exploration training and instruction-based training as methods of learning to use a word processing system. User learning preferences and attitudes toward computers were also assessed. Seventy five computer naive people learned basic word processing functions in two training sessions. Post-training performance and knowledge tests were then administered. Guided exploration proved to be more effective than the instruction-based method. There is evidence for the potential benefit of matching training techniques to user learning preferences.
Keywords: User training, Learning preferences, Guided exploration, Help messages, Computer attitudes

SIGCHI 1989 Volume 20 Issue 3

A Vision of Education in User-Centered System and Interface Design BIBAK 10-13
  Ronald Baecker
This paper outlines a proposal for a new curriculum in human-computer interaction and user-centered system and interface design that is intended to be based within a computer science departmental framework. The intellectual foundations and political assumptions underlying the curriculum are described. A preliminary list of course offerings and requirements for a B.Sc. degree is presented.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, User-centered system design, User interface design, Computer science, Curriculum design, Human factors
Position Paper: The Basic HCI Course for Software Engineers BIB 14-15
  Tom Carey
An HCI Continuing Education Curriculum for Industry BIB 16-18
  Marilyn M. Mantei
Introductory Course in Human-Computer Interaction BIB 19-21
  Gary W. Strong
The Development of Ergonomic Standards BIBA 35-43
  Wolfgang Dzida
This paper is an attempt to introduce a conception for the development of human factors standards. Most propositions and assertions presented here rely upon experiences made in German standardization groups.
   The paper provides some assertions concerning the peculiarities of ergonomic standards. Furthermore, some prerequisites are discussed to be envisaged when a standardization committee is going to engender normative propositions. The German standard on ergonomic dialogue design (DIN 66 234, Part 8) is taken as an example for the development of ergonomic standards. The historical background and some problems with the application of the standard are explained thereby contributing to an ongoing discussion about this standard.
   The paper is intended to reflect a tradition of thought in German standardization committees as well as to contribute to the current debate in the human factors community as well as in the new ISO group (ISO TC 159/SC4/WG5: Software Ergonomics and Man-Machine Dialogue).
Human Interface with Logging Operation Optimization Programs BIBA 44-51
  William E., III McCoy; Cliff Cheng; Marco Hadiwinata; Murioto Kusuma
This paper presents a case study involving the comparison of two programs which were designed for use in the logging industry. Of particular interest in this comparison are the human factors problems likely to arise during field use of such programs. This paper discusses the need for application of consistent sets of human factors design principles. A specific major conclusion related to the field use of these programs is that it is advisable to provide effective redundancy techniques against catastrophic loss of data in an environment where the user has multiple tasks to perform. This paper also discusses the consequences of "good" as well as "poor" examples of menu design, display design, data entry error checking, and handling of erroneous keystroke and keystroke sequences.
Posture and VDU Operator Satisfaction BIBA 52-57
  Paul W. Oman; Christopher S. Gomes; Kenneth Rains; Martha Morandi
Few studies have looked at how workers adapt their posture to fit their work environment and virtually none have compared this adaptation to reports of user satisfaction. This study focused on the relationship between users' size and posture, and the physical attributes of VDU workplaces. A survey on VDU operator satisfaction was conducted and compared to results from a controlled study on posture transitions occurring at VDU workplaces. Results demonstrate that workers adapt their posture to fit their work environment, rather than adjust their workstation to permit an optimal posture that may increase productivity. These results support the recommendations for comprehensive worker training on the ergonomic benefits of workstation adjustment and suggest the need for dynamically adjustable workstation components that periodically conform to the workers posture.
Human Factors in Teaching BIBA 58-62
  Daniel Sharpe; Mary Jane Willshire
In this paper we discuss the parallels between human factors in computer systems and human factors in the classroom. We look at some of the human factors guidelines for computer system design and discuss their analogs in course design and execution. Since many of us are called upon to share our expertise in a classroom setting, perhaps we can learn from our experience with software and thus try to maximize our teaching effectiveness.
Coordinating User Interfaces for Consistency BIB 63-65
  Jakob Nielsen

Workshop Report

CHI'88 Workshop on Real Time, Decision Support Computer-Human Interaction BIB 66-70
  Steven M. Jacobs

CHI'88 Poster Session Papers and Abstracts

CHI'88 Poster Session Papers and Abstracts: Introduction BIB 71-85
  Susan M. Evans
Development and Evaluation of Direct Manipulation Lists BIBA 72-78
  Douglas Beck; Jay Elkerton
Item selection from a large list is an important task in many interfaces. This research examined a direct manipulation list for browsing and retrieving information. With direct manipulation lists several different retrieval methods can be considered such as scrolling, paging, using string search methods, or using an "elevator". The question asked was which retrieval methods would lead to fast and efficient retrieval for different list lengths and levels of user familiarity with the lists. A 3 x 2 between-subjects factorial design was used with list sizes of 25, 50, and 100 items and users who were either familiar or unfamiliar with the lists. In this experiment, only use of an elevator and paging were studied due to the common use of elevators in many state-of-the-art interfaces and an initial experiment which showed that scrolling was not an efficient method. The results showed that the list size and user familiarity with the list were both significant factors in the retrieval time. A more detailed analysis of retrieval performance revealed that these effects could have been influenced by readers having difficulty estimating the position of an item. Moreover, users in the middle of a list tended to use a single method (such as paging), despite the predicted and observed efficiency of using both paging and the elevator. Based upon these results, a new method for direct manipulation is proposed which separates the elevator into regions with specified ranges of items so that the user knows where items are in the list. A task analysis of this method shows promise in ease of use as compared to other methods.
Modeling Human-Computer Decision Making with Covariance Structure Analysis BIB 78-80
  Michael D. Coovert; Mary J. LaLomia; Eduardo Salas
Simplified Task Analysis and Design for End-User Computing: Implications for Human/Computer Interface Design BIB 80-85
  Vitaly J. Dubrovsky

Workshop Report

Report on the Collaborative Technology Developers' Workshop BIB 86-89
  Mark J. Abel; Gail L. Rein

Trip Report

HCI'88 British Computer Society Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Manchester, United Kingdom, 5-9 September 1988 BIB 90-93
  Jakob Nielsen
ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on User Interface Software, Oct. 17-19, 1988, Banff, Alberta, Canada BIB 94-96
  Tom Carey

SIGCHI 1989 Volume 20 Issue 4

On the Road to Brighton BIB 16-17
  Bill Buxton
Visual System Browser BIBA 18-24
  Eva Hudlicka
The Visual System Browser is a tool for viewing the static structure of a software system in terms of trees representing the procedure calls. The focus in the browser's construction was on the ease of use and the flexibility of what can be seen. These two features encourage the user to view the system in many different ways, to "browse" through its call structure by creating a series of customized views, and thus gradually build a solid understanding of its overall organization. Typical users are experienced programmers who wish to orient themselves within an unfamiliar software system. Since the use of the browser may be occasional, we have chosen a visual, direct-manipulation style of interface, which is easier to learn and retain than a textual command interface. The browser is written in VAX LISP and runs under the VMS operating system on a MicroVAX workstation. It currently browses LISP programs.
Seven Experiences with Contextual Field Research BIB 25-32
  Michael Good
Dynamic versus Static Menus: An Exploratory Comparison BIBA 33-37
  Jeffrey Mitchell; Ben Shneiderman
Sixty-three subjects completed 24 tasks using a menu driven computer program. The menu items appeared in a fixed (static) order during 12 of the tasks. During the other 12 tasks the menu item order changed dynamically such that the most frequently selected items always appeared at the top of the menu. All the subjects tried both dynamic and static menus.
   The subjects that used adaptive menus for the first set of tasks were significantly slower than those who used static menus on the first set of tasks. Subjects' performance during the second set of tasks was not affected by menu style. Eighty-one percent of the subjects preferred working with static menus to working with dynamic menus.
Modes Survey Results BIBA 38-50
  Jeff Johnson; George Engelbeck
Though user-interface researchers and designers give similar definitions for the concept of modes in interactive systems and devices, informal evidence suggests that they don't always agree on whether or not particular interfaces are moded. A survey was conducted to determine the extent to which this is true. The results show that there is widespread disagreement among UI designers and researchers about what modes are, independent of the issue of how modes affect users.
How Would Your Favourite User Model Cope with These Scenarios? BIB 51-55
  Richard M. Young; Phil Barnard; Tony Simon; Joyce Whittington
Including a User Interface Management System (UIMS) in the Performance Relationship Model BIB 56-62
  James E. Trumbly; Kirk P. Arnett

Workshop Report

Report on the Workshop on Analytical Models BIB 63-79
  Keith Butler; John Bennett; Peter Polson; John Karat

Trip Report

CSCW'88: Report on the Conference and Review of the Proceedings BIB 80-84
  Jonathan Grudin