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ACM SIGCHI Bulletin 30

Editors:Steven Pemberton
Dates:1998
Volume:30
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISSN 0736-6906; QA 76.9 P75 555
Papers:122
Links:Table of Contents
  1. SIGCHI 1998 Volume 30 Issue 1
  2. SIGCHI 1998 Volume 30 Issue 2
  3. SIGCHI 1998 Volume 30 Issue 3
  4. SIGCHI 1998 Volume 30 Issue 4

SIGCHI 1998 Volume 30 Issue 1

From the Editor

A Curtain Falls BIBHTML 1
  Steven Pemberton

COLUMNS: From the Chairs

Keeping Current on SIGCHI BIBHTML 2-3
  Mike Atwood

COLUMNS: Education

New Perspectives on HCI Education BIBHTML 4
  Andrew Sears
HCI Education and Its Role in Industrial Engineering BIBAHTML 5-6
  Julie A. Jacko
Researchers, practitioners, and educators in the field of human-computer interaction are engaged in endeavors as dynamic and colorful as the variety of people who contribute to the body of knowledge we have come to know intimately as CHI. The knowledge base amassed by our community has been painstakingly constructed by experts from a variety of disciplines and backgrounds who share a common goal: to know the truth about the interactions that define mankind's relationship with the computer. Our strength lies in our ability to draw upon the collective wisdom of this knowledgeable and diverse group of people.
   The objective of this article is to enable the CHI community as a whole to gain a bird's eye view into one of the commonly represented disciplines in the CHI community: Industrial Engineering (IE). As is the case in most disciplines, CHI is a relative newcomer to the IE discipline. This poses challenges and opportunities for people within IE to pursue solutions and extend inquiries within the CHI domain. This article explores these challenges and opportunities by first providing a historical perspective of the IE discipline. The role of CHI in IE will be pondered, and then an opportunity will be discussed that challenges researchers and educators in the IE discipline to infuse CHI into the more traditional areas of IE so the discipline can finally realize its goal of being both systems- and solutions-oriented.

COLUMNS: Standards

Medical Applications and Documentation BIBAHTML 7-8
  Harry E. Blanchard
In the column this time I will cover some domain specific standards: user interface standards which pertain to specific industries, markets, or particular aspects of user interface design. Two rapidly progressing domain specific UI standards efforts have come to my attention lately: standards for medical industry devices and standards for manuals and documentation.

COLUMNS: Visual Interaction Design

The Orchestration Age BIBAHTML 9-10
  Kim Vonder Haar
Something tremendously powerful is happening.
   Enormous changes are underway which may soon give rise to an unprecedented era of creative expression. This era will usher in extraordinary demands for new means and methods of expression, interaction and communication. It will forge entirely new types of thinkers, whose kaleidoscopic manipulation of digital media will culminate in an explosive proliferation of innovative discoveries. This time may come to be known as The Orchestration Age.

COLUMNS: Students

ECSCW'97 Doctoral Colloquium BIBHTML 11-12
  Zsolt Haag; Leysia Palen

COLUMNS: Local SIGs

Diversity Within Unity BIBHTML 13-14
  Richard I. Anderson

COLUMNS: Kids and Computers

My Kid Doesn't Need a Computer BIBHTML 15-16
  Allison Druin

REPORTS

Putting It All Together: Towards a Pattern Language for Interaction Design BIBAHTML 17-23
  Elisabeth Bayle; Rachel Bellamy; George Casaday; Thomas Erickson; Sally Fincher; Beki Grinter; Ben Gross; Diane Lehder; Hans Marmolin; Brian Moore; Colin Potts; Grant Skousen; John Thomas
Pattern languages are representations that have been used in architecture and urban design for about twenty years. They focus on the interaction between physical form and social behavior, and express design solutions in an understandable and generalizable form. But pattern languages are not simply set of patterns intended to be universally applied; instead, they are actually meta-languages which, when used in a particular situations, generate situated design languages. This report describes a CHI 97 workshop which explored the utility of pattern languages for interaction design. We discuss the workshop's rationale, the structure and process of the workshop, and some of the workshop's results. In particular, we describe some patterns developed as part of the workshop, and our consequent reflections on the use of patterns and pattern languages as lingua franca for interaction design. This report concludes with a bibliography on pattern languages and related matters that spans architecture, software design, and organizational design.
Interactive Systems for Supporting the Emergence of Concepts and Ideas BIBAHTML 24-25
  Ernest Edmonds; Thomas Moran; Ellen Do
Five summary propositions:
  • 1. The phenomenon of emergence is ubiquitous. It should be supported in
        everyday tools.
  • 2. Ideas emerge over time, often last over long periods of time, the idea is
        often not recognized as new until later in time.
  • 3. Rough sketching is an important representation for affording emergence.
  • 4. Systems should enable user to see things in different ways by providing
        multiple representations and suggesting alternatives.
  • 5. Representations are used both as particular languages for individuals and to
        mediate collaboration among group of designers. More information is available at: http://bashful.lboro.ac.uk/chi-wshop/
  • User Autonomy: Who Should Control What and When? BIBAKHTML 26-29
      Batya Friedman
    Autonomy is fundamental to human flourishing and self-development (Gewirth, 1978; Hill, 1991). If we also accept that technology can promote human values (Friedman, 1997; Winner, 1985), then an important question emerges: How can we design technology to enhance user autonomy?
       In this workshop, we addressed this question. We built on the organizers' previous framework for understanding user autonomy (1) to analyze participants' research and design experiences of user autonomy in system design, (2) to characterize designs that support user autonomy, and (3) to identify design methods to enhance user autonomy. We report on those activities here.
    Keywords: Autonomy, Computer system design, Design methods, Ethics, Human values, Information systems, Social computing, Social impact, Value-sensitive design
    Time and the Web BIBHTML 30-33
      Alan Dix
    Visualizing Personal Histories BIBHTML 34-35
      Ben Shneiderman
    You Need a Psychologist to Teach HCI Correctly to a Computer Scientist BIBHTML 36
      Paul Chesson

    PAPERS

    IT Outsourcing: Some Implications for Building Usable IT Systems BIBHTML 37-43
      Robert Pedlow; Anne Miller
    Computers Versus Humans BIBAHTML 44-47
      Milan E. Soklic
    The question is considered whether it is possible for humans to program computers that can mimic human mental activities. Vision as a perceptual process has been selected for this purpose. In order to answer this question the conceptual model called E-B-C is proposed. In the E-B-C model E, B, and C are three observational points whose metaphorical meaning can be changed. From the one aspect, E, B, and C can be understood as the eye, the brain, and the consciousness, respectively; from the other aspect, they can be seen as an input device, a data processing system, and information interpretation. In both aspects E and B imply data transformations which are crucial for the information at C. It is concluded that the process of seeing is a data reduction process, a pattern recognition process, a feature extraction process, as well as a goal oriented process. These features can not be described sufficiently in terms of computational processes that are carried out on present-day computers. A list of some classic papers is given in the references.

    PUBLICATIONS: Book Review

    "User-Centered Requirements: The Scenario-Based Engineering Process," by BIBHTML 48
      Karen McGraw; Karan Harbison; Jill A. Loukides

    PUBLICATIONS

    An HCI Reading List BIBHTML 49-64
      Andrew Sears

    NEWS

    Adhoc Committee on ACM Societies: Draft Report BIBHTML 65-70
     
    SIGCHI News BIBHTML 71-79
     
    SIGCHI Conferences BIBHTML 80
      Gerrit C. van der Veer
    SIGCHI Kits for Students BIBAHTML 80
      Barbee Teasley
    SIGCHI is pleased to offer HCI educators the opportunity to distribute free kits of sample SIGCHI and ACM publications to your students. The packets are aimed at introducing your students to the rich variety of resources SIGCHI and ACM makes available to its members, and to the HCI community.
    Report on the Financial Status of ACM SIGCHI BIBHTML 81-82
      Jean Scholtz
    CHI 98: A Conference Preview BIBHTML 83-84
      Peter Stevens
    CHI 98 Workshops BIBHTML 85-90
     

    NEWS: The Real World

    Snoozing BIBHTML 95
      Lon Barfield

    NEWS: Views and Feelings

    Flags are Not Languages BIBHTML 96
      Steven Pemberton

    SIGCHI 1998 Volume 30 Issue 2

    From the Editor

    Not With a Whimper BIBHTML 1
      Steven Pemberton

    COLUMNS: From the Chairs

    Action Required From You! BIBHTML 2-3
      Mike Atwood; Guy Boy

    COLUMNS: World-Wide CHI

    SIGCHI International Advisory Task Force BIBAHTML 4-8
      Guy Boy
    SIGCHI has established an International Advisory Task Force to help address issues of the internationalization of the organization. The task force has 27 participants from Europe, Asia, Latin America and North America. The task force was established by the SIGCHI Executive Committee at its May meeting. The following are recommendations that were discussed and approved by the SIGCHI Executive Committee in December 1997.

    COLUMNS: Education

    A Psychologist Astray in Computer Science BIBHTML 9-13
      Marilyn Mantei-Tremaine

    COLUMNS: Standards

    Update on Recent HCI and Usability Standards BIBAHTML 14-15
      Harry E. Blanchard
    The column this month will be a brief update on the status of Human-Computer Interaction standards. I will return to more detailed surveys of specific committees and subjects in my next column.
       Just when I thought the proliferation of activity on user interface topics in standards bodies was subsiding, recent months have shown that there's as much activity as there ever has been.

    COLUMNS: Visual Interaction Design

    Universal Design BIBHTML 16-17
      Frank Marchak

    COLUMNS: Local SIGs

    Reaching Out and Being Reached BIBAHTML 18-19
      Richard I. Anderson
    Is your Local SIG reaching those it should be reaching? Has it reached you? Are you reaching those within your local HCI community you desire to reach? Have you been able to reach leaders of and information about your Local SIG?
       Facilitating "reaching out and being reached" is an important part of what Local SIGs are about. What can Local SIGs do to achieve this? What can you do?

    COLUMNS: Kids and Computers

    Two Weeks in the Life of a Technology Teacher BIBHTML 20-21
      Angela Boltman

    COLUMNS: Students

    The Graphical User Interface: An Introduction BIBHTML 22-26
      Bernard J. Jansen

    REPORTS

    Toward an HCI Research and Practice Agenda based on Human Needs and Social Responsibility BIBHTML 27-29
      Michael J. Muller; Cathleen Wharton
    Speech User Interface Design Challenges BIBHTML 30-34
      Susan Boyce; Demetrios Karis; Amir Mane; Nicole Yankelovich
    Graphical User Interfaces For Hierarchies BIBHTML 35-36
      Louis C. Vroomen
    ESP 7: Empirical Studies of Programmers BIBHTML 37-39
      Jean Scholtz
    Tailorable Groupware BIBHTML 40-42
      Anders Morch; Oliver Stiemerlieng; Volker Wulf
    Usability Engineering 2: Measurement and Methods BIBHTML 43-45
      Laura L. Downey; Sharon J. Laskowski; Elizabeth A. Buie; William E. Hefley

    SPECIAL FEATURE: A Farewell to the Apple Advanced Technology Group

    An Introduction to the Special SIGCHI Bulletin Issue BIBHTML 46-47
      James R. Miller
    The ATG Knowledge Management Technologies Laboratory BIBAHTML 48-50
      Daniel M. Russell
    The Knowledge Management Technologies was a collection of groups working toward a common goal: create the next generation of tools to give Mac users the ability to access and manipulate ever larger and more sophisticated kinds of information.
       The lab had five areas, each with a distinct mission. In its structure, the lab took on a variety of ways to approach the issues of knowledge management.
    An Overview of the ATG Intelligent Systems Program BIBHTML 51-52
      James R. Miller
    From Documents to Objects: An Overview of LiveDoc BIBHTML 53-58
      James R. Miller; Thomas Bonura
    Drop Zones: An Extension to LiveDoc BIBHTML 59-63
      Thomas Bonura; James R. Miller
    An Architecture for Content Analysis of Documents BIBAHTML 64-71
      Branimir Boguraev; Christopher Kennedy; Sascha Brawer
    We present a generalised architecture for document content management, with particular emphasis on component functionalities and reconfigurability for different content management tasks. Natural language technologies are encapsulated in separate modules, which then can be customised and tailored for the specific requirements of the type of document, depth of analysis, and detail of output representation, of different document analysis systems. The versatility of the architecture is illustrated by configuring it for two diverse tasks: analysing technical manuals to instantiate databases for on-line assistance, and deriving topically-rich abstractions of content of arbitrary news stories.
    Dynamic Document Presentation BIBHTML 72-77
      Branimir Boguraev; Rachel Bellamy
    An Online Digital Photography Course for High School Teachers BIBHTML 78-81
      Bonnie Nardi; Brian Reilly; Reinhold Steinbeck
    Hit Squads & Bug Meisters BIBHTML 82-84
      Shilpa V. Shukla
    Beyond Search: The Information Access Research Group at Apple BIBHTML 85-89
      Daniel E. Rose
    User Experience Research Group BIBAHTML 90-94
      Daniel M. Russell
    The idea of user experience is to take care of, account for, design and consider everything the user uses. Creating a useful and enriching user experience is an encompassing goal that necessarily crosses specialty boundaries in the pursuit of a single, unified, coherent experience of the computational.
       The User Experience Research group was formed within Apple's research labs as a multidisciplinary group to study and design new kinds of complete user experiences.
    Rapid Prototyping of Awareness Services Using a Shared Information Server BIBAHTML 95-101
      William F. Walker
    Effective work groups have always relied on peripheral awareness of each other's activities, such as sounds leaking under office doors and casual encounters in the hallway. Technology encourages the distribution of human communities but denies them the communal awareness provided by physical proximity. Groupware applications are emerging as a means of supplanting or augmenting the traditional awareness mechanisms. Requirements for such systems vary widely with the nature of the groups to be interconnected and individual tastes, often leading to narrow solutions. The SharedInfoServer simplifies groupware development, supports diverse information types, and encourages experimentation. Several prototypes using the server have been constructed and deployed within Apple's Advanced Technology Group.
    Interaction-Driven Speech Input BIBHTML 102-105
      Jerome R. Bellegarda
    The ATG Learning Communities Laboratory: An Overview BIBHTML 106-107
      N. Rao Machiraju
    Learning Conversations BIBHTML 108-112
      Rachel Bellamy; Kristina Woolsey
    In Search of Design Principles for Tools and Practices to Support Communication within a Learning Community BIBHTML 113-118
      Stephanie Houde; Rachel Bellamy; Laureen Leahy
    Interface Issues in Text Based Chat Rooms BIBAHTML 119-123
      Brian J. Roddy; Hernan Epelman-Wang
    Text based chat rooms are the simplest and most common chat rooms in use. In spite of their popularity, the text based chat rooms of today have the same fundamental problem of their ancestors: they are not designed to handle multiple, concurrent conversations and therefore they break down when enough users are involved. In our project we set out to design innovative interfaces to address this problem. This paper describes our proposed solutions, presents results from user testing and discusses the lessons learned.
    ATG Education Research: The Authoring Tools Thread BIBHTML 124-133
      Jim Spohrer
    Unfamiliar Ground: Designing Technology to Support Rural Healthcare Workers in India BIBAHTML 134-143
      Mike Graves; Sally Grisedale; Alexander Grunsteidl
    To broaden the reach of effective computing support into new environments requires different technologies from those we are accustomed to designing and using. One of the key aspects of the India Healthcare Project is to confront unfamiliar conditions and contexts in order to prototype effective hand-held computing support for rural Indian healthcare workers. The project involves introducing a technology relatively new to us (Newton), with unfamiliar characteristics (size, display, pen-input), to a community of users with which we were initially totally unfamiliar, doing a job about which we knew virtually nothing. Additionally, we needed to localize Newton software and the MessagePad hardware for Indian languages and physical conditions. In this paper, we lay out the challenges associated with such an undertaking, the strategies we have adopted, the current chronology of the project, some aspects of our current design, and our preliminary findings from field testing.
    A History of the Apple Human Interface Group BIBHTML 144-146
      S. Joy Mountford
    Discourse Architecture BIBHTML 147-151
      Jed Harris; Austin Henderson

    NEWS

    SIGCHI News BIBHTML 152-153
     

    NEWS: The Real World

    Key States in Ranges BIBHTML 159
      Lon Barfield

    NEWS: Views and Feelings

    Teenagers, Sex Education and Microsoft BIBHTML 160
      Steven Pemberton

    SIGCHI 1998 Volume 30 Issue 3

    From the Editor

    New Developments BIBHTML 1
      Steven Pemberton

    COLUMNS: From the Chairs

    ACM SIGCHI Program Review BIBHTML 2-6
      Mike Atwood; Guy Boy

    COLUMNS: Education

    Designing Design Education BIBHTML 7-10
      Daniel Boyarski

    COLUMNS: Visual Interaction Design

    Change, Information and Understanding BIBHTML 11-15
      Millicent Cooley

    COLUMNS: Standards

    Standards for Usability Testing BIBHTML 16-17
      Harry E. Blanchard

    COLUMNS: Local SIGs

    "Brought To You By..." BIBHTML 18-19
      Richard I. Anderson

    COLUMNS: Kids and Computers

    How Did You Get To Doing What You Do? BIBHTML 20-22
      Allison Druin

    COLUMNS: Students

    Recommended Readings BIBHTML 23-25
      David Crow; Jim Jansen; Erika Orrick

    PAPERS

    The User Interface in Text Retrieval Systems BIBAHTML 26-29
      Offer Drori
    Ever since the advent of on-line computer systems, the development of the user interface has been a key issue in research and applications. The main function of the user interface is to mediate between the system operator and the computer programs that run the information systems.
       The nature of the interface required by information systems and the functions with which it must provide the user has been studied. It can be said that there are certain rules to be adhered to in the design of any information system, and that there are certain rules characteristic of specific information systems only. (MicrosoftG, 1995) (Galitz, 1994) (MicrosoftU, 1995) (Shneiderman, 1998).
       The aim of this article is to define the user interface characteristic of text retrieval systems, which generally differ in nature from other information systems.
    The Effects of Visual Proxemic Information in Video Mediated Communication BIBAKHTML 30-39
      David Grayson; Lynne Coventry
    One of the simplest examples of non-verbal communication is that of proximity, i.e. the distance at which conversants stand (or sit) from each other when interacting. This is known to be guided by certain social rules which take into account personal relationships, culture, personality and the purpose of the discussion, violation of which leads to various psychological and behavioural effects.
       One such effect is persuasion. Sales people will tend to approach customers closer than other business people. Video has in the past been shown to lead to more effective negotiation and bargaining than audio only conditions in experimental tasks. So far though, it remains unknown whether or not similar effects of proximity exist within video-mediated communication -- or indeed even whether or not proximity can be conveyed through video. This study investigates the role of the proxemic information within the video image in a formal persuasion environment using both subjective and objective measures of attitude and behaviour.
       A simulation of a customer seeking financial advice from an advisor across a live video link had two proxemic conditions -- the image of the advisor appearing either very close or far away. Subjective impressions of both the task and technology were analysed by questionnaire and showed no subjective differences between conditions. Structural analysis of the dialogues however, indicated customers to be more interactive in the close condition. When the advisor appeared close the customer spoke more often, said more, took longer and made more instances of overlapping speech. The similarity between these results and those of familiarity studies are discussed and a hypothesis of perceived close proximity resulting in perceived familiarity is offered.
       The study shows that proxemic information is preserved in video conferencing and produces effects similar to those of face-to-face interactions but less pronounced. This is explained by the video conveying only visual proxemic information compared to the multimodal information available in face-to-face interaction.
    Keywords: Proxemics, Video-mediated communication, Banking, Dialogue, Turn-taking, Familiarity
    As We May Communicate BIBAKHTML 40-44
      Carson Reynolds
    The purpose of this article is to critique and reshape one of the fundamental paradigms of Human-Computer Interaction: the workspace. This treatise argues that the concept of a workspace -- as an interaction metaphor -- has certain intrinsic defects. As an alternative, a new interaction model, the communication space is offered in the hope that it will bring user interfaces closer to the ideal of human-computer symbiosis.
    Keywords: Workspace, Communication space, Human-computer interaction

    PUBLICATIONS: Book Review

    "User Interface Design: Bridging the Gap," edited by Larry E. Wood BIBHTML 45-46
      Carl Zetie

    NEWS

    SIGCHI News BIBHTML 47-62
     
    SIGCHI Conferences BIBHTML 63
      Gerrit van der Veer
    CHI 99: The CHI Is the Limit BIBHTML 64-65
      Mark Altom; Marian Williams

    NEWS: The Real World

    Protocols for Commerce BIBHTML 71
      Lon Barfield

    NEWS: Views and Feelings

    Mysteries Worth Pondering BIBHTML 72
      Steven Pemberton

    SIGCHI 1998 Volume 30 Issue 4

    From the Editor

    CHI 98 BIBHTML 1
      Steven Pemberton

    COLUMNS: From the Chairs

    Challenges and Opportunities BIBHTML 2-3
      Mike Atwood; Guy Boy

    COLUMNS: Local-SIGs

    Local SIGs Achieve Visibility at CHI 98 BIBAHTML 4-5
      Richard Anderson
    In my first Local SIGs column -- the column that appeared two years ago in October of 1996, I included a section entitled, "A New CHI Conference Challenge: Greater Local SIGs Visibility," and I wrote: "That you may have attended a CHI conference and not found out about local chapter activities or opportunities near you is something I hope to change."
       I am delighted to report that, thanks to many, SIGCHI local chapters achieved the visibility they deserve at CHI 98.

    COLUMNS: CHIkids

    A Look Back and a Look Forward BIBHTML 6-8
      Allison Druin

    COLUMNS: Education

    HCI Education and CHI 98 BIBHTML 9-15
      Marian G. Williams; Andrew Sears

    COLUMNS: World-Wide CHI

    The SIGCHI International Issues Committee BIBAHTML 16-18
      David G. Novick
    Forty-three people from fifteen countries participated in the CHI 98 special interest group on the SIGCHI International Issues Committee: Taking Action. Three people contributed to the SIG via e-mail. This SIG's principal goals were to inform the CHI community about the creation of the SIGCHI International Issues Committee, to encourage broad participation in the committee's activities, and to develop an action plan for the committee in carrying out the SIGCHI Executive Committee's recommendations. David G. Novick organized the SIG and served as facilitator. In its group discussion, SIG participants identified key issues and proposed means of responding to these issues.

    COLUMNS: HCI and the Web

    World Wide Web Special Interest Area BIBHTML 19-21
      Keith Instone

    COLUMNS: Visual Interaction Design

    Outside Looking In at CHI 98 BIBHTML 22-23
      Shannon Ford

    COLUMNS: Students

    Being a Student Volunteer at CHI 98 BIBHTML 24-26
      David Crow; Farouk Meghji; Erika Orrick

    CHI 98

    CHI 98: An Interview with the Conference Chairs BIBHTML 27-29
      Steven Pemberton
    Unifying HCI: The Impossible Possibility: The CHI 98 Basic Research Symposium BIBAHTML 30-32
      Joseph A. Konstan; Jane Siegel
    On April 19 and 20, for the seventh consecutive year, a group of researchers from the CHI community gathered for a symposium devoted to fundamental issues in research. It can be both invigorating and intimidating to attempt to capture two days worth of vigorous discussion in a few pages. We know we cannot fully succeed, but it revives the spirit of the event to try. In this article, we attempt to relate some of the background of the event, its structure and formal content, and a glimpse at the discussions and interactions that filled two days.
    Incorporating Work, Process and Task Analysis into Commercial and Industrial Object-Oriented Systems Development BIBAKHTML 33-36
      John Artim; Mark van Harmelen; Keith Butler; Jan Gulliksen; Austin Henderson; Srdjan Kovacevic; Shijian Lu; Scott Overmyer; Ray Reaux; Dave Roberts; Jean-Claude Tarby; Keith Vander Linden
    In this paper, we report on the results of the CHI98 workshop on task, process and work analysis coupled with object modeling. This workshop was a follow-up to a CHI97 workshop of the same topic. This year's workshop took as its starting point the summary paper and framework created in last year's workshop. The goal of this year's workshop was to bridge the conceptual gulf between current HCI practice and current development practice. The result of this workshop is a proposed set of extensions to UML, a key standard in the object-oriented development community.
    Keywords: Task analysis, Process analysis, Object modeling, Use case modeling, User interface design, UML
    Designing User Interfaces for Safety Critical Systems BIBHTML 37-39
      Philippe Palanque; Fabio Paterno; Bob Fields
    From Task to Dialogue: Task-Based User Interface Design BIBAHTML 40-42
      Birgit Bomsdorf; Gerd Szwillus
    Developing user interfaces is no more a mere technical software development task; successful user interface design has to be interdisciplinary, taking into account other aspects, such as psychological, social, organisational, and cognitive aspects. It is generally accepted that the tasks, the user has to fulfil with a system to be developed should play an important role in its design. Knowing the user's tasks enables the designer to construct user interfaces reflecting the tasks' properties, including efficient usage patterns, easy-to-use interaction sequences, and powerful assistance features.
       As a consequence, task modelling becomes a central part of the user interface design process. To accomplish this a systematic transition has to exist from task identification to user interface construction.
    Hyped-Media to Hyper-Media: Toward Theoretical Foundations of Design, Use and Evaluation BIBAHTML 43-45
      N. Hari Narayanan
    The goal of this workshop was to explore emerging theoretical foundations of design, use and evaluation of interactive hypermedia systems.
    Too Much of a Good Thing? Identifying and Resolving Bloat in the User Interface BIBHTML 46-47
      Leah Kaufman; Brad Weed
    Beyond Internet Business-as-Usual BIBAHTML 48-52
      Patrick Steiger; Markus Stolze; Michael Good
    The number of Internet users and the volume of on-line business is growing rapidly. For example, the Spring 97 CommerceNet/Nielsen Media Demographics and Electronic Commerce Study reports that nearly a quarter of the US and Canadian population over 16 years of age (more than 50 million persons) have recently used the Internet -- twice the number reported in the Fall of 1995 [4]. Another study by International Data Corp., a research firm in Framingham, Mass, reports that $1.2 billion in goods and services were sold directly over the Web in 1996, a figure which they expect to increase to $91.1 billion by the year 2000 [2]. Despite this success, Internet commerce as we know it today must become better adapted to the growing needs of buyers and merchants on the Internet to better exploit the opportunities of electronic media.
       The goal of the workshop was to understand the needs of buyers and merchants in electronic markets, to discuss the state-of-the-art in Internet commerce, and to identify open issues that require more research.
    Learner-Centered Design: Specifically Addressing the Needs of Learners BIBAHTML 53-55
      Sherry Hsi; Elliot Soloway
    The first workshop on learner-centered design gathered together 21 participants at CHI 98 in Los Angeles. For a 1-day workshop, our agenda was ambitious. Our goals were to synthesize a shared understanding of an emerging area of HCI that specifically addresses learners and education beyond the design principles borne of research on routine cognitive tasks, walk-up systems, and groupware, and to begin to think deeply about "how to design for learning?" We were successful in bringing many central issues the surface and well as common approaches of HCI practitioners and education research/learning technology designers. Yet, we reached consensus on few issues and recognized the need for the community of LCD designers to better identify novel differences between current methods employed in UCD and the weaknesses of UCD approaches to solve learning and schooling issues at all levels. The workshop results further motivate LCD practitioners to pursue future gatherings on this topic.
    User Interfaces for Computer-Based Patient Records BIBHTML 56-58
      Tom Brinck; Gary York
    HCI in the Classroom: The CHI'98 Development Consortium BIBAHTML 59
      Jurgen Koenemann; Allison Druin; Angela Boltman
    Each year the CHI conference reaches out to new communities that have an interest in learning more about CHI and that can teach CHI more about them. The Development Consortium (DC) at CHI 98 brought together selected educators from five countries that shared their views on HCI issues in educational settings. This year, DC participants attended a pre-conference workshop, took part in the CHIkids tutorial and CHIkids program, participated in regular CHI conference activities, and reflected on their experiences in a final session.
    The CHI 98 Doctoral Consortium BIBAHTML 60-61
      Deborah A. Boehm-Davis
    The Doctoral Consortium (DC) is a pre-conference event sponsored by SIGCHI. The DC is a closed session that provides an opportunity for doctoral students to explore their research interests in an interdisciplinary workshop with established researchers in a group setting. The participants receive feedback on current research and guidance for future research directions. The consortium also aims toward the development of a supportive community of scholars while contributing to the conference goals through interaction with other researchers and participation in conference events. Consortium participants are invited based on their dissertation proposals, and reflect the wide range of disciplines within HCI research. The selection of participants is based primarily on the quality of their dissertation proposal (as described in their submission to the DC) and on the extent to which the dissertation represents the study of an HCI issue. Consideration is also given to representing students at different stages of the dissertation process, with a preference for students who have just had their proposal approved.
    Making Technology Accessible for Older Users BIBAHTML 62-65
      Beth Meyer; Wendy A. Rogers; Matthias Schneider-Hufschmidt; Gregory Grace; Victoria A. Spaulding-Johnson; Sherry E. Mead
    The proportion of the world's population that is over age 60 has grown dramatically and continues to increase. The World Health Organization estimates that, by the year 2020, 24% of Europeans will fall into this age group, along with 23% of North Americans and 17% of East Asians [4]. Furthermore, at least in Europe, older people tend to have more per capita income than younger people do, making them an important market for consumer products.
       This growing segment of the population is increasingly exposed to computers and various forms of computer technology, both from interest and from necessity [2].
       Finally, older adults do have unique usability needs. For example, older people had more trouble finding information in a Web site than younger people [1]. Older mouse users found it more difficult to hit targets, though this effect could be reduced with design interventions [3]. Aging can particularly affect how consumers use industrial designs. Fortunately, designs created to make technology accessible to older users often have some benefit for younger users as well (e.g., [3]).
       For these reasons, it is critical that the HCI community understand how aging affects computer usability. Towards that end, on April 21, 1998, we conducted a Special Interest Group (SIG) devoted to issues of aging and use of technology. The goal of this SIG was to bring designers together with researchers in the field of aging and human factors, in order to share knowledge and discuss issues in real-world interface design.
    HCI Solutions for Managing the IT Infra-Structure BIBAHTML 66
      Thomas M. Graefe; Dennis Wixon
    In a kick-off Special Interest Group (SIG) at CHI 97, participants focused on key design challenges in the domain of network and system management. At the conclusion of the CHI 97 SIG the group decided it would be helpful to continue to meet and to provide a forum for exploring solutions to these key design challenges.
       The CHI 98 SIG provided an opportunity for over 30 HCI practitioners and researchers in the management domain to share information about work in several key areas.
    Competitive Testing Issues and Methodology BIBHTML 67-70
      Kristyn Greenwood; Suzy Czarkowski
    Persuasive Computing BIBAHTML 71-72
      BJ Fogg; Daniel Bedichevsky; Jason Tester
    At CHI 98 just over 40 people attended a special interest group meeting on persuasive computing ("captology"). About half the participants came from industry and half from academics. Despite the early hour for the meeting, the event seemed to be a useful 90 minutes for learning, sharing, and networking with others interested in persuasive computing.
    So You Want to be a User Interface Consultant BIBAHTML 73-74
      Austin Henderson; Jeff Johnson
    This Special Interest Group had three purposes:
  • 1. to provide CHI professionals with insight into the challenges and rewards of
        being a CHI consultant,
  • 2. to provide consultants with an opportunity to discuss issues, and
  • 3. to explore what role SIGCHI might play in supporting the consultants as a
        subcommunity within SIGCHI.
  • HCI / SIGCHI Issues for Policy '98 BIBAHTML 75-76
      Austin Henderson
    This Special Interest Group was occasioned by the then-impending occurrence of the Policy'98, ACM's first conference on engaging United States policy-making. Since Policy'98 was to follow CHI 98 so closely, many who attended CHI 98 would not be able to attend Policy'98. Therefore this SIG was intended to provide attendees at CHI 98 with the opportunity to consider issues that should be addressed at Policy'98, to enable those who are attending, some of whom would take an active part in this SIG, to carry these issues to Policy'98.
       This Special Interest Group had four purposes:
  • 1. to provide CHI participants with an opportunity to discuss policy issues
        that are of concern to SIGCHI,
  • 2. to provide those attending Policy'98 with a SIGCHI perspective on Policy
        issues, and particularly to consider the issues from the perspective of a
        global organization,
  • 3. to address the question of whether SIGCHI should involve itself in
        policy-making issues, and
  • 4. to explore what role SIGCHI might play in supporting those within SIGCHI who
        are concerned with policy-making world-wide.
  • OTHER REPORTS

    Policy '98: Implications for SIGCHI BIBHTML 77-79
      Austin Henderson

    PUBLICATIONS

    New Publications of Interest BIBHTML 79
      Karen L. McGraw

    OTHER REPORTS

    The Celebration Continues HCIL 98 Trip Report BIBHTML 80-82
      Tonya Sullivan; Jeff Merhout; Jean B. Gasen
    AVI '98: Advanced Visual Interfaces -- An International Working Conference BIBAHTML 83-84
      H. Rex Hartson
    As described by Stefano Levialdi, the conference General Chair, the objectives of AVI'98 were to embrace both formal methods and concrete applications pertaining to information visualization, graphical and pictorial communication tools, virtual reality, multimedia, the Web, visual languages, adaptive interfaces, and metaphors. All this, and more, was brought together under a common interest in the design, evaluation, and management of visual interfaces at AVI'98.
    Representations in Interactive Software Development: The First International Worlkshop BIBHTML 85-87
      Hilary Johnson; Peter Johnson; Eamonn O'Neill
    CVE'98: Collaborative Virtual Environments BIBHTML 88-89
      Dave Snowdon; Elizabeth F. Churchill

    NEWS

    SIGCHI Annual Report BIBHTML 90-93
      Mike Atwood
    SIGCHI Needs You! A Call for Volunteers BIBAHTML 94-95
      Robert Mack; Allison Druin; David Riederman; Jean Scholtz; Cathleen Wharton
    Volunteers are the lifeblood of SIGCHI: ACM's Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction. SIGCHI is governed by an all-volunteer, elected Executive Committee which oversees conference activities, finances, publications and general operations. Volunteers organize annual CHI conferences, review papers, and organize conference venues like Panels and Workshop. Volunteers have built and maintained SIGCHI's electronic infrastructure, including Web site, e-mail lists, and databases for organizing technical programs and services for its membership, and the world-wide HCI community. As SIGCHI grows, it retains the services of professional services for its operations which permits the volunteer community to concentrate on advancing the profession. But in the end everything SIGCHI accomplishes is the direct result of volunteer input. And SIGCHI needs more of you.
    SIGCHI News BIBHTML 96-106
     

    NEWS: The Real World

    Video Conferencing BIBHTML 111
      Lon Barfield

    NEWS: Views and Feelings

    The Screen is Not Paper BIBHTML 112
      Steven Pemberton