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ACM SIGCHI Bulletin 21

Editors:Peter Orbeton
Standard No:ISSN 0736-6906; QA 76.9 P75 555
Links:Table of Contents
  1. SIGCHI 1989 Volume 21 Issue 1
  2. SIGCHI 1989 Volume 21 Issue 2
  3. SIGCHI 1990 Volume 21 Issue 3
  4. SIGCHI 1990 Volume 21 Issue 4

SIGCHI 1989 Volume 21 Issue 1

An Annotated Bibliography on User Interface Design BIB 17-28
  Bruce P. Fraser; David Alex Lamb
Methodology for Comparative Selection of Interactive Database Interface Types BIBA 29-36
  Lenya K. Cristiano
On-line database applications are becoming the most common new software tasks. Their use is becoming increasingly popular in all areas of information management. In many environments these on-line applications are made available to a large, diverse user population. The majority of these users do not have training in database or software areas. For this reason, the interface between the user and the database is vital. It serves to protect the integrity of the database by governing user access and it provides and understandable medium through which the untrained user can obtain or update the desired data.
   The appropriateness of the interface can affect the success or failure of the database application. The wrong type of interface can result in inefficient data access and a reluctance on the part of users to utilize the tool. Most interactive database interfaces fall into two general categories, menu-driven or command-driven. These two interface types are dissimilar in appearance, usage, and often in performance. This article will provide a set of generalized criteria to assist the database manager or designer in selecting which interface type is better suited for a given application. The same criteria can also be used by managers in selecting a commercial database product for purchase. Factors such as the logical structure of the data, characteristics of the user community, and cost are considered. A worksheet is provided to allow for a quantitative analysis of the criteria in order to establish a foundation for the decision-making process.
Stimulating Change Through Usability Testing BIBA 37-44
  Joseph S. Dumas
Usability testing is often viewed as a way to improve the usability of products. Testing can, however, have a larger, long-range influence on the way an organization develops it products. As a test specialist, you can use a usability test or set of tests to diagnose such factors as the effectiveness of product design technologies, the technical and managerial skills of the people who produce products, and how well the members of a design team are working together. To make diagnoses at this level, you must keep a focus on the underlying causes of the strengths and weaknesses of the usability of products. To have a long-range impact on the way an organization develops products, usability test specialists need to view themselves as change agents. You must involve designers in test planning and execution, and write reports that speak about the underlying causes of the problems users have with products.
Teaching User Interface Design Based on Usability Engineering BIB 45-48
  Jakob Nielsen; Rolf Molich

Trip Report

The 1988 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work BIB 49-55
  Saul Greenberg
Interfaces for Cooperative Work: An Eclectic Look at CSCW'88 BIB 56-64
  Thomas D. Erickson

Workshop Report

HyperHyper: Developments Across the Field of Hypermedia -- A Mini Trip Report: BCS Workshop, London, UK, 23 February 1989 BIB 65-67
  Jakob Nielsen

Trip Report

International Conference on Fifth Generation Computer Systems 1988, Tokyo, Japan, 28 November - 2 December 1988 BIB 68-71
  Jakob Nielsen
Walking on an Electric Treadmill While Performing VDT Office Work BIBAK 72-77
  Nathan Edelson; Jerome Danoff
The physiological and psychological health problems associated with sedentary office work are well documented, but their solution has proved elusive. In this study a specially designed office permitted the comparison of conventional word processing (sedentary condition) to word processing performed while walking on an electric treadmill at 1.4 to 2.8 km/hr (active condition). Five subjects after several days of practice produced two test trials each consisting of six 20-minute intervals of word processing. For the sedentary condition the subjects were seated, during all six intervals. For the active condition, treadmill-walking and seated intervals were alternated. Variables measured included word processing performance score, stress and arousal indices, and body complaint count. The first of these was tested with a repeated ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post hoc, and the latter three with correlated t-tests. No significant differences were found between the two conditions for performance or body complaints. Stress was significantly lower (p < .05), and arousal was higher but not quite significant (p < .07) for the active condition. We conclude that treadmill walking and routine word processing can be performed concurrently without a decrement in work performance, and that certain physiological and psychological benefits may result.
Keywords: Work, Stress, Exercise therapy, Computer workstation
Information Detective: A Workstation for Exploring Three Dimensional Information Space BIBA 78-79
  Kiyonobu Kojima
Artificial reality is used to simulate two different kinds of space. One is the physical world. The other is a conceptual data model. A head mounted display can simulate the former. In this paper, we propose a system, Information Detective, to simulate the latter. Information Detective is a workstation for browsing complex information spaces. It consists of a small flat display and two tracking sensors. It behaves like a magnifying glass in three dimensional space and can show object details in a natural way. It is being developed to keep users from losing themselves in large and complex information spaces.

CHI'89 Interactive Poster Session Papers and Abstracts

CHI'89 Interactive Poster Session Papers and Abstracts BIB 80
  Robin Jeffries
Item Selection from Menus: The Influence of Menu Organization, Query Interpretation, and Programming Experience on Selection Strategies BIB 81-85
  Lola M. Arnold
Creating Consistency in the User Interface: Opinions and Procedures of Software Development Experts BIB 85-87
  Alan J. Happ; Karen C. Cohen
An Empirical Approach to the Evaluation of Icons BIBA 87-90
  Jayson M. Webb; Paul F. Sorenson; Nic P. Lyons
This poster provides a definition and taxonomy for iconic communication and describes the use of formal psychological tools and methods in the evaluation of icons. The methods that can be usefully applied include:
  • 1. Psychophysics
  • 2. Scaling
  • 3. Recognition/Memory Testing
  • 4. Statistical Modeling / Analysis Examples of some of these approaches are provided from pilot studies currently under way at HP. Analyses used include Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) and Cluster analysis. Results can be applied to development of metrics, standard methods, and design guidelines.
  • Beacons and Initial Program Comprehension BIB 90-91
      Susan Wiedenbeck; Jean Scholtz
    A Transfer of Skill Between Programming Languages BIB 91
      Jean C. Scholtz
    Designing the "Cockpit": The Application of a Human-Centered Design Philosophy to Made Optimization Systems Accessible BIBA 92-95
      L. Colgan; R. Spence; P. Rankin; M. D. Apperley
    The Cockpit is an interactive graphical display of results from analogue circuit optimization. It aims to overcome circuit designers' reluctance to use optimization systems by providing them with an interface that is easy and natural to use. The Cockpit presents the user with a 3D display which can be used both as a way of navigating the complex optimization data and as an overview of optimization progress. The Cockpit development process includes user interviews and rapid simulation of the user interface on a hypermedia system.
    FINGER -- Formalization Interaction for Gesture Recognition BIB 96-97
      Gerhard Weber; Peter Wetzel
    A Process-Oriented Extensible Hypertext Architecture BIBA 98-101
      Charles J. Kacmar
    Previous hypertext systems have been designed in a monolithic fashion. This design has inhibited the ability of hypertext systems to be extended or to interface with other systems. A new architecture for hypertext systems has been developed. This architecture is centered around the process and object-oriented models of software construction. The architecture provides hypertext functionality outside the application, allowing applications to draw upon those hypertext features appropriate to the application. The architecture also extends hypertext functionality so that inter-application as well as intra-application information links can be formed.

    SIGCHI 1989 Volume 21 Issue 2

    Draft for ACM Self-Assessment Procedure on Human-Computer Interaction BIB 17-24
      Tom Carey

    Trip Report

    CHI'89 BIB 28-40
      Jakob Nielsen
    Hypertext II BIB 41-47
      Jakob Nielsen

    Video Workshop

    Introduction to the Special Issue on Video as a Research and Design Tool BIB 48-50
      Wendy E. Mackay; Deborah G. Tatar

    Video Workshop Section I: Video as a Communication Medium

    3D Scene on 2D Screen: The VISUALCAD Connection BIBA 52-53
      Nagi Kodali
    Working with 3D space through the 2D computer screen is a skill that has to be mastered by CAD users. Current user interface designs fail to address the basic issue of relating the users' mental space with the computer's construction space. VISUALCAD, a new technique developed to communicate 3D CAD concepts, combines the users' mental space and the computers construction space. Through the use of video tools it enables us to discuss and demonstrate the key concepts in CAD all in one real space. The use of video is found to be an indispensable part of CAD training.
    Improving Aviation Accident Research Through the Use of Video BIB 54-56
      Herbert B. Armstrong
    Using Video to Prototype User Interfaces BIBA 57-61
      Laurie Vertelney
    The Human Interface Group at Apple Computer uses video as a design tool to prototype and visualize ideas about how computers will be used in the future. This paper is for people who need to build visualizations of user interfaces that don't yet exist. It describes how to create effective interface simulations using animation and video techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of video as a user interface design and prototyping medium are also explored.
    Video: A Design Medium BIB 62-66
      Steve Harrison; Scott Minneman; Bob Stults; Karon Weber

    Video Workshop Section II: Study and Management of Video

    EVA: An Experimental Video Annotator for Symbolic Analysis of Video Data BIB 68-71
      Wendy E. Mackay
    Computer Support for Transcribing Recorded Activity BIB 72-74
      Randall H. Trigg
    Video in Applied Cognitive Research for Human-Centered Design BIB 75-77
      Renate J. Roske-Hofstrand
    Structured Content Modeling for Cimematic Information BIB 78-79
      Benjamin Rubin; Glorianna Davenport
    Integrating Motion Video into Computational Environments BIB 80-82
      Brian Michon
    The Role of the Video Professional in a Research Environment BIBA 83-87
      Mark D. Chow
    The video professional that enters the research environment is likely to encounter both exhilarating resonances and boggling confusion at the hands of researchers. There will be situations when standard video practice exactly compliments the researchers' work. There will also be situations when it is necessary to break every rule held sacred by video practitioners. This paper is an attempt to outline some of the many ways in which the research scientist and the video professional can coexist productively. The focus will be on usage of video as a presentation tool.

    Video Workshop Section III: Quantitative Emphasis

    Use of the EVTA Process in the Evaluation of Human/System Interaction and Performance BIBA 89-91
      Margaret T. Shaffer
    The EVTA process generates a task-descriptive data base (Dury et, al., 1987, page 375) from a detailed analysis of operator's observable activities and communications. The essential features of the EVTA process are the use of video/audio equipment to gather permanent records of operator activities from operational environments, and the generation of an empirical record of activity times through a software package which builds, manages and analyzes the resulting data base.
    Using Video in the BNR Usability Lab BIBA 92-95
      Sue Kennedy
    This paper describes the goals of the BNR Usability Lab and explains how we have achieved our goals by developing the "Co-Discovery Learning" testing methodology and designing "U-Test", a special interface for usability testing with video.
    Video as an Enabling Technology for Computer-Supported Cooperative Work BIB 96-99
      Marjorie Horton; Mary Elwart-Keys; Robert Kass
    The Use of Video in Empirical Research BIB 100-102
      Lisa Neal

    Video Workshop Section IV: Qualitative Emphasis

    Video and Design BIBA 104-107
      Austin Henderson
    Four relations between video and design are identified. One, the role of video in support of the activity of design, is explored in some detail. It is asserted that more than one of these relations is present in the usual situation.
    Using Video-Based Observation to Shape the Design of a New Technology BIB 108-111
      Deborah Tatar
    Can Video Research Escape the Technology? Some Reflections on the Problems and Possibilities of A.V. Research BIB 112-114
      Kathy Carter; Bob Anderson
    The Use of Video in Organizational Studies BIB 115-117
      Christina Allen
    Thick Descriptions: A Tool for Designing Ethnographic Interactive Videodiscs BIBA 118-122
      Ricki Goldman Segall
    Videodisc technology will have a dramatic effect on the future of ethnographic educational research by giving the users of the videodisc workstation access to the actual 'raw' data and encouraging them to manipulate the material in a variety of ways. Users will have the ability to examine the original documentation, make their own observations, compare their observations with other researchers/users, and compile the 'data' with new levels of interpretation. Unlike more traditional research methodologies, in hypermedia ethnography there is no systematic way for different viewers to reach the same conclusions about the same content. However, building a system where each content grain or unit is a thick enough description of what is being examined could enable the user to come very close to understanding the underlying intention of the action, event or process presented on videodisc.

    SIGCHI 1990 Volume 21 Issue 3

    CHI'89 Interactive Poster Session Papers and Abstracts

    CHI'89 Interactive Poster Session Papers and Abstracts BIB 16
      Robin Jeffries
    Getting There When You Don't Know Where 'There' Is: Navigational Strategies in a Hypertext Help System BIB 17-18
      F. R. Campagnoni; Kate Ehrlich
    Expected and Unexpected Effects of Computer Media on Group Decision Making BIB 18-20
      Vitaly Dubrovsky; Sara Kiesler; Beheruz N. Sethna
    Comprehension of Pascal Statements by Novice and Expert Programmers BIB 20-23
      Jennifer L. Dyck; Brent Auernheimer
    Iconer: A Tool for Evaluating Icons BIB 23-25
      Hendrika Alice Eisen
    Computerized Performance Monitoring and Performance Appraisal BIB 25-29
      Deborah B. Fenner; F. Javier Lerch; Carol T. Kulik
    The Development of a Task-Oriented, Minimal Content User's Manual BIB 29-33
      Richard Gong
    Object Identification by Language in a User Interface Using Language and Image Information BIB 33-36
      Akira Hakata; Tomoichi Takahashi; Yukio Kobayashi
    Fragility in Expertise: A Study in Reactive Scheduling BIB 36-40
      Brian R. Huguenard; Michael J. Prietula; F. Javier Lerch
    Usability Issues Related to Mapping a Command Language onto Interactive Software Panels BIB 40-41
      Barbara S. Isa; Deborah A. Krysiak
    UNIXTUTOR: A Menu-Based Transitional Interface BIB 41-45
      Wesley Jamison; C. Michael Lewis
    Using Electronic Mail: Themes Across Three User Interface Paradigms BIBA 45-48
      Sandy Jones; Geoffrey Bock; Alana Brassard
    Four specific themes -- Visual Navigation, Organization, Integration, and Customization -- arose from contextual interviews with 28 mail users of 3 interface paradigms: command line, menu, and direct manipulation. As the interface paradigm changed, the themes remained constant. These themes indicate domains of use that are fundamental to mail systems.
    Computer-Mediated Group Processes in Distributed Command and Control BIB 48-53
      J. M. Linville; R. W. Obermayer; J. J. Fallesen
    IDEA: From Advising to Collaboration BIB 53-59
      James R. Miller; William C. Hill; Jean McKendree; Timothy P. McCandless; Loren Terveen
    TANGO: A Framework and System for Algorithm Animation BIB 59-60
      John T. Stasko
    Designing Collaborative User Interfaces: Lessons from Writer/Graphic Designer Interaction BIB 60-63
      Wendie Wulff

    Workshop Report

    Report on the CHI'89 Workshop on Real-Time, Decision Support Computer-Human Interaction BIB 64-70
      Steven M. Jacobs; William E. Hefley
    Laboratory Exercises for a Graduate/Undergraduate Course in Human-Computer Interaction BIB 71-75
      Arthur F. Kramer; Robert M. Schumacher
    Climbing the Smalltalk Mountain BIB 76-79
      Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
    Evaluation of the NeXT Interface Builder for Prototyping a Smart Telephone BIBA 80-85
      Umesh Thakkar; Gary Perlman; Dave Miller
    The programming-by-example paradigm promises to allow non-programmers and programmers alike to develop software more effectively. The NeXT Interface Builder is a tool for prototyping and developing highly graphical user interfaces. To evaluate the effectiveness of the NeXT Interface Builder, we developed the smartPhone application and collected data on the efforts of four programmers' development of a programmable telephone user interface. The main result was that with minimal training, The NeXT Interface Builder allows programmers to develop non-trivial application user interfaces in about an hour. On the negative side, more expertise and effort is required to develop object-oriented applications required for interface to the Interface Builder. We conclude with a recommendation for more empirical evaluation of the NeXT system.
    Video: A Design Medium BIB 86-90
      Steve Harrison; Scott Minneman; Bob Stults; Karon Weber

    SIGCHI 1990 Volume 21 Issue 4

    Readings on Human Factors in Computer Systems: The 1989 List BIB 20-26
      Paul Green
    A Taxonomy of User Interface Terminology BIBA 27-34
      Mark H. Chignell
    User interface design and analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary activity that merges cognitive, computing, and engineering sciences. Due to the rapid pace of technological change, there is as yet no science of human-computer interaction and little consensus on what the core knowledge of the discipline should be. In other sciences, the development of taxonomies, such as the taxonomy of living organisms in biology, has proved to be a useful foundation for scientific activity. This paper proposes a taxonomy of user interface terminology as a possible basis for the eventual development of human-computer interaction as a science. This taxonomy includes a model of the basic components of the interface and coverage of some of the major cognitive engineering principles that form the basis for human-computer interaction.
    The Perceived Usefulness of Computer Information Sources: A Field Study BIBA 35-43
      Richard E. Granda; Richard Halstead-Nussloch; Joan M. Winters
    A joint IBM-SHARE field study surveyed 229 computer users about their use of a range of information sources. On a questionnaire, each respondent described a situation where information was required to use a computer. The respondent then specified all the information sources that were consulted, judged the degree to which each met the information needs, and estimated the time required to obtain the information. With a keyword technique, responses were coded to identify user cognitive states from the situation descriptions. Three unique cognitive states identified: Learning, Solving, and Refreshing.
       For learning and problem solving, the best online and human sources are used at about the same rate, 70% of the time; but humans are rated more effective at 80% versus 60% for online sources. When effective, human sources require more time, on average 24 minutes versus 9 minutes for online sources. The conclusion drawn from the study is that human sources are rated more effective than online sources because humans gave four critical advantages. They are interactive speakers and listeners. They can be selective in the information presented. Humans can query at multiple levels of discourse. Humans can assess the relevance of the information presented.
    Computer-Human Interface Issues in the Design of an Intelligent Workstation for Scientific Visualization BIBA 44-49
      Marian G. Williams; Stuart Smith; Giampiero Pecelli
    The long-range goal of our research is to create an intelligent assistant for interactive scientific data visualization via both sight and sound. There are a variety of computer-human interface (CHI) issues that are unique to our approach to interactive visualization. It is upon these issues that we focus here. In this paper, we: (1) describe the approach to interactive visualization taken by the project which is the context of our work; (2) specify the CHI issues that are peculiar to this approach; (3) summarize the current capabilities of our workstation for performing human factors experiments; (4) describe the research plan we have developed for learning how to provide a user with intelligent assistance for dealing with those issues; (5) present a representative pilot study that has contributed useful information; (6) summarize the results of our pilot studies; and (7) discuss the direction of our future work. We do not claim to be solving the general case of how to provide intelligent assistance for scientific visualization. We do, however, expect that the progress we make in one visualization environment will contribute to understanding of the general case.
    International User Interfaces: An Exercise BIB 50-51
      Jakob Nielsen

    Trip Report

    Hypertext'89 BIB 52-61
      Jakob Nielsen
    Preparing a Presentation BIB 62-64
      Martin Smith
    Pioneering HCI Down Under: A Mixture of Perseverance and Fun BIB 65-69
      Gitte Lindgaard
    PUMS and Programmers BIB 70
      Andrew Clement; Marilyn Mantei