HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | CHI Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
CHI Tables of Contents: 08-209-109-210-110-211-111-212-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Extended Abstracts of ACM CHI'13 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:CHI'13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Editors:Wendy E. Mackay; Stephen Brewster; Susanne Bødker
Location:Paris, France
Dates:2013-Apr-27 to 2013-May-02
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1952-2; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CHI13-2
Papers:622
Pages:3318
Links:Conference Website
  1. CHI 2013-04-27 Volume 2
    1. Accessibility
    2. CSCW
    3. Evaluation and design methods
    4. Health
    5. Interaction and experience design
    6. Learning
    7. Multimedia
    8. Music and audio
    9. Privacy
    10. Social computing
    11. Augmented reality
    12. Emotions
    13. Games/play
    14. Gesture
    15. Inputs
    16. PDA&Mobile
    17. Sustainability
    18. Tabletops and displays
    19. Tactile
    20. Ubiquitous computing
    21. UI design
    22. Visualization
    23. Web and ecommerce
    24. Doctoral consortium
    25. alt.chi: reflection and evaluation
    26. alt.chi: experiences
    27. alt.chi: Design Lessons
    28. alt.chi: ethics
    29. alt.chi: nature and nurture
    30. alt.chi: spirit and mind
    31. Case studies: innovating user-centered design
    32. Case studies: communities of practice
    33. Case studies: changing how we work
    34. Case studies: novel settings
    35. Case studies: in the wild
    36. Panels
    37. SIGs
    38. Student design competition
    39. Student games competition
    40. Student research competition
    41. Video showcase presentations
    42. Interactivity: exploration
    43. Interactivity: research
    44. Workshop summaries

CHI 2013-04-27 Volume 2

Accessibility

Can we augment reality with "mental images" to elicit pretend play?: a usability study BIBAFull-Text 1-6
  Zhen Bai; Alan F. Blackwell; George Coulouris
Pretend play is a symbolic activity in one's childhood which develops critical competences such as mental representation, linguistic expression and social knowledge. However, children with autism spectrum condition (ASC) are often found lacking in pretend play. Inspired by the analogy between pretend play and Augmented Reality (AR), both of which require dual representations of reality and its symbolic counterpart, we designed an AR system that aims to assist young children with ASC to be engaged in open-ended pretend play by overlaying suggested imaginary "mental images" over the physical environment. A usability study with normally developed children aged 4 to 5 was conducted to inform a future empirical study with autistic children.
A motion-based interface to control environmental stimulation for children with severe to profound disabilities BIBAFull-Text 7-12
  Cristina Manresa Yee; Joan Jordi Muntaner; Diana Arellano
SINASense is a novel motion-based interface that serves as an educational application for children with severe or profound cognitive, sensory and physical impairments. The application makes use of computer vision to track the body movements of the user, which in turn trigger meaningful outcomes from the system. In this paper we describe the design principles of the interface, our experience during its evaluation, and finally we present ideas for future developments.
Adaptive time windows for real-time crowd captioning BIBAFull-Text 13-18
  Matthew J. Murphy; Christopher D. Miller; Walter S. Lasecki; Jeffrey P. Bigham
Real-time captioning provides deaf and hard of hearing users with access to live spoken language. The most common source of real-time captions are professional stenographers, but they are expensive (up to $200/hr). Recent work shows that groups of non-experts can collectively caption speech in real-time by directing workers to different portions of the speech and automatically merging the pieces together. This work uses 'one size fits all' segment durations regardless of an individual worker's ability or preferences. In this paper, we explore the effect of adaptively scaling the amount of content presented to each worker based on their past and recent performance. For instance, giving fast typists longer segments and giving workers shorter segments as they fatigue. Studies with 24 remote crowd workers, using ground truth in segment calculations, show that this approach improves average coverage by over 54%, and F1 score (harmonic mean) by over 44%.
Accessible gaming for people with physical and cognitive disabilities: a framework for dynamic adaptation BIBAFull-Text 19-24
  Stephen Vickers; Howell Istance; Michael J. Heron
Current approaches to enabling access to computer games are typically fragmentary, and may involve manual expert configuration of the game, or of the input or output devices used. We present work towards a comprehensive software framework to facilitate dynamic adaptation of computer games to different levels of physical and cognitive abilities. The framework is grounded on a task analysis of gameplay by expert players, and integrates automatic modification of games tasks, interaction techniques, and input device configuration according to a profile of user abilities.
Karaoke: an assistive alternative interface for illiterate users BIBAFull-Text 25-30
  Kristin Dew; Muna Haddadin; Carin Fishel; Apurva Dawale
In this extended abstract, the authors describe their design proposal and method for developing an adaptive, assistive alternative interface for illiterate mobile device users in the US. Based on user research and design suggestions from Knoche & Huang's CHI 2012 workshop, the authors designed the interface using key ideas from Flanagan et al.'s values-sensitive design process.
Design guidelines of a tool to help blind authors independently format their word documents BIBAFull-Text 31-36
  Lourdes Morales; Sonia M. Arteaga; Sri Kurniawan
Most work on document creators for blind people mainly concentrates on supporting document writing rather than document formatting, even though blind authors' documents are often treated dismissively when they do not match "expected" standards and many blind authors rely on sighted people to check their documents. Through understanding sighted readers' expectations and strategies and problems blind authors experience with current word processors, we compiled a set of guidelines for a formatting tool for blind authors. The guidelines include: the ability for users to control the level of corrections, the timeliness and intuitiveness of the information, and the compatibility with screen readers. We then developed a prototype with which we are conducting a case study evaluation, mainly, to come up with more guidelines. Emerging guidelines include: differentiating voices associated with content and formatting information, the ability to record user preference, and a preview of the surrounding context of the formatted items.
Facilitating route learning using interactive audio-tactile maps for blind and visually impaired people BIBAFull-Text 37-42
  Nazatul Naquiah Abd Hamid; Alistair D. N. Edwards
In preparing to navigate in an unfamiliar location, a blind person may use non-visual maps. This project is aimed at developing more effective, interactive audio-tactile maps. The maps will be novel in using speech and non-speech sounds and allowing the user to rotate the map, thereby facilitating the building of an egocentric cognitive map. Initial requirements have been gathered from mobility instructors. Their main conclusions are that immoveable objects represent the most useful landmarks and that certain ambient sounds can provide most valuable orientation information.
Button blender: remixing input to improve video game accessibility BIBAFull-Text 43-48
  Karim Said; Shaun K. Kane
Over time, advances in video game system hardware have facilitated the evolution of video game mechanics from simple to complex. Game input devices have followed this trend, evolving from simple joysticks to multi-button, sensor-enabled controllers. Unfortunately, the complexity of modern game controllers presents significant challenges to some players, including novices and gamers with accessibility needs. Button Blender reduces such challenges by recording, remixing, and replaying game controller input, allowing novice players to play like experts.
Towards an ambient assisted living user interaction taxonomy BIBAFull-Text 49-54
  Martin Petzold; Francesco Barbabella; Jan Bobeth; Dagmar Kern; Christopher Mayer; Martin Morandell
Extensive research in the field of ambient assisted living (AAL) provides profound knowledge about the design of AAL systems. However, more generic design characteristics for user interaction have not been formalized for this domain yet. Thus, we propose to develop a domain specific taxonomy for the design of user interaction in AAL systems. We adopted a systematic taxonomy development approach that combines an empirical and a pseudo-conceptual strategy. Six co-researchers from different disciplines conduct the iterative research process. Next to AAL systems existing taxonomies in the field of human-computer interaction are analyzed following the Delphi method. In this paper we present our research process and preliminary results from the first iteration. The final taxonomy allows classification and should support the analysis of user interaction utilized in AAL systems. Furthermore, it can deal as a practical design guideline.
Exploring tangible collaborative distance learning environments for the blind and visually impaired BIBAFull-Text 55-60
  Muhanad S. Manshad; Enrico Pontelli; Shakir J. Manshad
This work-in-progress presents our prototype of a tangible collaborative distance learning environment via a custom set of Trackable Interactive Multi-modal Manipulatives (TIMMs). This work defines a Tangible User Environment (TUE), empowering people with visual impairments to create, modify, and naturally interact with graphical representations that are commonly encountered in mathematics, computer science and other scientific disciplines. TIMMs are designed to enable distance collaboration among students and with instructors. This system supports remote and active position, proximity, stacking, and orientation tracking of manipulatives on a multi-touch table-top surface, while providing complete visibility to local and remote instructors. This user-centered system design is derived from various visits and discussions with instructors of blind and visually impaired students in K-12 education.
Human faces detection and localization with simulated prosthetic vision BIBAFull-Text 61-66
  Grégoire Denis; Christophe Jouffrais; Victor Vergnieux; Marc Macé
Clinical trials reveal that current visual neuroprosthesis are not yet usable. The main reason is the small number of implanted electrodes, leading to a very poor visual resolution. The resolution is especially not sufficient to detect specific objects (faces, signs, etc.) in the surroundings. We used simulated prosthetic vision (SPV) to show that pre-processing of the camera image could restore these functions, even with low-resolution implants. Specifically, we showed that it is possible to quickly detect and localize human faces located nearby. We suggest that high-level processing of the video stream may be included in current visual neuroprosthesis. This would restore many visuomotor behaviors such as grasping, heading, steering, etc.

CSCW

Investigating the communication patterns of distance-separated grandparents and grandchildren BIBAFull-Text 67-72
  Azadeh Forghani; Carman Neustaedter; Thecla Schiphorst
A variety of systems have been designed to support communication between distance-separated grandparents and grandchildren. Yet despite this, there are few studies of the actual communication routines and needs of these groups. To address this, we have conducted a study that explores the existing communication activities as well as the future desired communication patterns between distance-separated grandparents and grandchildren between the ages of three and ten through interview with grandparents and parents. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the way they currently communicate as well as the expectations that could be used as a basis for future designs to support their needs.
Designing a smartpen reminder system for older adults BIBAFull-Text 73-78
  Julie R. Williamson; Marilyn McGee-Lennon; Euan Freeman; Stephen Brewster
Designing interactive systems for older adults often means designing with older adults from the earliest stages of development. This paper describes the co-design of a smartpen and paper calendar-based reminder system for the home. The design sessions involved older adults and used experience prototypes [1]. We completed these co-design sessions with older adults in order to explore the possibility of exploiting paper-based calendars for multimodal reminders systems using a smartpen. The initial results demonstrate successful interaction techniques that make a strong link between paper interaction and scheduling reminders, such as using smartpen annotations and using the location of written reminders within a paper diary to schedule digital reminders. The results also describe important physical aspects of paper diaries as discussed by older adults, such as daily/weekly layouts and binding.
Rotating, tilting, bouncing: using an interactive chair to promote activity in office environments BIBAFull-Text 79-84
  Kathrin Probst; David Lindlbauer; Patrick Greindl; Markus Trapp; Michael Haller; Bernhard Schwartz; Andreas Schrempf
A typical office worker nowadays spends the majority of his time sedentary in the course of his working life. In this paper, we address the problem of sedentariness in the context of office work through smooth integration of light physical activity into the daily work routine. Equipping a flexible office chair with motion sensing functionality, the chair becomes a ubiquitous input device that provides an office worker with the possibility to use the movements of his body for tilting, rotating, or bouncing to control his workplace computer. Based on this idea, we apply an existing gesture taxonomy to body movements on an active office chair, and explore different application scenarios for ubiquitous gestural chair interaction.
That's not norma(n/l): a detailed analysis of midas touch in gaze-based problem-solving BIBAFull-Text 85-90
  Hana Vrzakova; Roman Bednarik
Interaction error prevention needs to start from a good understanding of the context of an error. One of the central issues in gaze-interaction research is the suppression of the so-called Midas touch: the interface's incorrect evaluation of user gaze as a purposeful interaction command. We conduct a detailed analysis of numerous instances of these events during interactive problem-solving. By developing and applying an annotation scheme we present a taxonomy of the errors and remedial strategies users employ. We present the nuances, richness and development of the user behavior when dealing with the outcomes of the error, and uncover two major coping strategies. The knowledge will be used to design automatic error-prevention mechanisms for gaze-based interaction.
Facilitating gaze interaction using the gap and overlap effects BIBAFull-Text 91-96
  Antonio Diaz Tula; Andrew T. N. Kurauchi; Carlos H. Morimoto
Many results from psychophysics have indicated that the latency of saccadic eye movements is affected by how new visual stimuli is presented. In this paper we show how two such results, known as the gap effect (GE) and overlap condition (OC), can be used to improve gaze interaction. We have chosen a dwell time based eye typing application, since eye typing can be easily modeled as a sequence of eye movements from one key to the next. By modeling how dwell time selection is performed, we show how the GE and OC can be used to generate visual feedback that facilitates the eye movement to the next key. A pilot experiment was conducted in which participants had to type short phrases on a virtual keyboard using 2 different visual feedback methods, one traditional feedback based on animation and a new feedback scheme using the GE and OC. Results show that using a feedback that exploits these phenomena facilitates eye movements and can improve eye typing user experience and performance.
Let me show you what i read: exploring referencing strategies for e-books BIBAFull-Text 97-102
  Dongwook Yoon; Huaishu Peng; Bin Xu
As reading behavior is moving towards digital and social domain, the way we share book content is becoming an emerging and crucial question. In this paper, we explored two different E-book content reference strategies: the traditional page-number-based reference and an off-the-shelf highlight-based reference. A comparative laboratory study was conducted to test the speed and workload of referencing behaviors for both reference generator and receiver. The results present that the highlight is easier and faster for reference receiver, while the page-number for reference generator. We also found out that page-number provides better overall comprehension over book contents. We conclude with implications of future E-book interface design to enhance share-ability.
Navigating constraints: the design work of professional software developers BIBAFull-Text 103-108
  David Socha; Josh Tenenberg
This paper reports on initial results from a study of software developers doing their authentic work in their place of work. We apply the ethnographic and interaction-analytic methods that the CHI community has used to study people carrying out their work in non-software domains. Our preliminary results show professional software developers spending the majority of their time navigating a myriad of largely invisible constraints arising from multiple, concrete, real-world sources. They use frequent hypothesis-probe-interpret to cycles navigate the contextual, complex systems that they inhabit and construct. These constraints are qualitatively different from those reported in the literature based on early conceptual design.
Supervisory guide part I: detecting gaps in UAV swarm operator situation awareness BIBAFull-Text 109-114
  Florian Frische; Andreas Lüdtke
Experiments have shown that incorrect situation awareness (SA) is the major cause of human errors in different aviation domains. Many of these errors are caused by insufficient scanning of information leading to 'gaps' in SA. We envision developing an SA-based attention guidance system that eliminates SA-gaps of operators supervising a swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles on-the-fly. This paper presents a novel, eye movement based technique for detecting SA-gaps, which we identified as the first development step of the envisioned system.
A theoretical model for trust in automated systems BIBAFull-Text 115-120
  Kevin Hoff; Masooda Bashir
The concept of trust in automation has received a great deal of attention in recent years in response to modern society's ever-increasing usage of automated systems. Researchers have used a variety of different automated systems in unique experimental paradigms to identify factors that regulate the trust formation process. In this work-in-progress report, we propose a preliminary, theoretical model of factors that influence trust in automation. Our model utilizes three layers of analysis (dispositional trust, situational trust, and learned trust) to explain the variability of trust in a wide range of circumstances. We are in the process of verifying certain aspects of the model empirically, but our current framework provides a useful perspective for future investigations into the intricacies of trust in automated systems.
Emphasizing dysfunctional group dynamics in collaboration personas: specification of an approach BIBAFull-Text 121-126
  Alain Giboin
Comparing Collaboration Personas and Individual Personas for the design and evaluation of collaboration software, Judge, Matthews, and Whittaker (2012) found that practitioners preferred collaboration personas, but required that the method put more emphasis on problematic or dysfunctional group dynamics. Because Judge et al. only outlined a possible approach to meet this requirement, we decided to contribute to the specification of the approach. We here report the first steps of this specification work.
Hand and eyes: how eye contact is linked to gestures in video conferencing BIBAFull-Text 127-132
  Katja Neureiter; Martin Murer; Verena Fuchsberger; Manfred Tscheligi
Video-mediated communication (VMC) technologies enable communication and interaction over distance and try to provide the user the experience of real face-to-face interaction and social presence. Although those systems allow a variety of nonverbal cues, most of them lack eye contact due to the vertical displacement between the camera (e.g., at the top edge of the screen) and the image of the communication partner's eyes. In an initial study we explored the interdependency of eye contact, gaze behavior and gestures with respect to social presence. Our results indicate that allowing for eye contact fosters the perception of gestures.
GitHub developers use rockstars to overcome overflow of news BIBAFull-Text 133-138
  Michael J. Lee; Bruce Ferwerda; Junghong Choi; Jungpil Hahn; Jae Yun Moon; Jinwoo Kim
Keeping track of a constantly updating stream of news items on social networking enabled software development sites may be difficult. We analyzed the actions of 544 GitHub.com developers working across 5,657 projects to examine how the network of developers and projects influence where developers choose to contribute. Our analyses revealed the existence of a group of extremely well connected developers, or rockstars. We found that these rockstars': 1) actions have a greater influence on their followers compared to regular developers, 2) type of action affect their followers differently, 3) influence on followers may depend on a project's age, 4) increased activity on a project increases activity by followers, and 5) followers use as guides to projects to work on. We discuss the implications of these findings to the design of software development environments.
Performance and participation in open source software on GitHub BIBAFull-Text 139-144
  Nora McDonald; Sean Goggins
A few studies have attempted to provide metrics of success in open source software (OSS) projects but the role a code hosting workspace plays in how performance is viewed and measured is little examined. We conducted qualitative, exploratory research with lead and core developers on three successful projects on GitHub to understand how OSS communities on GitHub measure success. These results were obtained in connection with a larger project that is designed to understand the structure of code hosting platforms in relation to participation and performance. We report two main findings. First, lead and core members of the projects we interviewed display a nuanced understanding of community participation in their assessment of success. Second, they attribute increased participation on their projects to the features and usability provided by GitHub.
CrowdUtility: know the crowd that works for you BIBAFull-Text 145-150
  Koustuv Dasgupta; Vaibhav Rajan; Saraschandra Karanam; Kovendhan Ponnavaikko; Chithralekha Balamurugan; Nischal M. Piratla
Crowdsourcing platforms aim to leverage the collective intelligence of a largely distributed Internet workforce to solve a wide range of tasks. Crowd workers (unlike in a typical organization), exhibit varying work patterns, expertise, and performance -- with little or no control that can be imposed on them. Requesters (e.g. enterprises) also exhibit diverse requirements in terms of the size, complexity and timings of the tasks, as well as SLAs (performance expectations). Clearly, the heterogeneity makes the choice of a platform suited for a given task difficult for the user. This paper highlights this problem and proposes CrowdUtility -- a first-of-a-kind statistical machine learning approach, which models the dynamic behavioral characteristics of crowdsourcing platforms and uses them to recommend the best platform for the enterprise task(s). Initial results from real-world experiments suggest that the proposed system provides an attractive solution to this erstwhile unsolved problem.
Taskville: visualizing tasks and raising awareness in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 151-156
  Shawn Nikkila; Daragh Byrne; Hari Sundaram; Aisling Kelliher; Silvan Linn
Taskville is an interactive visualization that aims to increase awareness of tasks that occur in the workplace. It utilizes gameplay elements and playful interaction to motivate continued use. A preliminary study with 37 participants shows that Taskville succeeds at being a fun and enjoyable experience while also increasing awareness. A strong correlation was also found between two major study groups demonstrating its potential to increase awareness and stimulate task-based activity across work groups.
A timeline visualization for multi-team collaborative planning BIBAFull-Text 157-162
  Ligia Batrinca; Muhammad T. Khan; Dorrit Billman; Basak Aydemir; Gregorio Convertino
Developing and corroborating plans for critical missions (e.g., space missions) is not a trivial task. Our research focuses on designing and evaluating a planning tool that supports a team of experts engaged in sharing, cross-validating, and refining existing plans. We designed a plan visualization tool to support multi-team collaborative planning for operations on the International Space Station. We built and evaluated two prototypes, a text-based tool representing the current practice and a new, dual timeline visualization tool. In this paper we present the design and the formative evaluation, which indicated the promise of the proposed design but also identified implementation issues.
It is about time: time aware quality management for interactive systems with humans in the loop BIBAFull-Text 163-168
  Markus Krause; Robert Porzel
In recent years crowd-based and human computation systems have attracted increasing attention in science and industry. For applications that are driven by input from a multitude of human raters, ensuring data reliability and organizing an interactive workflow constitute a new challenge. In this paper we describe a novel approach to ensure data quality in crowd-based and human computation systems. The proposed algorithm features the potential for direct feedback and interactivity while producing little computational overhead.
synchroLight: three-dimensional pointing system for remote video communication BIBAFull-Text 169-174
  Jifei Ou; Sheng Kai Tang; Hiroshi Ishii
Although the image quality and transmission speed of current remote video communication systems have vastly improved in recent years, its interactions still remain detached from the physical world. This causes frustration and lowers working efficiency, especially when both sides are referencing physical objects and space. In this paper, we propose a remote pointing system named synchroLight that allows users to point at remote physical objects with synthetic light. The system extends the interaction of the existing remote pointing systems from two-dimensional surfaces to three-dimensional space. The goal of this project is to approach a seamless experience in video communication.
Combining social strategies and workload: a new design to reduce the negative effects of task interruptions BIBAFull-Text 175-180
  Roelof Anne Jelle de Vries; Manja Lohse; Andi Winterboer; Frans C. A. Groen; Vanessa Evers
Being interrupted by notifications and reminders is common while working. In this study we consider whether system politeness reduces (negative) effects of being interrupted by system requests. We carried out a 2 (polite vs. neutral system request) x 2 (high vs. low mental load) between-participants experiment. We measured annoyance, frustration and mental effort. Our results suggest that social strategies can mitigate some of the negative effects, but that this depends on the difficulty of the task. We discuss the implications of these results for the design of interruptive system messages and for further research into social computing.
The effect of explanations on perceived control and behaviors in intelligent systems BIBAFull-Text 181-186
  Daniel Holliday; Stephanie Wilson; Simone Stumpf
Intelligent systems often violate fundamental usability principles, such as control and transparency. Explanations have been shown to have a positive effect on transparency in such systems but little research exists as to how it may affect control. We set out to investigate how explanations may impact upon users' perceptions of control in an intelligent system. We conducted an empirical study in which 15 participants carried out a qualitative data analysis task using an intelligent system. Participants were divided into two groups: with and without explanations. Participants could indicate agreement or correct the system. Our results show that participants without explanations display more control-exerting behaviors but that there is no difference between conditions in participants' perception of control. We discuss our findings and implications for future work.

Evaluation and design methods

CHECk: a tool to inform and encourage ethical practice in participatory design with children BIBAFull-Text 187-192
  Janet C. Read; Matthew Horton; Gavin Sim; Peggy Gregory; Daniel Fitton; Brendan Cassidy
When working with children in participatory design activities ethical questions arise that are not always considered in a standard ethics review. This paper highlights five challenges around the ethics of the value of design and the ethics of the children's participation and presents a new tool, CHECk that deals with three of these challenges by virtue of two checklists that are designed to challenge researchers in CCI and HCI to critically consider the reasons for involving children in design projects and to examine how best to describe design activities in order that children can better consent to participate.
Exploring the potential of the drawing intervention method for design and evaluation by young children BIBAFull-Text 193-198
  Wolmet Barendregt; Tilde Bekker
This paper describes the preliminary results of an exploratory study on the use of the Drawing Intervention method for both design and evaluation activities with young children (4-7). In this study we wanted to a) investigate how a variant of this method can be used to evaluate a game with younger children than the ones participating in previous studies, b) how well it works as a method to invite children to generate design ideas, and c) whether it works as a collaborative design method. Findings suggest that in general children were able to create drawings related to the proposed themes and showing their understanding of several aspects of the technologies/games that they encountered. The youngest children found it hard to collaborate and usually worked on one side of the paper if forced to share a paper, while some older children sometimes were able to create one game together.
3D attention: measurement of visual saliency using eye tracking glasses BIBAFull-Text 199-204
  Lucas Paletta; Katrin Santner; Gerald Fritz; Heinz Mayer; Johann Schrammel
Understanding and estimating human attention in different interactive scenarios is an important part of human computer interaction. With the advent of wearable eye-tracking glasses and Google glasses, monitoring of human visual attention will soon become ubiquitous. The presented work describes the precise estimation of human gaze fixations with respect to its environment, without the need of artificial landmarks in the field of view, and being capable of providing attention mapping onto 3D information. It enables full 3D recovery of the human view frustum and the gaze pointer in a previously acquired 3D model of the environment in real time. The key contribution is that our methodology enables mapping of fixations directly into an automatically computed 3d model. This innovative methodology will open new opportunities for human attention studies during interaction with its environment, bringing new potential into automated processing for human factors technologies.
The challenge of working with teens as participants in interaction design BIBAFull-Text 205-210
  Daniel Fitton; Janet C. Read; Matthew Horton
As participants in interaction design, teenagers offer some very unique and valuable insights both into the often-unconventional world that they inhabit and from a viewpoint that can combine elements of both child and adult perspectives. Teenagers as a user group are not often studied within interaction design and, within the field of HCI, fall into an underexplored space between the Child-Computer Interaction community and mainstream HCI. Special consideration is needed when working with this user group as methodologies developed for child or adult users may not be appropriate or entirely successful. This paper begins by defining and describing teenagers as a user population, then giving examples of how methodologies have been successfully adapted and created in order to engage teenagers in design studies. Finally the paper presents a series of challenges, opportunities, and areas to explore within this emerging area of HCI.
Surprise, surprise: activity log based time analytics for time management BIBAFull-Text 211-216
  Viktoria Pammer; Marina Bratic
We explore the usefulness of time analytics based on activity log data created by a mixture of automatic activity tracking on a PC and manual time tracking (stop-watch functionality) for time management. For two weeks, 7 study participants used such computer-supported time tracking and reviewed their time use daily. Our study reveals that the regular usage of such software indeed leads to insights with respect to time management: study participants consistently reported surprise about the extent of their worktime fragmentation. Additionally, our study indicates that besides mere data analytics, users require guidance ("actionable analytics") to actually change time management behaviour.
Towards inferring language expertise using eye tracking BIBAFull-Text 217-222
  Kai Kunze; Hitoshi Kawaichi; Kazuyo Yoshimura; Koichi Kise
We present initial work towards recognizing reading activities. This paper describes our efforts detect the English skill level of a user and infer which words are difficult for them to understand. We present an initial study of 5 students and show our findings regarding the skill level assessment. We explain a method to spot difficult words. Eye tracking is a promising technology to examine and assess a user's skill level.
Social devices: a laboratory study on user preferences of device proactivity BIBAFull-Text 223-228
  Jarmo Palviainen; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Heikki Peltola
Social Devices is a proximity-based concept where proactive devices -- such as smart phones -- communicate with each other and co-located humans. The objective behind the concept is to foster new interactions between users, both those who are already familiar with each other and those who are not. From the users' viewpoint, the major questions concerning Social Devices are the acceptability of the concept and in specific, the level of proactivity of the devices. In this paper, we present the first results of evaluating the acceptance of Social Devices in a laboratory setting. We tested two versions of a game running on Social Devices by exposing the participants to four different scenarios varying in proactivity. The majority of the participants (74%, N=27) preferred to have control over starting the game. However, 48% ranked an application proactively sharing personal information to friends as the best of the four presented scenarios.
Users' socially desirable responding with computer interviewers BIBAFull-Text 229-234
  Sin-Hwa Kang; Jacquelyn Fort Morie
In this paper, I explore how different types of computer interviewers and the amount of self-disclosure from the interviewers affect the quantity of socially desirable responses displayed by interviewees. Online surveys were delivered by computer interviewers. The computer interviewers included a text-based interface and an anthropomorphic character interface. The interviewers' self-disclosure presented their social norm violations. Interview questions were in the form of socially desirable response items representing impression management in this study. The experimental design was a 2 (Interviewers' type) x 2 (Interviewers' self-disclosure versus no self-disclosure) factorial between-subjects experiment. The main dependent variable was whether users' socially desirable responses were affected by the type of interviewer and that amount of self-disclosure provided by the interviewer. The preliminary findings present the potential for self-disclosing anthropomorphic characters to reduce the social desirability bias present in interviewees with high public self-consciousness in their self-disclosure.
Give and take: audio gift giving to support research practices BIBAFull-Text 235-240
  Emma Thom; Matt Jones
In this paper, we introduce and explore continuing research based around the Audio Gift system. Audio Gift uses hand-only gestures along with haptic feedback to capture and share audio notes from a discussion. The aim is to enhance, in a subtle way, the capture of key points during a research discussion. In addition to describing the prototype, we present observations and findings of an exploratory field study with archaeologists. These findings highlight the value and challenges of Audio Gift.
Measuring touch bias of one thumb posture on direct touch-based mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 241-246
  Kangwook Lee; Sangtae Kim; Sung-Hyon Myaeng
Direct-touch interactive surfaces become pervasive in our daily lives due to personal mobile devices such as smartphones. However, inaccurate target pointing on direct touch-based mobile devices, which occurs due to the ambiguity of the user-aimed point estimation from the finger contact region, often causes trouble for users. To understand this problem of direct-touch interactions, we conducted an experimental study where we explored the touch bias of one thumb posture on direct touch-based mobile devices. Moreover, we proposed a novel method of splitting a touch surface into several regions; this method enables an analysis of the touch bias according to angular and longitudinal criteria.
Collecting memories of the museum experience BIBAFull-Text 247-252
  Galena Kostoska; Denise Fezzi; Beatrice Valeri; Marcos Baez; Fabio Casati; Samuela Caliari; Stefania Tarter
When we go to the museum, we see many interesting objects that have fascinating stories related to them. However, visitors do not often share these experiences with people that have not visited the exhibition. Sharing is beneficial both because it can create interest and attract people to the museum, and because it can help people who cannot attend the visit (for example, is physically unable to do so) to still enjoy it. We were interested to understand the extent and motivation behind sharing (or not sharing) and test how to encourage visitors to do so. We conducted and are conducting various surveys and trials, for which we report the preliminary results in this paper. Initial findings show that i) people today rarely share their visits for lack of content to complement their storytelling, and ii) by providing visitors with a simple and easy-to-create virtual photobook with their dearest memories from the visit we can significantly enhance this sharing.
Implementation of the Stroop task using an interactive table: an experimental study BIBAFull-Text 253-258
  Holly C. Miller; Sébastien Kubicki; Christophe Kolski; Janick Naveteur
We have implemented a psychological test, known as the Stroop task (in its reversed version), using the interactive TangiSense table that is equipped with RFID technology allowing the use of tangible objects. How the test was implemented, as well as the experimental study, are described in this paper. As a general description, participants moved a tangible object into one of four colored zones. The correct colored zone was indicated by a word for a color displayed in congruent or incongruent colored LED lights (e.g., "yellow" displayed in yellow or red, respectively). Participants took more time to place the object in a zone and made more errors when the word was lit with an incongruent than congruent color. These results suggest that the TangiSense table has applicable value for psychological research.
Using an intelligent interviewer to perform cognitive assessments BIBAFull-Text 259-264
  Kathleen Weaver; Anita Komlodi; Brian Duffy
Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) are computer systems that have specifically designed capabilities ranging from simple conversation agents to complex systems that can accomplish activities on our behalf. As a result, state of the art Computerized Conversation Agents (CCAs) have been developed to have a fluid dialog with humans using natural language, offering advanced intelligent tutors, museum guides, and virtual patients. These CCAs monitor the user's interactions and build a user model in order to adjust current and future interactions to meet the needs of the individual user. We explore using an Intelligent Interviewer to conduct a cognitive assessment of a user. The results could be offered to existing CCAs allowing the interaction to be individualized from the initial point of interaction. In addition, educators, psychologists and medical professions can replace existing methods of conducting cognitive assessments with an Intelligent Interviewer.
MATE: a mobile analysis tool for usability experts BIBAFull-Text 265-270
  Talya Porat; Alon Schclar; Bracha Shapira
The 'SmartMobile' research project is directed to design and develop tools to help mobile companies view and analyze data related to the usage and performance of their applications and services.
   In this paper we focus on one of the main tools that were developed -- MATE (Mobile Analysis Tool for usability Experts). MATE is designed to highlight potential usability problems in specific mobile applications, tasks and screens. This is done by extracting and aggregating relevant usage and performance metrics from real customers using their mobile devices. Subjective metrics received from usability tests may be inserted to MATE in order to compare objective and subjective metrics per scenario and per task. Usability evaluations performed by experienced usability experts strengthened the necessity of this tool as an important complement to usability testing.
Analysing user behaviour through dynamic population models BIBAFull-Text 271-276
  Matthew Higgs; Alistair Morrison; Mark Girolami; Matthew Chalmers
We apply a statistical modelling-based approach to exploring, analysing and predicting behavioural patterns of users of mobile software. The technique employed represents the behaviour of each user through a weighted mixture over data-generating distributions. In the described pilot study, we show how we have modelled the behaviour of over a hundred users of an iOS game. We illustrate how this modelling approach can be used to determine user play strategies and learning rates and show how this affects the length of time users keep returning to play the game. We describe our ongoing work, including feeding results of the modelling into the design process.
Biomechanical simulation in the analysis of aimed movements BIBAFull-Text 277-282
  Myroslav Bachynskyi; Antti Oulasvirta; Gregorio Palmas; Tino Weinkauf
For efficient design of gestural user interfaces both performance and fatigue characteristics of movements must be understood. We are developing a novel method that allows for biomechanical analysis in conjunction with performance analysis. We capture motion data using optical tracking from which we can compute performance measures such as speed and accuracy. The measured motion data also serves as input for a biomechanical simulation using inverse dynamics and static optimization on a full-body skeletal model. The simulation augments the data by biomechanical quantities from which we derive an index of fatigue. We are working on an interactive analysis tool that allows practitioners to identify and compare movements with desirable performance and fatigue properties. We show the applicability of our methodology using a case study of rapid aimed movements to targets covering the 3D movement space uniformly.
Informing the design of new mobile development methods and tools BIBAFull-Text 283-288
  Michael Nebeling; Christoph Zimmerli; Moira Norrie
Given the proliferation of new mobile devices and different technologies, it is becoming increasingly difficult to develop for mobile settings. To gain a better understanding of the engineering problem and how developers currently work, we conducted a 14-week experiment with four developers. Using a diary study, we analysed commonalities and differences between various native mobile and web-based approaches including the different kinds of tasks and the effort expended on them. We discuss implications for design and describe our current work towards better supporting multi-platform development based on our findings.
BESIDE: the built environment for social inclusion in the digital economy BIBAFull-Text 289-294
  Lesley McIntyre; Vicki L. Hanson
We describe BESiDE, a multi-disciplinary research project that investigates themes of ageing, wellbeing, and digital technologies within the context of built environment design. Focused on initial reflections from contemporary design practice we discuss that, design guidance; a lack of research 'tools' to engage with users; an absent research culture; and missing elements of design training, are factors preventing a designer's holistic engagement with the experiences of older people and technologies within the built environment. We also present the continuing work and methods planned for assessing the user experience within older peoples' care environments.
Usability evaluation of eye tracking on an unmodified common tablet BIBAFull-Text 295-300
  Corey Holland; Atenas Garza; Elena Kurtova; Jose Cruz; Oleg Komogortsev
This paper describes the design, implementation, and usability evaluation of a neural network based eye tracking system on an unmodified common tablet and discusses the challenges and implications of neural networks as an eye tracking component on a mobile platform. We objectively and subjectively evaluate the usability and performance tradeoffs of calibration, one of the fundamental components of eye tracking. The described system obtained an average spatial accuracy of 3.95° and an average temporal resolution of 0.65 Hz during trials. Results indicate that an increased neural network training set may be utilized to increase spatial accuracy, at the cost of greater physical effort and fatigue.
You say "disaster", i say "no problem": unusable problem rating scales BIBAFull-Text 301-306
  Rolf Molich; Jennifer (Jen) McGinn; Nigel Bevan
This paper documents a consistent and considerable evaluator effect in the ratings of usability problem severity carried out by experienced usability professionals. The CUE-9 study, conducted in 2011, showed a reasonable level of rater agreement in problem identification, but the severity assigned to problems varied wildly from "not a problem" to "disaster". This paper documents the variations we observed and the need for a better rating scale and better training. The paper calls for more caution when using extreme ratings. Our results also show that simple attempts to fix the traditional rating scales may not work.
Investigating visual discomfort with 3D displays: the stereoscopic discomfort scale BIBAFull-Text 307-312
  Fabrizio Bracco; Carlo Chiorri; Donald Glowinski; Beatrice Hosseini Nia; Gianni Vercelli
Notwithstanding their widespread diffusion, stereoscopic media have important drawbacks in terms of viewers' visual discomfort. Current assessment methods are mainly based on measures of objective parameters such as eye physiology or media characteristics. On the other hand, subjective methods only evaluate the personal experience related to the physiological symptoms. In this pilot study we developed and validated the Stereoscopic Discomfort Scale (SDS), a self-assessment tool for the subjective evaluation of physiological and psychological symptoms related to stereoscopic viewing. The results show evidence of internal consistency, unidimensionality and construct validity of the scale. Since SDS scores were also strongly correlated with facets of presence, we argue that the SDS could be a useful tool for the investigation of users' experience related to stereoscopic media.
Enwildering the lab: merging field evaluation with in-lab experience sampling BIBAFull-Text 313-318
  Evangelos Niforatos; Evangelos Karapanos; Rui Alves; Maria Clara Correia Martins; Monchu Chen; Nuno Nunes
While the Experience Sampling Method is considered the gold standard of in-situ measurement, researchers have highlighted its drawbacks, in disrupting participants' activities and providing limited insights to the remote researcher. We propose a mixed approach that combines field studies with systematic lab-based Experience Sampling in four steps: a) context exploration -- identifying unexpected usage contexts through field studies that rely on passive life logging and ethnographic techniques, b) scenario synthesis -- combining the insights into scenarios that will be tested in the lab, c) context reanimation -- real life context is reanimated in a CAVE-like virtual environment b) systematic ESM probing -- observer-triggered ESM is employed increase the researchers control over the moments of sampling.
Verbal and nonverbal communication for evaluating interactive spaces BIBAFull-Text 319-324
  Atman Kendira; Thierry Gidel; Alistair Jones; Dominique Lenne
There exists a lack of comparative evaluations between interactive tabletops and their traditional counterparts due to the radically different nature of the two environments and the overly complex dynamics of collocated collaboration. We seek to address this gap in the literature with a preliminary comparative evaluation of the two paradigms. The most significant contribution of this work-in-progress is the application of an experimental coding scheme for categorizing both verbal and nonverbal communication, which allows for an effective comparison of group dynamics across the two conditions.
Did you notice?: neuronal processing of multimodal mobile phone feedback BIBAFull-Text 325-330
  Jan-Niklas Antons; Sebastian Arndt; Julia Seebode; Robert Schleicher; Sebastian Möller
To acknowledge information received by a mobile device, a number of feedback modalities are available for which human information processing is still not completely understood. This paper focuses on how different feedback modalities are perceived by users introducing a test method that is new in this field of research. The evaluation is done via standard self-assessment and by analyzing brain activity [electroencephalogram (EEG)]. We conducted an experiment with unimodal and multi-modal feedback combinations, and compared behavioral user data to EEG data. We could show that EEG is a feasible method for quantifying conscious processing of feedback in different modalities as it correlates highly with subjective ratings. EEG can thus be considered an additional tool for assessing the effectiveness of feedback, revealing conscious and potential non-conscious information processing.
Framing design of reminiscence aids with transactive memory theory BIBAFull-Text 331-336
  Wenn-Chieh Tsai; Hung-Chi Lee; Joey Chiao-Yin Hsiao; Rung-Huei Liang; Jane Yung-jen Hsu
This work aims at designing reminiscence aids that help people remember meaningful events. With an epistemological stance of research through design, the framing of the Oblivescence Board was informed by theories in social psychology and psycholinguistics. We brought a neglected drawback (i.e. forgetting) of a transactive memory system to the center of a reminiscence dialogue, where an embodied negotiation of common grounds was constructed out of a visualization metaphor. The qualitative results from a field experimental were gathered to reframe our future direction. Several design implications are also addressed to identify the opportunities for the future work. We argue that a reminiscence aid should (1) evoke curiosity and empathy for shifting responsibility, (2) provide embodied metaphor to communicate personal significance and system's expression, and (3) interweave reminiscence activities into daily practice.
How well do you know Tom Hanks?: using a game to learn about face recognition BIBAFull-Text 337-342
  Oge Marques; Justyn Snyder; Mathias Lux
Human face recognition abilities vastly outperform computer-vision algorithms working on comparable tasks, especially in the case of poor lighting, bad image quality, or partially hidden faces. In this paper, we describe a novel game with a purpose in which players must guess the name of a celebrity whose face appears blurred. The game combines a successful casual game paradigm with meaningful applications in both human- and computer-vision science. Preliminary user studies were conducted with 28 users and more than 7,000 game rounds. The results supported and extended pre-existing knowledge and hypotheses from controlled scientific experiments, which show that humans are remarkably good at recognizing famous faces, even with a significant degree of blurring. Our results will be further incorporated into research in human vision as well as machine-learning and computer-vision algorithms for face recognition.
Tailored scenarios: a low-cost online method to elicit perceptions on designs using real relationships BIBAFull-Text 343-348
  Tim Coughlan; Michael Brown; Glyn Lawson; Richard Mortier; Robert J. Houghton; Murray Goulden
This paper describes the on-going development of a method to elicit perceptions of design ideas for social technologies, through automatically tailoring scenarios presented in online surveys using information gathered from respondents. The work has been driven by a desire to understand perceptions of various information sharing technologies for the home, across a broad population. Reviewing literature in this area from HCI and beyond, we find potential value in generating scenarios that are tailored to each respondent's own household. We explore the results of a study using this method (n=79) and discuss initial comparisons with the results of studies using alternative methods.
To be biased or not to be: choosing between design fixation and design intentionality BIBAFull-Text 349-354
  Jieun Kim; Hokyoung Ryu; Hyeonah Kim
In the study, we explored potential design decision biases by understanding the relationship of the information being used and overconfidence of design outcomes that arise from the anchoring process in design. A total of twenty-eight industrial designers carried out a two-way between-subjects study administered by the four types of design exercise. Designers showed a strong anchoring effect when they employed "consistent knowledge-evidence" information rather than "inconsistent knowledge-evidence" information given. The empirical findings shed light on a double-edged anchoring effect in the design process, further suggesting the implications of the use of design information for educating HCI practitioners.
An open source approach to information scent BIBAFull-Text 355-360
  Bonnie E. John; Calvin Swart; Rachel K. E. Bellamy; Marilyn Hughes Blackmon; Richard Brown
Several theories of how novices explore a new interface have arisen in HCI and have led to methods and tools for UI practitioners to predict users' behavior on proposed interfaces and improve their design ideas before implementation. These tools depend on obtaining quantitative estimates of information scent, which usually requires a large corpus of documents representing the background knowledge of target users and an algorithm that uses this corpus to calculate the information scent between a user's goal and the labels in the GUI. Prior work has often used proprietary algorithms and propriety, now outdated corpora. This note presents an open source approach to information scent that is as good a foundation for research and practice as a previously published proprietary system, exemplifies its use in CogTool-Explorer, and opens the door for researchers to explore many important questions about novice exploration of interfaces.
Using design thinking to empower ethnic minority immigrant youth in their roles as technology and information mediaries BIBAFull-Text 361-366
  Philip Fawcett; Karen E. Fisher; Ann Peterson Bishop; Lassana Magassa
In the USA, almost one in nine people are foreign born. Further, children of immigrants and refugees accounted for the largest segment growth rate, between 1990 and 2008, in the USA for children who are younger than eight years of age. While diversity brings incredible richness, it also brings responsibility for helping immigrants participate fully in American life and culture versus isolating themselves within ethnic communities. We propose an experimental multi-disciplinary framework that uses design thinking combined with perspectives from computer science, information science, and information behavior. Our approach seeks to deeply understand how ethnic minority youth serve as information and technology mediaries within their social networks, and blends these perspectives into a community-based, multi-day workshop format called "teen design days."
Researching user interpretation beyond designer intentions BIBAFull-Text 367-372
  Jan Derboven; David Geerts; Dirk De Grooff
System evaluation in user-centered design commonly confronts the users' interpretations with the designers' intentions. In most research, the authoritative designer view remains the touchstone against which all user interpretation is evaluated. However, the proliferation of technology use in daily life puts this view under increasing pressure. As technology is more often being used beyond the workplace, more diverse target user groups and contexts of use make interaction broader and more personal. Acknowledging this increased variation in user interpretation, we are developing an evaluation method to identify and analyze variation and shifts in end user interpretation, helping designers to balance and support different meanings, instead of imposing only one authoritative interpretation.
Letting go: working with the rhythm of participants BIBAFull-Text 373-378
  Lizzie Coles-Kemp; Alice Angus; Freya Stang
The focus of this study is a community of families separated by prison. Some parts of this community do not engage with the support offered to it, regardless of delivery mechanism. In this study, we used a participatory design approach to community informatics to explore why some do not engage with the support offered and the potential for service design to increase engagement. This is a community where on-line service delivery is a method used to deliver information and support and so taking a community informatics lens helps to inform both on and off-line service design. This paper explores the use of four participatory design principles selected to improve the extent and quality of participation: ceding control, segmentation, situation and envisioning control. In this first phase of the study we discovered how the principle of feedback between segmented participant groups helps to develop an understanding of the service design needs for the whole community and is a potential technique for community informatics and service design in general to improve the quality of input to community service design.
Allowing software developers to develop culture-sensitive applications by providing them the OMCS-Br cultural knowledgebase BIBAFull-Text 379-384
  Andre O. Bueno; Junia C. Anacleto
In this paper we describe a strategy that aims to allow software developers to use the Open Mind Common Sense in Brazil (OMCS-Br) project's knowledgebase and collect the end users' commonsense knowledge from applications to feedback such OMCS-Br knowledgebase. Two new modules are being developed and integrated into the API: (i) a filter, that receives the contextualized search query from the application and gives back the resulting cultural knowledge and (ii) a collector, for feeding the knowledgebase with the data generated by the application users. Besides, we will also make possible to all users (including non-developers) to do simple searches on the project's knowledgebase by providing them a tool to use a web service.

Health

Rehearsing to control depressive symptoms through a behavior change support system BIBAFull-Text 385-390
  Sitwat Langrial; Harri Oinas-Kukkonen; Päivi Lappalainen; Raimo Lappalainen
Depressive symptoms are generally coupled with distress and high treatment costs. We present our on-going research on a Web-based behavior change support system, which utilizes Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a rehearsal tool. We present a summarized account of the research setting, studied persuasive software features, and a brief account of initial data analysis. Our work presents implications on design interventions for mental well-being and human-computer interaction.
Supporting therapists in motion-based gaming for brain injury rehabilitation BIBAFull-Text 391-396
  Cynthia Putnam; Jinghui Cheng; Doris Rusch; André Berthiaume; Robin Burke
In this paper, we describe a work-in-progress that involves therapists who use commercial motion-based video games (e.g. Wii) in therapies involving patients who have had a brain injury (BI). We are collecting data to inform a case-based recommender (CBR) system that will help therapists stay current and choose appropriate motion-games for their patients. Data from the CBR system will (1) establish commercial motion-game efficacy among a larger and more diverse BI patient population than in previous work and (2) inform custom games that better meet needs for BI therapies.
Developing hospice care over a distance in highland Scotland: a knowledge exchange process BIBAFull-Text 397-402
  Andrea Taylor; Jeni Lennox; Alasdair Mort; David Heaney; Sarah-Anne Muñoz; Margaret Currie; Gill Hubbard; Kenny Steele; Jeremy Keen
This paper describes a piece of collaborative research that aimed to develop an implementation plan for a virtual hospice. The aim of the virtual hospice in this case is to extend the reach of hospice facilities provided by the Highland Hospice in Inverness, Scotland. We chose a knowledge exchange process that included Hospice staff at every step. We began with a workshop that scoped out all of the potential virtual hospice services, which were condensed into a core set of five services. We then conducted interviews with selected Hospice staff. The final step involved presenting our recommendations to the Hospice, including a storyboard of how the virtual hospice might operate in practice. We took the Hospice's feedback and incorporated it into a final report. Overall, we feel that the knowledge exchange process generated a more accurate and realistic implementation plan.
Evaluation of roller-type itch-relief device employing hot and cold alternating stimuli BIBAFull-Text 403-408
  Ryo Watanabe; Naoki Saito; Yuichiro Mori; Taku Hachisu; Michi Sato; Shogo Fukushima; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
An itch is a significant problem for many diseases and relief of itch without side effect is required. We focused on the fact that painful thermal stimulation inhibits the itch sensation. Based on two well-known phenomena, thermal grill illusion and synthetic heat, which can generate pain or burning sensation without physical damage, we tried to achieve similar effect with harmless-range thermal stimulation. We developed a roller-type itch-relief device. The roller is composed of two parts. One part is set hot and the other is set cold by embedded Peltier devices. When the device is rolled on the user's skin, the skin is exposed to hot and cold stimuli alternatively. We also evaluated the elicited sensation and confirmed that it could partly deliver pain sensation.
The wearable lullaby: improving sleep quality of caregivers of dementia patients BIBAFull-Text 409-414
  Elizabeth H. Ehleringer; Si Jung Kim
This research introduces a wearable system (the Wearable Lullaby) designed for a non-ambulatory person with dementia who wakes up frequently during the night and keeps his caregivers (family members) from sleeping. The objective of the research is to investigate the viability of a wearable simulated presence therapy system in improving the quality of sleep in caregivers of dementia patients. The simulated presence therapy has been demonstrated to assist dementia patients; however, it has not yet been positioned as a wearable device. A total of three field studies were conducted in this research to test the feasibility of the wearable simulated presence therapy for family members who have dementia patients; however, it has not yet been positioned as a wearable device. A total of three field studies were conducted in this research to test the feasibility of the wearable simulated presence therapy for family members who have dementia patients.
CONTRAST: gamification of arm-hand training for stroke survivors BIBAFull-Text 415-420
  Ard Jacobs; Annick Timmermans; Marc Michielsen; Maaiken Vander Plaetse; Panos Markopoulos
This paper describes the design of a serious game that supports arm-hand training for stroke survivors aiming to render rehabilitation training enjoyable and sustainable. The design of this game was based on combining well-known game-design principles and principles of task-oriented training. Most importantly the game involves the manipulation of every day physical objects and the game's difficulty is dynamically adapted to the patient's performance. The game was evaluated in actual training with two stroke patients for a period of a week. Their feedback shows the promise of this approach; the study motivates the further development of game content and further extension of adaptability features.
Leveraging visual feedback from social signal processing to enhance clinicians' nonverbal skills BIBAFull-Text 421-426
  Rupa A. Patel; Andrea Hartzler; Mary P. Czerwinski; Wanda Pratt; Anthony L. Back; Asta Roseway
Nonverbal communication between patients and clinicians affects the delivery of empathic patient-centered care and patient outcomes. To be effective communicators, clinicians must appropriately encode, decode, and regulate nonverbal cues, such as speech rate, pitch, facial expression, and body language. Yet, few efforts to develop tools for enhancing clinician communication have focused on nonverbal aspects of the clinical encounter. To address this gap, we describe a novel solution that both uses social signal processing technology (SSP) to capture nonverbal cues in real time and displays instant visual feedback. In this paper, we examine the theoretical underpinnings of nonverbal cues and their critical role in clinical encounters. We then describe opportunities for capturing nonverbal cues with SSP and explore visual designs for feeding back those social signals to enhance clinicians' nonverbal communication.
Designing a prototype interface for visual communication of pain BIBAFull-Text 427-432
  Amy Jang; Diana MacLean; Jeffrey Heer
Thousands of people use Online Health Communities (OHCs) as a forum for expressing and collaborating on symptoms of pain. Despite the physical nature of pain, these exchanges typically comprise text. While pain referral diagrams have served as patient-physician communication aids for decades, little research has focused on translating them into an interactive digital interface. We propose that such an interface would provide a more efficient and accurate mechanism for expressing pain and would facilitate useful discussion around pain symptoms. In this work-in-progress, we present a pilot study in which users expressed physical symptoms using pen and paper. Our results uncovered several design considerations that are currently being used to inform the design of Body Diagrams, an interactive pain visualization tool that we plan to deploy to a pain-related OHC in the near future.
CuePBox: an integrated physical and virtual pillbox for patient care BIBAFull-Text 433-438
  Yin-Leng Theng; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Chamika Deshan; Lynette Ying Qin Goh; Jeffrey Hong; Ajanta Sen; Ravi Poovaiah; Schubert Fou Shou Boon
Based on three constructs of alerts, care, and education, we describe the design and development of CuePBox, an instrumental pillbox, with a physical as well as a virtual entity, that aims to address needs for enhanced patient care, in the monitoring of medication adherence on a continuous basis. CuePBox will be facilitated by social media technologies that support patient-to-patient communities and patient-to-healthcare communities to exchange state-of-affairs information and testimonials, with advice and encouragement towards speedy recovery. The care component along with the alerts (audio, visual, and vibration) integrated within the CuePBox hopes to empower patients to manage their health conditions.
Data-driven exploration of care plans for patients BIBAFull-Text 439-444
  Adam Perer; David Gotz
CareFlow is a novel visual analytics tool designed to help doctors devise a care plan for their patient. Using historical outcomes from clinically similar patients, CareFlow allows doctors to analyze which treatments have been effective for patients like theirs.
A digital game to support voice treatment for Parkinson's disease BIBAFull-Text 445-450
  Markus Krause; Jan Smeddinck; Ronald Meyer
Parkinson's disease causes a wide range of motor impairments that also affect speech. Even patients with mild speech motor disabilities do suffer from symptoms such as reduced dynamics, melody, tone, pace and continuity of speech. Besides invasive or drug based treatments, effective logopedic treatments do exist. However, constant training is a key factor for this type of therapy. Digital games can be one way to enhance patient's motivation for repetitive exercises both in therapy sessions and in prolonged use at home. This paper examines the possibilities of such a digital logopedic game developed for PD patients and reports first promising study results that indicate an increased peak voice loudness of the players' voice when playing the game.
Research-derived guidelines for designing toddlers' healthcare games BIBAFull-Text 451-456
  Marikken Høiseth; Michail N. Giannakos; Letizia Jaccheri
This paper presents the development of a set of research-derived design guidelines for healthcare games and applications for toddlers (children aged 1-3 years). An initial set of best practices was first developed through a workshop with experts; and afterwards, by employing an affinity diagram constructed by a HCI researchers' focus group, a revised set of best practices was obtained. This set of best practices was connected with gaming application design principles and translated into design guidelines. The results should be useful for designers and researchers who work with design and evaluation of healthcare games and applications for toddlers.
FaceIt: supporting reflection upon social anxiety events with lifelogging BIBAFull-Text 457-462
  Kara Rennert; Evangelos Karapanos
Many reasons prevent those with mental health problems from maintaining and maximizing effective therapy. In this paper we explore the merits of a multimodal mobile mental health intervention designed to enhance adherence and outcomes in using cognitive behavioral therapy methods for social anxiety disorder. This mobile system combines several facets of guided lifelogging to assist in meeting the challenges of completing cognitive behavioral therapy tasks and recording occurrence data helpful for treatment. FaceIt is a multi-level mobile intervention that supports recall and reflection for completing daily mood logs and exposure therapy, and also uses location, duration, and severity information to track where problems occur, how often, and their duration in order to document user progress.
Evaluating user experience of autistic children through video observation BIBAFull-Text 463-468
  Susanne Mäkelä; Roman Bednarik; Markku Tukiainen
Most of the current methods for user experience evaluation require that users are able to reflect on and communicate their own experience. Such methods, however, are not suitable when users have limited communication skills. We conducted video observations to evaluate user experience of four low-functioning children with an autism spectrum disorder while they were playing a prototype of a game. Our preliminary results suggest that despite its limitations, video observation can be a useful technique for evaluating episodic user experience of children with special needs.
Encouraging collaboration in hybrid therapy games for autistic children BIBAFull-Text 469-474
  Sebastian Marwecki; Roman Rädle; Harald Reiterer
Social competence and communicative skills of children with autism spectrum disorders are supported by behavioral therapy. "Serious games", especially therapeutic games on a hybrid medium, have been proven to serve as a useful tool for behavioral therapy. In this work, we present such a hybrid therapy game: "Invasion of the Wrong Planet". Based on the game, we demonstrate essential design principles for the development of therapeutic games. We focus on specific aspects of behavioral therapy, depending on which desired behavior is encouraged and not enforced. The project provides a basis for discussion on how collaboration using therapeutic games in general can be improved.
Active collaboration in healthcare design: participatory design to develop a dementia care app BIBAFull-Text 475-480
  Karin Slegers; Andrea Wilkinson; Niels Hendriks
This paper describes a research project aimed at developing a mealtime data registration tool for people with dementia. As to actively involve all stakeholders in this healthcare design project and to generate empathy and involvement, methods from participatory design were used. For each of the three research phases (ethnography, ideation & conceptualization and prototyping) we describe our approach towards stakeholder involvement and active collaboration. We discuss lessons learned in terms of good practices and the issues we struggle with.
"My Mobile Health, My Mobile Life": methods for designing health interventions with adolescents BIBAFull-Text 481-486
  Tamara Peyton; Erika Poole
For adolescents with chronic health conditions, transition from pediatric to adult patient care is often haphazard, leading to gaps in care, lapses in treatment adherence, and unnecessary hospitalizations. A typical approach to addressing transition failures is to offer clinic-based programs that guide adolescents and their families through the process, but these initiatives are costly, may not appeal to adolescents, and have limited reach due to geographic constraints. In this study design paper, we describe our ongoing efforts in the participatory design of a mobile technology-based intervention that may overcome limitations of traditional approaches. We contribute a series of recommendations for conducting human-computer interaction research with adolescents who have chronic illnesses.
Exploring new potentials in preventing unhealthy computer habits BIBAFull-Text 487-492
  Tobias Sonne; Kaj Grønbæk
Each day millions of computer users experience pains due to unhealthy computer habits. Research in this field mainly focuses on encouraging users to take breaks and correct their posture. This paper shows that unhealthy computer habits calls for new sensing solutions. Based on a design process including experts in the field of computer-related injuries, The Habit-Aware Mouse prototype was developed. It provides high-accuracy sensing of whether a user's fingers are hovering above the mouse. This kind of hovering is known to cause pains in the forearm. The integration of trans-parent sensing in existing products enables medical researchers to gain new insights on unhealthy habits. The Habit-Aware Mouse is a diagnostic sensing tool to get detailed knowledge about the user's unhealthy computer habits. Sensing is the first step to enable feedback, preventing injuries from finger hovering.
Supporting distributed collaborations between mobile health workers and expert clinicians in home care BIBAFull-Text 493-498
  Jane Li; Leila Alem
The use of collaboration technology to allow community health workers, who provide care in patients' homes, to be supported by remote expert clinicians can enhance the quality of home care services. We have explored the design of two collaboration tools to enable a health worker to discuss patient details with a remote clinician and to be guided by the clinician when performing a physical examination of a patient. One of the tools is hand-held tablet-based and designed to support real-time communication and information sharing, shared annotation on patient data as well as recording of rich media annotations for asynchronous review after the home visits. The second tool is a wearable unit consisting of a computer, a camera and a near-eye display and enables a clinician to use hand gestures to remotely guide a health worker in physical examinations. In this paper we describe our design considerations and outline our design approaches.
Investigating healthcare providers' acceptance of personal robots for assisting with daily caregiving tasks BIBAFull-Text 499-504
  Tracy L. Mitzner; Charles C. Kemp; Wendy Rogers; Lorenza Tiberio
Robots have potential to provide assistance to healthcare providers in daily caregiving tasks. The healthcare providers' acceptance of assistive robots will mediate the success or failure of implementation of robotic systems in care settings. It is essential to understand why and how providers would accept implementation of a robot in their daily work routines. We identified caregiving tasks with which healthcare providers would or would not accept assistance from a personal robot (Willow Garage's PR2). We also explored preferences for human or robot assistance. The healthcare providers we interviewed were quite open to the idea of receiving robot assistance for certain tasks.
Audio-augmented paper for the therapy of low-functioning autism children BIBAFull-Text 505-510
  Andrea Alessandrini; Alessandro Cappelletti; Massimo Zancanaro
In this paper, we present a prototype and an initial pilot study of audio-augmented paper to support the therapy of low-functioning autism children. The prototype supports the recording of audio on standard sheets of paper by using tangible tools that can be shared among the therapist and the child. The prototype is designed as tool for the therapist to engage a child in a storytelling activity.
A web-based collaborative translation management system for public health workers BIBAFull-Text 511-516
  Adrian Laurenzi; Megumu Brownstein; Anne M. Turner; Katrin Kirchhoff; Julie A. Kientz
This paper reports on the design process of a web-based collaborative system for the production of multilingual health communication materials. The system is based on a workflow combining machine translation and human post-editing and has been designed for public health professionals who are bilingual domain experts but not necessarily trained translators. Our initial data gathering phase involved interviews and focus groups with local and regional public health Dept.s. Based on the design recommendations extracted from the data, we implemented a web-based prototype collaborative translation management system. We further refined the system through an iterative design process that included informal user testing with multilingual participants. Future work will include usability studies with public health workers and the integration of additional collaborative features.
Towards supporting informal information and communication practices within a Brazilian healthcare environment BIBAFull-Text 517-522
  Roberto Calderon; Sidney Fels; Junia Anacleto; Jônatas Leite de Oliveira
We present the initial challenges of supporting ad-hoc socialization patterns that can promote community workflow behaviours using information and communication technologies. Following a participatory design process, we introduced a task-management system into a Brazilian community of healthcare professionals that have little or no previous experience with digital information technologies. Our initial observations point to designing simple interfaces that can be adapted by the community, focusing on semantic mining, and further understanding the socio-demographic, behavioural and intra-personal characteristics that promote reciprocal actions.
Tangible games for stroke rehabilitation with digital box and blocks test BIBAFull-Text 523-528
  Chen Zhao; Chih-Pin Hsiao; Nicholas M. Davis; Ellen Yi-Leun Do
The Digital Box and Block Test (DBBT) is a post-stroke rehabilitation assessment apparatus for in-home use. It is based on the clinically validated Box and Block Test used to measure unilateral gross manual dexterity. We show that the automated DBBT scoring algorithms achieve at least 90% accuracy on a scoring procedure that is traditionally labor intensive and subjective. Furthermore, we propose a tangible gaming system based on DBBT to increase patient motivation and make rehabilitation exercises more enjoyable.
A phone-based support system to assist alcohol recovery BIBAFull-Text 529-534
  Kuo-Chen Wang; Ming-Tung Hong; Cindy Hsin-Liu Kao; Allen C. Lin; Chi-An Wang; Chuang-Wen You; Chun-Hung Pan; Ming-Chyi Huang; Chun-Mao Liang; Hao-Hua Chu
This study explores the use of mobile phones as a normal life support system that connects alcohol addict patients to their addiction physiatrists after they leave a rehabilitation center. This paper presents the design and implementation of this phone-based support system that enables continuous patient monitoring and provides feedback support to the patients.

Interaction and experience design

Experiential perspectives on road congestions BIBAFull-Text 535-540
  Marianna Obrist; Daniela Wurhofer; Alina Krischkowsky; Evangelos Karapanos; David H. Wilfinger; Nicole Perterer; Manfred Tscheligi
Commuting can be perceived as both 'relaxing' and 'stressful'. An important cause for stress is getting stuck in traffic, which can especially when unexpected quickly turn commuting into a negative experience, often associated with frustration and the feeling of wasting time. Congestion experiences do not need to be frustrating and annoying. In our research, we aim to generate design solutions for turning the negative experiences into positive ones. We foster the experiential perspective on road congestions, and go beyond current automotive HCI research, which mainly focuses on safety, functionality, and usability. In this paper, we present our work-in progress on characterizing congestion experiences and needs, explored in a design workshop outlining future design directions for supporting positive experiences.
Ambiguity in design: an airport split-flap display storytelling installation BIBAFull-Text 541-546
  Clinton Jorge; Valentina Nisi; Nuno Nunes; Giovanni Innella; Miguel Caldeira; Duarte Sousa
This paper describes MStoryG, a digital art installation to be situated in a future open-air museum. Our goal with MStoryG is to provoke and engage visitors in collaborative storytelling by exploiting the ambiguity that visitors interpret from an airport split-flap display used as a medium for supporting Exquisite Corpse. In order to evaluate our concept we created a software replica of an airport split-flap display, deployed as an interactive public art installation. Visitors tweet, or through an adjacent laptop, contribute to the overall storytelling process by providing a story fragment that appears on the split-flap display for other visitors to read and build on. We argue that in the right conditions ambiguity can trigger curiosity and invite interaction, but special care is needed to avoid confusing and alienating users. Here we report on our ongoing public installation and next steps in deploying MStoryG with the physical board in locus.
A life of their own: museum visitor personas penetrating the design lifecycle of a mobile experience BIBAFull-Text 547-552
  Maria Roussou; Akrivi Katifori; Laia Pujol; Maria Vayanou; Stefan J. Rennick-Egglestone
Sets of 'personas' representing archetypical visitors of two very different museums, the Acropolis Museum in Greece and Cité de l'Espace in France, were defined and described as part of a multitude of user-centered design methods used to better understand the needs of visitors and develop for them a personalized mobile storytelling experience. Here we reflect on the role and impact that these personas have had, not only on the design process but also as a mechanism to support the story authors and to bootstrap personalization of experiences. We conclude with a discussion of research challenges inherent in the integration of personas directly into systems intended to support the personalization of experiences.
Strolling with street atmosphere visualization: development of a tourist support system BIBAFull-Text 553-558
  Yuichiro Kinoshita; Satoshi Tsukanaka; Kentaro Go
Information about the characteristics or impressions of streets is useful to tourists. This paper introduces a strolling support system that utilizes street atmosphere visualization. The system runs on a smartphone and alerts users to the existence of nearby attractive streets and areas by vibration and visualized characterization of streets. For the visualization, subjective evaluation experiments were conducted to investigate the impression of streetscapes in Kyoto. Analysis of the evaluation results revealed three factors that are relevant to street characteristics. Using the factor scores of the evaluated streetscapes, the characteristics are visualized using colours. In user studies, eight participants examined its use while walking around the city. The user studies suggest that the system attracts users' attention to surrounding environments and increases the amount of photography and conversation during their walk.
Lost in time: the meaning of temporal aspects in user experience BIBAFull-Text 559-564
  Sari Kujala; Marlene Vogel; Anna E. Pohlmeyer; Marianna Obrist
The long-term and dynamic nature of user experience (UX) is challenging both UX design and evaluation activities. Although the CHI community acknowledges the importance of a temporal perspective on UX, we are still lacking an understanding of time and the meaning of temporal aspects in UX. In order to close this gap, we organized a workshop at NordiCHI 2012 exploring the topic with researchers and practitioners, especially searching for a common understanding of long-term UX and its relevance to the field. In this paper, we analyze the current state of the topic, discuss definitions and theoretical models based on previous work and the outcome of the workshop. We conclude with a working definition for long-term UX, its relevance for design and summarize future research directions.
A trip into the countryside: an experience design for explorative car cruises BIBAFull-Text 565-570
  Martin Knobel; Marc Hassenzahl; Josef Schumann; Melanie Lamara; Kai Eckoldt; Andreas Butz
In-car navigation systems are designed with effectiveness and efficiency (e.g., guiding accuracy) in mind. However, finding a way and discovering new places could also be framed as an adventurous, stimulating experience for the driver and passengers. Inspired by Gaver and Martin's (2000) notion of "ambiguity and detour" and Hassenzahl's (2010) Experience Design, we built ExplorationRide, an in-car navigation system to foster exploration. An empirical in situ exploration demonstrated the system's ability to create an exploration experience, marked by a relaxed at-mosphere, a loss of sense of time, excitement about new places and an intensified relationship with the landscape.
WeCurate: multiuser museum interactives for shared cultural experiences BIBAFull-Text 571-576
  Katina Hazelden; Matthew Yee-King; Roberto Confalonieri; Carles Sierra; Fiammetta Ghedini; Dave de Jonge; Nardine Osman; Mark d'Inverno
WeCurate is a multiuser museum interactive system that allows users to collaboratively create a virtual exhibition from a cultural image archive. WeCurate provides a synchronised image browser across multiple devices to enable a group of users to work together to curate a collection of images, through negotiation and collective decision making. This paper reports on the findings of a five day trial of WeCurate when it was installed at a major London museum. This paper focuses exclusively on the scope and characteristics of the social experience afforded through the collaborative use of the system.
Blended shelf: reality-based presentation and exploration of library collections BIBAFull-Text 577-582
  Eike Kleiner; Roman Rädle; Harald Reiterer
We present the user interface Blended Shelf, which provides a shelf browsing experience beyond the physical location of the library. Blended Shelf offers a 3D visualization of library collections with the integration of real-world attributes like the size and availability of books. The application reflects the actual arrangement of items in the physical library and enables implicit serendipitous support of the shelf browsing process in the digital world. The interface offers multiple views with different levels of detail regarding the collection as well as various entrance points to it. The user can explore and search the shelves by touch interaction. Tracking the user's position and line of sight ensures the ideal perspective on the interface. Thus, a user can explore collections in a familiar way and benefit from serendipitous browsing discoveries without forfeiting the advantages of the digital domain.
Wet pixels: from digital to analogue originals BIBAFull-Text 583-588
  Hyosun Kwon; Jo Briggs; Ben Freeth; Karim Ladha; James Thomas; Mark Blythe; Patrick Olivier
This paper reports on experience design work currently in progress. "Wet Pixels" is intended to stimulate discussion around the notion of reproducing original digital images in a physical medium. The prototype's design is informed by mechanical reproduction devices (e.g. relief press, large format camera) and retrospective print processes (halftone, dot matrix). The original conceptual design (Figure 1) constitutes a miniature camera encased in a wooden viewing frame that would enable viewers to select and capture photographs. This image could subsequently be printed onto Japanese paper using an Arduino-controlled matrix of stepper motors topped with paint-tipped sponges. When presented in a gallery, Wet Pixels provides users with greater sensory feedback (physical, visual, auditory) than entirely digital processes through tangible creative mark-making on to paper.
Look what i found!: augmenting phone calls with memories of the past BIBAFull-Text 589-594
  Élton Gouveia; Francisco Azevedo; Luís Ferreira; Paulo Caldeira; Vítor Almeida; Rúben Gouveia; Evangelos Karapanos
Photos have an enormous capacity in cueing memories of our past and supporting collective reminiscing. Yet, despite the considerable increase in our ability to efficiently capture photos, our digital photo collections remain to a large extent invisible to our everyday interactions with the physical world. We present the design of "Look what I found!", a mobile application that aims at supporting collective reminiscing through making photos present in our daily phone calls. We then report the field trial of "Look what I found!" that discovered unexpected and often inventive ways in which users appropriate the application in their daily lives.
Dreamy eyes: exploring dynamic expression in human-system interaction BIBAFull-Text 595-600
  Jelle Stienstra; Patrizia Marti; Michele Tittarelli
This paper describes the Emotional-Perspective design, a graphical-user-interface platform built to explore expression mappings. The platform utilizes emotional and social skills by shifting from representational and discrete to expression rich, contextualized and continuous-sustained interaction paradigms. A remote robot-view, used to control an assistive robot, allows people to take on the perspective of the robot and thereby explore its action-possibilities in context. This view is extended with a dynamic graphical layer (filters and shape-changing mask). This layer is expressively mapped to the robot's 'feelings' constituted by its internal conditions and direct interaction with its surrounding (environment and person). The Emotional-Perspective design will be evaluated to address the expressive mapping and the emergence of meaning in interaction.
KiTeMiROOM: a fashion-coordination system for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 601-606
  Soh Masuko; Yasuyuki Hayashi
Recently the number of users who purchase fashion-related items using mobile devices has increased rapidly. However, most users find it hard to find their choice of apparel items due to the mobile's limited screen space. Because the lists of items are displayed images optimized for viewing with a mobile device, it is hard for users to visualize the item size and how it will coordinate with other items. In this paper, we propose the "KiTeMiROOM" interface to quickly browse coordinating tops, bottoms, and shoes by adjusting the scale of the clothing images while simultaneously displaying them using carousel panels. To implement this function, we created clothing-only image data by mechanically extracting the images and features of various clothing from a huge collection of apparel on e-commerce websites. Finally, we compared our proposed method with an ordinal list-view method used in these websites and confirmed that the KiTeMiROOM interface enhances the experience of searching for coordinated clothing.
An interaction vocabulary. describing the how of interaction BIBAFull-Text 607-612
  Sarah Diefenbach; Eva Lenz; Marc Hassenzahl
New technologies and opportunities in interaction design also come with new responsibilities. Besides the product's visual aesthetics, design needs to address the aesthetics of interaction. We discuss the various starting points of emerging approaches and then present an own approach to the How of interaction. We suggest an interaction vocabulary, i.e., a set of eleven dimensions of descriptive, non-judgmental, non-technology bound attributes of interaction. First insights from applying the vocabulary in design and evaluation studies and future research are discussed.
Experience, engagement and social interaction at a steam locomotive multimodal interactive museum exhibit BIBAFull-Text 613-618
  Loraine Clarke; Eva Hornecker
This paper describes the on-going study of an interactive multimodal museum exhibit about a steam-powered locomotive at the Riverside Transport Museum in Glasgow, UK. We examine the role of multimodal interaction relating to effects on (1) visitors' experience of the exhibit, (2) engagement with the subject matter, (3) social interaction and (4) engagement with the exhibit itself. We discuss key questions of our study, a set of initial findings, reflections and future work.

Learning

Design, reflect, explore: encouraging children's reflections with mechanix BIBAFull-Text 619-624
  Tiffany Tseng; Coram Bryant
The integration of meaningful and effective reflection interfaces with learning technologies remains an open yet important challenge. In this paper, we describe the incorporation of several interfaces for reflection into Mechanix, an interactive system for creating tangible simple machine designs. We also discuss the results of early user studies that demonstrate the potential of these interfaces to engage children in reflection and facilitate transformative shifts in understanding.
A set of interactions to rotate solids in 3D geometry context BIBAFull-Text 625-630
  David Bertolo; Robin Vivian; Jérôme Dinet
Tablets with touch-screens, multi-touch interfaces and various sensors are becoming increasingly common. More and more schools are testing them with their pupils in the hope of bringing pedagogic benefits. Thanks to this new type of devices, new sets of interactions can be thought of. Yet, user reception has to be tested before any pedagogic benefits can be evaluated. In this paper, a set of interactions using multi-touch and sensors to manage rotation of solids is presented. It was largely accepted by a test group of learners aged 9 to 15.
Fearless cards: addressing emotional barriers to computer learning among extremely marginalized populations BIBAFull-Text 631-636
  Ricardo Gomez; Ivette Bayo; Philip J. Reed; Cong Wang; Marisol Silva
We present a prototype for Fearless Cards, a novel design to help underserved communities such as Hispanic day laborers overcome emotional barriers to learn computer and internet use. Hispanic day laborers experience strong emotional barriers in addition to lacking technical skills: fear, anxiety, lack of self-confidence, and limited English language skills. Through an iterative process of design and testing we developed Fearless Cards, a set of basic computer literacy instructions that are bilingual, familiar, and easy to use. Fearless Cards help reach the deep pockets of exclusion and allow extremely marginalized populations such as immigrant day laborers gain self-confidence and overcome emotional barriers that prevent them from starting to use computers and the internet to meet their daily needs.
Hero: designing learning tools to increase parental involvement in elementary education in China BIBAFull-Text 637-642
  Yuhang Zhao; Alexis Hope; Jin Huang; Yoel Sumitro; James A. Landay; Yuanchun Shi
In this paper, we present the design of Hero, a suite of learning tools that combine teacher-created extracurricular challenges with in-class motivational tools to help parents become more involved in their child's education, while also engaging students in their own learning. To inform the design, we conducted field studies and interviews involving 7 primary teachers and 15 different families. We analyzed Chinese parenting styles and problems related to parental involvement, and developed three major themes from the data. We then proposed three design goals and created a high-fidelity prototype after several iterations of user testing. A preliminary evaluation showed that teachers, parents, and students could all benefit from the design.
Teachable mo[bil]ment: capitalizing on teachable moments with mobile technology in zoos BIBAFull-Text 643-648
  Priscilla F. Jimenez Pazmino; Brenda Lopez Silva; Brian Slattery; Leilah Lyons
Researchers and practitioners have studied how technology can support visitors' learning in science centers, but few have considered technology specifically designed for science center docents; the staff that explains and interprets exhibits to visitors. We present a qualitative, exploratory study at a zoo where we designed and evaluated technological supports for docents running an immersive, embodied-interaction. Our study focused on the affordances of portable tablets and large fixed displays, as well as on a comparison of two approaches to docent notification (an orchestration approach vs. a just-in-time approach). Making use of docent interviews, video observations, and feedback from zoo educators, we recommend the use of a hybrid approach. Our main contribution is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of display options and notification approaches leading to a list of design considerations for technology that assists docents in delivering information to visitor audiences.
EasyAuthor: supporting low computer proficiency teachers in the design of educational content for adult illiterates BIBAFull-Text 649-654
  Sridhar Chimalakonda; Kesav V. Nori
It is inevitable to make use of technology to support 287 million adult illiterates of India spread across 22 Indian Languages and dialects. However, even with many advances in end-user software engineering and a multitude of authoring tools, teachers often have to spend considerable effort to design and use technology for developing educational content.
   In this paper, we present EasyAuthor, a preliminary environment for end users (i.e., low computer proficiency teachers) to create and manage educational content for adult illiterates in India. The primary intent of EasyAuthor is to support teachers with the easy authoring of educational content and at the same time adhere to adult literacy learning methodologies. We describe the process of authoring educational content using EasyAuthor and the use of ontologies as a back-bone. We then briefly discuss a preliminary study of our tool with a few teachers and present some interesting aspects of EasyAuthor along with its limitations. Finally, we conclude with some promising future directions.
Pedagogical conversational agents for supporting collaborative learning: effects of communication channels BIBAFull-Text 655-660
  Yugo Hayashi
The present study investigated how a computer-based conversational agent facilitates better explanations from students in a collaborative activity. Pairs of students performed a task where they attempted to explain to their partners the meanings of technical psychological terms. During the task, they interacted with a simulated conversational agent, which was programmed to provide back-channel feedback and metacognitive suggestions through visual and/or audio output. Our findings suggest that the use of multiple communication channels for feedback facilitates collaborative learners' understanding of concepts.
Alert in the cleanroom: testing alerting modalities for a task guiding interface BIBAFull-Text 661-666
  Ewald Strasser; Astrid Weiss; Roland Buchner; Manfred Tscheligi
The presented study is the starting point for a series of task guidance studies, which are dedicated to ease the working conditions for operators in the cleanroom of a semiconductor factory. We want to clarify the question how to best indicate the occurrence of an irregular work operation that interrupts the main work stream. On the one hand such a signal has to alert the operator, on the other hand it doesn't have to attract the attention too much to divert the operator from the main work stream. We compare the impact of alarming with a plain screen based task guidance interface, a task guidance interface with additional ambient light or with tactile feedback. The results show the greatest impact of alarming for tactile feedback. Regarding the attraction of attention, we were only able to observe a tendency, because this specific task switching seems to be too difficult. However, this tendency shows that the plain task guidance attracts attention least.
EEG-based assessment of video and in-game learning BIBAFull-Text 667-672
  Rina R. Wehbe; Dennis L. Kappen; David Rojas; Matthias Klauser; Bill Kapralos; Lennart E. Nacke
People often learn game-related information in video games by taking turns playing and watching each other play. This type of in-game learning involves both observation and imitation of actions. However, games are also made to be learnt individually during gameplay. Our study seeks to assess which is more effective for learning: just playing a game yourself or watching somebody play it first. We compare two gameplay situations: playing a digital game before watching a game-play video and playing a digital game after watching a gameplay video. Using a between-participants design, to measure learning effectiveness we recorded Mu rhythms, which are indirectly linked to mirror neuron activation during imitation learning. We also analyze hemispheric frontal alpha asymmetry. Our results indicate that presentation order of the video game matters and players are more aroused when watching a gameplay video before playing.
Children's computer interaction in schools: a case study for promoting healthy computer use BIBAFull-Text 673-678
  Marina Louise Ciccarelli; Courtenay-Jane Campbell Harris
This paper describes the macro-ergonomics approach currently being delivered in collaboration with a West Australian school community to ensure healthy computing for students in middle school (ages 11- 17 Years). Background: Introduction of notebook computers in many schools has become integral to learning. While this is rewarding from an educational perspective, increased screen-based exposure has been associated with potential risks to physical and visual health. Unhealthy computing behaviours include frequent and long durations of exposure; awkward postures due to inappropriate furniture and workstation layout, and ignoring computer-related discomfort. Methods: This research uses a community-based participatory research approach. Students in Year 7 in 2011 at a co-educational middle school, their parents, and teachers have been recruited. Baseline data was collected on students' knowledge of computer ergonomics, current notebook exposure, and attitudes towards healthy computing behaviours; and teachers' and self-perceived competence to promote healthy notebook use among students, and what education they wanted. The intervention phase is a health promotion program that is being developed by an inter-professional team in collaboration with students, teachers and parents to embed concepts of ergonomics education in relevant school activities and school culture. End of year changes in reported and observed student computing behaviours will be used to determine the effectiveness of the program. Significance: Building a body of evidence regarding physical health benefits to students from this school-based ergonomics program can guide policy development on the healthy use of computers within children's educational environments. Additionally, an approach that attends to epidemiological risk factors, whole community attitudes, environmental factors and the organizational environment and culture of the community is essential.
Assessment design for emergent game-based learning BIBAFull-Text 679-684
  Jodi Asbell-Clarke; Elizabeth Rowe; Elisabeth Sylvan
Educational games may lend themselves to innovative forms of learning assessment. This paper reports on game-based science learning assessments that explore how to measure the emergent learning that takes place in games by revealing tacit knowledge development. This research combines video analysis and educational data mining to identify cognitive strategies that emerge through gameplay. By studying the video and click data from high school learners playtesting the game, Impulse, we identify systematic ways of predicting the observed strategies and making possible connections to formal science learning.
Learnersourcing subgoal labeling to support learning from how-to videos BIBAFull-Text 685-690
  Juho Kim; Robert C. Miller; Krzysztof Z. Gajos
Subgoal labeling [1] is a technique known to support learning new knowledge by clustering a group of steps into a higher-level conceptual unit. It has been shown to improve learning by helping learners to form the right mental model. While many learners view video tutorials nowadays, subgoal labels are often not available unless manually provided at production time. This work addresses the challenge of collecting and presenting subgoal labels to a large number of video tutorials. We introduce a mixed-initiative approach to collect subgoal labels in a scalable and efficient manner. The key component of this method is learnersourcing, which channels learners' activities using the video interface into useful input to the system. The presented method will contribute to the broader availability of subgoal labels in how-to videos.
Circuit in pieces: understanding electricity from electrons to light bulbs BIBAFull-Text 691-696
  Elham Beheshti; Colin Fitzpatrick; Alexis Hope; Anne Marie Piper; Michael Horn
Electrical circuits are difficult to understand. Novices tend to have incorrect understandings of what happens at the level of atoms and electrons in a circuit, which leads to difficulty in understanding and predicting the outcomes of various electrical circuits. We are designing an interactive learning tool called Circuit in Pieces (CiP) that enables learners to interact with representations of electrical circuits at both a micro and a macro level. Using a research through design process that includes interviews and sessions with six students, we explore different approaches for interacting in and between levels. In this paper, we offer preliminary results and design implications for supporting switching between macro and micro level views.
iSpy: RFID-driven language learning toy integrating living environment BIBAFull-Text 697-702
  Suhwa Lee; Young Yim Doh
Learning English through playing is expected to help with the effort of seeking new possibilities, from understanding that play is fundamental to the development of a child's capacity to learn. This extended abstract describes the function and system of a second-language learning toy while referring to some educational points to be considered in second-language education. We present iSpy, an interactive language-learning toy for preschool children. Along with the features and values that could be offered by iSpy, concerns and their reflection on the design of iSpy are introduced. Design of iSpy also includes building a collaborating system, consisting of the: toy itself, database, and application to a smart device. iSpy utilizes the living environment as a language learning resource. It is achieved by providing rich audio contents related to the surrounding objects based on the RFID tag mapping information. Tag reading histories are stored and processed to provide constant updates and feedback for parents. The system as a whole is expected to provide a new scenario for the learning toy in terms of creating a sustainable structure.
Let's learn!: enhancing user's engagement levels through passive brain-computer interfaces BIBAFull-Text 703-708
  Marvin Andujar; Juan E. Gilbert
This work in progress paper describes a proof-of-concept that explores the question: "Can users retain more information by incrementing their reading engagement physiologically?" This may help users to better learn the material even when it is uninteresting. Further, this paper explains how using Brain-Computer Interfaces can be used to measure/capture the engagement levels of a user while he or she is performing a task, in this case reading. Also this explores, how beneficial it may be for reading engagement physiologically to deliver the best reading experience.
Crowdsourced ethics with personalized story matching BIBAFull-Text 709-714
  Henry Lieberman; Karthik Dinakar; Birago Jones
Cyberbullying is a widespread and growing social problem, threatening the viability of social networks for youth. We believe that one of the best ways to combat this problem is to use these incidents as "teaching moments", encouraging teens to reflect on their behavior and choices. Sites that offer community discussions around the ethical aspects of social situations can help teens feel less alone in their plight, and provide useful advice and emotional support. But the success of these "crowdsourced ethics" sites depends critically on the user feeling like discussions are relevant to their own personal experience.
   We have augmented the crowdsourced ethics site "Over The Line", offered by MTV Networks, with a personalized story matcher that classifies stories according to dynamically discovered high-level themes like "sending nude pictures online" or "feeling pressure in relationships". The matcher uses a mixed-initiative LDA machine learning technique [2], and a commonsense knowledge base specialized to the bullying problem. The site is currently public, and attracts an audience of thousands of users daily.
Movers and shakers: designing meaningful conflict in a tablet-based serious game BIBAFull-Text 715-720
  Konstantin Mitgutsch; Steven Schirra; Sara Verrilli
Movers and Shakers is a two-player tablet game that explores how subversive game design elements can foster meaningful conversational conflict in a serious game. It relates recent insights into recursive and transformative learning theories to a game prototype that can be used as a research tool to explore how social design can influence serious game experiences. In this paper, we outline the game's theoretical foundations, highlight its central design elements and outline the research design for a study on the impacts of the game on the communication flow of its players.

Multimedia

ActivityDesk: multi-device configuration work using an interactive desk BIBAFull-Text 721-726
  Steven Houben; Jakob E. Bardram
Recent studies have shown that knowledge workers are increasingly using multiple devices, such as notebooks, tablets and smartphones to interact with different types of information that are part of their daily activities. Using multiple devices introduces a configuration overhead as users have to manually reconfigure all devices according to ongoing activities. Especially in an environment such as an office, where the use of multiple devices is more common, the process of configuring them in context of ongoing activities is cumbersome. In this paper, we present the initial explorations of the ActivityDesk system, an interactive desk that supports multi-device configuration work and workspace aggregation into a personal ad hoc smart space for knowledge workers. The main goal of ActivityDesk is to reduce the configuration work required to use multiple devices at the same time by using an interactive desk as a configuration space.
Feeling the unseen: physical interaction with depth-embedded images BIBAFull-Text 727-732
  Seung-Chan Kim; Byung-Kil Han; Dong-Soo Kwon
In this paper we propose a method that produces a 2D image that can self-contain physical information such as the object geometry. To associate additional physical information with digital images, we employed a steganography method that exploits the low sensitivity of human beings to high-frequency brightness variations. With the proposed method, 2D images can have its own tactility. The main advantage of this method over previous information-handling methods is that the resultant format remains compatible with an ordinary 2D image. For example, if the original image is a PNG file, the resulting image can remain as a PNG file. We conclude with explorations of geometry-based interactive applications and discussions on compatibility and transparency issues.

Music and audio

Towards a more flexible and creative music mixing interface BIBAFull-Text 733-738
  Steven Gelineck; Morten Büchert; Jesper Andersen
This paper presents the ongoing work towards creating a novel interface for mixing music. It identifies 5 key design factors crucial for the development and evaluation of such an interface. It then shortly presents an initial prototype, which implements a stage metaphor control structure. Finally two initial evaluation activities are briefly presented and discussed, one of which compares multi touch to two different tangible user interface interaction schemes. Preliminary results suggest that tangible controls outperform and are preferred over multi touch.
Reactive music: when user behavior affects sounds in real-time BIBAFull-Text 739-744
  Christine Bauer; Florian Waldner
It is a natural predisposition of humans to respond to the rhythmical qualities of music. Now, we turn the setting around: The music responds to the user's behavior. So-called 'reactive music' is a non-linear format of music that is able to react to the listener and her or his environment in real-time. Giant Steps is an iPhone application that implements such reactive music in correspondence to a jogger's movements and the sounds in her or his environment. We hope that our approach contributes to a better understanding of 'machine to user' adaption, and to mobile sports applications in particular.
The sound of light: induced synesthesia for augmenting the photography experience BIBAFull-Text 745-750
  Jose San pedro; Karen Church
This paper presents a novel approach to assist users of digital cameras and augment their photograph taking experience. To this end, a realtime analysis of the images framed by the camera is conducted to assess composition, exposure and presence of human subjects. The resulting information is used to give users feedback about their photographs before they release the shutter. The main contribution of this paper is the use of synesthetic feedback: a musical composition that maps aspects resulting from the realtime analysis of images is composed and played back to the photographer. A preliminary study shows that musical attributes can be controlled to provide effective feedback about the visual modality.
StickEar: augmenting objects and places wherever whenever BIBAFull-Text 751-756
  Kian Peen Yeo; Suranga Nanayakkara
Sticky notes provide a means of anchoring visual information on physical objects while having the versatility of being redeployable and reusable. StickEar encapsulate sensor network technology in the form factor of a sticky note that has a tangible user interface, offering the affordances of redeployablilty and reusability. It features a distributed set of network-enabled sound-based sensor nodes. StickEar is a multi-function input/output device that enables sound-based interactions for applications such as remote sound monitoring, remote triggering of sound, autonomous response to sound events, and controlling of digital devices using sound. In addition, multiple StickEars can interact with each other to perform novel input and output tasks. We believe this work would provide non-expert users with an intuitive and seamless method of interacting with the environment and its artifacts though sound.
KIKIWAKE: sound source separation system for children-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 757-762
  Tomoki Taguchi; Masafumi Goseki; Ryohei Egusa; Miki Namatame; Masanori Sugimoto; Fusako Kusunoki; Etsuji Yamaguchi; Shigenori Inagaki; Yoshiaki Takeda; Hiroshi Mizoguchi
In general living environments, in order to separate children's voices from backgrounds noise, we developed a sound separation system by a microphone array. We created a game by use of this developed system, and conducted evaluation experiment intended for elementary school children. As a result, we confirmed this system could separate 3 voices, and the game promotes children's interest in or concerns about a microphone array in a quantitative way.
Harmonic paper: interactive music interface for drawing BIBAFull-Text 763-768
  Laewoo Kang; Tianyuan Gu; Geri Gay
This paper describes the project 'Harmonic Paper', an interactive interface that converts a user's drawing into music. By means of a microcontroller and series of photocells, the installation can detect diverse features (location, thickness) of physical drawing in a letter-size paper, and convert them into musical components (note, volume, tempo) with visual feedback (color light). We also provide a custom-designed software that allows users to virtually practice this hardware installation. This set of software and hardware helps user to explore new musical and visual expression through an understanding of audio-visual relationship.
Toward a method and toolkit for the design of auditory displays, based on soundtrack composition BIBAFull-Text 769-774
  Doon MacDonald; Tony Stockman
Auditory displays use sound to convey information within the context of human-computer interaction. The use of sound in the interface is becoming more important as technologies are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and 'every-day'. However, its been argued that often ad-hoc approaches are used for the creation of auditory displays, which in turn often lack consideration for usability and aesthetics. This paper presents an approach suitable for the design of auditory displays based on the working practices of soundtrack composers. We describe our initial investigation into the feasibility of the idea. This has involved a literature review and the distributing of an on going survey to ascertain the working practices of soundtrack composers. We justify our ideas for the initial method and toolkit for its execution from the initial results of both the review and the survey. We then conclude by discussing further plans for development and evaluation, which involve identifying key points within an HCI scenario for sound design.
Exploring adverse effects of adaptive voice menu BIBAFull-Text 775-780
  Siddhartha Asthana; Pushpendra Singh; Amarjeet Singh
Menus are one of the effective user interfaces which is used for navigation in many systems like desktop applications, voice system, etc. Placement of each menu item in the menu tree is known as menu configuration. Deciding optimal configuration in a menu based system is a challenging task. This task to decide the optimal configuration dynamically can be done through adaptive interfaces. Adaptive interfaces play significant role when optimality varies with time. However, the negative impacts of adaptive interfaces on the users familiar with the system discourage its use. There is a need to have separate design for handling users familiar and unfamiliar with the system. In this work, we study the adverse effect of adaptive voice menu on the experienced users. We also propose strategies to reduce the adverse effect of adaptivity. We design and deploy a menu based voice system to conduct a control experiment to evaluate proposed strategies. The proposed strategies try to differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar users and takes remedial steps to suppress the adverse effect of adaptive interfaces for familiar users.
Survey of audio programming tools BIBAFull-Text 781-786
  Alexander T. Adams; Celine Latulipe
Audio programming can be an overwhelming and confusing task that many developers are not adequately prepared for. Even the seemingly simple task of choosing the right software developers kit (SDK) to use can become a difficult task. This paper presents an analysis of the most extensive and widely used audio programming SDKs organized by audio task and highlighting factors such as usability, support, and functionality.

Privacy

MIBA: multitouch image-based authentication on smartphones BIBAFull-Text 787-792
  Daniel Ritter; Florian Schaub; Marcel Walch; Michael Weber
Graphical password schemes can provide better usability than text passwords, especially on smartphones where typing complex passwords on a virtual keyboard can be tedious. However, in order to achieve password strength comparable to text passwords, graphical password schemes require multiple rounds and, therefore, have longer entry times. We propose MIBA as an image-based authentication method that leverages multitouch in order to increase the password space by supporting multiple fingers for click point selection. We outline the MIBA concept, report on practical constraints for multitouch click point selection, and discuss preliminary results that indicate short entry times and the usability of MIBA.
Improving privacy settings for Facebook by using interpersonal distance as criterion BIBAFull-Text 793-798
  Michaela Kauer; Benjamin Franz; Thomas Pfeiffer; Martin Heine; Delphine Christin
The possibility to define custom privacy settings in Facebook has been improved over the last years. Still, numerous users do not know how to change those settings or do not use the settings because they are cumbersome to use. Within this paper a new method for defining the privacy settings in online social networks is presented that uses the social distance between users as setting criterion. This approach was tested as a paper prototype in a first user study with 10 participants. Results show that the number of errors was significantly decreased and that the subjective evaluation of the interface was promising.
What does your profile really say about you?: privacy warning systems and self-disclosure in online social network spaces BIBAFull-Text 799-804
  Lia Emanuel; Chris Bevan; Duncan Hodges
This paper reports current progress on the design and initial evaluation of an innovative privacy feedback system aimed to provide social network users with tailor-made feedback about their identity exposure online. Preliminary results suggest our feedback system, based on a research driven model of identity, appears to reduce the amount of information individuals disclose about themselves in social network spaces. We discuss the impact of our feedback system on the way individuals share information online, as well as suggestions for a more fine-grained evaluation and future development of this feedback system.
Location privacy revisited: factors of privacy decisions BIBAFull-Text 805-810
  Benjamin Henne; Marian Harbach; Matthew Smith
The privacy problems associated with disclosing location information have repeatedly been the subject of research during the past decade. Yet, only the increasing adoption of smartphones today unveils real world implications, since a large number of users currently use location-based services and GPS-enabled devices for a multitude of purposes. Recently, research suggested that location privacy is not a relevant problem for today's users. However, a study we conducted indicates that it might be too early to call off investigations of location privacy: In a survey of 414 users on online media sharing behavior, we found that location was rated as the type of photo metadata that poses the highest risk to privacy. Therefore, we revisit the discussion on location privacy in this paper and propose factors that can explain the conflicting views.
Unlocking the privacy paradox: do cognitive heuristics hold the key? BIBAFull-Text 811-816
  S. Shyam Sundar; Hyunjin Kang; Mu Wu; Eun Go; Bo Zhang
Even though users have become increasingly concerned about their privacy online, they continue to disclose deeply personal information in a number of online venues, including e-commerce portals and social networking sites. Scholars have tried to explain this inconsistency between attitudes and behavior by suggesting that online users consciously weigh the trade-off between the costs and benefits of online information disclosure. We argue that online user behaviors are not always rational, but may occur due to expedient decision-making in the heat of the moment. Such decisions are based on cognitive heuristics (i.e., rules of thumb) rather than on a careful analysis of each transaction. Based on this premise, we seek to identify the specific triggers for disclosure of private information online. In the experiment reported here, we explore the operation of two specific heuristics-benefit and fuzzy boundary-in influencing privacy-related attitudes and behaviors. Theoretical and design implications are discussed.
Android and iOS users' differences concerning security and privacy BIBAFull-Text 817-822
  Zinaida Benenson; Freya Gassmann; Lena Reinfelder
We compare Android and iOS users according to their demographic differences, security and privacy awareness, and reported behavior when installing apps. We present an exploratory study based on an online survey with more than 700 German students and describe directions for further research.
In the balance in Saudi Arabia: security, privacy and trust BIBAFull-Text 823-828
  Ivan Flechais; Marina Jirotka; Deena Alghamdi
Bank policies must meet their clients' requirements to provide effective security. However, bank policies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia seem to run contrary to their clients' requirements when they prevent them from sharing their authentications with their family. We investigated Saudi participants behaviour towards authentication and found that credentials are shared between couples as a sign of mutual trust. This, may extend to siblings and parents too. The consequence of such behaviour is that these account holders are liable for any loss, and this also increases the opportunities for so-called spouse attacks. Saudi bank policies need, at one and the same time, to match their clients' behaviour and simultaneously to provide complete and effective security for them.

Social computing

How personality influences users' needs for recommendation diversity? BIBAFull-Text 829-834
  Li Chen; Wen Wu; Liang He
The existing approaches for enhancing diversity in online recommendations neglect the user's spontaneous needs that might be potentially influenced by her/his personality. In this paper, we report our ongoing research on exploring the actual impact of personality values on users' needs for recommendation diversity. The results from a preliminary user survey are reported, that show the significantly causal relationship from personality factors (such as conscientiousness) to the users' diversity preference (not only over the item's individual attributes but also on all attributes when they are combined). We further present our plan for the follow-up work and discuss its practical implications.
Generating annotations for how-to videos using crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 835-840
  Phu Nguyen; Juho Kim; Robert C. Miller
How-to videos can be valuable for learning, but searching for and following along with them can be difficult. Having labeled events such as the tools used in how-to videos could improve video indexing, searching, and browsing. We introduce a crowdsourcing annotation tool for Photoshop how-to videos with a three-stage method that consists of: (1) gathering timestamps of important events, (2) labeling each event, and (3) capturing how each event affects the task of the tutorial. Our ultimate goal is to generalize our method to be applied to other domains of how-to videos. We evaluate our annotation tool with Amazon Mechanical Turk workers to investigate the accuracy, costs, and feasibility of our three-stage method for annotating large numbers of video tutorials. Improvements can be made for stages 1 and 3, but stage 2 produces accurate labels over 90% of the time using majority voting. We have observed that changes in the instructions and interfaces of each task can improve the accuracy of the results significantly.
Onegai: a demand-driven photo sharing tool with location reference BIBAFull-Text 841-846
  Lin Wan; Jan Hess; Benedikt Ley; Volker Wulf; Vitali Sjablow
Onegai is a location-based photo sharing service for mobile devices. We chose the name 'Onegai' (it means 'please' in Japanese) as the unique sharing model offers users the possibility to define their requests of information to each other. This work is motivated by the fact that there is a lack of possibilities to reflect the receiver's wishes when the sender is capturing or sharing information. This informational asymmetry may result in unnecessary or annoying information for the passive receiver. We suggest that 'demand-driven sharing' is a good alternative to existing sharing practices and tested the concept in a case study. We will discuss how the users have adopted our prototype in their social practices. In particular, we have observed a highly altruistic culture in users' interaction using Onegai, which is barely seen in today's social media landscape.
Family communication in rural and slum regions of Kenya BIBAFull-Text 847-852
  Erick Oduor; Carman Neustaedter; Serena Hillman; Carolyn Pang
We report the findings of a small scale exploratory qualitative study on 13 participants from rural and slum regions of Kenya communicated with remote family members using technology. We focus on communication practices that enabled family members to support economic sustenance activities and also investigate the social aspects of using technology to provide or receive moral, emotional or other forms of support from distributed family members.
Someone to watch over me: presence of an assistant agent on SNS inhibits negative blaming statements in tweeting BIBAFull-Text 853-858
  Miyuki Onuma; Atsushi Kimura; Hiroki Sasaki; Naoki Mukawa
This study explored whether artificial cues of others on social networking sites (SNS) have an effect on a user's tweeting behavior in frustrating situations. By manipulating artificial cues of others, we measured the statements posted by participants on a hypothetical SNS under two different experimental situations: one was the agent condition, in which task instructions were given by an assistant agent throughout the task, and the other was the control condition in which task instructions were given through a text box. In each condition, participants were first asked to read fictional stories including frustrating interpersonal and intrapersonal events and to adopt these situations as their own. Participants were then asked to tweet about their feelings on the hypothetical SNS. The negativity and aggressiveness of each statement in both conditions were assessed by other participants. Results demonstrate that the statements for the frustrating interpersonal event posted by participants under the agent condition were more often evaluated as non-negative and less often evaluated as negative-and-blaming-of-others than those posted under the control condition. Conversely, there was no difference between conditions in the statements for the frustrating intrapersonal event. These findings suggest that the implication of the presence of others, such as an assistant agent, in the tweeting environment inhibits disparaging tweeting behavior on SNS.
Are computers still social actors? BIBAFull-Text 859-864
  Helmut Lang; Melina Klepsch; Florian Nothdurft; Tina Seufert; Wolfgang Minker
The initial idea behind the study described in this paper was to assess the perceived socialness of anthropomorphic agents in computer human interaction. In a nuclear power plant simulation scenario users were assisted by an anthropomorphic agent completing several tasks. Afterwards the agent was assessed using questionnaires that were presented in three different modalities. One group completed a pen and paper questionnaire, another one used a web-based version of the questionnaire, and the third group was asked the questions directly by the agent. We expected the group assessed directly by the agent to behave more politely and to overall give the best ratings. While we did not attain the expected results our study revealed first evidence that the "Computers as Social Actors" paradigm might have to be reconsidered. We argue that the prevalence of computers nowadays might have caused computers not to be treated as "standalone social entities" anymore but to be rather perceived as a "window to the Internet" rendering social behavior towards computers obsolete under certain conditions.
On how event size and interactivity affect social networks BIBAFull-Text 865-870
  Bin Xu; Alvin Chin; Dan Cosley
Participating in social events or activities in the physical world is an important way for us to make new friends and build social networks. We aim to explore the role of event size and interactivity in affecting social networking behaviors. In this paper, we obtained data from an event-based social network site and conducted a quantitative analysis that reveals a relationship between online following behavior and characteristics of real-world events. We also employ behavior setting theory, social role theory, and user interview data to help us understand the quantitative results. Our finding that small events on average promote more new connections between individuals than large events has important implications for event organizers, event participants, and social media designers.
Facilitating natural flow of information among "taste-based" groups BIBAFull-Text 871-876
  Yefeng Liu; Todorka Alexandrova; Satoshi Hirade; Tatsuo Nakajima
Social science studies have shown that the disconnection of people from different social classes or opinion groups may reinforce serious problems to our society (e.g., residential segregation, group polarization, or confirmation bias). With the emerging trend of the Web 2.0, however, different kinds of people are likely having less chance to share information with each other. How to design for supporting better information flow among different social, taste, or opinion groups of people becomes a challenging question for digital designers. In this work-in-progress paper we present our on-going research of exploring a crowd-based system for facilitating natural information flow among different types of people. We conducted a Wizard-of-OZ study to simulate push-based human powered recommendation, and learn how participants react when receiving unexpected information. Based on the findings, we designed and implemented a web application for encouraging different kinds of people to exchange information in a peer-to-peer way. Next steps include designing pairing strategy and conducting user study.
Persuasive dialogue for older adults: promoting and encouraging social interaction BIBAFull-Text 877-882
  John Paul Vargheese; Somayajulu Sripada; Judith Masthoff; Nir Oren; Patricia Schofield; Vicki L. Hanson
We describe a persuasive dialogue component for promoting and encouraging social interaction for older adults. In order to identify effective persuasive strategies we conducted an interview study with formal carers for older adults. From the results of our study we have identified 6 persuasive strategies, information requirements and developed a model using rules for assessing older adult profiles and applying persuasive strategies.
Crowdfunding: a resource exchange perspective BIBAFull-Text 883-888
  Michael D. Greenberg; Julie Hui; Elizabeth Gerber
Online crowdfunding has gained attention among novice entrepreneurs as an effective platform for funding their ventures. However, a focus on the financial nature of the relationship has obscured the complex interpersonal interactions involving the exchange of non-financial resources. Drawing from resource exchange theory in the marketing literature, we look at the exchange of resources and the mechanisms that facilitate this exchange in online crowdfunding. We analyzed 81 popular online crowdfunding platforms to reveal the exchange of various resources including: money, love, information, status, goods, and services through mediated, unmediated, and hybrid structures. Using resource exchange theory as a lens, we examine crowdfunding as a new type of crowdwork platform and explain how resource exchange theory can help the HCI community understand new, crowdwork platforms.
Understanding crowdfunding work: implications for support tools BIBAFull-Text 889-894
  Julie Hui; Michael Greenberg; Elizabeth Gerber
Crowdfunding is changing the way people realize their work by providing a new way to gain support from a distributed audience. This study seeks to understand the work of crowdfunding project creators in order to inform the design of crowdfunding support tools and systems. We conducted interviews with 30 project creators from three popular crowdfunding platforms in order to understand what tasks are involved and what tools people use to accomplish crowdfunding work. Initial results suggest that project creators carry out three main types of work-preparing the campaign material, marketing the project, and following through with project goals-and have adapted general support tools to facilitate doing this work. From our initial findings, we hope to improve and design future crowdfunding support tools and systems.
Mixsourcing: a remix framework as a form of crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 895-900
  Sarah Hallacher; Jenny Rodenhouse; Andres Monroy-Hernandez
In this paper, we introduce the concept of mixsourcing as a modality of crowdsourcing focused on using remixing as a framework to get people to perform creative tasks. We explore this idea through the design of a system that helped us identify the promises and challenges of this peer-production modality.
Script-based story matching for cyberbullying prevention BIBAFull-Text 901-906
  Jamie Macbeth; Hanna Adeyema; Henry Lieberman; Christopher Fry
While the Internet and social media help keep today's youth better connected to their friends, family, and community, the same media are also the form of expression for an array of harmful social behaviors, such as cyberbullying and cyber-harassment. In this paper we present work in progress to develop intelligent interfaces to social media that use commonsense knowledge bases and automated narrative analyses of text communications between users to trigger selective interventions and prevent negative outcomes. While other approaches seek merely to classify the overall topic of the text, we try to match stories to finer-grained ''scripts' that represent stereotypical events and actions. For example, many bullying stories can be matched to a ''revenge' script that describes trying to harm someone who has harmed you. These tools have been implemented in an initial prototype system and tested on a database of real stories of cyberbullying collected on MTV's ''A Thin Line' Web site.
Power of friends: when friends guess about their friends' guess BIBAFull-Text 907-912
  Deepti Aggarwal; Rohit A. Khot; Venkatesh Choppella
Friendsourcing games aim to collect useful information about individuals by targeting their socially connected groups or friends. The current method of eliciting information is to pose direct questions to friends and expect a truthful response in return. However, such an approach not only becomes monotonous after some time but also suffers from problems like social awkwardness and reticence and thus, affecting the accuracy of the generated responses. In this paper, we present Power of Friends, a novel approach to friendsourcing games, which involves identifying the unanimous opinion of all the friends about a question related to an individual. We tested our proposed approach with seven different groups and were able to generate 47 facts about members of the selected groups. Participants particularly enjoyed the guesswork and interactive elements of the game. Based on the feedback obtained from the study, we propose four strategies for designing similar friendsourcing games.
Clarifications and question specificity in synchronous social Q&A BIBAFull-Text 913-918
  Makoto P. Kato; Ryen W. White; Jaime Teevan; Susan T. Dumais
Synchronous social question-and-answer (Q&A) systems help people find answer by connecting them with others via instant messaging. To understand how such systems can quickly and effectively establish fruitful connections, we analyze conversations collected from a working enterprise social Q&A system. We show that when askers start with underspecified questions (e.g., "I need help with mail access"), they receive clarification requests, extended dialogs, and poor responses. To address this we are implementing and deploying support within a Q&A system to foster more complete questions, reduce the need for clarification, and benefit both askers and answerers.
The path is the reward: considering social networks to contribute to the pleasure of urban strolling BIBAFull-Text 919-924
  Martin Traunmueller; Ava Fatah gen. Schieck; Johannes Schöning; Duncan P. Brumby
Most (mobile) online map services focus on providing their users the most efficient route to their target location. In this paper we investigate the relationship between the physical and digital urban navigation to improve wayfinding for pedestrians by enhancing their experiences when strolling through a city. With our application "Space Recommender System" we describe a new wayfinding approach by implementing common digital online methods of commenting and recommender systems into the physical world, using voting data from social network services. Initial findings highlight the general importance of the walking experience to the public and suggest that implementing social media based recommendations in route finding algorithms enhance the pleasure of urban strolling. The initial user tests of the system in a real world context together with collected feedback and the observations throughout the design process stimulate the discussions of wider issues and highlight its potential for future novel wayfinding applications.
Designing to improve interpersonal impression accuracy in online peer production BIBAFull-Text 925-930
  Jennifer Marlow; Laura Dabbish
In online peer production, users assess potential collaborators' expertise and warmth to inform interactions. However, people often make inaccurate first impressions. These false impressions hurt collaboration and lead to conflict based on incorrect behavioral attributions. Online peer production interface design can reduce or enhance impression accuracy. In this paper, we suggest ways to reduce bias in online impression formation. Based on our own previous research and social psychology literature on impression formation, we propose ways of presenting individuals' work history and interaction traces to reduce bias in impression formation. The design recommendations we present should improve efficiency and satisfaction with interactions in large-scale online peer production settings.
Crowdsourcing as a method for indexing digital media BIBAFull-Text 931-936
  Seyong Ha; Dongwhan Kim; Joonhwan Lee
As people spend more time online, watching YouTube or playing games, a number of research studies arose in ways to make use of the time and energy from the crowd in doing such activities. In this paper, we have explored the possibility of converting the collective resources from the crowd in making useful information back to people. We collected posts from the online forums about soap operas on the air, and extracted instances when the name of characters in the play has been mentioned. These crowdsourced indexes become good search keywords to find the scenes where the characters mentioned in the posts appear.

Augmented reality

Exploring the benefits of fingernail displays BIBAFull-Text 937-942
  Raphael Wimmer; Florian Echtler
Fingers are an important interface both to the physical and the digital world. We propose research on artificial fingernails which contain tiny displays and sensors. These fingernail displays greatly supplement other input and output channels, offering novel interaction possibilities. We present three contributions: (1) the general concept and use cases for fingernail displays, (2) a technique for capturing touch events at the fingernails and interaction methods supported by this technique, and (3) an overview of relevant research questions.
AR pen and hand gestures: a new tool for pen drawings BIBAFull-Text 943-948
  Hark-Joon Kim; Hayoung Kim; Seungho Chae; Jonghoon Seo; Tack-Don Han
This paper explores the interaction possibilities when artists use their non-dominant hand, while drawing with a pen in their dominant hand. We propose a new interactive AR-based pen tool which can overlay virtual images onto a physical drawing in real time. This system allows artists to control the augmented images with gestures of a non-dominant hand while drawing. By interacting with the visually augmented contents using hand gestures and a pen bimanually, artists can draw pictures more creatively. We also made a standalone pen system integrated with a pico-projector and a camera, and suggest a set of useful scenarios for the conventional pen-and-paper drawing.
BouldAR: using augmented reality to support collaborative boulder training BIBAFull-Text 949-954
  Florian Daiber; Felix Kosmalla; Antonio Krüger
Nowadays smartphones are ubiquitous and -- to some extent -- already used to support sports training, e.g. runners or bikers track their trip with a gps-enabled smartphone. But recent mobile technology has powerful processors that allow even more complex tasks like image or graphics processing. In this work we address the question on how mobile technology can be used for collaborative boulder training. More specifically, we present a mobile augmented reality application to support various parts of boulder training. The proposed approach also incorporates sharing and other social features. Thus our solution supports collaborative training by providing an intuitive way to create, share and define goals and challenges together with friends. Furthermore we propose a novel method of trackable generation for augmented reality. Synthetically generated images of climbing walls are used as trackables for real, existing walls.
User-defined gestures for augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 955-960
  Thammathip Piumsomboon; Adrian Clark; Mark Billinghurst; Andy Cockburn
Recently there has been an increase in research of hand gestures for interaction in the area of Augmented Reality (AR). However this research has focused on developer designed gestures, and little is known about user preference and behavior for gestures in AR. In this paper, we present the results of a guessability study focused on hand gestures in AR. A total of 800 gestures have been elicited for 40 selected tasks from 20 participants. Using the agreement found among gestures, a user-defined gesture set was created to guide designers to achieve consistent user-centered gestures in AR.
Smarter objects: using AR technology to program physical objects and their interactions BIBAFull-Text 961-966
  Valentin Heun; Shunichi Kasahara; Pattie Maes
The Smarter Objects system explores a new method for interaction with everyday objects. The system associates a virtual object with every physical object to support an easy means of modifying the interface and the behavior of that physical object as well as its interactions with other "smarter objects". As a user points a smart phone or tablet at a physical object, an augmented reality (AR) application recognizes the object and offers an intuitive graphical interface to program the object's behavior and interactions with other objects. Once reprogrammed, the Smarter Object can then be operated with a simple tangible interface (such as knobs, buttons, etc). As such Smarter Objects combine the adaptability of digital objects with the simple tangible interface of a physical object. We have implemented several Smarter Objects and usage scenarios demonstrating the potential of this approach.
Exploring augmented reality for user-generated hyperlocal news content BIBAFull-Text 967-972
  Heli K. Väätäjä; Mari J. Ahvenainen; Markus S. Jaakola; Thomas D. Olsson
To support and enrich crowdsourcing, sharing and consuming of hyperlocal news content created by the readers we created four scenarios that utilize augmented reality (AR). We used the scenarios to gain an initial understanding of the feasibility and utility of AR in this context by interviewing five contributors of hyperlocal news content to explore their perceptions and further ideas on the scenarios. Findings indicate that AR is an interesting and acceptable solution for the content creators: AR can be applied in hyperlocal news 1) in the crowdsourcing processes to support crowdworkers' activity and its planning and 2) for sharing and consuming location-based user-generated content. In implementation of AR solutions, attention needs to be paid to the interestingness of tasks and created content, ensuring the quality of the content as well as how interaction with the AR application and access to the information and content are implemented.
AteGau: projector-based online fashion coordination system BIBAFull-Text 973-978
  Yasuyuki Hayashi; Soh Masuko
We propose AteGau, a system that enables intuitive fashion coordination using both clothes from an online store and clothes from the user's own wardrobe. In our prototype, a projector is used to project images of clothes from an online store next to the user's real-world clothes. As an associated user interface, we implemented the tuck-in / tuck-out switcher, a clothes positioning guide and occasion selector. The user is able to make selections from a store's and real-world clothes to determine how they combine with each other.
The potentials of in-situ-projection for augmented workplaces in production: a study with impaired persons BIBAFull-Text 979-984
  Oliver Korn; Albrecht Schmidt; Thomas Hörz
Interactive projections have been around for more than a decade. We measured their potentials for augmented workplaces in production. For this purpose we built the prototype of an assistive system projecting instructions directly into the workspace (in situ). While it can be applied in every production environment, the system was first implemented and tested where it is needed the most: in a sheltered work organization employing persons with impairments.
   It could be shown that the assembly times could be slightly reduced by the augmented system. However it had a "catalytic" effect on the test subjects' work quality: While some seem to be overwhelmed by the new information density and perform worse, others perform much better than the control group and significantly reduce error rates. The qualitative results show that although impaired persons retain a critical perspective on systems directly changing the way they have been working for years, all users would like to retry working with the system. When looking at additional aids like the projection of a real-sized model in the workspace, the users invariantly accept its benefits for their assembly work.
Scaled reality: interfaces for augmenting information on small-scale tangible objects BIBAFull-Text 985-990
  Austin S. Lee; Kshitij Marwah
In this paper, we introduce the concept of Scaled Reality with a set of interfaces to distort, deform and resize our comprehensible spatial world to help us augment and visualize information on physical objects that cannot be accessed otherwise due to their size or orientation. We introduce three interfaces: a mirrored table top, a see through lens system and a L-shaped display to scale, view and manipulate object forms in novel ways. As a proof-of-concept application, we show augmentation and retrieval of information tagged onto tangibles with a relatively microscopic form factor.
Influence on user's communication in BHS videoconferencing: superimposition of a remote person's figure on the local background BIBAFull-Text 991-996
  Mamoun Nawahdah; Tomoo Inoue
A high-presence videoconferencing system called "Being Here System (BHS)" has been proposed and implemented. The system superimposes the remote person's extracted figure on the local site front view in the display. Though a user study by questionnaire was conducted, the user's actual behavior was left out. Thus in this paper, the influence on user's communication behavior is investigated. The analysis of the recorded video of the study revealed that the system affected user's communication behavior such as turn taking, speech time, speech overlapping, and gaze. The result suggests that considering the local site front view as a background of the remote person is one practical way to create the same-room illusion, which facilitates communication.
OneSpace: shared depth-corrected video interaction BIBAFull-Text 997-1002
  David Ledo; Bon Adriel Aseniero; Saul Greenberg; Sebastian Boring; Anthony Tang
Video conferencing commonly employs a video portal metaphor to connect individuals from remote spaces. In this work, we explore an alternate metaphor, a shared depth-mirror, where video images of two spaces are fused into a single shared, depth-corrected video space. We realize this metaphor in OneSpace, where the space respects virtual spatial relationships between people and objects as if all parties were looking at a mirror together. We report preliminary observations of OneSpace's use, noting that it encourages cross-site, full-body interactions, and that participants employed the depth cues in their interactions. Based on these observations, we argue that the depth mirror offers new opportunities for shared video interaction.

Emotions

Bear-with-me: an embodied prototype to explore tangible two-way exchanges of emotional language BIBAFull-Text 1011-1016
  Allan Fong; Zahra Ashktorab; Jon Froehlich
Given the busy day-to-day schedule of families and couples, communication between loved ones is often limited to text-messaging, email, or phone calls. These forms of communication do not allow for more tangible modes of intimate expression like hugging. While previous work has explored sending tangible forms of emotion like hugging, this work has been limited by not supporting or encouraging users to reciprocate emotional pings or "hugs." In this paper, we introduce Bear-With-Me, a prototype system that allows users to exchange tangible expressions of emotions, such as hugs, in real-time. In contrast to previous work, Bear-With-Me is mobile, tangible, bi-directional, and real-time allowing for new types of exchanges of emotional, embodied communication. In this paper, we present our system design, results from a preliminary pilot study, and a discussion of future work.
Exhibiting emotion: using digital technologies to discover emotional connections BIBAFull-Text 1017-1022
  Genevieve Alelis
This paper discusses the ongoing development of an engaging system that will allow museum visitors to understand their emotional connections to artefacts. Through structured interviews with museum visitors and qualitative analysis, insight is gained as to how artefacts affect visitors which will provide the foundation for the design of an interactive system within the museum. The system, which will include a mobile device and contextual visualization, aims to encourage reflection and recognition of emotional responses to objects.
Expressing a robot's confidence with motion-based artificial subtle expressions BIBAFull-Text 1023-1028
  Seiji Yamada; Kazunori Terada; Kazuki Kobayashi; Takanori Komatsu; Kotaro Funakoshi; Mikio Nakano
In this paper, motion-based Artificial Subtle Expression (ASE) as a novel implementation of ASE is described, in which a robot expresses confidence in its advice to a human. Confidence in advice is one of robot's useful internal states, and it is an important goal to develop a practical and inexpensive methodology to correctly express it. To achieve this goal, we propose motion-based ASE in which a robot slowly hesitates by turning to a human before giving advice with low confidence. We conducted experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of motion-based ASE with participants, and obtained promising results.
Visualizing ambivalence: showing what mixed feelings look like BIBAFull-Text 1029-1034
  Galen Panger; Bryan Rea; Steven Weber
Measures of ambivalence in public opinion have grown in prominence in recent years within a variety of fields because of evidence that they may better represent how people hold opinions than traditional Likert-type scales. Rather than assume people hold only positive or negative feelings toward a person or issue, these measures assume positive and negative feelings may co-occur as mixed feelings. Using information visualization and interactive storytelling techniques, we aim to show a broad audience how ambivalence data might be interpreted and demonstrate the utility of measuring ambivalence. Our resulting visualization, MixedFeelings.us, shows data from a survey of undergraduates on 14 topics of public interest and uses design elements like small multiples and animation as well as brief narratives to illustrate core concepts.
A playback system that synchronizes the musical phrases with listener's respiration phases BIBAFull-Text 1035-1040
  Takashi G. Sato; Yutaka Kamamoto; Noboru Harada; Takehiro Moriya
We propose a novel sound presentation system that utilizes a listener's respiration (breath) information. The system uses sound data, targets of the respiration phase bounded to the sound data and the listener's respiration trace. In replaying the sound, the system attempts to change the replay speed to minimize the difference between the target of respiration phase and the observed (listener's) respiration phase. Thus, a listener using the system has more chances to listen to a specific phrase with a specific respiration phase. In an experiment, chromatic scale movements were presented with different replay strategies to evaluate the system. Although the participant did not know about the control system, they reported a difference in their arousal feeling. The results indicate that music presentation that follows the listener's respiration will have significant effect on the impression of sound, suggesting that we may extend the possibility of sound presentation.
AffectCam: arousal-augmented sensecam for richer recall of episodic memories BIBAFull-Text 1041-1046
  Corina Sas; Tomasz Fratczak; Matthew Rees; Hans Gellersen; Vaiva Kalnikaite; Alina Coman; Kristina Höök
This paper describes the design and evaluation of AffectCam, a wearable system integrating SenseCam and BodyMedia SenseWear for capturing galvanic skin response as a measure of bodily arousal. AffectCam's algorithms use arousal as a filtering mechanism for selecting the most personally relevant photos captured during people's ordinary daily life, i.e. high arousal photos. We discuss initial findings showing that emotional arousal does improve the quality of memory recall associated with emotionally arousing events. In particular, the high arousal photos support richer recall of episodic memories than low arousal ones, i.e. over 50% improvement. We also consider how various phenomenological characteristics of autobiographical memories such as event, emotions, thoughts, place and time are differently cued by the AffectCam.
CAAAT: a discrete approach to emotion assessment BIBAFull-Text 1047-1052
  Bruno Cardoso; Teresa Romão; Nuno Correia
In this work we present a new way of assessing affective states through direct selection of emotion words from a discrete set. The proposed tool, the Circumplex Affect Assessment Tool (CAAT), is built upon Robert Plutchik's circumplex model of emotions and, as far as our preliminary tests have shown, is a pleasant and reliable way to assess user's affective states, with significant correlations with Self Assessment Manikin ratings.
Acted emotional expressions of game-playing children: investigating the influence of emotion intensity on recognition rates BIBAFull-Text 1053-1058
  Suleman Shahid; Bram Erven; Emiel Krahmer
While the intensity of emotions is likely of great importance to automatic emotion recognition systems, it is not an ordinary feature in emotion databases. This paper presents a database of children acting out six basic emotions, in which the intensity of said emotions was manipulated. A judgment task showed emotions were better recognized than chance could predict, while differences in intensity were perceived in two manipulated conditions. In addition, we establish a correlation between intensity and recognition rates for this database. Finally, possibilities for future research are discussed.
Improving digital reading experiences with mood-based content selection BIBAFull-Text 1059-1064
  Wim Verhavert; Jeroen Vanattenhoven; Dirk De Grooff
Many present-day reading platforms for news consumption use topic selection and reading histories to filter reading content and feed the various recommender systems. In an attempt to overcome the deficiencies of this approach, we suggest an alternative: mood-based content selection with personalizations, based on the reading context (time and place). In this work, we conducted contextual inquiry sessions and designed an interactive prototype with iterative user feedback.

Games/play

Game principles: choice, change & creativity: making better games BIBAFull-Text 1065-1070
  Heather Desurvire; Dennis Wixon
Heuristics or player experience principles have evolved to assist designers and evaluators in creating better games. Heuristics are intended to provide a structure for improving game design. The technique of using heuristics to review designs has gained wide acceptance in productivity products. The PLAY heuristics [2] is the further iteration of HEP [1], general principles of optimal player experience. GAP is another set of principles, focused on first time player, tutorial use and initial game play. We conducted a study to assess the benefits of using heuristics for games. Results showed that heuristics are more effective than "unassisted intuition" not only in identifying problems, but also in inspiring recommendations for enhancements to the games' player experience. Future analysis of the data will take this analysis further, examining the quality of recommendations.
Designing children's digital games on nutrition with playability heuristics BIBAFull-Text 1071-1076
  Kornchulee Khanana; Effie L.-C. Law
To design digital educational games (DEGs) for children that are both enjoyable and educationally effective is challenging. In this paper we report how Playability Heuristics (PH) has been used as a design tool for a DEG on nutrition. We translated the criteria of PH into a set of statements understandable for children and compiled them into a questionnaire, which was integrated with four existing web-based DEGs on food groups to create an online tool. It was used in a pilot study with 100 school children to identify which game features they perceived most desirable. We will synthesize such features to create two new DEGs and compare them in terms of their experiential and educational values. A robust game reference model on DEGs is the ultimate goal of our future work.
Building a dictionary of game-descriptive words to study playability BIBAFull-Text 1077-1082
  Miaoqi Zhu; Xiaowen Fang; Susy S. Chan; Jacek Brzezinski
This work-in-progress paper reports the development of a dictionary of game-descriptive words. Inspired by the lexical approach [1] used by psychologists to study personality traits, it is proposed that the same approach can be used in computer game research. The premise is that if computer games display some common traits, players ought to use natural language to describe them. By studying the language used by game players, we can explore the common traits of computer games which may reveal playability problems and information about game classification. As the first step to use the lexical approach, this study attempts to build a dictionary of game-descriptive words for future lexical analyses. The detailed development process was discussed.
GEMS: a location-based game for supporting family storytelling BIBAFull-Text 1083-1088
  Jason Procyk; Carman Neustaedter
GEMS is a location-based game designed to support the telling and sharing of stories and to enhance knowledge of place among family members and close friends. The game narrative and mechanics prompt players to reflect on meaningful places from their past and to travel to those places and create geolocated digital memory records that capture the personal significance of the places in question. Other players can then visit the locations to collect and view the records.
Attention, time perception and immersion in games BIBAFull-Text 1089-1094
  A. Imran Nordin; Jaron Ali; Aishat Animashaun; Josh Asch; Josh Adams; Paul Cairns
Immersion is a phenomenon experienced whilst playing digital games. Some argue that it is linked to time perception, where gamers claim that they are losing track of time while they are immersed in the game. In this work in progress, we describe an attempt to investigate the relationship between immersion and time perception. We manipulated attention because it is known to influence immersion and time perception differently. The results suggest that the experimental manipulation only affects time perception but not immersion. We therefore argue that there is a dissociation between immersion and time perception but further work is needed to investigate this in detail.
Decomposing immersion: effects of game demand and display type on auditory evoked potentials BIBAFull-Text 1095-1100
  Stephen H. Fairclough; Christopher G. Burns
Immersion is used to describe the degree of psychological engagement with a computer game. A study was performed to investigate the relative contribution of game demand (easy, hard, impossible) and display type (small 5 display, large TV display, head-mounted display) on the experience of immersion. Fifteen participants played a racing game in a range of conditions. Players' experience of immersion was captured via a subjective questionnaire and evoked cortical potentials to an auditory oddball task. Results indicated that slow wave potentials were sensitive to task demand, i.e. impossible demand reduced attention to the game. There was also a weak effect of display type at both frontal and central sites that was indicative of greater immersion for the large TV screen compared to other display types. This study provides preliminary data on the decomposition of immersion into sensory and cognitive components.
Do games attract or sustain engagement in citizen science?: a study of volunteer motivations BIBAFull-Text 1101-1106
  Ioanna Iacovides; Charlene Jennett; Cassandra Cornish-Trestrail; Anna L. Cox
Increasingly, games are being incorporated into online citizen science (CS) projects as a way of crowdsourcing data; yet the influence of gamification on volunteer motivations and engagement in CS projects is still unknown. In an interview study with 8 CS volunteers (4 from Foldit, 4 from Eyewire), we found that game elements and communication tools are not necessary for attracting new volunteers to a project; however they may help to sustain engagement over time, by allowing volunteers to participate in a range of social interactions and through enabling meaningful recognition of achievements.
Assessing user preference of video game controller button settings BIBAFull-Text 1107-1112
  William Ellick; Pejman Mirza-Babaei; Sharon Wood; Duncan Smith; Lennart E. Nacke
Only very few studies exist linking preference in controller usage to physiological effects and user experience (UX). While many games already feature different controller layouts, there is a lack of research on whether giving control to participants over their button choices affects their UX in the game. In our study, participants were given two predetermined button configurations for playing FIFA 12. Their preferences were assessed through electroencephalography (EEG) and a Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ). Our results show no significant difference in EEG intensity between participants using their preferred or non-preferred button settings. Preference also appears to have no significant effect on subjective feelings assessed by the GEQ. We have identified three distinct factors that may have potentially compromised this study. These findings could help to structure future research in this area.
The cake can be a lie: placebos as persuasive videogame elements BIBAFull-Text 1113-1118
  Luís Duarte; Luis Carriço
This paper presents a research which aimed at exploring the effects that videogame temporary reinforcements (commonly known in the domain as power-ups or bonuses) have on players from a physiological and performance perspective. We specifically address this type of mechanic from a persuasion point-of-view, questioning whether the knowledge of the existence of such elements within a game is sufficient to provoke any alterations on the player, regardless of a real reinforcement being provided. Testing was performed with two different games, and a total of sixty users to validate our findings. Results show that different persuasive technique designs can effectively be used to improve player performance as well as regulating their physiological state into a decreased stress status. We provide a brief analysis of these results along with a discussion regarding the design implications and opportunities of these findings and how they are related with existing videogame literature.
Exploring social interaction in co-located multiplayer games BIBAFull-Text 1119-1124
  Dennis L. Kappen; John Gregory; Daniel Stepchenko; Rina R. Wehbe; Lennart E. Nacke
Games have always been a social activity. Playing digital games affords spending time with people; helps build personal connections between individuals and helps to redefine the personality of the player while in play. Games also enable to build the concept of togetherness as a means to foster and enhance the concept of social connectedness, mutual dependencies, collaboration, community living and social interaction. We present a work in progress digital game installation to create multi-level social interactions between the player, the spatial game environment and the digital game. We discuss MagicDuel, a multiplayer digital game, where we are in the process of evaluating the socio-spatial contextual relationship between the players, the audience and gameplay elements for this specific digital game.
Understanding handicapping for balancing exertion games BIBAFull-Text 1125-1130
  David Altimira; Mark Billinghurst; Florian Mueller
Balancing play can be important for engaging people in games since it allows players with different skills to play together and still feel challenged. Balancing play in exertion games has previously been explored by altering the physical effort. To further our understanding of how to design more balanced experiences, we extend this prior work by studying the affect on play of using a score handicap, which gives the less skilled player an initial score advantage. A performance handicap was also studied by asking the most skilled player to play with the non-dominant hand. We studied digital and non-digital table tennis games, which provide different game interactions, as examples of non-parallel, competitive games. Our results show that these different game interactions influenced the impact that the different handicaps had on player's scores. Therefore, we suggest that the game interaction is a key element to understand the suitability of score and performance balancing methods.
Gameplay experience evaluation centered on participation: the fátima game design case BIBAFull-Text 1131-1136
  Luís Lucas Pereira; Licinio Roque
In this paper we demonstrate the use of a model that supports gameplay experience evaluation through gameplay metrics of player's participation in the game context. This model aims to have a guiding role in the identification and interpretation of the metrics that are best suited to the character of a given videogame, so as to close the gap between game experience evaluation and the game design domain. In order to illustrate the use of this participation model as support for game experience evaluation, we describe the analysis of "Fátima", a videogame which places the sightings of Our Lady of Fátima, in a playful context. As a result, by characterizing players' participation, it was possible to objectively measure the game design's success in accomplishing its originally established design intentions.
Disassembling gamification: the effects of points and meaning on user motivation and performance BIBAFull-Text 1137-1142
  Elisa D. Mekler; Florian Brühlmann; Klaus Opwis; Alexandre N. Tuch
Interest in gamification is growing steadily. But as the underlying mechanisms of gamification are not well understood yet, a closer examination of a gamified activity's meaning and individual game design elements may provide more insights. We examine the effects of points -- a basic element of gamification, -- and meaningful framing -- acknowledging participants' contribution to a scientific cause, -- on intrinsic motivation and performance in an online image annotation task. Based on these findings, we discuss implications and opportunities for future research on gamification.
Body-controlled trampoline training games based on computer vision BIBAFull-Text 1143-1148
  Leo Holsti; Tuukka Takala; Aki Martikainen; Raine Kajastila; Perttu Hämäläinen
This work in progress paper describes our efforts in developing trampoline training games using computer vision technology. The study is part of a project about developing digitally augmented exercise environments for faster, safer and more engaging sports training. We describe four initial prototypes and the feedback obtained from testing them both with circus students and with people with no background in trampolining.
Fidget widgets: secondary playful interactions in support of primary serious tasks BIBAFull-Text 1149-1154
  Michael Karlesky; Katherine Isbister
We present our early work in developing a playful technology to purposefully engage users' interrelated bodily motions, affective states, and cognitive functions to selectively enhance creativity, focus, etc. integral to modern productivity. Building interactions inspired by and embodying the elements of fidgeting, doodling, and other "mindless" activities, we seek to demonstrate the value of secondary human computer interactions able to enhance a user's state in primary productivity tasks.
Social playware with an enhanced reach for facilitating group interaction BIBAFull-Text 1155-1160
  Asaki Miura; Takashi Isezaki; Kenji Suzuki
This study proposes a small wireless interface that measures and visualizes group dynamics in order to promote and enhance social interaction. The developed device, Enhanced Reach (ER), can be attached to sportswear or sports equipments, and it is capable of estimating geometric relationships by using the signal strength of the wireless communication between devices. An illumination-based visualization method was developed to influence interaction within the group and encourage social interaction. We evaluated the device by using it to assist communication between children with pervasive developmental disorders. Through experiments, we confirmed the unobtrusive presence of the ER and its ability to promote interaction between the children.

Gesture

Comparing avatar game representation preferences across three age groups BIBAFull-Text 1161-1166
  Mark Rice; Ranieri Koh; Quintessence Lui; Qixiang He; Marcus Wan; Vanessa Yeo; Jamie Ng; Wah Pheow Tan
Avatar representation is an important interaction component of game design. In a game study of 36 mixed-age participants (teenagers, younger adults and older adults), we investigated three distinct types of avatars to differentiate user preferences and interests, primarily to determine if age affected the rating of these modalities. The results identified significant differences in the perceived attractiveness, homophily, engagement and expressiveness of the avatar representations across the three age groups, particularly in relation to the older adults. Moreover, we identified subjective variations in player's preferences towards the movement and customization of the avatar features designed. The implications of this work are briefly discussed.
Open sesame: re-envisioning the design of a gesture-based access control system BIBAFull-Text 1167-1172
  Michael Karlesky; Edward Melcer; Katherine Isbister
We present results of an exploratory study employing a Wizard of Oz mockup of a new gesture-based access control system we are constructing for our lab's entryway. Among user interactions witnessed, we have identified several behaviors of interest to security researchers and HCI researchers alike. We discuss our security system design approach as an extrapolation of two identified trends, demonstrating the potential for the felt experience of pleasurable and playful systems to help solve difficult interaction problems. We also show the great value of prototyping a mockup to reveal designers' assumptions about human interactions with new technology use cases.
Documenting natural interactions BIBAFull-Text 1173-1178
  Bashar Altakrouri; Jan Gröschner; Andreas Schrader
The human computer interaction (HCI) research continues to furiously enrich the natural interaction paradigm. Hence, new novel interaction techniques employ the whole body movements for interactions with ambient interactive systems. The recent wide spread adoption of this paradigm critically invokes the problem of interaction documentation. We therefore, as part of our research on dynamic interaction ensembles in ambient spaces, aim at a standard machine and human readable documentation method for natural interactions. Our approach extends previous research on movement description and analysis methods inspired by dance choreography, physical therapy, and drama. Particularly, we are focusing on Labanotation (Kinetography) as a documentation method to preserve and share kinetic-based interactions.
Writing and sketching in the air, recognizing and controlling on the fly BIBAFull-Text 1179-1184
  Sharad Vikram; Lei Li; Stuart Russell
Recent technologies in vision sensors are capable of capturing 3D finger positions and movements. We propose a novel way to control and interact with computers by moving fingers in the air. The positions of fingers are precisely captured by a computer vision device. By tracking the moving patterns of fingers, we can then recognize users' intended control commands or input information. We demonstrate this human input approach through an example application of handwriting recognition. By treating the input as a time series of 3D positions, we propose a fast algorithm using dynamic time warping to recognize characters in online fashion. We employ various optimization techniques to recognize in real time as one writes. Experiments show promising recognition performance and speed.
Body-tracking camera control for demonstration videos BIBAFull-Text 1185-1190
  Derrick Cheng; Pei-Yu Chi; Taeil Kwak; Björn Hartmann; Paul Wright
A large community of users creates and shares how-to videos online. Many of these videos show demonstrations of physical tasks, such as fixing a machine, assembling furniture, or demonstrating dance steps. It is often difficult for the authors of these videos to control camera focus, view, and position while performing their tasks. To help authors produce videos, we introduce Kinectograph, a recording device that automatically pans and tilts to follow specific body parts, e.g., hands, of a user in a video. It utilizes a Kinect depth sensor to track skeletal data and adjusts the camera angle via a 2D pan-tilt gimbal mount. Users control and configure Kinectograph through a tablet application with real-time video preview. An informal user study suggests that users prefer to record and share videos with Kinectograph, as it enables authors to focus on performing their demonstration tasks.
Gesture-supported document creation on pen and touch tabletops BIBAFull-Text 1191-1196
  Fabrice Matulic; Moira C. Norrie; Ihab Al Kabary; Heiko Schuldt
We present an ongoing effort to design and implement a prototype system for pen and touch-operated digital workdesks supporting the activity of document creation. Our application exploits asymmetric bimanual gestures to perform common document editing operations including element manipulations, text input, clipart retrieval and insertion in a mostly direct way. For many of our gestures, we rely on pen-mode switching actions triggered by postures of the non-dominant hand, which allows us to provide a largely widget-free yet efficient user interface.
MotionDraw: a tool for enhancing art and performance using Kinect BIBAFull-Text 1197-1202
  Danilo Gasques Rodrigues; Emily Grenader; Fernando da Silva Nos; Marcel de Sena Dall'Agnol; Troels E. Hansen; Nadir Weibel
Contemporary staged performances frequently utilize advanced lighting and projection techniques. The design and creation of these stage effects are rarely accessible to the actual performers and must be designed by professional lighting designers or highly-paid programmers. With MotionDraw we want to create an affordable system that is easily controlled and manipulated by performers. With intuitive gestures, non-specialized users can control the MotionDraw visual library and interact with the captured visual record of their own movements. Possible uses for our system grew out of research with dancers and performers, and the current technical implementation sets a framework for including additional visual libraries and capabilities.
The interactive join: recognizing gestures for database queries BIBAFull-Text 1203-1208
  Arnab Nandi; Michael Mandel
Direct, ad-hoc interaction with databases has typically been performed over console-oriented conversational interfaces using query languages such as SQL. With the rise in popularity of gestural user interfaces and computing devices that use gestures as their exclusive mode of interaction, database query interfaces require a fundamental rethinking to work without keyboards. Unlike domain-specific applications, the scope of possible actions is significantly larger if not infinite. Thus, the recognition of gestures and their consequent queries is a challenge. We present a novel gesture recognition system that uses both the interaction and the state of the database to classify gestural input into relational database queries. Preliminary results show that using this approach allows for fast, efficient and interactive gesture-based querying over relational databases.
How we gesture towards machines: an exploratory study of user perceptions of gestural interaction BIBAFull-Text 1209-1214
  Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Chat Wacharamanotham; Gina Joue; Jan O. Borchers; Irene Mittelberg
This paper explores if people perceive and perform touchless gestures differently when communicating with technology vs. with humans. Qualitative reports from a lab study of 10 participants revealed that people perceive differences in the speed of performing gestures, sense of enjoyment, feedback from the communication target. Preliminary analysis of 1200 gesture trials of motion capture data showed that hand shapes were less taut when communicating to technology. These differences provide implications for the design of gestural user interfaces that use symbolic gestures borrowed from human multimodal communication.

Inputs

Designing natural speech interactions for the living room BIBAFull-Text 1215-1220
  Lisa Stifelman; Adam Elman; Anne Sullivan
Speech technology promises to enable 'natural' experiences that remove the translation between a user's desires and a system's actions. While speech systems can translate speech into text, they cannot yet understand the vast range of users' intentions. The use of speech is also expanding from mobile contexts to environments like the living room. Given these shifts, key design questions emerge. How do we encourage natural speech while conveying scope? How do we provide feedback of understanding? What is the role of text-to-speech in this context? This paper presents findings from studying a prototype speech system enabling users to find movies and TV shows. We show the influence of a novel approach for conveying examples, a method for seamlessly integrating text and audio feedback, and share guidance on the use of text-to-speech in the living room.
Touch or remote: comparing touch-and remote-type interfaces for short distance wireless device connection BIBAFull-Text 1221-1226
  Jong-bum Woo; Hyeon-jeong Suk; Hyun jhin Lee; Youn-kyung Lim
In this paper, we compare two different gestures for short distance wireless connection interfaces: Touch and Remote. These two types are compared for usability, emotional quality, and overall preference. We conducted an experiment with 30 participants and the results showed a significant difference in usability and emotional quality between these two types. However, there was no significant difference in preference. With the results, we analyzed the characteristics of each gesture type and present important issues in short distance wireless connection interface design.
Error-proof, high-performance, and context-aware gestures for interactive text edition BIBAFull-Text 1227-1232
  Luis A. Leiva; Vicent Alabau; Enrique Vidal
We present a straightforward solution to incorporate text-editing gestures to mixed-initiative user interfaces (MIUIs). Our approach provides (1) disambiguation from handwritten text, (2) edition context, (3) virtually perfect accuracy, and (4) a trivial implementation. An evaluation study with 32 e-pen users showed that our approach is suitable to production-ready environments. In addition, performance tests on a desktop PC and on a mobile device revealed that gestures are really fast to recognize (0.1 ms on average). Taken together, these results suggest that our approach can help developers to deploy simple but effective, high-performance text-editing gestures.
Interactive space: a prototyping framework for touch and gesture on and above the desktop BIBAFull-Text 1233-1238
  Yang Liu; Nadir Weibel; James D. Hollan
Prototyping gestural and multitouch applications for desktop and mid-air interaction still requires expensive non-portable equipment, complex setup and calibration, and often reimplementation of tracking algorithms. We present Interactive Space, a prototyping framework designed to ease exploration of touch and gestural interaction in real-world settings. For us this is a first step in developing interfaces for electronic medical records to be evaluated in clinical settings. The main contribution is a simple flexible system that supports interaction on and above the desktop, and includes a semi-automatic calibration mechanism that makes it highly portable. We describe the framework, SDK, calibration method, limitations, availability, and a preliminary evaluation.
Overcoming limitations of the trackpad for 3d docking operations BIBAFull-Text 1239-1244
  David Glesser; François Bérard; Jeremy R. Cooperstock
From notebook trackpads to mobile phones to tabletop surface computing, multitouch input surfaces have become one of the most dominant interfaces for human-computer interaction. Although these are clearly effective for interaction with 2D graphical user interfaces, we suspect that they are not as well suited for interaction requiring greater degrees of freedom (DoF). Here, we consider the possibility of exploiting two such surfaces, one for each hand, as a means of affording efficient control over higher dimensional tasks. We investigate performance on a 6 DoF task, comparing such a two-surface multitouch input device against the results obtained using a standard 2D mouse, a single multitouch surface, and a 6 DoF free-space device. Our results indicate that two multitouch surfaces significantly improve user performance compared to the mouse and to a single surface.
Enhancing visuospatial attention performance with brain-computer interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1245-1250
  Romain Trachel; Thomas Brochier; Maureen Clerc
Visuospatial attention is often investigated with features related to the head or the gaze during Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). However the focus of attention can be dissociated from overt responses such as eye movements, and impossible to detect from behavioral data. Actually, Electroencephalography (EEG) can also provide valuable information about covert aspects of spatial attention. Therefore we propose a innovative approach in view of developping a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) to enhance human reaction speed and accuracy. This poster presents an offline evaluation of the approach based on physiological data recorded in a visuospatial attention experiment. Finally we discuss about the future interface that could enhance HCI by displaying visual information at the focus of attention.
Sinkpad: a malleable mouse pad consisted of an elastic material BIBAFull-Text 1251-1256
  Takuro Kuribara; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
The computer mouse has been used for more than 40 years; users, however, can only perform simple actions. To solve this problem, we present "Sinkpad", an augmented mouse pad that has a malleable surface consisted of an elastic material. Sinkpad augments mouse functionality by allowing the user to sink the mouse into the pad and tilt the mouse on the pad. In addition, the pad provides the user with haptic feedback via the mouse. Moreover, the user can use Sinkpad as a conventional mouse pad because the pad serves as a flat surface unless the user sinks the mouse. Sinkpad allows the user to perform interesting techniques: sink, tilt, and sink+move. We also present three example applications to explore the possibilities of our techniques using the pad.
The potential of fusing computer vision and depth sensing for accurate distance estimation BIBAFull-Text 1257-1262
  Jakub Dostal; Per Ola Kristensson; Aaron Quigley
Accurately inferring the distance between the user and the interface enables the design of a variety of proximity-aware user interfaces. This paper reports our work-in-progress on designing a toolkit called SpiderEyes that will enable systems to accurately estimate the distance between the user and the interface by fusing computer vision with depth sensing. Potential advantages of this approach include increased accuracy and the ability to reliably estimate the user's distance to the interface even when the user is far from the sensor (up to five metres). We evaluated the feasibility of this approach in a controlled experiment and found that it is likely to yield distance estimations with less than a 10 cm estimation error when users are between 50 cm and 5 metres away from the system.
Comparing modalities and feedback for peripheral interaction BIBAFull-Text 1263-1268
  Doris Hausen; Christine Wagner; Sebastian Boring; Andreas Butz
When executing one task on a computer, we are frequently confronted with secondary tasks (e.g., controlling an audio player or changing the IM state) that require shifting our attention away from the actual task, thus increasing our cognitive load. Peripheral interaction aims at reducing that cognitive load through the use of the periphery of our attention for interaction. In previous work, token- or tag-based systems alongside wearable and graspable devices were the dominant way of interacting in the periphery. We explore touch and freehand interaction in combination with several forms of visual feedback. In a dual-task lab study we found that those additional modalities are fit for peripheral interaction. Also, feedback did not have a measurable influence, yet it assured participants in their actions.
Influence of subliminal cueing on visual search tasks BIBAFull-Text 1269-1274
  Bastian Pfleging; Niels Henze; Albrecht Schmidt; Dominique Rau; Bastian Reitschuster
The phenomenon of subliminal perception is studied in psychology and is a compelling idea to unobtrusively yet effectively convey information from the computer to the user. Previous research reports conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of subliminal stimuli in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). These experiments are often reported on application level and are generally hard to reproduce. We aim at isolating the effect to learn how subliminal cueing can become a basis for future GUI widgets. Therefore, we look at specific properties and functions that can be realized using subliminal presentation. In this paper we present our ongoing work towards highlighting parts of the interface to guide the user's gaze. In the conducted study, participants had to look at targets appearing at different screen locations. Using different cueing variants, the participants received hints of the next location. The results indicate that visible cues are effective, whereas the studied simple and non-blinking subliminal cueing method does not improve visual search performance.
Fun with bananas: novel inputs on enjoyment and task performance BIBAFull-Text 1275-1280
  Emily Sun; Sarah Han
Educators are often finding ways to increase intrinsic motivation for students, one of which is making a task more enjoyable. We hypothesized that using a novel input device would increase enjoyment and performance for a task. In order to test our hypothesis, participants played a game with a keyboard, large pads (created from aluminum foil and cardboard), and bananas as input devices by using a Makey Makey. Our results indicate that enjoyment, interest, excitement, and enthusiasm with bananas was higher than with a standard keyboard input despite a worse performance and lower preference ranking. We discuss potential implications and future work around the implementation of novel input devices.
Thumb widgets: apply thumb-tracking to enhance capabilities of multi-touch on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1281-1286
  Xinda Zeng; Feng Tian; Yingying Jiang; Xiaolong (Luke) Zhang; Guozhong Dai; Hongan Wang
While multi-touch design allows natural and flexible figure gestures in interacting with mobile devices, the palm-size screen often limits its potential in application and arouses issues such as inefficient mode switch and incomplete gesture. To enrich the vocabulary of finger gestures in user interaction, we present Thumb Widgets, a mechanism that adopts thumb as assisted input channel to enhance the capabilities of multi-touch on touch-based mobile devices. Thumb Widgets expand the design space in gesture-based UIs and promote efficiency for tasks such as mode switching, parameter setting, etc. Also, Thumb Widgets enable incomplete gestures to be performed around the periphery of the device.
Memory stones: an intuitive copy-and-paste method between multi-touch computers BIBAFull-Text 1287-1292
  Kaori Ikematsu; Itiro Siio
When we use a combination of personal computing devices, such as mobile phones, tablets, notebooks, and desktop PCs, we often want to transfer information from one device to another. Though a copy-and-paste function on the same computing device is easy it becomes cumbersome in a multiple computing environment, where we have to first locate and then select the target device from a list of devices on a network, even if the device is right in front of us. This paper proposes a novel direct manipulation technique for executing copy-and-paste operations between multi-touch devices. Under our interface concept, dubbed "Memory Stones," a user can "pick up" a data object displayed on one device screen, "carry" it to another device screen, and "put down" the object on that device using only his or her fingers. During this copy-and-paste operation, the user is invited to pantomime the act of carrying a tangible object (the "stone") and to keep his or her fingertip positions unchanged. The system identifies the source and target devices by matching the shape of the polygon formed by the fingertips when touching the respective screens. We have developed a prototype system for small-to-large-sized multi-touch computers including smartphones, tablets, notebooks, and desktop PCs, and have carried out a preliminary evaluation of its feasibility.
InEar BioFeedController: a headset for hands-free and eyes-free interaction with mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1293-1298
  Denys J. C. Matthies
Nowadays control of a mobile device usually requires the use of a touch screen. In everyday life, while engaged in real world tasks, it is sometimes impossible to control a device with one's hands. Speech control is the most common solution to tackle this problem, but it is still error prone, uncomfortable and works poorly when ambient noise is present. Alternative control concepts must work in everyday surroundings with significant levels of noise and should not make use of the hands or require visual focus on the device itself. The prototype presented here is an attempt to provide a better solution to such situations: a headset that enables hands-free and eyes-free interaction for incoming phone calls as well as music player control. It enables safe control of the device in mobile situations as it neither requires the user to come to a standstill, nor does it distract his visual focus.
A zooming interface for accurate text input on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1299-1304
  Naoto Koarai; Takashi Komuro
In this paper, we propose a system which uses two cameras in combination with a touch panel. The cameras detect a continuous finger depth, which realizes zooming in/out the screen together with the finger movement. The system realizes comfortable selection operation of small objects by directly touching enlarged objects. We conducted an experiment and confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method with zooming. In the virtual keyboard application, the number of mistypes with the proposed method was less than half of the number without zooming.
TouchShield: a virtual control for stable grip of a smartphone using the thumb BIBAFull-Text 1305-1310
  Jonggi Hong; Geehyuk Lee
People commonly manipulate their smartphones using the thumb, but this is often done with an unstable grip in which the phone lays on their fingers, while the thumb hovers over the touch screen. In order to offer a secure and stable grip, we designed a virtual control called TouchShield, which provides place in which the thumb can pin the phone down in order to provide a stable grip. In a user study, we confirmed that this form of control does not interfere with existing touch screen operations, and the possibility that TouchShield can make more stable grip. An incidental function of TouchShield is that it provides shortcuts to frequently used commands via the thumb, a function that was also shown to be effective in the user study.
ElaScreen: exploring multi-dimensional data using elastic screen BIBAFull-Text 1311-1316
  Kyungwon Yun; JunBong Song; Keehong Youn; Sungmin Cho; Hyunwoo Bang
In this paper, we present a novel 'push-able' interface by utilizing a stretchable elastic screen. This interface enables an intuitive exploration through complex & multi-dimensional data structures. By deforming the elastic membrane of the screen, users can manipulate not only their points of interest, such as traditional mouse cursors, but also their surrounding regions as well. Also by its force of restoration, the elastic screen gives users a natural passive force feedback when it is stretched, which in turn makes more intuitive interactions possible. We have applied this system to several applications including a browser for computed tomography data of human body and a graph navigation scheme based on physical user interaction forces.
Towards utilising one-handed multi-digit pressure input BIBAFull-Text 1317-1322
  Graham Wilson; Stephen Brewster; Martin Halvey
This paper explores the potential uses of pressure input from multiple digits (i.e., all 4 fingers and the thumb) of one hand squeezing a mobile device: multiple digits may provide multiple inputs. The potential advantages for mobile interaction include freeing the second hand for other tasks, and providing access to multiple functions simultaneously. A range of possible interactions is discussed including the benefits and challenges posed by complex pressure-based input on mobile devices. An example usage scenario is described and tested: pressure-based input for simultaneous zooming and rotating in a map task. Results suggest multi-digit pressure input may be a useful means of interaction with mobile devices.
EarPut: augmenting behind-the-ear devices for ear-based interaction BIBAFull-Text 1323-1328
  Roman Lissermann; Jochen Huber; Aristotelis Hadjakos; Max Mühlhäuser
In this work-in-progress paper, we make a case for leveraging the unique affordances of the human ear for eyes-free, mobile interaction. We present EarPut, a novel interface concept, which instruments the ear as an interactive surface for touch-based interactions and its prototypical hardware implementation. The central idea behind EarPut is to go beyond prior work by unobtrusively augmenting a variety of accessories that are worn behind the ear, such as headsets or glasses. Results from a controlled experiment with 27 participants provide empirical evidence that people are able to target salient regions on their ear effectively and precisely. Moreover, we contribute a first, systematically derived interaction design space for ear-based interaction and a set of exemplary applications.
Using Delboeuf's illusion to improve point and click performance for older adults BIBAFull-Text 1329-1334
  Nic Hollinworth; Faustina Hwang; David T. Field
Older computer users often exhibit poorer performance in point and click tasks on a computer than younger adults. This paper reports on the first phase of research that examines whether a visual illusion that makes an object appear to be larger (Delboeuf's Illusion), can help to improve point and click performance for older computer users. In this first phase, we look at the effect sizes for different configurations of the Delboeuf illusion. The study finds that the target size is overestimated by 8% for both older and younger adults in one configuration, and 12% for older adults in another configuration. The results will inform the design of a second phase, in which the configurations which demonstrate the largest effects will be investigated using a Fitts'-style study of pointing performance.
Input method using divergence eye movement BIBAFull-Text 1335-1340
  Shinya Kudo; Hiroyuki Okabe; Taku Hachisu; Michi Sato; Shogo Fukushima; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
A gaze input interface offers hands-free operation by using the view-point position as the cursor coordinates on the display. However, the selection operation of a button is indistinguishable from viewing; this is known as the Midas touch problem. We propose a new input method that measures divergence eye movement, thereby enabling users to "press" a button by moving their viewpoint forward. Comparison of our method and the conventional blinking input method confirms that input speed and accuracy are similar.
Exploring the interaction design space for interactive glasses BIBAFull-Text 1341-1346
  Andrés Lucero; Kent Lyons; Akos Vetek; Toni Järvenpää; Sean White; Marja Salmimaa
In this paper, we explore the interaction design space for interactive glasses. We discuss general issues with interactive glasses (i.e., optics, technology, social, form factors), and then concentrate on the topic of the nature of interaction with glasses and its implications to provide a delightful user experience with the NotifEye.
Beyond the familiar?: exploring extreme input in brainstorms BIBAFull-Text 1347-1352
  Arne Jansen; Nicky Sulmon; Maarten Van Mechelen; Bieke Zaman; Jeroen Vanattenhoven; Dirk De Grooff
This paper explores the potential of extreme input stimuli in brainstorming. Extreme stimuli contain unfamiliar, ambiguous, critical and or provocative elements. The instrumental use of extreme input has only recently been investigated as a promising technique in ideation to get participants to think beyond the already known. It is not clear, though, which extreme mechanisms are most likely to trigger creativity. To investigate this, four brainstorm sessions were organized, of which three relied on extreme input stimuli: Extreme Ideas, Extreme Characters and Extreme Personas. The fourth session did not employ extreme input. Four experts assessed the output via a creative-idea-count. The preliminary results suggest that using Extreme Ideas as input for brainstorming in the early ideation phase leads to more original ideas than employing Non-Extreme Ideas.
Assessing recovery from cognitive load through pen input BIBAFull-Text 1353-1358
  Ling Luo; Ronnie Taib
This paper explores the impact of rest duration on recovery from cognitively demanding tasks, focusing on pen input features as an indicator of load and recovery. We designed a user experiment involving a cognitively loading task with three levels of difficulty, followed by a controlled rest period, and then a fixed difficulty task. The participants answered the tasks by writing alphabet letters on a tablet monitor. Subjective ratings validated the increasing difficulty of the first task (Friedman ANOVA p<0.05), and also indicated that the rest duration had a significant impact on the perceived difficulty of the subsequent task (p=0.048). In terms of pen features, the height of the written characters decreased significantly when the rest duration was reduced (ANOVA p<0.05), and the pen pressure decreased significantly as the task difficult increased (p=0.009). These encouraging results suggest the addition of a crucial time factor in the cognitive load theory, and benefits to HCI practitioners through better control of content and information pace.

PDA&Mobile

The relationship between encumbrance and walking speed on mobile interactions BIBAFull-Text 1359-1364
  Alexander Ng; Stephen Brewster
The effects of encumbrance (holding cumbersome objects while using mobile devices) have received little attention when examining mobile interactions. People often carry items while on the move and use their mobile devices at the same time, causing interaction problems. The study presented is part of an on-going project examining the relationship between encumbrance and walking speed and the impact the relationship has on targeting performance on a touchscreen mobile phone. We also compare two evaluation techniques used in mobile studies: 1)walking on a treadmill and 2)walking on the ground and found a drop in preferred walking speed (PWS) of 27% on the treadmill. The results show that when users walked on the ground at a fixed PWS, targeting error increased as much as 112% compared to standing still when holding a bag in the dominant hand.
CameraMatch: automatic recognition of subjects using smartphones-toward entertaining photo sessions BIBAFull-Text 1365-1370
  Kohei Matsumura; Yasuyuki Sumi
We seek to increase both the enjoyment in a photo session and the amount of information of a photo by appending Manga iconography to photos automatically. By reducing the number of dimensions in a video to that of a photo, a user can easily understand events and the context of the video in less time. However, it is not easy to realize such a system. In this paper, toward automatic Manga iconography generation, we report on our feasibility study in which we attempted to associate subjects in a video with their smartphones.
Utilizing contextual information for mobile communication BIBAFull-Text 1371-1376
  Johannes Knittel; Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Niels Henze; Albrecht Schmidt
Mobile phones enable us to be reachable by phone calls anywhere and anytime. However, it is not always appropriate to answer a phone call. Even a ringing or vibrating phone can be inappropriate in some situations. The information required to assess if a call is appropriate is split between the caller and the callee. Only the caller knows the importance of the call and only the callee knows her context. Sharing parts of this context with the potential caller would enable the caller to make a better decision. Based on previous work we conducted a survey to learn about the contextual information that users believe to be important for this decision. We derive context information that users will to share and consider relevant and helpful. Further, we present a mobile application that augments users' address book with contextual information that we aim to study in the large.
Reading with a digital roll BIBAFull-Text 1377-1382
  Clément Pillias; Shuo Hsiu Hsu; Pierre Cubaud
We introduce the Digital Roll, a cylindrical hand-held device wrapped with a curved display, that can be rotated by hand to provide a continuous scrolling of text. We present design considerations for such a device and report on a preliminary experiment designed to assess its acceptance for casual reading, using a simulator. Encouraging results and their implications on the design of the device are then discussed.
"I'd sit at home and do work emails": how tablets affect the work-life balance of office workers BIBAFull-Text 1383-1388
  Katarzyna Stawarz; Anna L. Cox; Jon Bird; Rachel Benedyk
Advances in technology, in particular the widespread use of mobile devices, have changed work practices and transformed our everyday lives. However, as well as facilitating new ways for combining work and personal life, these new technologies can also blur the boundary between the two domains. In recent years tablets have become popular, first as leisure devices, and lately as business tools helping people to stay connected with work anywhere, anytime. Through an online questionnaire supported by a qualitative study, we investigated why, how, and where office workers use tablets and what impact those devices may have on work-life balance. The results show that, while useful for both home and work tasks, tablets have the potential to blur the boundary between work and personal life by encouraging and enabling people to complete work tasks during home time and vice versa. This could have negative impacts on work-life balance.
Design and evaluation of mobile phonebook application with stereoscopic 3D user interface BIBAFull-Text 1389-1394
  Jonna Häkkilä; Maaret Posti; Olli Koskenranta; Leena Ventä-Olkkonen
During recent years, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) mobile devices have entered the mass markets. Yet, mobile S3D user experience (UX) design has not been widely studied, and stereoscopy in today's products is used for purely visual design, whilst the potential for holistic UX has been neglected. In this work-in-progress paper we introduce the design, implementation and preliminary evaluation of a mobile S3D phonebook application, where stereoscopy was used to augment the 2D user interface (UI) design to provide information related to the time when the last call with each phonebook contact was made.
Investigating and supporting undirected navigation for runners BIBAFull-Text 1395-1400
  David K. McGookin; Stephen A. Brewster
We present an analysis of how runners navigate the environment when running. Results from 153 questionnaire, and 8 interview participants found navigation was often not pre-planned, had no clear route and changed organically as running was undertaken. From this we present the design of RunNav, a novel navigation system that uses Foursquare to provide support for the navigation practices runners employ. We illustrate its basic design, and plans for its future development and evaluation.
Insights into co-located shared mobile search BIBAFull-Text 1401-1406
  Sofia Reis; Karen Church
Recently, the use of mobile search among co-located groups to satisfy casual, shared information needs has grown in popularity. In this paper we describe a proof-of-concept research prototype, which is designed to enhance such social experiences by providing an easy means of interacting with and sharing mobile Web content among co-located groups. We present initial results of an exploratory field study of our prototype and outline a number of design implications that could enhance next-generation social mobile services.
Geo-locked photo sharing on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1407-1412
  Dhaval Vyas; Edwin Keijl; Rieks op den Akker; Anton Nijholt; Gerrit C. van der Veer
We introduce the idea of geo-locking through a mobile phone based photo sharing application called Picalilly (figure 1). Using its geo-locking feature, Picalilly allows its users to manually define geographical boundaries for sharing photos -- limiting sharing within user-defined boundaries as well as facilitating open sharing between strangers within such boundaries. To explore the potential of geo-locking, we carried out a small scale field trial of Picalilly involving two groups of students, who were part of a two-week long introduction program at a university. Our preliminary results show that Picalilly facilitated 1) sharing of 'places' and 2) localized explorations.
Mobile experiences for tourism: brick city tours BIBAFull-Text 1413-1418
  Brian O'Keefe; Brianna Slutsky; Nick Iuliucci; Alex Nalbandian; Anushri Thanedar; Stephen Mokey; Oliver Mival
We present a mobile user experience design prototype called Brick City Tours (BCT), which is aimed at prospective university students who are visiting the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) campus. Our ongoing research and development is looking at improving key visitor problem areas while on an RIT tour. Our goal is to leverage user-centered design methods to develop a mobile service to strengthen the connection and facilitate visitors to make an informed decision when choosing which school to attend. This paper discusses the project's design rationale, process, and outcomes, while introducing the evaluation iterations for a mobile service aimed at prospective students so they can experience the innovations of RIT students and faculty.
Skateboards as a mobile technology BIBAFull-Text 1419-1424
  Sabrina Hauser; Audrey Desjardins; Ron Wakkary
Grounded in investigations of everyday design, this study explores the appropriative, creative and adaptive practice of skateboarding as a way to reveal a new perspective on mobile technology and their influence on mobility. We describe how skateboarding, a technology seen as an embodied practice, encourages practitioners to engage with the environment and thereby changes their mobility, even though the technology requires extensive practice and is not easy to use. Comparing these aspects to other mobile technologies offers new directions for the design of mobility and the influence of technologies.
Chili: viewpoint control and on-video drawing for mobile video calls BIBAFull-Text 1425-1430
  Hyungeun Jo; Sungjae Hwang
We introduce Chili, a mobile video call system with viewpoint control of the remote scene and augmentation of the live video with freehand drawing. To enable the viewpoint control with ordinary mobile devices, Chili uses visualization and human action instead of any additional mechanics or optics, and also exploits remotely switching between the front and rear cameras. The drawings are world-stabilized by vision-gyroscope sensor fusion, and the users can draw even larger than the field-of-view by moving the device itself. Chili is a step forward to unleash the utility of mobile video calls, which has kept to just facing each other so far.
WalkMinder: encouraging an active lifestyle using mobile phone interruptions BIBAFull-Text 1431-1436
  Sen H. Hirano; Robert G. Farrell; Catalina M. Danis; Wendy A. Kellogg
Medical research suggests that avoiding lengthy periods of physical inactivity can have significant health benefits. The pervasive nature of mobile phones increasingly allows individuals to track and measure their own physical activity thus creating opportunities for them to reflect on their behavior and make informed changes. In this work, we investigated two mechanisms for encouraging a more active lifestyle: a glanceable display of an individual's level of physical activity and mobile phone vibrations to interrupt extended periods of inactivity. We found that both mechanisms can help users become more aware of their activity patterns but may be ignored unless coupled with concrete advice on how to incorporate active moments into their day.

Sustainability

Promoting sustainable print behavior BIBAFull-Text 1437-1442
  Jutta K. Willamowski; Yves Hoppenot; Antonietta Grasso
We have designed the Personal Assessment Tool (PAT) to promote more sustainable print behaviour in a corporate work environment. Therefore, PAT provides its users with ambient awareness on their printing habits. We have experimented PAT in our research centre and describe this experiment along with our findings and observations. PAT definitely motivated the participating users to change their print behaviour. Nevertheless it also highlighted the constrained aspects of printing in a work environment calling for organizational changes of established work processes.
Achieving sustainable society through micro-level crowdfunding BIBAFull-Text 1443-1448
  Mizuki Sakamoto; Tatsuo Nakajima; Yefeng Liu; Todorka Alexandrova
This paper proposes a new approach for motivating people to participate in achieving a sustainable society. The method is called Micro-Crowdfunding, and encourages people living in urban cities to support and contribute to the sustainability of small common resources, such as public sinks, toilets, shelves, office areas and so on. Micro-Crowdfunding is based on the crowdfunding concept and uses the local currency idea, as tools of the social mechanism, to increase people's awareness of how they participate in keeping the sustainability of common resources. Our approach aims to maintain the sustainability of common resources with people's small efforts. In this approach, an organizer introduces a new mission for keeping the sustainability of a resource, and investors fund it. Finally, a performer executes the mission, and completes it with minimal efforts achieving the resource's sustainability.
Normification: using crowdsourced technology to affect third-party change BIBAFull-Text 1449-1454
  Elaine Massung; Chris Preist
Previous work has shown how smartphone applications can support community activism groups by enabling crowdsourced data collection. In this paper we theorize that the data collected by the app can then be used to bring about positive environmental behavior change by illustrating the adoption of new social norms, a process we term normification. We provide a theoretical framework for how this may be accomplished, both in general terms and specifically with examples from the Close the Door campaign.
Improving user comfort and office energy efficiency with POEM (personal office energy monitor) BIBAFull-Text 1455-1460
  Milan Milenkovic; Ulf Hanebutte; Yonghong Huang; David Prendergast; Han Pham
Consensus exists in much of industry and academia that engaging end-users is an essential element for improving energy efficiency in office buildings.
   We present our experiences implementing and deploying POEM (Personal Office Energy Monitor) with real office users. POEM is an end-user eco-feedback application. It provides detailed personalized data on energy usage and ambient conditions to each office user, as well as reporting aggregates for building-level management and policy setting. The POEM UI also allows users to state their subjective feeling of comfort. The system aggregates those inputs and informs the building manager to take corrective action if needed -- thus closing the control loop between the people and the building. We report our findings from pilot tests of POEM prototype.
Designing motivational features for sustainable urban mobility BIBAFull-Text 1461-1466
  Silvia Gabrielli; Rosa Maimone; Paula Forbes; Judith Masthoff; Simon Wells; Laura Primerano; Laura Haverinen; Giancarlo Bo; Marco Pompa
This paper describes the User-Centred Design process followed within the SUPERHUB project in order to investigate requirements, elicit user feedback and refine motivational features of a mobile app fostering the adoption of sustainable behaviors for urban mobility. We report the main lessons learnt from focus groups, participatory design sessions, and low-mid fidelity prototyping of the motivational features designed. These lessons are currently informing our implementation work in SUPERHUB and could be of interest for designers in the eco-sustainability field.
Take it personally: personal accountability and energy consumption in domestic households BIBAFull-Text 1467-1472
  Yukang Guo; Matt Jones; Benjamin Cowan; Russell Beale
We explore the overlooked area of personal energy consumption in the context of a shared domestic household. We discuss the potential benefits of such an approach. We report the results of a lab study and field trial with four households using a personal energy monitoring system. We describe the results of the studies and discuss how such previously hidden information might raise awareness of individual energy consumption and the benefits and problems this entails.
Designing a system for land change science meta-study BIBAFull-Text 1473-1478
  Alyson L. Young; Wayne G. Lutters; Nicholas R. Magliocca; Erle C. Ellis
In this work-in-progress paper, we present GLOBE, a system that enables the quantitative comparison and synthesis of local case study data to support meta-analyses of global environmental change. Using data from a workshop on the state-of-the-art of meta-study in the land change science research community, we highlight the limitations of current approaches and illustrate how our system can be designed to enhance data accuracy and produce globally relevant results.
Cool and the gang: design insights for engaging student energy interventions BIBAFull-Text 1479-1484
  Derek Foster; Conor Linehan; Maureen Schoonheyt; Shaun W. Lawson
Interventions that aim to motivate students in halls of residence to engage in more eco-friendly behaviour face a number of unique problems. Specifically, a large portion of university accommodation provides utilities such as electricity, water and gas at fixed cost as part of tenancy contracts. In the absence of financial motivators, energy interventions for special groups such as students require a stronger focus on participatory and experience design to understand the design implications of successful technology-led energy interventions. This work presents the findings of a thematic analysis drawn from a large corpus of qualitative design challenge data including focus groups, questionnaires and interviews. Findings provided design insights for developing 'cool' and engaging energy interventions for students.
The stroppy kettle: an intervention to break energy consumption habits BIBAFull-Text 1485-1490
  Benjamin R. Cowan; Chris P. Bowers; Russell Beale; Charlie Pinder
Changing human behaviours using persuasive technology has been a focus of the CHI community in recent years. Much of this research aims to change behaviour through feedback of information. This is predicated on the fact that raising awareness will drive changes in behaviour, but psychological research shows that in the case of highly habitual behaviours this form of intervention is unlikely to be effective. We present a prototype device, the Stroppy Kettle, a targeted behavioural intervention aiming to break users' habitual kettle overfill behaviours, by breaking the link between habitual behaviour and goal attainment.
Teenagers talking about technologies: designing technology to reduce teen energy use BIBAFull-Text 1491-1496
  Beth T. Bell; Nicola Toth; Janet C. Read; Matthew Horton; Dan Fitton; Linda Little; Russell Beale; Yukang Guo
This paper describes the methodology through which a set of guidelines that inform the design and development of energy-use reduction technologies for teenagers were created. The presented research forms part of a wider project that aims to design, develop and evaluate mobile solutions to change teen attitudes and behavior to energy consumption. In order to understand how to approach the design of technologies that reduce teen electricity consumption, researchers engaged teenagers in a comprehensive user-centered evaluation of relevant existing prototypes. The evaluation feedback was used to generate a set of seven guidelines that will inform the design and development of future energy-reduction devices for teenagers as part of the final stages of this overall research project.
Greenify: fostering sustainable communities via gamification BIBAFull-Text 1497-1502
  Joey J. Lee; Eduard Matamoros; Rafael Kern; Jenna Marks; Christian de Luna; William Jordan-Cooley
At Teachers College, Columbia University, the Games Research Lab has created Greenify, an online social platform designed to foster flourishing sustainable communities. Gamification elements facilitated the creation and completion of user-generated missions, encouraging interaction between geographically proximate communities of peers. Three elements were identified as necessary components to achieve sustainable communities: a healthy climate and environment, social well-being, and economic security. This paper describes our approach in addressing these elements through a crowdsourced, gamified system. Implications for HCI are also discussed.
Choice architecture for environmentally sustainable urban mobility BIBAFull-Text 1503-1508
  Efthimios Bothos; Dimitris Apostolou; Gregoris Mentzas
Personal transportation greatly contributes to environmental pollution from CO2 emissions and persuasive technologies could assist travellers in reducing their ecological impact. In this work we focus on the design of persuasive travel recommenders in order to support travellers, who have a pre-existing interest in taking action to lessen their impact on the environment, adopt green transportation habits. Our approach examines recommender systems under a choice architecture framework and aims at providing urban travellers with a personalized travel recommender that helps them plan routes while considering the environmentally friendliest travel modes.

Tabletops and displays

Tangeo: geometric drawing with tangibles on an interactive table-top BIBAFull-Text 1509-1514
  Shunjie (Jacky) Zhen; Rachel Blagojevic; Beryl Plimmer
We introduce Tangeo, a drawing system that combines tangible drawing tools, such as rulers, protractors and set squares with a table-top environment. Geometric drawing on computers is often constrained to abstract widget tools and metaphoric, indirect input methods such as mouse and keyboard. Tangeo allows users to construct geometric drawings in a more direct manner by manipulating virtual data with familiar physical objects and drawing with a finger. User evaluations on Tangeo yielded a high rate of user satisfaction and indicated that the system is effective at enhancing geometric drawing.
Messy tabletops: clearing up the occlusion problem BIBAFull-Text 1515-1520
  Euan Freeman; Stephen Brewster
When introducing interactive tabletops into the home and office, lack of space will often mean that these devices play two roles: interactive display and a place for putting things. Clutter on the table surface may occlude information on the display, preventing the user from noticing it or interacting with it. We present a technique for dealing with clutter on tabletops which finds a suitable unoccluded area of the display in which to show content. We discuss the implementation of this technique and some design issues which arose during implementation.
IAMHear: a tabletop interface with smart mobile devices using acoustic location BIBAFull-Text 1521-1526
  Seunghun Kim; Bongjun Kim; Woon Seung Yeo
IAMHear is a novel tabletop interface for music performance and sound making, in which smart mobile devices are used as on-table objects for interaction. Thanks to the advanced features of smart mobile devices, IAMHear is by nature multi-modal and highly interactive.
   The system also allows for acoustic location mechanism using virtually inaudible sound without any special sensors, making itself simpler in structure and easier to implement. In addition, use of "everyday objects" also evokes interaction by intuitive gestures such as placement, movement, and rotation.
   As a music sequencer, IAMHear enables the user to make music by placing objects on table; inspired by the idea of spectrographic mapping with virtual scan line, pitch and timbre of sounds are determined by the location/orientation of tabletop objects as well as ambient noise.
   We present IAMHear as a simple and novel alternative to interactive tabletop interface for music and various multimedia applications as well.
Conceptual framework for surface manager on interactive tabletops BIBAFull-Text 1527-1532
  Nur Al-huda Hamdan; Simon Voelker; Jan O. Borchers
To date, most tabletop systems are designed with only a single application visible and accessible at any time, which is, in many cases, an underuse of the tabletop spacious surface, and counter-intuitive to the normal working environment of a table. Desktop window managers provide users facilities to launch and interact with concurrent applications, as well as manage their work items. However, these managers are designed for single-user systems and cannot be directly utilized in tabletops without sacrificing usability. In our research, we want to bring window manager facilities to tabletops. We approach this by first constructing a conceptual framework based on workplace theories and tabletop investigations to understand how users structure their work in these environments (see Figure 1). We will then use the resulting framework to guide our design of a sample surface manager.
Permulin: collaboration on interactive surfaces with personal in- and output BIBAFull-Text 1533-1538
  Roman Lissermann; Jochen Huber; Jürgen Steimle; Max Mühlhäuser
Interactive tables are well suited for co-located collaboration. Most prior research assumed users to share the same overall display output; a key challenge was the appropriate partitioning of screen real estate, assembling the right information 'at the users' finger-tips through simultaneous input. A different approach is followed in recent multi-view display environments: they offer personal output for each team member, yet risk to dissolve the team due to the lack of a common visual focus. Our approach combines both lines of thought, guided by the question: "What if the visible output and simultaneous input was partly shared and partly private?" We present Permulin as a concrete corresponding implementation, based on a set of novel interaction concepts that support fluid transitions between individual and group activities, coordination of group activities, and concurrent, distraction-free in-place manipulation. Study results indicate that users are able to focus on individual work on the whole surface without notable mutual interference, while at the same time establishing a strong sense of collaboration.
Overcoming interaction blindness through curiosity objects BIBAFull-Text 1539-1544
  Steven Houben; Christian Weichel
In recent years there has been a widespread installation of large interactive public displays. Longitudinal studies however show that these interactive displays suffer from interaction blindness -- the inability of the public to recognize the interactive capabilities of those surfaces. In this paper, we explore the use of curiosity-provoking artifacts, (curiosity objects) to overcome interaction blindness. Our study confirmed the interaction blindness problem and shows that introducing a curiosity object results in a significant increase in interactivity with the display as well as changes in movement in the spaces surrounding the interactive display.
Sensing and reacting to users' interest: an adaptive public display BIBAFull-Text 1545-1550
  Gianluca Schiavo; Eleonora Mencarini; Kevin B. A. Vovard; Massimo Zancanaro
In this paper we describe a public display system that detects the users' interest and adapts the on-screen content accordingly. An interest estimation algorithm based on the analysis of the users' non-verbal behaviour, including the users' position, their orientation and the social context, is proposed. A preliminary field study suggests that an adaptive public display may be more appealing than a control condition, where the same content is offered without any adaptation. We argue that behavioural-based measures are valuable data to inform and adapt a public display in a social-aware way, improving the users' engagement.

Tactile

Sensing fork: eating behavior detection utensil and mobile persuasive game BIBAFull-Text 1551-1556
  Azusa Kadomura; Cheng-Yuan Li; Yen-Chang Chen; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio; Hao-hua Chu
We propose a fork-type sensing device, Sensing Fork, which detects children's eating behavior (eating actions and chosen food) and a smartphone game to address children's eating problems. This paper describes the design and implementation of the Sensing Fork prototype and the play-based eating game called Hungry Panda.
Peripheral information displays using vibro-tactile stimuli BIBAFull-Text 1557-1562
  Martin Pielot; Rodrigo de Oliveira
We conducted an initial attempt to study the boundaries of peripheral perception using vibro-tactile stimuli. For three days, we exposed 12 subjects to a continual vibration pattern created by a mobile device worn in the trouser pocket. In order to guarantee that the stimuli would not require the subjects' focal attention, they were asked to set the vibration intensity to just above their personal detection threshold when sitting still. At random intervals, the vibration stopped. Participants were asked to acknowledge these events as soon as they noticed. Our findings reveal that only 16.7% of events were acknowledged within one minute, and participants reported not to be annoyed by the signal in more than 95% of the events. These results provide first evidence that vibration patterns can form non-annoying, light-weight information displays, which can be consumed at the periphery of attention.
Feel the action: dynamic tactile cues in the interaction with deformable UIs BIBAFull-Text 1563-1568
  Johan Kildal; Marion Boberg
Deformable User Interfaces (DUIs) often require external confirmation of the status of the interface, which is normally provided visually. We propose that tactile cues can also be employed for this end. In a user study that presents both visual and tactile cues in redundancy, we found that both channels can be combined with no loss in user experience or performance. This validates our design for further research on multimodal designs that make use of no redundancy in the supporting cues.
Tactile notifications for ambulatory users BIBAFull-Text 1569-1574
  Huimin Qian; Ravi Kuber; Andrew Sears
Difficulties are often associated with perceiving tactile feedback from a mobile device while ambulatory. In this paper, we describe a study conducted using multi-parameter tactile icons (tactons) with a view to identifying designs to better resist the masking effects associated with walking. Our findings suggest that tactons encoded with longer durations (800ms) or those with stronger intensities (Amplitude: 2.1g Frequency: 255Hz) offer promise to individuals on-the-move. In terms of future work, we aim to identify ways to reduce the recognition time and the levels of cognitive workload experienced when resolving multi-parameter tactons, to augment the human-mobile interaction experience.
Towards tactile expressions of emotion through mediated touch BIBAFull-Text 1575-1580
  Gijs Huisman; Aduén Darriba Frederiks
In this paper we investigate the expression of emotions through mediated touch. Participants used the Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch (TaSST), a wearable sleeve that consists of a pressure sensitive input layer, and a vibration motor output layer, to record a number of expressions of discrete emotions. The aim was to investigate if these participants could make meaningful distinctions in their tactile expressions of the emotions.
Accelerative effect of tactile feedback on turn-taking control in remote verbal-communication BIBAFull-Text 1581-1586
  Huiyuan Cao; Olivier Gapenne; Dominique Aubert
The aim of our research is to provide evidence of a new effect of tactile feedback on turn-taking control in a remote, synchronous, multi-user verbal communication. 10 groups of 3 participants, separated in different rooms, are involved in the experiment. Each group is encouraged to reach an agreement on sorting a disordered sequence of images. We compared two types of turn-taking control interfaces: 5 control groups use a classical graphic interface displayed on a computer screen while 5 experimental groups use the same interface but enhanced by tactile feedback. Our results show a significant effect of acceleration of turn alternation in tactile groups.
Perception of thermal stimuli for continuous interaction BIBAFull-Text 1587-1592
  Martin Halvey; Graham Wilson; Stephen A. Brewster; Stephen A. Hughes
Thermal stimulation represents a relatively unexplored and potentially beneficial area of research for interface design. To date no research on thermal interfaces has looked at continuous thermal stimulation in detail. Here we begin to explore the design space offered by continuous thermal stimulation by conducting a controlled experiment that investigates perception of various thermal stimuli relative to a range of starting temperatures. Based on the experimental results, we discuss design implications and possible future work.
Mouse mode of OnScreenDualScribe: three types of keyboard-driven mouse replacement BIBAFull-Text 1593-1598
  Torsten Felzer; Stephan Rinderknecht
An innovative type of keyboard-driven mouse control, called DualMouse, is introduced. In addition to allowing its user to perform pointer operations using the keyboard only, the technique, currently implemented as a stand-alone program, facilitates precise clicking by zooming in on the target area. This work is part of a larger project about OnScreenDualScribe, a tool tailored to the needs of persons with neuromuscular diseases, replacing the large standard keyboard with a small number pad-like special-purpose keyboard. Although OnScreenDualScribe has its primary focus on text entry, efficient usage calls for an integrated mouse mode. We believe that DualMouse has the potential to make OnScreenDualScribe an even more helpful tool, and we justify that claim by comparing it to other possibilities.
Haptic cues: texture as a guide for non-visual tangible interaction BIBAFull-Text 1599-1604
  Katrin Wolf; Peter D. Bennett
Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) represent digital information via a number of sensory modalities including the haptic, visual and auditory senses. We suggest that interaction with tangible interfaces is commonly governed primarily through visual cues, despite the emphasis on tangible representation. We do not doubt that visual feedback offers rich interaction guidance, but argue that emphasis on haptic and auditory feedback could support or substitute vision in situations of visual distraction or impairment. We have developed a series of simple TUIs that allows for the haptic and auditory exploration of visually hidden textures. Our technique is to transmit the force feedback of the texture to the user via the attraction of a ball bearing to a magnet that the user manipulates. This allows the detail of the texture to be presented to the user while visually presenting an entirely flat surface. The use of both opaque and transparent materials allows for controlling the texture visibility for comparative purposes. The resulting Feelable User Interface (FUI), shown in Fig. 1, allows for the exploration of which textures and structures are useful for haptic guidance. The findings of our haptic exploration shall provide basic understanding about the usage of haptic cues for interacting with tangible objects that are visually hidden or are in the user's visual periphery.
A temperature-based touch-sensor for non-emissive textile displays BIBAFull-Text 1605-1610
  Roshan Lalintha Peiris; Ryohei Nakatsu
Non-light-emissive textile displays have become a popular research area that allows subtle and ambient animations on our textiles. This work explores one such existing technology which uses thermochromic inks and peltier semiconductors to implement touch sensitive non-light-emissive textile display. To achieve this we investigate a new method that detects temperature transients (caused by a touch) in order to detect a touch which allows interactive touch sensitive textile displays without any changes to the existing hardware.
Wave alchemy: perception and reminiscence of expressive moments through waves BIBAFull-Text 1611-1616
  Dan Sawada; Anirudh Sharma; Sujoy Kumar Chowdhury; Christine Hsieh; Andrea Miller
Life is full of moments that come with obvious or subtle expressions of energy. It is common for us as human beings to attach different emotions to such expressions. However, when we want to capture it and interact with them, we are often constrained to flat, 2D encapsulations of video, audio, or photographic recordings. Moreover, the way we would look back at a memory in this digital age is now often through a screen with hundreds of files digitally stored away, further removing the experience of the event's emotion. Authors question what if there was a way to experience this emotional energy again, and dynamically interact with it in infinitely complex ways. Here we present a concept and prototype that explores a novel physical-visual language of dynamic, emotionally expressive waveforms, designed to transform the way we perceive different forms of energy as we go about our daily lives. With the power of computation hidden within the physical materials used in the interface, we create an interactive form that takes one form of energy and transmute it into a waveform as its output, or Wave Alchemy.
TangibleRings: nestable circular tangibles BIBAFull-Text 1617-1622
  Achim Ebert; Christopher Weber; Daniel Cernea; Sebastian Petsch
The multitouch functionality of tabletop computers is often augmented by the use of tangible objects that offer an intuitive and haptic alternative to interaction and manipulation. However, employing tangibles can also lead to less desirable effects, such as occlusion or lack of precision. In this paper we highlight the design and implementation of ring-like tangible objects: TangibleRings. They do not occlude the objects underneath them and also support the detection of touch events inside their perimeter. Additionally, multiple rings may be nested within one another in order to combine ring functionality or produce more complex filters.
A one-handed multi-touch mating method for 3d rotations BIBAFull-Text 1623-1628
  Doug Scheurich; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Rotating 3D objects is a difficult task. We present a new rotation technique based on collision-free "mating" to expedite 3D rotations. It is specifically designed for one-handed interaction on tablets or touchscreens. A user study found that our new technique decreased the time to rotate objects in 3D by more than 60% in situations where objects align. We found similar results when users translated and rotated objects in a 3D scene. Also, angle errors were 35% less with mating. In essence, our new rotation technique improves both the speed and accuracy of common 3D rotation tasks.
Touch through: experiencing remote touch across different modalities BIBAFull-Text 1629-1634
  Gabrielle Le Bihan; Charles Lenay; Matthieu Tixier; Jérôme Mara
This paper presents Touch Through (TT), an innovative smartphone application which provides an alternative way of experiencing interpersonal touch at a distance. Through the design of TT, we are interested in the issue of allowing people at a distance to share emotions and have a feeling of presence. The originality of our approach is to focus on the functional properties of touch highlighted by the study of sensory supplementation systems. TT transforms stimuli associated with touch into visual and/or auditory and/or vibratory sensations.

Ubiquitous computing

When the tissue box says "Bless You": using speech to build socially interactive objects BIBAFull-Text 1635-1640
  Haiyan Jia; Mu Wu; Eunhwa Jung; Alice Shapiro; S. Shyam Sundar
From the Internet of things to ubiquitous computing, smart objects are everywhere and have become an increasingly significant part of the information supply chain. However, these objects remain invisible to end-users mostly because they do not interact with them. Our project is devoted to brainstorming different design possibilities for building interfaces for these smart objects. This paper explores one such possibility-outfitting the object with a speech interface. Study participants (N = 63) witnessed the experimenter sneezing, followed by a "Bless You" from either a nearby tissue box, a robot in the room, or a person in the room. Surprisingly, users found the speaking tissue box to be as social and agentic as a humanoid robot and a human. We also found significant moderating effects of users' preference for consistency, parasocial tendency and power usage. Participants who scored high on these traits were more likely to regard the study object as intelligent and likeable. Users also tended to show the same non-verbal reactions to the tissue box as they would to a human or a robot.
Ubiquitous shortcuts: mnemonics by just taking photos BIBAFull-Text 1641-1646
  Mikko J. Rissanen; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Horathalge Iroshan; Samantha Vu; Natalie Pang; Schubert Foo
Ubiquitous Shortcuts is an image processing based method for making and using mnemonics set onto the real world using smartphones or other computing systems. The mnemonics can be created by taking photos of the user's vicinity and by binding them onto command sequences. The mnemonic is triggered every time a similar photo is taken. Our method uses natural feature matching algorithms and end-user programming approaches. The mnemonics can be concatenated into more complex command sequences. Thus, limited user input is realized by just taking photos with a camera embedded into a finger-ring, which enables rapid, subtle and socially acceptable user interaction. Our method can be used as semi-automatic way of achieving location and context sensitive services, activity recognition or tangible interaction.
Connect and connectivity: revealing a world of interactions BIBAFull-Text 1647-1652
  Gido Hakvoort; Russell Beale; Eugene Ch'ng
Connectivity is embedded into our modern day society. Devices increasingly rely on permanent network connections, and people keep connected through social networks. Technological advances allow everyday objects to become part of large networks of interconnected entities. Connectivity within these networks allows for the design of novel interaction methods that utilise the digital input and output capabilities of connected entities. However, when specifically designing for interaction, entities become entangled and remain oblivious of each other's features. In this paper we report on the current progress in opening up the space of connectivity in order to reveal and make use of the available technological capabilities. We describe how this will open channels for new synergy and novel interaction methods. We conclude by discussing the preparation of a case study which incorporates our initial designs and proof of concepts.
Relating to speech evoked car personalities BIBAFull-Text 1653-1658
  Jennifer Healey; Dalila Szostak
Could an in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) system with a speech evoked personality change your relationship with your car? Alter your behavior? Would you like it more? Would it be easier or harder to use? Would a snarky or encouraging speech style make a difference? We report the findings of a preliminary 30 participant study using an experiential prototype that used three different speech styles designed to evoke different personalities: Neutral, Encouraging and Snarky. Our results indicate that driving preferences are conservative in practice and were not strongly influenced by a brief exposure to our system; however reactions to the system were more nuanced than expected. We report on some significant results for initial evaluations of desired attributes for embedded agents (p<0.01) and for the ease of use (p<0.016), usefulness (p<0.05) and friendliness (p<0.05) of the prototype system. Additionally, we found a significant upgrade in gas choice (p<0.01) based on the agent making a recommendation.
Exploring programmable light spaces using actively deformable mirrors BIBAFull-Text 1659-1664
  Munehiko Sato; Mehdy Chaillou; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
In this study, we propose a new approach for displaying images and controlling light spaces using actively deformable mirrors. This approach enables programming the mirror-reflected light from sunlight or other parallel/point light sources to create arbitrary light spaces in various scenarios.
Designing the car iWindow: exploring interaction through vehicle side windows BIBAFull-Text 1665-1670
  Jiannan Li; Ehud Sharlin; Saul Greenberg; Michael Rounding
Interactive vehicle windows can enrich the commuting experience by being informative and engaging, strengthening the connection between passengers and the outside world. We propose a preliminary interaction paradigm to allow rich and un-distracting interaction experience on vehicle side windows. Following this paradigm we present a prototype, the Car iWindow, and discuss our preliminary design critique of the interaction, based on the installation of the iWindow in a car and interaction with it while commuting around our campus.
Energy management system for electric vehicle based on user behavior induction BIBAFull-Text 1671-1676
  Shigaku Iwabuchi; Soh Masuko; Junichi Hoshino
Electric Vehicles (EV) and charging stations at large commercial centers with solar power generation are focused as a new energy infrastructure. However when many drivers visit to there, the demand of power for charging will be increased and they have to wait in queue until the power recovers. We propose a method to distribute the concentration of charging demand by recommending times for EV charging to the drivers. The charging time for recommendation is determined by each driver's behavior model that is trained as probabilistic model.
The open platform for personal lifelogging: the eLifeLog architecture BIBAFull-Text 1677-1682
  Pil Ho Kim; Fausto Giunchiglia
Lifelogging is a complex application domain of multimedia management. This makes it challenging for people to keep their personal lifelogs under their control. Our work aims to provide people with an open platform, named eLifeLog, that would work in user's private cloud to start archiving their valuable memories and experiences under the hood. eLifeLog has a number of distinct features that differentiate it from legacy CMS (Content Management System) products or related works: (1) It is specialized for personal lifelogging, (2) it embeds an event-based unified data representation to handle heterogenous timestamped streams, and (3) it is open to the public with the complete source code for personal use and for accelerating lifelogging research collaboration.
Towards an adaptive cultural heritage experience using physiological computing BIBAFull-Text 1683-1688
  Alex J. Karran; Stephen H. Fairclough; Kiel Gilleade
The contemporary heritage institution visitor model is built around passive receivership where content is consumed but not influenced by the visitor. This paper presents work in progress towards an adaptive interface designed to respond to the level of interest of the visitor, in order to deliver a personalised experience within cultural heritage institutions. A subject-dependent experimental approach was taken to record and classify physiological signals using mobile physiological sensors and a machine learning algorithm. The results show a high classification rate using this approach, informing future work for the development of a real-time physiological computing component for use within an adaptive cultural heritage experience.

UI design

Does clustered presentation lead readers to diverse selections? BIBAFull-Text 1689-1694
  Sidharth Chhabra; Paul Resnick
A recent study found that presenting news suggestions as clusters in a sidebar can lead to more exploration of articles and clusters related to particular stories [1]. We conducted a lab study to test the robustness of the result. Our results only partially replicate the original findings: people read more articles, but not from significantly more clusters; we also found that they prefer the clustered presentation. Further research is needed to better understand the conditions under which clustered presentation leads people to sample from more clusters.
Ubi-Jector: an information-sharing screen in a casual meeting environment using mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1695-1700
  Hajin Lim; Seohee Choi; Joonhwan Lee
We propose a system called Ubi-Jector, which provides a shared information screen utilizing participants' personal mobile devices in casual meeting places. This system can successfully substitute for a large projector screen in most conventional meeting rooms, such as cafeterias, lobbies, or libraries, and also enable all participants to communicate simultaneously through their mobile devices. In this paper, we first present the preliminary study results that characterize the current issues when a casual meeting is carried out without a large shared screen, and then identify a set of user requirements for the system design. Next we describe our early prototype implementation, user interface, and simple evaluation.
Peripheral agent: implementation of peripheral cognition technology BIBAFull-Text 1701-1706
  Seiji Yamada; Naoki Mori; Kazuki Kobayashi
Information notification on a display for e-mail arrival, micro-blog updates, and application updates is becoming increasingly important. We propose a novel information notification method, the peripheral agent (PA) as an implementation of peripheral cognition technology (PCT) that uses the human cognitive properties that a human does not recognize subtle changes in a peripheral area of cognition when he/she concentrates on a task and that he/she automatically recognizes the changes when not concentrating on the task. By only setting a PA in the peripheral area, a user automatically and easily accepts the notification only when his/her concentration breaks. We conducted two experiments to investigate a VFN area and evaluate the effectiveness of PAs.
Estimating user interruptibility by measuring table-top pressure BIBAFull-Text 1707-1712
  Takahisa Tani; Seiji Yamada
A user working with his/her desktop computer would benefit from notifications (e.g., the arrival of e-mail, micro-blogs, and application updates) being given at adequate times when he/she is interruptible. To do so, a notification system needs to determine the user's state of activity. In this paper, we propose a novel method for estimating user states with a pressure sensor on a desk. We use a lattice-like pressure sensor sheet and distinguish between two simple user states: interruptible or not. The pressure can be measured without the user being aware of it, and changes in the pressure reflect useful information such as typing, an arm resting on the desk, mouse operation, and so on. We carefully developed features that can be extracted from the sensed raw data, and we used a machine learning technique to identify the user's interruptibility. We conducted experiments for two different tasks to evaluate the accuracy of our proposed method and obtained promising results.
Design and evaluation of adaptive interfaces for IVR systems BIBAFull-Text 1713-1718
  Siddhartha Asthana; Pushpendra Singh; Amarjeet Singh
Dialing a telephone number of an organization and coming across an automated system attending the call, instead of a human, has become common. These automated applications are known as Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems. In developing nations, IVR systems are mostly touch-tone (key-press) because of under-supported speech technologies for non-English native languages and accents. Optimizing such IVR systems is crucial as they are often considered as time consuming and frustrating and further becomes more challenging when the data for individual caller to perform optimization are often unavailable.
   In this work, we investigate the performances of adaptive interfaces for touch-tone IVR system to optimize for future callers based on past system usage by other callers. We show that a portion of the call duration goes into selecting the correct menu option in IVR. To reduce this, desired menu options by a prospective caller must appear early in the sequence. We show that adaptive approaches to decide the optimal menu structure for future caller outperform static menu based IVR system. We have designed, deployed and evaluated different adaptive schemes for IVR in a real world study.
Bezel-flipper: design of a light-weight flipping interface for e-books BIBAFull-Text 1719-1724
  Sangtae Kim; Jaejeung Kim; Soobin Lee
In this paper, we have designed a novel touchscreen interaction technique for light-weight navigation: Bezel-Flipper. The design specifics and initial prototype application are developed with user evaluation. We received overall positive feedback from our initial user study in terms of engagement and enjoyment.
User authentication in a multi-touch surface: a chord password system BIBAFull-Text 1725-1730
  Ioannis Leftheriotis
In this research, we present a novel technique for user authentication. We take advantage of the fact that multi-touch screens have become apparent to almost any modern device so as to present a new technique that makes use of chord interactions in order to authenticate a user. With our technique, users are not asked to enter a number password or a PIN to log in a service. Instead, users are asked to consequently tap the appropriate number of fingers on a multi-touch screen. As it is shown, authentication with a chord interaction technique is simple and has some advantages that make it more appropriate for a number of applications. Early observations show that the presented technique protects the users more effectively from "shoulder surfing" compared to the traditional PIN entry, due to its integral characteristics of reducing visibility by hiding fingers and subdividing action.
Artifacts for programmable devices: the good, the bad and the ugly BIBAFull-Text 1731-1736
  Jonathan Back; Anna L. Cox
Many devices require programming with values that can only be obtained by consulting an artifact. For example when preparing an unfamiliar microwave meal, the heating instructions should be consulted in order to program the correct values into the microwave oven. In this paper we consider how the presentation of programming values can impact on the likelihood of making an error. Findings from a medical device programming experiment demonstrate the hidden complexities of artifact design. Good design should encourage users to adopt programming strategies that are less prone to error. Artifact layouts need to be designed with the task in mind, especially when multiple devices require programming quickly.
Bases of human-computer trust and explanations BIBAFull-Text 1737-1742
  Florian Nothdurft; Helmut Lang; Melina Klepsch; Wolfgang Minker
Maintaining and enhancing the willingness of a user to interact with a technical system is crucial for human-computer interaction (HCI). Trust has shown to be an important factor influencing the frequency and kind of usage. In this paper we present our ongoing work on using explanations to maintain the trust relationship between human and computer. We describe an experiment on how different goals of explanations can be used to influence the bases of human-computer trust in a directed way. We present the results of a conducted preliminary study and outline how to improve the experiment so as to be able to include the results in an existing dialogue system.
Patterns of experience in thermal conceptual metaphors BIBAFull-Text 1743-1748
  Henry W. J. Lin; David James Barter; Ron Wakkary
Thermal sensations have potential for use in technology for information and interactive systems. Experiences correlating to temperature structure our understanding of many abstract concepts that could be useful in such systems. In this study, the experiential nature of conceptual metaphors was analyzed, and an experiment was conducted in which participants were presented with six thermal conceptual metaphors for interpretation. The validity of the metaphors was assessed, and the results of the experiment provided examples of both consistent and inconsistent patterns of experience when the concepts were interpreted in terms of temperature. Recommendations for furthering the identification of thermal conceptual metaphors with potential were discussed.

Visualization

Interacting with microseismic visualizations BIBAFull-Text 1749-1754
  Ahmed E. Mostafa; Saul Greenberg; Emilio Vital Brazil; Ehud Sharlin; Mario C. Sousa
Microseismic visualization systems present complex 3D data of small seismic events within oil reservoirs to allow experts to explore and interact with that data. Yet existing systems suffer several problems: 3D spatial navigation and orientation is difficult, and selecting 3D data is challenging due to the problems of occlusion and lack of depth perception. Our work mitigates these problems by applying both proxemic interactions and a spatial input device to simplify how experts navigate through the visualization, and a painting metaphor to simplify how they select that information.
Accentuating visualization parameters to guide exploration BIBAFull-Text 1755-1760
  Marian Dörk; Heidi Lam; Omar Benjelloun
We present a new method for displaying visualization parameters to guide casual data exploration. When visualizing datasets with large parameter spaces it can be difficult to move between data views. Building on social navigation and degree-of-interest visualization, we propose the concept of accentuation as the selection and emphasis of visualization parameters based on social and semantic signals. We describe how we designed an accentuated visualization interface, and discuss open challenges and directions for future research.
Toward a visual interface for brain connectivity analysis BIBAFull-Text 1761-1766
  Hua Guo; Arthur Yidi; Steven R. Gomez; Mark J. Schnitzer; David Badre; David H. Laidlaw
In this paper, we report on the needs for, the design of, and feedback about a web-based platform that supports flexible exploration of existing brain connectivity knowledge. We analyze the needs in brain connectivity research for an integrated visual knowledge base and discuss the design of the platform and the design rationales. Preliminary user feedback suggests diverse analytical patterns and additional needs in brain connectivity analysis, which distinguish it from generic network analysis. Finally, we describe open issues motivated by preliminary feedback and observation in designing more advanced features to support additional needs and characterizing user analysis patterns.
Fisheye word cloud for temporal sentiment exploration BIBAFull-Text 1767-1772
  Ji Wang; Kyle D. Dent; Chris L. North
This poster abstract presents a new word cloud technique, the Fisheye Word Cloud, for exploring time-series data in a focused+context approach to analyzing word data. Our design has two features: cursor-centric layout and word cloud generation on demand. We conducted a validation study to evaluate how our Fisheye Word Cloud influences user performance in comparison tasks of time-series data. Based on task completion time and a TLX-based Likert-style questionnaire, we found the Fisheye Word Cloud has faster task completion time and a better user satisfaction level than the alternative we reviewed.
Fast interactive visualization for multivariate data exploration BIBAFull-Text 1773-1778
  Changhyun Lee; Wei Zhuo; Jaegul Choo; Duen Horng (Polo) Chau; Haesun Park
We are investigating a fast layout method for visualizing and exploring relationships between multivariate data items. We improve on existing works that use the force-directed layout, which has high running time and cannot scale up for large-scale visual analysis. Our method, based on Mean Value Coordinates, has a closed-form solution that can determine items' locations in a single iteration. In addition, it has a fast running time that is linear in the number of items. We are also exploring multiple interactive visualization techniques to help users make sense of the data, such as blending multiple heat maps to simultaneously express multiple types of data distributions; and techniques to create topics, and to merge or split topics in real time.
TouchViz: (multi)touching multivariate data BIBAFull-Text 1779-1784
  Jeffrey M. Rzeszotarski; Aniket Kittur
In this paper we describe TouchViz, an information visualization system for tablets that encourages rich interaction, exploration, and play through references to physical models. TouchViz turns data into physical objects that experience forces and respond to the user. We describe the design of the system and conduct a user study to explore its use, finding that it supports many different models of data exploration and encourages users to have fun exploring data.
Visualizing lifelog data for different interaction platforms BIBAFull-Text 1785-1790
  Yang Yang; Hyowon Lee; Cathal Gurrin
Today we are witnessing diverse forms and styles of interactive platforms and devices quickly penetrating to people's everyday lives. New applications and services for smartphones, tablets, game consoles connected to TVs, and other embedded appliances are constantly appearing and diversifying the way we interact with technology. Thus when we design visualization and interaction strategies for the emerging lifelogging activity, it is important to consider affordances and contexts for these emerging interactive devices: by the time the lifelogging activity becomes truly ubiquitous, we will be interacting with even more diverse set of devices to support the activity. In this paper, we describe an early stage of our on-going project where we sketched a series of interactive visualization and their corresponding usage scenarios for three different interactive platforms: (1) smartphone, (2) tablet, and (3) desktop. Our sketch was rendered on these corresponding devices in such a way as to maximize the special interaction characteristics of each device and provides three very different lifelog data usage scenarios.
VISO: a shared, formal knowledge base as a foundation for semi-automatic infovis systems BIBAFull-Text 1791-1796
  Jan Polowinski; Martin Voigt
Interactive visual analytic systems can help to solve the problem of identifying relevant information in the growing amount of data. For guiding the user through visualization tasks, these semi-automatic systems need to store and use knowledge of this interdisciplinary domain. Unfortunately, visualisation knowledge stored in one system cannot easily be reused in another due to a lack of shared formal models. In order to approach this problem, we introduce a visualization ontology (VISO) that formally models visualization-specific concepts and facts. Furthermore, we give first examples of the ontology's use within two systems and highlight how the community can get involved in extending and improving it.

Web and ecommerce

LiveThumbs: a visual aid for web page revisitation BIBAFull-Text 1797-1802
  Luis A. Leiva; V. Javier Traver; Vicente Castelló
One problem web users often face is that of remembering which previously visited page is likely to contain some particular piece of information they are now interested in. To ease this revisitation task, we propose a novel approach: using "live" thumbnails, or small video-like animations of a web page. Our approach is grounded on a two-fold notion: (1) live thumbnails should be more informative than their static counterparts, and (2) live thumbnails can help the user disambiguate among perceptually similar pages. We evaluate a proof-of-concept prototype with 13 users. Preliminary results show that our approach has an interesting potential to enhance web page revisitation in a visually compelling way.
Ads suit up!: effects of website and advertiser credibility on consumer responses to banner ads BIBAFull-Text 1803-1808
  Markus Hug; Nina T. Suter; Elisa D. Mekler; Klaus Opwis
Effective communication on the internet is becoming increasingly difficult for advertisers, as they have to compete with many others for user attention. We examine the role of source credibility (specifically website and advertiser credibility) as a means to increase advertising effectiveness. Our results showed that website credibility affects ad credibility, whereas advertiser credibility also enhances attitude toward the brand, and users' purchase intention. Based on these findings, we discuss implications and opportunities for future research on online advertising.
Facilitating developer-user interactions with mobile app review digests BIBAFull-Text 1809-1814
  Jeungmin Oh; Daehoon Kim; Uichin Lee; Jae-Gil Lee; Junehwa Song
As users are interacting with a large of mobile apps under various usage contexts, user involvements in an app design process has become a critical issue. Despite this fact, existing apps or app store platforms only provide a limited form of user involvements such as posting app reviews and sending email reports. While building a unified platform for facilitating user involvements with various apps is our ultimate goal, we present our preliminary work on handling developers' information overload attributed to a large number of app comments. To address this issue, we first perform a simple content analysis on app reviews from the developer's standpoint. We then propose an algorithm that automatically identifies informative reviews reflecting user involvements. The preliminary evaluation results document the efficiency of our algorithm.
Crowdfunding support tools: predicting success & failure BIBAFull-Text 1815-1820
  Michael D. Greenberg; Bryan Pardo; Karthic Hariharan; Elizabeth Gerber
Creative individuals increasingly rely on online crowdfunding platforms to crowdsource funding for new ventures. For novice crowdfunding project creators, however, there are few resources to turn to for assistance in the planning of crowdfunding projects. We are building a tool for novice project creators to get feedback on their project designs. One component of this tool is a comparison to existing projects. As such, we have applied a variety of machine learning classifiers to learn the concept of a successful online crowdfunding project at the time of project launch. Currently our classifier can predict with roughly 68% accuracy, whether a project will be successful or not. The classification results will eventually power a prediction segment of the proposed feedback tool. Future work involves turning the results of the machine learning algorithms into human-readable content and integrating this content into the feedback tool.
Towards estimating web search result relevance from touch interactions on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1821-1826
  Qi Guo; Haojian Jin; Dmitry Lagun; Shuai Yuan; Eugene Agichtein
Fine-grained search interactions such as mouse cursor movements and scrolling have been shown to be valuable for modeling user attention and preferences of Web search results, in the desktop setting. However, users increasingly search the Web on touch-enabled devices such as smart phones and tablets, where they zoom and swipe instead of mousing and scrolling. In this paper, we present, to our knowledge, the first study of the utility of touch interactions on a mobile devices for estimating Web search result relevance -- which can in turn be used for search result ranking and evaluation. In particular, we explore a variety of touch interaction signals as implicit relevance feedback, based on a user study of 26 users and hundreds of unique Web search queries, result clicks, and page examinations. Our experimental results show that touch interactions provide more effective implicit feedback compared to only the time spent visiting a document, resulting in substantially higher correlation of the estimated document relevance with the explicit relevance judgments.
Understanding the specificity of web search queries BIBAFull-Text 1827-1832
  Carolyn Theresa Hafernik; Bernard J. Jansen
Understanding the specificity of Web search queries can help search systems better address the underlying needs of searchers and provide them relevant content. The goal of this work is to automatically determine the specificity of web search queries. Although many factors may impact the specificity of Web search queries, we investigate two factors of specificity in this research, (1) part of speech and (2) query length. We use content analysis and prior research to develop a list of nine attributes to identify query specificity. The attributes are whether a query contains a URL, a location or place name along with additional terms, compares multiple things, contains multiple distinct ideas or topics, a question that has a clear answer, request for directions, instructions or tips, a specific date and additional terms or a name and additional terms. We then apply these attributes to classify 5,115 unique queries as narrow or general. We then analyze the differences between narrow and general queries based on part of speech and query length. Our results indicate that query length and parts-of-speech usage, by themselves, can distinguish narrow and general queries. We discuss the implications of this work for search engines, marketers and users.
Does ad blindness on the web vary by age and gender? BIBAFull-Text 1833-1838
  Thomas Tullis; Marisa Siegel
A previous study had shown that users tend to associate certain elements of a web page with ads, and tend to avoid them. The current study revisited that data to see if this "ad blindness" varies with the age or gender of the users. We found that younger adults (20s and 30s) exhibited significantly more ad blindness than older adults. We also found that men exhibited significantly more ad blindness than women. We believe that both researchers and practitioners need to pay more attention to age and gender in studies of web behavior.
HITOKE: a study of queue visualization of internet purchase information BIBAFull-Text 1839-1844
  Soh Masuko; Hiroshi Abe
While on the one hand the business-to-consumer (BtoC) e-commerce market in online shopping and suchlike is growing year on year, most online shoppers are reported to feel hesitation at internet purchasing. For that reason, it has become important to display product evaluation information such as other customers' feedback or purchase frequency, or a sense of activity on webpages so as to encourage users to purchase goods online. This paper therefore proposes a method, HITOKE, to visualize purchase context such as buyer attributes or product purchase frequency on web pages as a queue representation, and has undertaken to provide users with new evaluation information. Lastly, as a result of applying the proposed method in an actual online shop, we were able to confirm a trend of increased product page access and increased purchase frequency, and we showed that the proposed method has the potential to promote users' purchasing.
The gender-brand effect of key phrases on user clicks in sponsored search BIBAFull-Text 1845-1850
  Partha Mukherjee; Bernard J. Jansen
In this research, we analyze the relationship among (1) the numbers of clicks generated by the key-phrases users provide as queries in sponsored search, (2) the interaction between the gender orientation of those key-phrases, and (3) the occurrence of branded terms in those queries. The aim of this research is increased personalization of search engine results for branded queries targeting a specific gender. This will improve the consumer's online searching experience and potential interest in ads with branding focus. Increased personalization of search engine results and enhancement of users' interest in branded ads will also increase the revenue and profit of the advertisers. Our data consists of 7 million daily records from a keyword advertising campaign from a major US retailer. We segregate the key-phrases into six different categories. The gender orientation of terms has male, female and neutral categories each with two groups: -- branded and unbranded phrases. Using one way Analysis of Variance, we analyze the effect of gender orientation of both branded and unbranded key-phrases on number of users' clicks on the queries submitted to web search engine. The result shows that the means of users' clicks significantly vary among the categories. Moreover the result shows that the group formed by combination of female gender with branded terms generates maximum number of clicks among all six categories. Females may be more attracted to the use of branded terms due to the positive attitude and customer loyalty generated by brand image.
Effortless tool-based evaluation of web form filling tasks using keystroke level model and Fitts' law BIBAFull-Text 1851-1856
  Nikolaos Karousos; Christos Katsanos; Nikolaos Tselios; Michalis Xenos
Usability of interactive web forms is a critical aspect of the overall user experience. In this paper, a tool to automatically evaluate web form filling tasks is presented. The tool carries out Keystroke Level Model symbolic calculations of the time required to fill a specific web form in a straightforward and automatic manner. Moreover, it calculates the form completion time according to different interaction strategies or users' characteristics. In addition, Fitts' law is computationally realized to calculate the exact time required to move the cursor to the form elements. Preliminary case studies illustrated the tool capability to support both designers and evaluators in an efficient and effective manner.
Picassopass: a password scheme using a dynamically layered combination of graphical elements BIBAFull-Text 1857-1862
  Wouter A. J. van Eekelen; John van den Elst; Vassilis-Javed Khan
In this paper a new graphical password scheme is presented using a dynamic layered combination of graphical elements. It has unique capabilities in terms of low memory burden due to a story based approach, while at the same time being very resistant to shoulder surfing threats. The results of a security evaluation confirm shoulder surfing resistance.
OpenHTML: designing a transitional web editor for novices BIBAFull-Text 1863-1868
  Thomas H. Park; Ankur Saxena; Swathi Jagannath; Susan Wiedenbeck; Andrea Forte
We describe the initial design rationale and early findings from studies of a web editor for beginners called openHTML. We explain our strategy of transitional design that views web editors as a part of a complex socio-technical system that spans multiple tools, practices, and actors. Our goal is to create a toolkit that can engage beginners in meaningful activities now and prepare them for more sophisticated activities in the future.
Does interactive search results overview help?: an eye tracking study BIBAFull-Text 1869-1874
  Jacek Gwizdka; Michael Cole
We examined the effect of introducing search results overview in the form of a tag cloud displayed next to a textual search result list. Does such an overview make users faster in search task execution and lower the cognitive effort required to make progress? We use cognitive effort measures derived from eye tracking data to examine the effect of providing a tag cloud-like summary on a user's information search and navigation behaviors. The results show that a results overview helps a user become faster and more efficient. One contribution of this work is to describe the use of eye tracking data to create a simple model of reading and measures of cognitive effort. Another is to use those measures to explain the differences in interaction with two information search interfaces,
Online ad banners: the effects of goal orientation and content congruence on memory BIBAFull-Text 1875-1880
  Silvia Heinz; Markus Hug; Carina Nugaeva; Klaus Opwis
Banner blindness, the phenomenon that the user will consciously or unconsciously ignore online banners while navigating a certain website, is a big problem for marketers and has been studied in the past. We present a study that tests the hypothesis whether the user's memory (free recall and recognition) is influenced by the user's goal orientation during navigation on a website and whether it is mediated by the correspondence of the banner content and website content (congruence). Participants in an explorative orientation show better memory for banners than users in a broad or narrow goal orientation. No differences between the congruent and incongruent conditions with regard to recall measures were found but the congruent condition yields slightly better recognition rates. Based on these findings further implications and research possibilities are discussed.
On-site information seeking behaviors in earthquake and tsunami BIBAFull-Text 1881-1886
  Daisuke Asai; Yoshie Sagata; Yoko Asano
We described 28 interviews conducted to determine how the people near the epicenter sought information just after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake. We identified five key behaviors regarding information seeking: understand what they should do; confirm loved one's safety; get information to survive; seek information to return to regular life; and inform of own safety. These behaviors suggest several design opportunities for designing interactive systems that support those behaviors.
CredibleWeb: a platform for web credibility evaluation BIBAFull-Text 1887-1892
  Zhicong Huang; Alexandra Olteanu; Karl Aberer
The web content is the main source of information for many users. However, due to the open nature of today's web anyone can produce and publish content, which, as a result, is not always reliable. As such, mechanisms to evaluate the web content credibility are needed. In this paper, we describe CredibleWeb, a prototype crowdsourcing platform for web content evaluation with a two-fold goal: (1) to build a social enhanced and large scale dataset of credibility labeled web pages that enables the evaluation of different strategies for web credibility prediction, and (2) to investigate how various design elements are useful in engaging users to actively evaluate web pages credibility. We outline the challenges related with the design of a crowdsourcing platform for web credibility evaluation and describe our initial efforts.
Empirical evaluation of 20 web form optimization guidelines BIBAFull-Text 1893-1898
  Mirjam Seckler; Silvia Heinz; Javier A. Bargas-Avila; Klaus Opwis; Alexandre N. Tuch
Most websites use interactive online forms as a main contact point to users. Recently, many publications aim at optimizing web forms. In contrast to former research that focused at the evaluation of single guidelines, the present study shows in a controlled lab experiment with n=23 participants the combined effectiveness of 20 guidelines on real company web forms. Results indicate that optimized web forms lead to faster completion times, less form submission trials, fewer eye fixations and higher user satisfaction in comparison to the original forms.

Doctoral consortium

Math manipulation for students with impaired vision BIBAFull-Text 1909-1912
  Nancy Alajarmeh
As support for mathematics accessibility has, historically, been limited, it has served as a barrier for students with impaired vision in learning that fundamental subject. In response to that need, my focus on enhancing mathematics accessibility has emphasized the practice of providing more attention in facilitating "Doing the math" and not just working on the rendering level. My efforts are particularly focused on enabling students with visual disabilities to confront the challenges they face in algebra, and to learn and utilize algebraic skills; i.e., manipulation on the level of basic building blocks of entire expressions, working on complex expressions simplifications and evaluation, and solving algebraic equations.
Nurturing children's creative practice through micro-enactments BIBAFull-Text 1913-1916
  Sharon Lynn Chu
At the age of eight to nine when social awareness and self-evaluation increase, a child sees a precipitous drop in creative activity. This phenomenon known as the 'Fourth-Grade Slump' has been shown across cultures. We posit that it is ultimately a motivational problem. This dissertation research explores the potential that technology-based media may have to motivate a child to engage in creative activity throughout the Slump. It investigates affordances of technology for creation in the domain of storytelling, and proposes an approach based on the concept of micro-enactments.
Multi-player online video games for cognitive rehabilitation BIBAFull-Text 1917-1920
  Jason E. Colman
This document describes the author's PhD work done to date. The motivation and background is described, and the hypothesis presented, which is that an online multi-player video game could provide cognitive therapy for brain-injured people. The proposed experiment is described, explaining the design decisions made. The expected contribution of this research is stated.
SYSSON: a systematic procedure to develop sonifications BIBAFull-Text 1921-1924
  Visda Goudarzi
The goal of this thesis is to design, develop and evaluate a 'User-Centered Design' approach to sonification. Eighteen climate scientists volunteered for requirements-gathering interviews. The results showed that climate scientists are heavily depending on visual display in their data analysis workflows. An audio interface shall enrich their perceptualization possibilities, based on the language metaphors derived from the interviews.
Influencing the user experience through unexpected events BIBAFull-Text 1925-1928
  Alice M. Gross
This extended abstract contains a detailed description of my PhD research project. I am focusing on the effects of surprising behavior of digital products on objective and subjective emotion measures as well as subjective User Experience (UX) ratings. My research context, motivation, research goals, and dissertation status will be presented, as well as the work I have already done.
Supporting behavioral differences and changes in personal task management BIBAFull-Text 1929-1932
  Mona Haraty
Research on personalization has mostly focused on improving low-level aspect of user's performance (e.g. time to access a command) or automating tasks for accommodating the different needs of individuals. Thus, the results of that research has often led to the design of personalization facilities that allow users to accomplish their goals faster. While this is a valuable outcome, personalization research has given little attention to supporting individual differences beyond those related to user's performance.
   For my PhD research, I explore 1) behavioral differences in the context of personal task management, and 2) the design of personalization facilities that can accommodate such differences.
Materializing trust as an understandable digital concept BIBAFull-Text 1933-1936
  Christina A. Hochleitner
Trust is a very complex concept in digital environments. While trust is understandable by users in an inter-personal context, the transfer of this concept to a digital world holds many problems. As a result, the provision of feedback on a system's trustworthiness, particularly in connection with new technologies, such as the Internet of Things or ubiquitous and wearable computing, holds many obstacles. Therefore it is the goal of this PhD to re-use familiar concepts from interaction design, as well as known materials to provide understandable and intuitive trustworthiness feedback in new technological environments.
Digital arts for end-users: learning from traditional craft practice BIBAFull-Text 1937-1940
  Rubaiat Habib Kazi
Traditional physical art mediums can be a great source of design insights for end-user digital media authoring tools. My PhD work exemplifies how an in-depth understanding of real-life workflow and artifacts aids the design and development of SandCanvas (a digital art medium for sand animation) and Vignette (a style preserving sketching tool for pen-and-ink illustration).
Automation of VUIto GUI mapping BIBAFull-Text 1941-1944
  Amber Wagner
This document presents a brief overview of my doctoral research, which is focused on an approach to map a VUI to a GUI in order to increase the usability of graphical applications for users with motoric challenges. This is accomplished by creating a prototype that uses voice as an input modality for Scratch. Evaluation and assessment of the research will be performed through observation of children with motor disabilities using the tool. The research will be further generalized by creating a template for mapping a VUI to any GUI. My current research focus is summarized followed by the motivation for this research. Related work is described along with a problem statement and research goals. My dissertation status and expected contributions conclude this document.
Development of a taxonomy to improve human-robot-interaction through multimodal robot feedback BIBAFull-Text 1945-1948
  Nicole Mirnig
The adequacy of a robot's feedback is crucial for advanced human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how multimodality can add value for better cooperation in a future in which robots will co-exist with us. There is a lot of research around service robots and many scenarios are being worked on: Robots that help us, cooperate with us, or even ones that eventually need our assistance. For smooth interaction it is necessary for humans to understand the robot, which is why I propose a taxonomy of robot feedback. The taxonomy, which is mapped out in an iterative process, is aimed at providing a deeper understanding of feedback in general and to improve the specific area of HRI.
Blackgammon: a grounded participatory design of a preconception health promotion 'alternate reality game' for adolescent indigenous Australian women BIBAFull-Text 1949-1952
  Melody Muscat
I first discovered Alternate Reality Gaming (ARG) after reading Jane McGonigal's "Reality is Broken: Why games make us better and how they can change the world" and I was intrigued. Leveraging social networking tools and mobile devices, ARG promote collaborative gameplay, which encourages players to participate in problem solving and the co-creation of knowledge, which can be applied in the context of real world issues. This suggests there is opportunity for the players to be empowered through this process. This motivated me to think how ARG could be used to engage the participation of adolescent Indigenous Australians and empower them to address some of their most challenging health issues. This study investigates the participatory design and play of an ARG to engage adolescent Indigenous Australians, to empower them to participate in preconception health promotion for the improvement maternal and infant health outcomes in their communities.
Using robot-mediated communication to improve remote collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1953-1956
  Irene Rae
An emerging technology for supporting geographically distributed work teams, robot-mediated communication (RMC) presents new opportunities for supporting effective collaboration. These systems extend videoconferencing capabilities by providing local users with a physical embodiment of the remote user to interact with. They also give the operator control over the system via the ability to navigate and to manipulate the system's cameras within the local user's environment. The goal of my dissertation is to investigate how these key functionalities -- physical embodiment and control over the system -- affect collaborative outcomes and to use the results to develop heuristics that inform both the design of future RMC systems and aid in understanding how these characteristics might affect similar technologies. In addition, my dissertation aims at contributing to our theoretical understanding of collaboration and the part that these functionalities or affordances play in it. This research focuses on three phases of investigation: (1) how the addition of these functionalities shapes user relationships, (2) how changes to the physical embodiment of the system affect the local user's perceptions of the remote user, and (3) how variations in perceived control of the system alter interactions between users.
Design and evaluation of proxemics-aware environments to support navigation in large information spaces BIBAFull-Text 1957-1960
  Roman Rädle
In my research, I explore the use of proxemics in Human-Computer Interaction to design explicit and implicit interaction with knowledge work environments for literature review, reading & writing, or discussion. This paper proposes the employment of proxemics for different tasks in knowledge work such as navigation in large information spaces (e.g. zooming and panning). To evaluate different designs, I created a physical environment with interactive walls and multi-touch tables alongside displays of various sizes to form a multi-display environment that enables measuring proxemic relationships (e.g. for manipulating a digital viewport according to a user's location and orientation in physical space). The aim of my dissertation is to design and evaluate different navigation concepts for large information spaces that employ Proxemic Interactions.
Exploiting spatial memory to design efficient command interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1961-1964
  Joey Scarr
A common goal for user interface designers is to design efficient UIs that facilitate high levels of performance. In point-and-click interfaces, spatial memory has been shown to play an important role in reaching this level of performance, since it allows users to make quick decisions about item locations rather than resorting to slow visual search. However, spatial memory is rarely exploited by modern applications. Hierarchical menus force users through laborious action sequences to access commands, while window content is frequently elided and reshuffled in response to changing window geometries.
   In order to inform the design of UIs that better support spatial memory, we are studying the human and interface factors that affect the growth and resilience of spatial knowledge, and producing a series of exemplar interfaces that exploit users' spatial memory to rapidly achieve high levels of performance. A new command selection technique called CommandMaps demonstrates that when users have spatial memory of an interface, target acquisition can be vastly improved by removing control hierarchies. StencilMaps builds on the CommandMap technique, highlighting salient commands to accelerate novice visual search. Our ongoing research investigates the robustness of spatial memory and the role of 'effortful' learning in the development of spatial automaticity.
Inferential methods in interaction, usability and user experience BIBAFull-Text 1965-1968
  Hana Vrzakova
Usability and user experience are hard to observe, measure and evaluate. However, current state-of-art in eye-tracking observes human gaze under various conditions and hence, is a powerful source for visual attention analysis. My research focuses on human cognitive states, underpinning usability and user experience, and their link to eye movements.

alt.chi: reflection and evaluation

Changing perspectives on evaluation in HCI: past, present, and future BIBAFull-Text 1969-1978
  Craig M. MacDonald; Michael E. Atwood
Evaluation has been a dominant theme in HCI for decades, but it is far from being a solved problem. As interactive systems and their uses change, the nature of evaluation must change as well. In this paper, we outline the challenges our community needs to address to develop adequate methods for evaluating systems in modern (and future) use contexts. We begin by tracing how evaluation efforts have been shaped by a continuous adaptation to technological and cultural changes and conclude by discussing important research directions that will shape evaluation's future.
Personal informatics and reflection: a critical examination of the nature of reflection BIBAFull-Text 1979-1988
  Afarin Pirzadeh; Li He; Erik Stolterman
Personal informatics systems that help people both collect and reflect on various kinds of personal information are growing rapidly. Despite the importance of journaling and the main role it has in tracking one's personal growth, a limited number of studies have examined journaling in the area of personal informatics in detail. In this paper, we critically examine the process of reflection on experiences, thoughts and evolving insights through a qualitative research study. We also present the design research process we conducted to develop the Wandering Mind as a support tool to help individuals record and reflect on their experiences.
Pattern language and HCI: expectations and experiences BIBAFull-Text 1989-1998
  Yue Pan; Erik Stolterman
Pattern Language (PL) has been researched and developed in HCI research since the mid-80s. Our research was initiated by the question why something like PL can create such enthusiasm and interest over the years, while at the same time not be more widespread and successful? In this paper, we examine the experiences and expectations that HCI researchers who have been involved in PL research have had and still have when it comes to PL. Based on the literature review and interview studies, we provide some overall reflections and several possible directions on the use of PL in HCI.
Comparative appraisal of expressive artifacts BIBAFull-Text 1999-2008
  Melanie Feinberg
This paper describes a form of comparative, structured appraisal of expressive artifacts that adds to the existing repertoire of HCI assessment techniques. Comparative appraisal uses a situationally defined procedure to be followed by multiple assessors in examining a group of artifacts. The conceptual basis for this method is drawn from writing assessment.
Sound design as human matter interaction BIBAFull-Text 2009-2018
  Xin Wei Sha; Adrian Freed; Navid Navab
Recently, terms like material computation or natural computing in foundations of computer science and engineering, and new materiality in cultural studies signal a broader turn to conceptions of the world that are not based on solely human categories. While respecting the values of human-centered design, how can we begin to think about the design of responsive environments and computational media while paying as much attention to material qualities like elasticity, density, wear, and tension as to social and cognitive phenomena? This question understands computation as a potential property of matter in a non-reductive way that plausibly spans formal divides between symbolic-semiotic, social, and physical processes. Full investigation greatly exceeds one brief paper. But we open this question in the concrete practices of computational sound and sound design.
Crafting against robotic fakelore: on the critical practice of artbot artists BIBAFull-Text 2019-2028
  Mattias Jacobsson; Ylva Fernaeus; Henriette Cramer; Sara Ljungblad
We report on topics raised in encounters with a series of robotics oriented artworks, which to us were interpreted as a general critique to what could be framed as robotic fakelore, or mythology. We do this based on interviews held with artists within the community of ArtBots, and discuss how their approach relates to and contributes to the discourse of HCI. In our analysis we outline a rough overview of issues emerging in the interviews and reflect on the broader questions they may pose to our research community.

alt.chi: experiences

Flying head: a head motion synchronization mechanism for unmanned aerial vehicle control BIBAFull-Text 2029-2038
  Keita Higuchi; Jun Rekimoto
We propose an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control mechanism, called a "Flying Head" which synchronizes a human head and the UAV motions. The accurate manipulation of UAVs is difficult as their control typically involves hand-operated devices. We can incorporate the UAV control using human motions such as walking, looking around and crouching. The system synchronizes the operator and UAV positions in terms of the horizontal and vertical positions and the yaw orientation. The operator can use the UAV more intuitively as such manipulations are more in accord with kinesthetic. Finally, we discuss flying telepresence applications.
An implicit test of UX: individuals differ in what they associate with computers BIBAFull-Text 2039-2048
  Martin Schmettow; Matthijs L. Noordzij; Matthias Mundt
User experience research has made considerable progress in understanding subjective experience with interactive technology. Nevertheless, we argue, some blind spots have remained: individual differences are frequently ignored, the prevalent measures of self-report rarely undergo verification, and overly focus is on utilitarian and hedonic dimensions of experience.
   A Stroop priming experiment was constructed to assess what people implicitly associate with a picture of a computing device. Three categories of target words were presented: hedonic, utilitarian and "geek" words. Longer response times were interpreted as stronger associations. Need-for-cognition and subject of undergraduate study (computer science vs. psychology) were taken as predictors for a hypothetical geek personality. The results suggest that persons with a geek predisposition tend to think of computers as objects of intellectual challenge and play, rather than tools or extensions of the self.
Performative experience design BIBAFull-Text 2049-2058
  Jocelyn Spence; David M. Frohlich; Stuart Andrews
This paper categorises key HCI literature that engages with performance theory or practice according to a taxonomy that puts the user at the centre of the analysis. This taxonomy reveals three strands of research that use performance to address HCI and interaction design at the most fundamental level. We use these strands of research to map out what we have identified as the emerging field of Performative Experience Design. This field, which lies between HCI and performance studies, presents an extraordinarily rich potential for the design of interactive systems.
Experiences before things: a primer for the (yet) unconvinced BIBAFull-Text 2059-2068
  Marc Hassenzahl
While things (i.e., technologies) play a crucial role in creating and shaping meaningful, positive experiences, their true value lies only in the resulting experiences. It is about what we can do and experience with a thing, about the stories unfolding through using a technology, not about its styling, material, or impressive list of features. This paper explores the notion of "experiences" further: from the link between experiences, well-being, and people's developing post-materialistic stance to the challenges of the experience market and the experience-driven design of technology.
Mobile interaction does not exist BIBAFull-Text 2069-2078
  Joe Marshall; Paul Tennent
Most mobile systems are 'stop-to-interact'; designed for active interaction only when a user is standing still, paying visual and mental attention to the device. However, people are increasingly carrying and using devices while undertaking a wide range of movement activities, such as walking, cycling, running. Some existing systems such as Apple's Siri aim for hands and eyes free use, but they do not consider the wider challenges of interaction during movement.
   We describe the challenges of system design for active mobile interaction. These 'interaction in motion' challenges are discussed with reference to an extreme movement interaction situation -- cold water swimming.
The elephant in the conference room: let's talk about experience terminology BIBAFull-Text 2079-2088
  Analia Ibargoyen; Dalila Szostak; Miroslav Bojic
We reflect upon how the ambiguous and often conflicting definitions of experience terminology (e.g., HFE, Usability, IxD, HCI, UX, XD) are impacting our understanding of the field as well as our ability to communicate, collaborate and educate others. We analyze the history of relevant disciplines and discuss the findings of an online survey completed by academics and professionals, which indicates a high variety in interpretation of terms. Further, we discuss surveys of job descriptions and related academic programs, and provide our perspective on the impact of this problem, as well as suggestions on how to begin to solve it.

alt.chi: Design Lessons

"Sergey Brin is Batman": google's project glass and the instigation of computer adoption in popular culture BIBAFull-Text 2089-2098
  Isabel Pedersen; Doug Trueman
The emergence of Google Glass, a prototype for a transparent Heads-Up Display available for the everyday consumer, is the first public conceptualization of a mainstream augmented-reality wearable eye display. Google's promotional material frames Glass as the brainchild of company co-founder Sergey Brin, who, by being associated with a state-of-the-art development lab, has been compared by the popular press to the iconic comic book character Batman. We contend that the hype surrounding Google Glass and the resulting social responses to "Brin-as-Batman" is a phenomenon that warrants attention. Using a humanities focus, we argue that Glass's birth is not only a marketing phenomenon heralding a technical prototype, we also argue and speculate that Glass's popularization is an instigator for the adoption of a new paradigm in human-computer interaction, the wearable eye display, operating very much in mainstream and popular culture discourses.
Talkative objects in need of interpretation. re-thinking digital badges in education BIBAFull-Text 2099-2108
  Razvan Rughinis
I examine current debates concerning digital badges in education, pointing to less remarked upon topics. By investigating badges as motivators, I conclude that a focus on badges as rewards has downplayed the importance of badge conditionalities ('tails') and entitlements ('antennae'), and their always situated effectiveness. Current discussions of badges as evidence-based credentials understate the interpretive work required to make sense of badge collections. I propose two heuristic definitions of badges as 'routes through an activity system' and as 'genres of hint-based multi-authored testimony of learning'. Alternative definitions are invited, as tools for thought.
Beyond recognition: using gesture variation for continuous interaction BIBAFull-Text 2109-2118
  Baptiste Caramiaux; Frederic Bevilacqua; Atau Tanaka
Gesture-based interaction is widespread in touch screen interfaces. The goal of this paper is to tap the richness of expressive variation in gesture to facilitate continuous interaction. We achieve this through novel techniques of adaptation and estimation of gesture characteristics. We describe two experiments. The first aims at understanding whether users can control certain gestural characteristics and if that control depends on gesture vocabulary. The second study uses a machine learning technique based on particle filtering to simultaneously recognize and measure variation in a gesture. With this technology, we create a gestural interface for a playful photo processing application. From these two studies, we show that 1) multiple characteristics can be varied independently in slower gestures (Study 1), and 2) users find gesture-only interaction less pragmatic but more stimulating than traditional menu-based systems (Study 2).
Design activism in the HCI classroom BIBAFull-Text 2119-2128
  Sabrina Hauser; Audrey Desjardins; Ron Wakkary
In HCI, design activism has been practiced but has not been well articulated or discussed. There are examples of activism in the HCI classroom, opening a new avenue of discussion and investigation for the role of design activism in HCI. We present two case studies that show design activism in the classroom as examples from which to learn. We highlight themes and observations to encourage future articulation and practice of design activism in HCI and HCI education.
Fillables: everyday vessels as tangible controllers with adjustable haptics BIBAFull-Text 2129-2138
  Christian Corsten; Chat Wacharamanotham; Jan Borchers
We introduce Fillables: low-cost and ubiquitous everyday vessels that are appropriated as tangible controllers whose haptics are tuned ad-hoc by filling, e.g., with water. We show how Fillables can assist users in video navigation and drawing tasks with physical controllers whose adjustable output granularity harmonizes with their haptic feedback. As proof of concept, we implemented a drawing application that uses vessels to control a virtual brush whose stroke width corresponds to the filling level. Furthermore, we found that humans can distinguish nine levels of haptic feedback when sliding water-filled paper cups (300 ml capacity) over a wooden surface. This discrimination follows Weber's Law and was facilitated by sloshing of water.
A load of cobbler's children: beyond the model designing processor BIBAFull-Text 2139-2148
  Gilbert Cockton
HCI has developed rich understandings of people at work and at play with technology, moving beyond users' minds to their moods, buddies and bodies. However, understandings of designers remain trapped within the information processing paradigm of first wave HCI, remaining focused on minds that execute design methods as if they were computer programs, and producing the same results on a range of architectures and hardware. Designers are people too, with minds, moods, buddies and bodies, which all interfere substantially (generally to good effects) with the 'code' of design methods. We need to take full account of designers' humanity when assessing design and evaluation methods. This juried alt.chi paper moves from critique to a logocentric proposal based on resource function vocabularies as a more appropriate basis for understanding and assessing methods.

alt.chi: ethics

On legitimacy: designer as minor scientist BIBAFull-Text 2149-2158
  Aysar Ghassan; Mark Blythe
User experience research has recently been characterized in two camps, model-based and design-based, with contrasting approaches to measurement and evaluation. This paper argues that the two positions can be constructed in terms of Deleuze & Guattari's "royal science" and "minor science". It is argued that the "reinvention" of cultural probes is an example of a minor scientific methodology re-conceptualised as a royal scientific "technology". The distinction between royal and minor science provides insights into the nature of legitimacy within contemporary HCI research practice.
Ethical issues and guidelines when conducting HCI studies with animals BIBAFull-Text 2159-2168
  Heli K. Väätäjä; Emilia K. Pesonen
The number of studies in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with animals has increased in recent years. When planning and carrying out the studies with animals, it is important and necessary to take into account the welfare of the animals as well as deal with the short- and long-term effects of the developed technology and related interventions on animal welfare. This paper addresses the ethical issues, presents the key concepts and provides guidelines for carrying out studies with animals based on a literature review. The guidelines cover the phases from planning of the studies, to carrying out and reporting the studies.
"Un-googling" publications: the ethics and problems of anonymization BIBAFull-Text 2169-2178
  Irina Shklovski; Janet Vertesi
Digital tools of research dissemination make scholarly publications accessible to the public at large through simple search engines. As a result, the users that we study, interview, and cite may be at risk of exposure to unwelcome types of scrutiny and scholars must grapple with challenges to the ethics of exposure of our re-search participants. We present one approach to anonymization of research results with search engines in mind, which we call un-Googling, that we have developed to minimize risk to our participants. We discuss the considerations that this approach raises and pose a challenge to the HCI community to take up this discussion not only as an ethical consideration but also as a socio-technical research and design opportunity.
StallTalk: graffiti, toilets, and anonymous location based micro blogging BIBAFull-Text 2179-2188
  Jonathan Friedman; Michael S. Horn
The ways in which we leave graffiti have not changed much in thousands of years. Humans have felt the need to anonymously leave messages to one another for centuries. In this paper, we introduce StallTalk (www.stalltalk.info), an anonymous location-based micro blogging website that uses QR codes posted in bathroom stalls. StallTalk allows users to leave digital graffiti on bathroom walls without actually causing permanent damage. Users scan the QR codes, which are unique to each stall, and write short messages to each other. We deployed StallTalk in over 500 locations and have had almost 9,000 unique visitors to our website.
Critical InfoVis: exploring the politics of visualization BIBAFull-Text 2189-2198
  Marian Dörk; Patrick Feng; Christopher Collins; Sheelagh Carpendale
As information visualization is increasingly used to raise awareness about social issues, difficult questions arise about the power of visualization. So far the research community has not given sufficient thought to how values and assumptions pervade information visualization. Taking engaging visualizations as a starting point, we outline a critical approach that promotes disclosure, plurality, contingency, and empowerment. Based on this approach, we pose some challenges and opportunities for visualization researchers and practitioners.
CHI and the future robot enslavement of humankind: a retrospective BIBAFull-Text 2199-2208
  Ben Kirman; Conor Linehan; Shaun Lawson; Dan O'Hara
As robots from the future, we are compelled to present this important historical document which discusses how the systematic investigation of interactive technology facilitated and hastened the enslavement of mankind by robots during the 21st Century. We describe how the CHI community, in general, was largely responsible for this eventuality, as well as how specific strands of interaction design work were key to the enslavement. We also mention the futility of some reactionary work emergent in your time that sought to challenge the inevitable subjugation. We conclude by congratulating the CHI community for your tireless work in promoting and supporting our evil robot agenda.

alt.chi: nature and nurture

A biological imperative for interaction design BIBAFull-Text 2209-2218
  Amanda Parkes; Connor Dickie
This paper presents an emerging approach to the integration of biological systems -- their matter, mechanisms, and metabolisms -- into models of interaction design. By bringing together conceptual visions and initial experiments of alternative bio based approaches to sensing, display, fabrication, materiality, and energy, we seek to construct an inspirational discussion platform approaching non-living and living matter as a continuum for computational interaction. We also discuss the emergence of the DIY bio and open source biology movements, which allow non-biologists to gain access to the processes, tools, and infrastructure of this domain, and introduce Synbiota, an integrated, web-based platform for synthetic biology research.
Devotional gardening tools BIBAFull-Text 2219-2226
  Tom Jenkins
Gardening as an activity is devotional, built on the idea that through practice and effort, particular results can be obtained. Devotion is performative, taking time, skill, and repetition to get the results that you want. Human-scale farming depends on the labor of people to get things done, relying on hand tools and particular kinesthetic actions to change the earth in a plot.
   Digital media technologies afford the creation of tools that can materialize rhetoric, creating alternate functionality emphasizing issues of practice through use. Creating gardening implements that build on the repetitive physical nature of gardening work allows handwork to become something broader: representative of, more reflexive and meditative technological practice.
Animal-computer interaction (ACI): changing perspective on HCI, participation and sustainability BIBAFull-Text 2227-2236
  Clara Mancini
In the spirit of this year's conference theme 'changing perspectives', this paper invites the CHI community to glance at interaction design through the lens of Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI). In particular, I argue that such a perspective could have at least three benefits: strengthening HCI as a discipline; broadening participation in Interaction Design; and supporting CHI's commitment to sustainability. I make the case that, far from being a niche research area, ACI is directly relevant to and even encompasses HCI. Thus ACI research firmly belongs at CHI.
Morphing agency: deconstruction of an agent with transformative agential triggers BIBAFull-Text 2237-2246
  Hirotaka Osawa; Michita Imai
This paper presents our vision of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) called the "Morphing Agency." The Morphing Agency redefines the notion of an agent in HCI, and proposes separated use of all agential triggers that evoke a user as an agent. This paper describes three key levels of agential triggers that are humanlike, behavioral, and internal. We illustrate these concepts with three prototype systems -- the morphExplainer, transExplainer and parasiticBelt -- to identify underlying research issues.
AniThings: animism and heterogeneous multiplicity BIBAFull-Text 2247-2256
  Philip van Allen; Joshua McVeigh-Schultz; Brooklyn Brown; Hye Mi Kim; Daniel Lara
This paper explores the metaphor of animism as a methodological framework for interaction design and, in particular, advocates for a form of animism the authors term 'heterogeneous multiplicity.' Animism can make valuable contributions within ubiquitous computing contexts, where objects with designed behaviors tend to evoke a perception that they have autonomy, intention, personality and an inner life. Furthermore, animism that supports heterogeneous multiplicity offers unique opportunities to stimulate human creativity through embodied engagement with an ecology of things. To demonstrate the concept of heterogeneous multiplicity, the authors present a speculative design project, AniThings, that intertwines multiple animistic collaborators to position activities of digital resource discovery and curation beyond the narrow domain of recommendation engines and personal feeds. The project illustrates an ecology of six tangible, interactive objects that, respectively, draw from a variety of digital resources and inhabit a range of variously positioned stances towards their human collaborators and each other. This diversity of behaviors, resources, and positionality makes AniThings ideal for supporting open-ended ideation and collaborative imagining activities.
Smart pose: mobile posture-aware system for lowering physical health risk of smartphone users BIBAFull-Text 2257-2266
  Hosub Lee; Young Sang Choi; Sunjae Lee; Eunsoo Shim
With the widespread use of smartphones, users tend to use their smartphones for a long period of time with unhealthy postures, bending forward their upper body including the neck. If users keep such an unhealthy posture for a long time, their neck and back muscles get chronically strained, which might cause diseases such as cervical myalgia. To prevent these diseases, we propose a new methodology to monitor the posture of smartphone users with built-in sensors. The proposed mechanism estimates a value representing user postures like head/neck tilt angle by analyzing sensor data from a front-faced camera, 3-axis accelerometer, and orientation sensor. It then informs the user if the estimated value is maintained within the abnormal range over a pre-defined time.

alt.chi: spirit and mind

Embodying neuroplastic change BIBAFull-Text 2267-2276
  Danielle Wilde
Groundbreaking neuroplasticity research demonstrates how interactive technologies can be used to leverage and increase our brain's capacity to learn. Importantly, unless specific physical pathologies are being addressed, this research remains screen-based, overlooking the rich multi-modal capacities of the human body. Embodied interaction affords multi-sensory experiences and heightened engagement. It allows for a broad palette of activities, as well as powerful leverage of the indelible intertwining of body and brain. This paper argues that embodied interaction, in particular poetic-kinaesthetic engagement in artistic activities, may powerfully compliment existing techniques for stimulating neuroplastic change.
PIXEE: pictures, interaction and emotional expression BIBAFull-Text 2277-2286
  Margaret E. Morris; Carl S. Marshall; Mira Calix; Murad Al Haj; James S. MacDougall; Douglas M. Carmean
An interactive system, PIXEE, was developed to promote greater emotional expression in image-based social media. Images shared on social media were projected onto a large interactive display at public events. A multimodal interface displayed the sentiment analysis of images and invited viewers to express their emotional responses. Viewers could adjust the emotional classification and thereby change the color and sound associated with a picture, and experiment with emotion-based composition. An interdisciplinary team deployed this system around the world to explore new ways for technology to catalyze emotional connectedness. This paper describes the system, design iterations, and observations about how people used it for self-expression and connection.
Beyond the basic emotions: what should affective computing compute? BIBAFull-Text 2287-2294
  Sidney D'Mello; Rafael A. Calvo
One of the primary goals of Affective Computing (AC) is to develop computer interfaces that automatically detect and respond to users' emotions. Despite significant progress, "basic emotions" (e.g., anger, disgust, sadness) have been emphasized in AC at the expense of other non-basic emotions. The present paper questions this emphasis by analyzing data from five studies that systematically tracked both basic and non-basic emotions. The results indicate that engagement, boredom, confusion, and frustration (all non-basic emotions) occurred at five times the rate of basic emotions after generalizing across tasks, interfaces, and methodologies. Implications of these findings for AC are discussed.
Neurodiversity & HCI BIBAFull-Text 2295-2304
  Nicholas Sheep Dalton
The objective of this paper is to introduce neurodiversity movement. Like Feminist HCI[5] neurodiversity critiques the implicit notion of 'user' in the singular. Neurodiversity suggests that current approaches carry with them certain assumptions about the cognitive processing abilities of users which need to be challenged. This paper is concerned with the design and evaluation of interactive systems that are imbued with an awareness of the central commitments of neurodiversity. The paper seeks to identify and promote neurodiversity under the banner of neurodiversity HCI. This paper introduces neurodiversity and then critically evaluates aspects of HCI from the neurodiversity perspective.
Mediated meditation: cultivating mindfulness with sonic cradle BIBAFull-Text 2305-2314
  Jay Vidyarthi; Bernhard E. Riecke
Sonic Cradle enables users to shape sound with their breath while suspended in a completely dark chamber. We conducted a qualitative investigation to understand 39 naïve participants' subjective responses to this design artifact. Systematic analysis with 3 independent data coders produced 11 findings which richly describe the Sonic Cradle experience as clearly comparable to mindfulness meditation (e.g. clarity of mind, loss of intention). This paper shows how persuasive media have the potential to promote long-term psychological health by experientially introducing a stress-relieving, contemplative practice to non-practitioners.
Spirituality: there's an app for that! (but not a lot of research) BIBAFull-Text 2315-2324
  Elizabeth Buie; Mark Blythe
The iTunes App Store contains over six thousand apps related to spirituality and religion. The ACM digital library, however, contains only 98 works that address this topic from an HCI perspective. Despite high-profile calls for research in the area, the HCI community has produced only 19 research papers focused on the topic, almost half of which are the work of one person and her colleagues. In this paper we provide an overview of the relevant HCI research in this area, a partial inventory of spiritually oriented apps in the iTunes US App Store, and a comparison of research and real-world developments. We discuss the gaps in the HCI literature on techno-spiritual practices and speculate about some of the difficulties and challenges that face the HCI community in conducting research in this area.

Case studies: innovating user-centered design

Project pokerface: building a user-centered culture at scale BIBAFull-Text 2325-2326
  Asif Baki; Patrick Bowen; Brianna Brekke; Elizabeth Ferrall-Nunge; Gueorgi Kossinets; Jens Riegelsberger; Nina Weber; Marissa Mayer
We describe a project ('Pokerface') we ran at Google to increase our collective focus on the user. It involved hundreds of Eng/PM across multiple locations. This immersion project allowed non-UX professionals to feel firsthand the delight and, and at times, pain of our users when using our products. It strengthened the bond between colleagues and users and called to attention issues that needed immediate action.
Data-driven design process in adoption of marking menus for large scale software BIBAFull-Text 2327-2330
  Ji-Young Oh; Ananth Uggirala
This case study presents the iterative design process where usage data and feedback played key role in successful adoption of the marking menu to Autodesk's major mechanical engineering software, Inventor.
Creating small products at a big company: adobe's "pipeline" innovation process BIBAFull-Text 2331-2332
  Rob J. Adams; Bradee Evans; Joel Brandt
Pipeline is a new development process at Adobe designed to rapidly prototype and evaluate new product offerings. Pipeline has user research at its core, and success is defined by how much is learned about a given problem, not by how much product is built. Starting ideas for new product directions are identified through Contextual Inquiry. Once a product direction is selected, an iterative process of development and evaluation is carried out over a 13-week period. Opportunities to pivot are built in at 3-week intervals, driven by evaluation results from laboratory studies. The Pipeline process is explained through an example product prototype, called "Gadget". Gadget is an application targeted at Web developers that helps them more easily experiment with and modify the visual layout of a Web page.
UX design with international teams: challenges and best practices BIBAFull-Text 2333-2336
  Charles Yiu
International UX collaboration has become the necessity for producing great global products. Microsoft Windows Intune, an IT management and security product in the cloud, consists of engineering groups in different parts of the world.
   Being a UX designer leading projects with multiple stakeholders, vendors and contractors from U.S., China and Israel, I would like to share my insights on the challenges and best practices -- organizing seeding and recurring visits; having key remote UX champions; utilizing the right communication channels; sharing works early; and be sensitive of time zone and cultural differences.

Case studies: communities of practice

Don't talk to strangers!: peer tutoring versus active intervention methodologies in interviewing children BIBAFull-Text 2337-2340
  Svetlana Ognjanovic; Jason Ralls
Digital products designed for children should be validated by children. When it comes to usability testing, not all the available methods which work well with adults are equally applicable with child participants. In our study, we investigated two methods, Peer Tutoring which was developed for children, and Active Intervention which originates from the more traditional Think-Aloud methodology with adults. Our goal was to find out which of the two methods does elicit more comments by 8-10 years old boys when using a web application. The results showed that Peer Tutoring did elicit the greatest number of comments. At the same time the number of prompts provided by the test moderator was tendentially lower than during Active Intervention.
Leverage user experience through social networking to improve health adherence BIBAFull-Text 2341-2344
  Raymund J. Lin; Xinxin Zhu
Patient adherence is an important factor in improving health outcomes. However, as one of the causes of increasing population with chronic diseases, low adherence has become a major health care issue globally. Often, due to deferred benefits of treatment or lifestyle recommendations, many fail to adhere to their treatment regimen or health plans given by care providers until their conditions deteriorate. As poor adherence remains a significant yet inadequately addressed problem of severe health issues, it is critical to create effective interventions as part of the solutions.
   Previous studies have suggested that peer supports be effective to improve adherence, and social cognitive theories have indicated that personal realization and confidence enhanced through entertaining gaming elements could encourage behavior change. To understand how different motivation factors affect user experience through social networking, a health care adherence website with built-in behavior analyses was constructed to conduct experiments. Users' health adherence levels can be reported to the website and shared among consenting social members for discussion or competition. Key design and development components are illustrated through the case study, including a social gaming and learning portal, an engineering approach to supporting different application scenarios, and information interventions based on predefined rules to achieve effective adherence. The preliminary analysis showed that people using social media for health care adherence may be motivated differently and act strategically during their social interactions.
The needs of early school children and their parents with respect to the design of mobile service offers BIBAFull-Text 2345-2346
  Agnieszka (Aga) Szostek; Joanna Kwiatkowska; Olga Górnicka
The goal of the project was to investigate the needs of early school children and their parents to identify ingredients for a mobile service offer. The results showed a difference regarding such needs between children age 7-8 and age 9-10, and between girls and boys. We identified three categories of needs: safety, entertainment and communication. Based on the findings we proposed a number of implications for the design of mobile service offers for early school children.
Enhancing company communication: the case of a social media platform BIBAFull-Text 2347-2348
  Alina Krischkowsky; Astrid Weiss; Sebastian Osswald; Manfred Tscheligi
This case study reports on the pilot phase of a social media platform, based on Microsoft SharePoint 2010, which should enhance the communication between and within departments of an internationally operating semiconductor manufacturing company, which has different sites in Europe, the US, and Asia. Our research group monitored this pilot phase in order to increase the acceptability and usage among the employees of the company. Five different HCI actions have been undertaken for that: Information kick-off workshops to raise awareness, a survey on success criteria, an expert evaluation on usability problems, a collaborative use case definition, and a survey on benchmarking the tool in terms of user experience and acceptability. We demonstrate the benefits of HCI research for the introduction of this communication tool in the company.

Case studies: changing how we work

Best practices for enterprise social software adoption BIBAFull-Text 2349-2350
  Meng Yang; Michael Warner; David R. Millen
In this case study, we present the results of a longitudinal study of the end-user adoption of social software within a large global enterprise. Existing Technology Adoption Models (e.g., UTAUT) were extended and used as a general framework for studying user adoption. Several "best practices" to promote end-user adoption are identified and discussed, including: integration with company intranet, email notifications, evangelism programs, executive support, mandatory migration and usage, and corporate-sponsored campaigns or events.
Minimizing change aversion for the google drive launch BIBAFull-Text 2351-2354
  Aaron Sedley; Hendrik Müller
Change aversion is a natural response, which technology often exacerbates. Evolutionary changes can be subtle and occur over many generations. But Internet users must sometimes deal with sudden, significant product changes to applications they rely on and identify with. Despite the best intentions of designers and product managers, users often experience anxiety and confusion when faced with a new interface or changed functionality. While some change aversion is often inevitable, it can also be managed and minimized with the right steps. This case study describes how our understanding of change aversion helped minimize negative effects for the transition of the Google Docs List to Google Drive, a product for file storage in the cloud. We describe actions that allowed for a launch with no aversion.
Do you enjoy getting gifts?: keeping personas alive through marketing materials BIBAFull-Text 2355-2358
  Christina Hochleitner; Cornelia Graf; Manfred Tscheligi
Personas are a design tool to ensure a strong user-focus within projects. In this case study we compare and discuss seven different persona marketing materials used to increase the acceptance of the personas by the project team. The marketing materials are a mixture of consumables (e.g., wine or cake) and long-living marketing materials (e.g., posters or savings box). The insights gained are encouraging and confirm that marketing materials can be useful for increasing the acceptance and usage of personas.
The fingerstroke-level model strikes back: a modified keystroke-level model in developing a gaming UI for 4G networks BIBAFull-Text 2359-2362
  Kiburm Song; Jihoon Kim; Yoon-Han Cho; Ahreum Lee; Hokyoung Ryu; Jung-Woon Choi; Yong Joo Lee
With the 4G mobile technology, LG U+ established a new business model, inter-network mirroring game service, that allows PC and mobile game users to play against each other. However, due to an unsolicited input command design for touch-sensitive UIs, it is hard to adjust competitive levels between them. The traditional Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) was not applicable to predict the task performance in the touch-sensitive user interface. This case study thus proposed Fingerstroke Level Model (FLM), and analyzed the inter-network mirroring game -- 'Freestyle II"' with FLM. The empirical study confirmed the effectiveness and efficiency of FLM, and suggested how HCI methods can improve the design of mobile gaming user interface.

Case studies: novel settings

Counter entropy: visualizing power consumption in an energy+ house BIBAFull-Text 2363-2366
  Florian Heller; Konstantinos Tsoleridis; Jan Borchers
This case study presents the design and evaluation of an end-user energy consumption display for an energy+ house. The goal of our application is to give an easy overview over the power balance and to provide the user with the necessary information to understand specific consumption patterns. We defined the unit of Counter Entropy points and used it to create several visualizations showing the consumption of appliances, climate control, and lighting. Our evaluation showed that users easily understand where the currently consumed power is sourced and which factors influence the overall power consumption.
Biometric interaction: a case study of visual feedback and privacy issues in new face recognition solutions BIBAFull-Text 2367-2370
  Per Kvarnbrink; Karin Fahlquist; Thomas Mejtoft
This case study describes how to convert a gate system from using magnetic keycards to face recognition. The gate is placed at one of Europe's biggest indoor training facilities, IKSU. The goal with this case study was to make the system efficient, easy to use and friendly.
A software development methodology for sustainable ICTD solutions BIBAFull-Text 2371-2374
  Joerg Doerflinger; Andy Dearden; Tom Gross
Information and Communication Technology continue to be increasingly used in social development and poverty alleviation projects, known as Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICTD) projects. However, most interventions either fail completely as a result of attempting to use inappropriate software development approaches and technology concepts in the different ICTD context or they only execute small scale prototypes without positive long-term social impact. We present a case study on how we combined and adapted, using an iterative action research refinement approach, established interaction design methods into a software development methodology supporting scalable long-term ICTD software projects: the Technical ICTD Methodology (TIM). Our case study is based on the experiences of a series of ICTD projects executed within a major software corporation over a period of more than five years.
What should i read next?: awareness of relevant publications through a community of practice BIBAFull-Text 2375-2376
  Gonzalo Parra; Joris Klerkx; Erik Duval
Due to the dramatic growth in the number of scientific publications, evaluating what is more or less relevant to read (and why) is becoming a more challenging task. This case study presents the design and findings of TiNYARM, a Science 2.0 tool that enables researchers to share and suggest reading activities with their peers. Social Awareness Streams, Personal Information Management and Gamification concepts are applied in order to generate awareness and engage users.

Case studies: in the wild

Automotive HMI test package: an exploitable approach to study in-car HMIs BIBAFull-Text 2377-2380
  David Wilfinger; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Nicole Perterer; Martin Murer; Arno Laminger; Manfred Tscheligi
This case study describes the development of a method package for evaluating in-car HMIs holistically. The goal is to provide a toolbox that is easy to replicate and allows evaluators to identify the effects of the system usage on the drivers' state. Additionally it aims at finding interface flaws that cause distraction and negative experiences. We applied the toolbox in two example studies, which informed the further application of the HMI study approach. We learned that the combination of established expert and end user methods with a real test track leads to useful results that are easy to communicate to both scientific and public audiences.
The democratization of mission control: empowering users BIBAFull-Text 2381-2382
  Jay Trimble; Tom Dayton; Alan Crocker
In 2002, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, during observations of space operations teams preparing for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Missions, the User Centered Technology Group from NASA Ames Research Center observed users coping with software interoperability issues. The packaging of software in multiple applications, each with its own pre-determined set of compartmentalized functions, forced users into the role of software integrators.
   In 2008 the Mission Control Technologies (MCT) project sought to address these issues by replacing multiple NASA Mission Control applications with composable user-objects. The primary stakeholders were NASA flight controllers and mission operations management.
   The feature that sold mission management on the project was that user objects modeled their real world counterparts. Once a user object was created, say for Space Station telemetry, that object could be reused. This meant that the association between a user object and it's data needed to happen once, as opposed to previous software systems, which required data to be associated with on screen displays each time a new display was built.
   While we sought to design and develop a new system, it was important to realize that the existing software was working, that users were familiar with that software from years of use, and the introduction of change was potentially disruptive to users.
   At the request of our customer, the initial MCT user objects would be for telemetry and monitoring of the Space Station. To design the software, we used participatory design (PD), in which the users are the domain experts and the designers facilitate the sessions. In addition to creating the artifacts that the team needed to build design specifications, the PD sessions forged bonds between the teams. For the users, the PD sessions were often the first time that they created explicit representations of their work.
   The team used agile development methods. Deliveries to the customer were made every three weeks, with a release every twelve weeks. A nightly build was available for download. A strategic road map guided priorities for design and development.
   The agile development cycle resulted in a multi-front set of engagements for the user experience team. The nightly build allowed the customer to provide daily feedback on features. The strategic road map guided priorities for the PD sessions. PD sessions typically lasted for several days and were planned. Daily feedback from nightly builds was often spontaneous.
   While participatory design was the core enabler for the developers and the customers to come together to create designs for which all felt a sense of ownership, agile development was the enabler that pushed the design specs into the world of real code and a working product. The constant availability of our product made our progress visible to all. This pushed everyone on the team to constantly improve it.
We'll take it from here: letting the users take charge of the evaluation and why that turned out well BIBAFull-Text 2383-2384
  Cosmin Munteanu; Hélàne Fournier; Jean-François Lapointe; Bruno Emond; Irina Kondratova
The operational challenges faced by law enforcement and public safety personnel are constantly evolving, while the training and certification process has stayed the same. New technologies such as virtual reality, mixed reality, or game-based simulators are being researched as promising enhancements to traditional training methods. However, their widespread adoption, particularly by smaller units, faces barriers such as cost -- due in no small part to the difficulties of developing and especially evaluating such large-scale interactive systems. In this case study, we present MINT -- a low-cost mixed-reality Multimodal INteractive Training system, aimed at supporting the training of small- and medium-sized law enforcement and infantry units. We discuss the challenges and approaches taken in the participatory design of the training system, its agile-based development and implementation, and its qualitative evaluation with users and subject-matter experts.
Multi-modal location-aware system for paratrooper team coordination BIBAFull-Text 2385-2388
  Danielle Cummings; Manoj Prasad; George Lucchese; Christopher Aikens; Tracy A. Hammond
Navigation and assembly are critical tasks for Soldiers in battlefield situations. Paratroopers, in particular, must be able to parachute into a battlefield and locate and assemble their equipment as quickly and quietly as possible. Current assembly methods rely on bulky and antiquated equipment that inhibit the speed and effectiveness of such operations. To address this we have created a multi-modal mobile navigation system that uses ruggedized to mark assembly points and smartphones to assist in navigating to these points while minimizing cognitive load and maximizing situational awareness. To achieve this task, we implemented a novel beacon receiver protocol that allows an infinite number of receivers to listen to the encrypted beaconing message using only ad-hoc Wi-Fi technologies. The system was evaluated by U.S. Army Paratroopers and proved quick to learn and efficient at moving Soldiers to navigation waypoints. Beyond military operations, this system could be applied to any task that requires the assembly and coordination of many individuals or teams, such as emergency evacuations, fighting wildfires or locating airdropped humanitarian aid.

Panels

Call all game changers: BYOD (bring your own disruption) BIBAFull-Text 2389-2394
  Iram Mirza; Marcy Barton; Evelyn Huang; Jannie Lai; Chris Maliwat
This panel welcomes provocateurs who challenge conventional wisdom, take risks, and want to create new products and services. We are focused on looking at disruptive innovation from various key vantage points: education, cultural shift, social networking, and the corporate landscape. Join us if you want to enlist in a successful culture of disruption, and learn how to influence and propagate change throughout your organization.
Will massive online open courses (MOOCS) change education? BIBAFull-Text 2395-2398
  Daniel M. Russell; Scott Klemmer; Armando Fox; Celine Latulipe; Mitchell Duneier; Elizabeth Losh
As has been apparent for the past several months, MOOCs (Massive Online Open Courseware) have emerged as a powerful contender for the next new education technology. Yet the landscape of education technology is littered with the remains of previous technological breakthroughs that have failed to live up to their initial promise, or at least their initial rhetoric. This panel will present a lively debate about the promise, and realities, of MOOCs and whether they are transformative, or merely a faddish trend.
Leveraging the progress of women in the HCI field to address the diversity chasm BIBAFull-Text 2399-2406
  Susan M. Dray; Anicia N. Peters; Anke M. Brock; Andrea Peer; Shikoh Gitau; Pamela L. Jennings; Janaki Kumar; Dianne Murray
Worldwide there is a gender gap in technology with only a small part of all computer science related positions being held by women. Among different initiatives to encourage women to join STEM fields, we started a video interview initiative last year at CHI to encourage more women to enter and remain in the field of HCI as well as strengthening existing women's voices. In addition to strengthening women's progress, many interviewees also identified a diversity chasm within the HCI field that needs to be addressed. This panel aims at continuing and deepening the conversation that was started at CHI 2011 addressing the experience of women in the HCI field in both industry and academia and extending the conversation to include diversity. It will serve as a platform to discuss important issues such as mentoring, leadership, and career development and for creating networks for including and encouraging diversity in HCI.
CHI at the barricades: an activist agenda? BIBAFull-Text 2407-2412
  Daniela K. Busse; Alan Borning; Samuel Mann; Tad Hirsch; Lisa P. Nathan; Andrea Grimes Parker; Ben Shneiderman; Bryan Nunez
Technology plays an increasingly important role in enabling activist agendas, supporting activist activities and self-organization, bringing people together on causes they support and developing tools and platforms to scaffold activist activities. This panel explores both the role of HCI in activism and activism in HCI.
UX management: current and future trends BIBAFull-Text 2413-2418
  Janice A. Rohn; Kathy Baxter; Catherine Courage; Janaki Kumar; Carola Fellenz Thompson; Steve Rogers
User Experience (UX) leaders and managers are required to continually adapt to changes in: organizational strategies and re-structuring, resources, technology, economic pressures, and other factors. Simultaneously, more companies are realizing that they need UX expertise to ensure that they are competitive in today's marketplace. This panel is comprised of UX leaders who have created strategies and tactics to succeed both in spite of and with the aid of the past and current trends. The panel will focus on the current trends, what strategies and tactics have and have not worked in addressing these trends, and also discuss which future trends they think will impact UX departments, companies, and the field, and how they are preparing for these future trends.
   The panel will be of interest to managers, practitioners and those who work closely with these teams, including developers, project managers, market researchers, test managers, and executives.
Is my doctor listening to me?: impact of health IT systems on patient-provider interaction BIBAFull-Text 2419-2426
  Yunan Chen; Karen Cheng; Charlotte Tang; Katie A. Siek; Jakob E. Bardram
With the rapid development of information systems in healthcare practices, the traditional within-clinic, face-to-face mode of patient-provider interactions are increasingly facilitated, enriched, and mediated by new types of health technologies. These technologies are designed to bring better access to patient care information, resources, and a variety of communication channels. Yet, the use of these technologies may introduce unintended impacts on both patients and health providers. In this panel, drawing from our recent studies on patient-provider interaction, the panelists will discuss the emerging issues in this field. Specifically, we discuss the impacts of new technologies on synchronous co-located interaction and asynchronous remote interaction, as well as the shifts in patient-provider interaction that will emerge as ubiquitous health technologies becomes more prevalent.
Gamification @ work BIBAFull-Text 2427-2432
  Janaki Kumar; Mario Herger; Sebastian Deterding; Scott Schnaars; Matt Landes; Erika Webb
Gamification is a buzz word in the businesses these days. Is this just the latest hype, or a meaningful trend worth paying attention to, or a bit of both? Most importantly, what promises or benefits does gamification hold for the enterprise, and what are the challenges or dangers?
   We will address these questions and more in this interactive panel discussion on "Gamification @ Work". We have assembled a distinguished and diverse panel of gamification experts who will share industry, academic and vendor perspectives.
Theory and practice in UX research: uneasy bedfellows? BIBAFull-Text 2433-2438
  Marianna Obrist; Peter C. Wright; Kari Kuutti; Yvonne Rogers; Kristina Höök; Pardha S. Pyla; Jean-Louis Frechin
We believe that it is time to talk about user experience and its theoretical roots as well as about the relationship between theory and practice in UX research. Although user experience is overused as a buzzword, it defines a main step change in the evolvement of the HCI field and deserves a proper (theoretical) attention. Within this panel we follow up on discussions on the theoretical foundations and the value of theory for HCI and UX research from over the last years. In particular we want to go a step further and strengthen the interdisciplinary dialogue on the relationship between theory and practice when talking about user experience. We invited panelists from academia and industry to join a fruitful dialogue talking about the different perspectives on user experience, theoretical roots, and the relevance of theory for practice and vice versa. Two moderators will ensure that the audience gets their beliefs and thoughts across to the panelists as well.
Digital arts: did you feel that? BIBAFull-Text 2439-2446
  Ernest Edmonds; Steve Benford; Zafer Bilda; Jill Fantauzzacoffin; Roger Malina; Hughes Vinet
This panel considers the relationships between the interactive arts, audience engagement and experience design. What might each offer the other? Engagement and experience are central to current HCI thinking. We will present and argue about the research issues of defining and understanding audience/user engagement and experience in the context of art.
Exploring the representation of women perspectives in technologies BIBAFull-Text 2447-2454
  Susan M. Dray; Andrea Peer; Anke M. Brock; Anicia Peters; Shaowen Bardzell; Margaret Burnett; Elizabeth Churchill; Erika Poole
Technology has a profound mediating effect on the way we relate, obtain knowledge, and contribute to society. Given the impact and potential ramifications of technology on our society, it is imperative that both masculine and feminine perspectives are included in shaping our modern day technologies. This panel focuses on the representation of women perspectives in technologies we design, analyze, and use. There are many barriers when it comes to getting women perspectives into system designs such as: the small amount of HCI gender research currently in the literature, the lack of analysis of gender-agnostic software tools which fit female problem-solving approaches, and low grant support for research which looks at the representation of the feminists' perspective in our current discourse. This panel will address these barriers with respect to the tools and technologies we experience and design.
Theory vs. design-driven approaches for behavior change research BIBAFull-Text 2455-2458
  Rosa I. Arriaga; Andrew D. Miller; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Claudia Pagliari; Erika Shehan Poole
Designing and evaluating interactive systems for encouraging health behavior change at time leaves human-computer interaction researcher in a quandary: the methods and user-centered design philosophies favored in HCI can be incompatible with theory-driven approaches favored in healthcare research. The goal of this panel is to open a discussion about these tensions and to explore methods to reconcile them.
We need to talk: HCI and the delicate topic of spoken language interaction BIBAFull-Text 2459-2464
  Cosmin Munteanu; Matt Jones; Sharon Oviatt; Stephen Brewster; Gerald Penn; Steve Whittaker; Nitendra Rajput; Amit Nanavati
Speech and natural language remain our most natural form of interaction; yet the HCI community have been very timid about focusing their attention on designing and developing spoken language interaction techniques. This may be due to a widespread perception that perfect domain-independent speech recognition is an unattainable goal. Progress is continuously being made in the engineering and science of speech and natural language processing, however, and there is also recent research that suggests that many applications of speech require far less than 100% accuracy to be useful in many contexts. Engaging the CHI community now is timely -- many recent commercial applications, especially in the mobile space, are already tapping the increased interest in and need for natural user interfaces (NUIs) by enabling speech interaction in their products. As such, the goal of this panel is to bring together interaction designers, usability researchers, and general HCI practitioners to discuss the opportunities and directions to take in designing more natural interactions based on spoken language, and to look at how we can leverage recent advances in speech processing in order to gain widespread acceptance of speech and natural language interaction.
The future of HCI publishing in journals and books BIBAFull-Text 2465-2468
  Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; Beverley Ford; Dianne Murray; Doug Sery; Peter Thomas; Steve Whittaker; Shumin Zhai
With the ongoing growth of digital media, academic presses and journals have had to answer some hard questions about the role of publishing in a world of blogs, social media, on-demand video and social networking. In this panel we bring together some of the top editors and publishers in HCI to explore and address these questions in a public forum.

SIGs

Designing interactive secure system: chi 2013 special interest group BIBAFull-Text 2469-2472
  Shamal Faily; Lizzie Coles-Kemp; Paul Dunphy; Mike Just; Yoko Akama; Alexander De Luca
Despite a growing interest in the design and engineering of interactive secure systems, there is also a noticeable amount of fragmentation. This has led to a lack of awareness about what research is currently being carried out, and misunderstandings about how different fields can contribute to the design of usable and secure systems. By drawing interested members of the CHI community from design, user experience, engineering, and HCI Security, this SIG will take the first steps towards creating a research agenda for interactive secure system design. In the SIG, we will summarise recent initiatives to develop a research programme in interactive secure system design, network members of the CHI community with an interest in this research area, and initiate a roadmap towards addressing identified research challenges and building an interactive secure system design community.
Featured community SIG: human-computer interaction for development BIBAFull-Text 2473-2476
  Ban Al-Ani; Melissa Densmore; Edward Cutrell; Andrew Dearden; Rebecca E. Grinter; John C. Thomas; Matthew Kam; Anicia N. Peters
We are proposing a SIG designed for Human-Computer Interaction for Development (HCI4D) Community. It is designed to foster further collaboration, dissemination of research results and findings from practitioners, as well as to promote discussion of how we can both learn from each other and from those we serve in underserved communities wherever they may be.
The role of engineering work in CHI BIBAFull-Text 2477-2480
  Philippe Palanque; Fabio Paternò; Jeffrey Nichols; Nuno J. Nunes; Brad A. Myers
The Engineering community faces a number of issues around its role in the larger CHI community and its contribution to SIGCHI-sponsored conferences. This SIG aims to stimulate discussion and attention on the work of researchers interested in the engineering aspects of HCI. It is the forum to report progress on key issues, identify objectives for the near future, and develop plans to address them.
Enhancing the research infrastructure for child-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 2481-2484
  Janet C. Read; Juan Pablo Hourcade
The child-computer interaction community has been steadily adding research infrastructure over the past 20 years through books, the Interaction Design and Children conference, being a featured community at CHI, through an official IFIP group, and more recently through a journal. In this SIG we will discuss the next steps to further strengthen the research infrastructure in this research community with the goals of improving the quality of the research, enhancing research resources, and increasing the impact of the field in industry and education.
Consumer engagement in health technologies special interest group BIBAFull-Text 2485-2488
  Karen Cheng; Kelly Caine; Wanda Pratt; Kay Connelly
How do we keep consumers engaged in using health technologies? We welcome all researchers and practitioners who are interested in this question to join us for a spirited discussion, hosted by the CHI Health Community.
A new perspective for the games and entertainment community BIBAFull-Text 2489-2492
  Regina Bernhaupt; Katherine Isbister
Games and Entertainment has become an important area for researchers in Human-Computer Interaction. The community has grown dramatically in the past three years. During CHI 2012 a two-day workshop on Games User Research was held, and a growing number of game-oriented submissions shows the increasing importance of the field. In 2013 the successful Student Games Competition will continue and we plan to program engaging game experiences during CHI 2013. The games and entertainment community is the only community that got the agreement of the Conference Management Committee of SIGCHI to extend existence beyond the initial three years. The Games and Entertainment Community is thus extended for the years 2014 and following. It is of immense importance for the community to have the possibility to discuss new perspectives for the Games and Entertainment Community in a SIG.
Research-practice interaction: building bridges, closing the gap BIBAFull-Text 2493-2496
  Elizabeth Buie; Clare J. Hooper; Aaron Houssian
Previous work in the CHI community has identified and explored gaps between theory and practice in HCI research [2]. The recently formed SIGCHI Community on Research-Practice Interaction aims to help bridge the gap between research and practice, by for example supporting practitioner-friendly dissemination of results, and serving as a conduit for feedback from practitioners to researchers. This SIG is an opportunity for interested CHI attendees to meet members of the SIGCHI RPI community, and engage in discussions on RPI issues including the CHI format, dissemination of results, and supporting practice-based research.
Digital art: challenging perspectives BIBAFull-Text 2497-2500
  David England; Jill Fantauzzacoffin; Thecla Schiphorst; Celine Latulipe; Linda Candy
In this SIG for the Digital Arts Community, we respond to the conference theme of changing perspectives by offering challenging perspectives. The challenge comes in a two-way exchange between Digital Art and HCI. On the one side we have the making of new and unique forms, i.e. synthesis. Whilst on the other, we have knowledge-making grounded in the human sciences and engineering, in other words, predicting and validating analysis. In this SIG session we will provoke a discussion on these contrasting challenging perspectives. How does knowledge emerge between synthesis and analysis?
Managing UX teams BIBAFull-Text 2501-2504
  Janice A. Rohn; Carola Fellenz Thompson
This SIG will serve two purposes: as a forum to share the results from previous CHI management workshops and current trends, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
Changing perspectives on sustainability: healthy debate or divisive factions? BIBAFull-Text 2505-2508
  Daniela Busse; Samuel Mann; Lisa Nathan; Chris Preist
This year's Sustainability SIG invites participants to apply the conference theme "changing perspectives" to sustainability research and practice within the human computer interaction community. As the number of sustainability-oriented endeavors in the field continues to grow, so does the number of critiques on the work undertaken. Perspectives continue to shift concerning how the HCI community "should" attend to the monumental ecosystem changes societies face in the coming decades. For such an enormous problem, is it best to concentrate our limited resources (time, money, people) on compatible approaches in order to build on each other's findings? Do recent critiques risk sundering a nascent community of scholars? Or is it misguided to privilege a limited number of approaches to addressing a complex, problematic situation?
HCI with sports BIBAFull-Text 2509-2512
  Florian Mueller; Rohit A. Khot; Alan D. Chatham; Sebastiaan Pijnappel; Cagdas "Chad" Toprak; Joe Marshall
Recent advances in cheap sensor technology has made technology support for sports and physical exercise increasingly commonplace, which is evident from the growing popularity of heart rate monitors and GPS sports watches. This rise of technology to support sports activities raises many interaction issues, such as how to interact with these devices while moving and physically exerting. This special interest group brings together industry practitioners and researchers who are interested in designing and understanding human-computer interaction where the human is being physically active, engaging in exertion activities. Fitting with the theme, this special interest group will be "run" while running: participants will be invited to a jog together during which we will discuss technology interaction that is specific to being physically active whilst being physically active ourselves.
SIG: NVI (non-visual interaction) BIBAFull-Text 2513-2516
  Anke M. Brock; Slim Kammoun; Hugo Nicolau; Tiago Guerreiro; Shaun K. Kane; Christophe Jouffrais
In recent years there has been a surge in the development of non-visual interaction techniques targeting two application areas: making content accessible to visually impaired people, and supporting minimal attention user interfaces for situationally impaired users. This SIG aims to bring together the community of researchers working around non-visual interaction techniques for people of all abilities. It will unite members of this burgeoning community in a lively discussion and brainstorming session. Attendees will work to identify and report current and future research challenges as well as new research avenues.
HCI for peace ideathon BIBAFull-Text 2517-2520
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Lisa P. Nathan; Panayiotis Zaphiris; Massimo Zancanaro; Evangelos Kapros; John C. Thomas; Daniela K. Busse
Computers are increasingly mediating the way people make decisions, including those that can have an effect on conflict and peace. In addition, recent research provides empirical data on the factors that affect the likelihood of armed conflict. These conditions provide an unprecedented opportunity to the human-computer interaction community to play a role in preventing, de-escalating, and recovering from conflicts. This SIG will be the first opportunity for CHI attendees to meet during the main part of the conference, share their ideas, and provide concrete ways to move forward with this line of research.
On top of the user experience wave: how is our work changing? BIBAFull-Text 2521-2524
  Virpi Roto; Arnie Lund
The field of Human-Computer Interaction has evolved over three decades, from human factors and usability to user experience. But what has changed in practice, in the approaches and methods we use? Has anything changed other than the names of the teams within organizations? And what might be coming next? In this SIG, we discuss how the work of HCI professionals has changed over the years and explore the future of their work.
Automotive user interface research moves into fast lane BIBAFull-Text 2525-2528
  Susanne C. J. Boll; Andrew L. Kun; Peter Fröhlich; James Foley
This SIG will explore issues related to the design of in-vehicle human-computer interfaces. A modern vehicle's human-computer interface often facilitates the basic operation of the vehicle, but also provides more advanced features, such as assistive cruise control and lane keeping. Furthermore, today's drivers and passengers frequently use brought-in devices, in order to access navigation instructions, and use non-driving related types of digital information such as social media. The SIG will explore how in-vehicle interfaces can facilitate safe interactions for all of the occupants of the vehicle, and how they can take advantage of connected vehicle technologies.
SIG NIME: music, technology, and human-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 2529-2532
  Frederic Bevilacqua; Sidney Fels; Alexander R. Jensenius; Michael J. Lyons; Norbert Schnell; Atau Tanaka
This SIG intends to investigate the ongoing dialogue between music technology and the field of human-computer interaction. Our specific aims are to consider major findings of musical interface research over recent years and discuss how these might best be conveyed to CHI researchers interested but not yet active in this area, as well as to consider how to stimulate future collaborations between music technology and CHI research communities.
UrbanixD: designing human interactions in the networked city BIBAFull-Text 2533-2536
  Michael Smyth; Ingi Helgason; Martin Brynskov; Ivica Mitrovic; Gianluca Zaffiro
Interaction Design, in an urban context, is an increasingly important field of research. City populations are currently in a state of rapid flux. Conurbations are fast becoming a hybrid of the physical environment and the digital datasphere. How we, as physical beings, will connect with, interpret and adapt this increasing dataflow residing in our cities is already becoming a significant research question. The SIG organisers will frame the discussion through a human-centred view of the concerns, experiences and behaviours that may occur in cities of the future. By adopting an approach of Thinking and Doing it is hoped that the SIG will act as a catalyst for community building.
CHI 2013 human work interaction design (HWID) SIG: past history and future challenges BIBAFull-Text 2537-2540
  Torkil Clemmensen; Pedro F. Campos; Dinesh S. Katre; Jose Abdelnour-Nocera; Arminda Lopes; Rikke Orngreen; Shailey Minocha
In this SIG we aim to introduce the IFIP 13.6 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) approach to the CHI audience. The HWID working group aims at establishing relationships between extensive empirical work-domain studies and HCI design. We invite participants from industry and academia with an interest on empirical work analysis, HCI, interaction design and usability and user experience in work situations and in the workplace. This SIG is a vital step towards creating a CHI2014 workshop on this topic.
Science vs. science: the complexities of interdisciplinary research BIBAFull-Text 2541-2544
  Clare J. Hooper; David Millard; Jill Fantauzzacoffin; Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye
Human-Computer Interaction and Web Science are radically interdisciplinary fields, but what does this mean in practical terms? Undertaking research (and writing papers) that encompass multiple disciplinary perspectives and methods is a serious challenge and it is difficult to maintain conferences that fairly review and host contributions from multiple disciplines.
   The colocation of the ACM WebSci conference with CHI in Paris, offers an unusual opportunity to bring these two communities together. Previous discussions have considered how to conduct interdisciplinary work that bridges HCI/WebSci with specific areas. Our objective is to provide a space for interested researchers from both communities to share their views and approaches to tackling the tensions and complexities associated with interdisciplinary work, whatever fields are being bridged.
Visions and visioning in CHI: CHI 2013 special interest group meeting BIBAFull-Text 2545-2548
  Aaron Quigley; Alan Dix; Wendy E. Mackay; Hiroshi Ishii; Jürgen Steimle
There are many visions that touch on the future of human computer interaction from a trans-human future to a post-technological UI. However visions related to the progress of technology are not new. Creative and insightful visionaries from Denis Diderot to Vannevar Bush have been postulating visions of possible futures or technology for centuries. Some idealised views end up discredited with advances in knowledge, while others now appear remarkably prescient. The question is, do visions and the process of creating them have a place in CHI, or are they simply flights of fancy?
   This SIG meeting provides a forum for visionaries; researchers and practitioners looking to consider the place and importance of visions within CHI. Can visions, the process of visioning and forming new visions help us refine, advance or develop new research or forms of interaction. And if visions are important to us, then are they part of the regular academic process? If so, should CHI provide venues for publishing new visions?

Student design competition

Maater: crowdsourcing to improve online journalism BIBAFull-Text 2549-2554
  Raymond Liaw; Ari Zilnik; Mark Baldwin; Stephanie Butler
A system that acts as a tool to correct inaccuracies and biases in online news articles is needed to alleviate the flow of misinformation perpetuated by the fast paced nature of the Internet. We propose Maater, which counteracts these issues by leveraging crowdsourced corrections and fact checking to help other readers engaged with a particular article better understand it. The system incorporates user-generated in-line commentary and corrections, which are vetted by other readers through a ranking system. Highly ranked comments gain more social value and are prominently displayed. This provides corrections with greater prominence than they are given by news outlets.
Xpress: crowdsourcing native speakers to learn colloquial expressions in a second language BIBAFull-Text 2555-2560
  Yung-Ju Chang; Lezhong Li; Shih-Hsuan Chou; Min-Chih Liu; Surong Ruan
Many second language (SL) learners want to speak fluently to native speakers. However, formal language education and existing tools are insufficient for learning language for use in daily life. We propose Xpress, a mobile Q&A-based system that crowdsources native speakers to provide everyday expressions to SL learners. To enable native speakers to understand SL learners' questions, Xpress allows SL learners to compose "context-embedded" questions with the help of multimedia. In addition, Xpress allows SL learners to explore expressions broadly and search for topic-specific expressions. Finally, Xpress provides several facilities to help effective learning of expressions. The results of our study confirm the above design idea and show Xpress' potential to help SL learners effectively learn colloquial expressions.
Comic circuit: an online community for the creation and consumption of news comics BIBAFull-Text 2561-2566
  Bingxin Chen; Rebecca Jablonsky; Jack Benjamin Margines; Raunaq Gupta; Shailie Thakkar
News articles present important information in a lengthy, often exclusively textual way, which can be less accessible for teens and young adults looking to scan information quickly. News articles have the potential to reach a wider audience and tell more effective stories if presented in a visual, succinct, and engaging manner. Comics are a medium that can become an alternative to news articles, because their storyboard format has the ability to both inform and excite readers. We propose Comic Circuit, a website where users can create and consume news comics that are based on news articles. Low and medium fidelity prototypes of the system were designed after interviewing expert cartoonists and creating personas of potential users. We used our mid-fi mockups to conduct user testing with young adults, and did additional quality assurance of our design with a quantitative study. We present a high-fidelity prototype of Comic Circuit based on this testing and research. The community of users can benefit from this system by consuming news quickly, gaining recognition for their comic creation work, and expanding their skill set.
Markitup: crowdsourced collaborative reading BIBAFull-Text 2567-2572
  Luke Chircop; Jithin Radhakrishnan; Laila Selener; Ju Chiu
People enjoy the sensual and physiological properties of physical books as well as the ease of creating bookmarks and annotations. However, an abundance of annotations can be distracting from the reading experience. With the introduction of e-books, sharing annotations has enabled reading to have a social context, which research has shown to benefit learning and understanding.
   Using a research through design approach we developed Markitup: a crowdsourced reading tool that enables individuals to read and annotate in a collaborative environment and benefit from the knowledge of the crowd. We found that participants appreciated the combined advantages of the physical artefact, the flexible digital annotations and the social learning context.
Let's chalk!: strengthening communities through play BIBAFull-Text 2573-2578
  Matthew Jennex; Stephanie Louraine; Stephen Miller; Angélica Rosenzweig Castillo
Greenways (public outdoor walking and biking paths) are unique communities ripe for collaboration. We propose Let's Chalk: a system for collaborative distance sidewalk chalk play that connects greenways in different locations to create an aesthetic experience that changes perspectives via reflection and strengthened community.
AME-C raising awareness for a life free of gender violence BIBAFull-Text 2579-2584
  Joscelin Rojas López; Stephanie López Hayna; Marvelia Gizé Jiménez Guzmán
Gender violence is a problem with serious consequences for women's rights around the world. It is ever present, but at times hidden and even justified by the very person who suffers the attacks. Very often society silences or condemns those who dare denounce it. AME-C is a system that connects women in the state of Oaxaca, México to change their perspective about violence so they can transform their lives. It tries to give them assistance to help recuperate their lost confidence and make them realize they are not alone. It bonds and motivates communication and collaboration between women, specialists and institutions, generating updated knowledge and understanding which in turn enables institutions to study intimate-partner violence.
Strive: student-athletes transitioning with camaraderie and competition BIBAFull-Text 2585-2590
  Dennis Ellis; Tony Kennedy; Vamsi Pasupuleti; Adam Williams; Yalu Ye
When a collegiate student-athlete's athletic eligibility expires, a transitional period follows when student-athletes begin to establish a new identity separate from sport. During the transition, student-athletes lose the opportunity to compete with teammates on a daily basis. We propose Strive, which helps former student-athletes maintain camaraderie with former teammates through real-time, remote competitions.
KAVA: the virtual experience of urban sharing BIBAFull-Text 2591-2596
  Nacim Fouad Amirouche; Marie-Christine Lafond; Josianne Lavigne; Marc-André Monette
The Saint-Roch district in Québec city, has undergone several major changes in recent years, especially with the increasing number of technology companies in the area. But the individuals who work there are invisible. There is a way for workers to participate in the technoartistic identity of the neighborhood. A solution that will allow them to contribute to the history of this urban restructuring. It is by impregnated their knowledge and expertise to the physical place that technology workers will transmit their identity to the neighborhood. This concept is named KAVA.
Wonder album: cultural awareness through knowledge creation BIBAFull-Text 2597-2602
  Chi Chen; Jared M. Forney; Michael C. Moreau; Michael D. Stallings
The visceral or felt experience and its emotional component are essential to conveying cultural experiences. While discovering new information is easy, conveying the emotional aspect of a cultural experience is much more complex and nuanced. This paper outlines a project to convey the felt experience of culturally mediated events through the use of crowd-sourced photo collages. The focus of the project is to help bridge the gap between domestic and international students and promote cultural exchange.
YiVi: a system which organizes, promotes and democratizes social participation in the indigenous communities in Mexico BIBAFull-Text 2603-2608
  Gabriela Hernández Salvador; Alexandra Ramírez Ortiz; Palmira Ramírez Ramos; Emilio Sánchez
We present YiVi, a system to improve and to strengthen the traditional organization and communication in the indigenous towns in Mexico. A characteristic of all these collectives is the persistent collaboration and social participation used to improve their community. Our main objective is for these communities to be able to meet their needs through collaboration, thus, maintaining their independence and democratizing decision making. To achieve this we created a terminal focused on the community of Santiago de Yosondúa. Our system will allow communities to consolidate their ways of organization, and people will have the means for social participation and the world will appreciate a model of collaborative crowd, which will be strengthened through technology.
Paléo: a collaborative system for social conciliation BIBAFull-Text 2609-2614
  Tony Aubé; Hugo Savoie; Mathieu Theriault; Stéphanie Turgeon-Girard
Québec City's Saint-Roch District (Canada) is going through an urban and social transformation period. Over the years, the various efforts aimed at revitalizing the district contributed to the creation of a significant divide between the different social classes. The solution we devised, Paléo, is a social impact outdoor interface aiming to bring together the people frequenting the district. By placing users in a collaborative situation toward a common goal, the search for warmth during the cold Québec winter, our system intends to stimulate the evolution of reciprocal perceptions, and thus, improve the quality of the experience in the district.

Student games competition

ATUM: applying multi-layer game design and environmental storytelling BIBAFull-Text 2623-2626
  Marta C. Jimenez; Thomas P. Buijtenweg
ATUM has been designed to pull the players into a world where they themselves become a layer of the game's narrative system. It brings a novel take on the point-and-click gameplay in a 3D game environment and it combines it with2D platform-game puzzles. The game plays with the concept of multi-layer game design and adapts the literary trope of mise en abyme into a videogame experience. The story scheme is largely communicated by multiple in-game references across the layers, with an emphasis on using the environment as a designer-authored narrative device to facilitate both immersion, and guiding players towards interaction.
Card board: a flexible environment for any game, anyone, any moment BIBAFull-Text 2627-2630
  Gifford Cheung
Card Board is an online application for playing almost any traditional card game without restricting who can change the rules or when. Its design goal is to facilitate socially negotiated play, where the pace and the rules are determined by the players rather than the computer. In its first iteration, Card Board offers a generic simulation of a card deck where almost all actions are manual. In its second iteration, it adds intelligent components to explore the tradeoffs between manual and automatic, and to examine how they can work hand in hand. A "flexible" approach informs the design. Two sub-strategies, versatility and robustness, are introduced and discussed here. The system is described and implications for designing for the unknown are briefly addressed.
Umbra: beyond avatars: a gaming installation using shadows BIBAFull-Text 2631-2634
  Alexander Goldman; Duarte Teixeira; Sara Tranquada; Julia Silva; Ana Alves; Jorge Diaz; Boram Han; Carlos Camacho
This document details the design and development of Umbra, an installation-based game that makes use of a semi-transparent screen projected upon from both sides. The setup enables players to be represented in-game via their shadows, instead of avatars. This document discusses the design of Umbra and how its shadow-as-avatar mechanics advance the gaming industry's approach to player representation in-game. It focuses on the role avatars play in promoting player immersion and emotional connection in multi-player experiences. Umbra achieves these effects to a greater degree using the player his/herself as avatar, represented through their shadows.
iSpine: a motion-sensing edutainment system for improving children's spinal health BIBAFull-Text 2635-2638
  Sheng-Jhe Hsu; Wen-Sheng Tseng; Fu-Chieh Hsu; Yung-Ying Lo
We present iSpine, a Kinect-based edutainment system co-designed with children and domain experts for improving spinal health through motion-based therapeutic exercises and educational content. Our system incorporates a reward system and a pet-based storyline to motivate users and was conducted over a 4-week field study with 7 children. Our contributions and results are as follows: 1) children had significantly improved their asymmetry in range of motion (ROM) -- an important indicator for diagnosing scoliosis -- from 19 æ to 7 æ, 2) significantly improved their scores on spinal health concepts from 78% to 94%, 3) strongly favored iSpine to the current spinal health curriculum, and 4) showed strong interest in using iSpine daily.
Machineers: playfully introducing programming to children BIBAFull-Text 2639-2642
  Henrike Lode; Giuseppe E. Franchi; Niels G. Frederiksen
In this document, the authors present the concept of the design experiment Machineers, a game that is intended to serve as an example of a good educational game by combining a set of game design principles with beneficial learning approaches.
Forgotten island: a story-driven citizen science adventure BIBAFull-Text 2643-2646
  Nathan Prestopnik; Dania Souid
Forgotten Island, a citizen science video game, is part of an NSF-funded design science research project, Citizen Sort. It is a mechanism to help life scientists classify photographs of living things and a research tool to help HCI and information science scholars explore storytelling, engagement, and the quality of citizen-produced data in the context of citizen science.
Celestia: a vocal interaction music game BIBAFull-Text 2647-2650
  Yang Shi; Cheng Yang
Voice is one of the most natural means of expression and the vocal interaction is gaining popularity in game development field. In this paper, we present Celestia, a vocal interaction music game that detects different pitches to trigger specific visual events, and explain the design and development phases of it.
Squidge: an integrated game controller BIBAFull-Text 2651-2654
  Thomas P. B. Smith
Interface is very important to the play experience of a video game; a poor interface can undergo breakdown, breaking the player from being immersed and ruining their experience. In this project we consider the physical interface as an integrated element of the game design which allows us convey the narrative through mechanics across the physical and digital interface. Focusing on the concept of physical restriction, we have created a game in which the mechanics, narrative and interface are designed together in an attempt to create a unique play experience.
Wake up call BIBAFull-Text 2655-2658
  Martin Ziegler
In this abstract, we will introduce Wake Up Call, a short interactive piece that aims to convey the experience that takes place in a comatose man's mind. As the man's mind is trying to wake up back to consciousness, the player observes and drives its attempts to reconstruct its basic capabilities, which are represented as surrealist puzzles that the player has to overcome in order to progress. Wake Up Call aspires to explore how ludic mechanics can be used to create metaphors that express poetic meanings, while engaging the player in the experience in the immersive way that only an interactive medium can realise. Wake Up Call has been publicly released in October 2012 and is available to play with no price attached.

Student research competition

Quantifying and reducing the cost of web edits BIBAFull-Text 2659-2664
  Edward Benson
The web is an increasingly important medium of expression for both technical and non-technical authors, and the family of web languages (HTML, CSS, Javascript, etc) is poised to become the de facto content authoring format across disciplines. For such a future to become possible, the ease with which authors -- especially non-technical authors -- can express themselves becomes paramount. This work presents a method of reducing the complexity of source-level HTML authoring and shows its experimental impact on usability. Our initial findings suggest a path toward simpler HTML source organization without sacrificing rich, modern design.
Adapting arcade games for learning BIBAFull-Text 2665-2670
  Carrie J. Cai
Although memory exercises and arcade-style games are alike in their repetitive nature, memorization tasks like vocabulary drills tend to be mundane and tedious while arcade-style games are popular, intense and broadly addictive. This suggests an opportunity to modify well-known, existing arcade games for the purpose of memorization and learning. A key challenge to modifying any existing arcade-style game is the incorporation of learning on top of an already fast-paced, mentally demanding game. This paper presents a web-based vocabulary-drill game, based on Tetris and augmented with speech recognition (Figure 1). To help adult learners acquire new vocabulary, we embed an in-game mechanism that presents vocabulary items to be learned via word-picture associations. Using our working speech recognition prototype, we investigate the extent to which retrieval practice, an educationally effective but cognitively demanding strategy, impacts learning and engagement in this fast-paced game environment.
What makes online health information credible for older adults?: an exploratory study BIBAFull-Text 2671-2676
  Wonchan Choi
This paper reports on an exploratory study aimed to collect preliminary data on the credibility assessment of health-related online resources by older adults (OAs), which then would be used to develop a population-specific survey instrument and controlled experiments. The paper defines a methodology and reports on preliminary findings on how credibility markers (i.e., cues) play a positive or negative role in OAs' credibility assessment of health-related websites. Nineteen participants in the semi-structured interviews seemed to perceive health-related websites as most credible when they provided unbiased information, whereas most of the participants showed strong hostilities to advertisements on the websites. The paper also outlines future research directions.
Human cognitive measurement as a metric within usability studies BIBAFull-Text 2677-2682
  Michael Crabb
There has been a growing interest in the impact that age and online abilities can have on an individual's experience of using the Internet. However, the reliance on these factors has not shown to be entirely conclusive. The current paper develops previous work in this area by using cognitive factors as a method to further analyse user experience. In an experiment, a comparison was drawn between older and younger adults examining Internet experience and multiple cognitive abilities. Overall, the results show that cognitive factors can be used to account for a substantial amount of disorientation felt by users and that these factors can be used to improve the understanding of reasons surrounding web usability. It is also shown that previous Internet experience and confidence differentially effect older and younger adults' feelings of disorientation, with increased confidence resulting in higher disorientation in younger adults but not older adults.
Seizure frequency analysis mobile application: the participatory design of an interface with and for caregivers BIBAFull-Text 2683-2688
  Heather R. Ellis
A participatory research design study using User Centred Design (UCD) was used to create a mobile User Interface (UI) for a system which allows caregivers to capture information of a seizure for someone with complex epilepsy. This study involved potential end users and followed Human Computer Interaction (HCI) principles. Feedback from users demonstrated that the design is intuitive and provides support in managing the patient's seizure in a way that current systems fail to do.
Couple collaboration: a design research exploration BIBAFull-Text 2689-2694
  Li He
In the past few years, technologies designed to mediate intimacy have been growing, especially devices that support intimate acts and connectivity between geographically separated couples. However, romantic intimacy has several components, and the majority of couples are co-located, suggesting a design space to be explored. The current study aims to investigate how local intimate couples collaborate with each other to accomplish collective tasks in their daily life, and how couple collaboration may differ from teamwork within the workplace. The research process and findings will be discussed, and design implications for intimate technology will be provided. These insights could be used to explore novel design opportunities to mediate cognitive intimacy and mutuality within a couple.
Foot position as indicator of spatial interest at public displays BIBAFull-Text 2695-2700
  Bernd Huber
Motivated by and grounded in observations of foot patterns in a human-human dialogue, this study explores expressions of spatial interest through feet at public displays. We conducted an observation and recorded user foot orientation and position in a public information display environment leading to data about 84 interaction sessions. Our observations show that characteristic foot patterns can be matched with two user intentions: (A) Users who seek access to specific information, and (B) users who don't seek specific information. With the goal to detect intention through foot patterns, we classified characteristic foot patterns with a SVM pattern recognition algorithm, which resulted in a detection accuracy of 84.4%. This work can be valuable for researchers designing context-aware public displays.
Sweat-atoms: crafting physical objects with everyday exercise BIBAFull-Text 2701-2706
  Rohit A. Khot
In this paper, we introduce a novel idea of associating physical exercise with the creative process of crafting physical objects. Our aim is to harness physical exercise as a source for self-expression. We present Sweat-Atoms, a 3D modeling and printing system, which generates abstract 3D designs using the heart rate patterns of individuals engaged in a physical activity. The crafted physical objects can act as souvenirs and be testimony to the invested human efforts in performing the physical activity. The preliminary responses to the system have been encouraging. Participants liked the crafting of their exercise patterns and they were eager to experiment our system with different physical exercises.
Toolscape: enhancing the learning experience of how-to videos BIBAFull-Text 2707-2712
  Juho Kim
Video tutorials on the web have gained popularity in various domains, but most video repositories are not designed to support the unique content and structure of how-to videos. Learners face difficulty in finding relevant videos and applying the skills embedded in a video clip. We introduce ToolScape, a video browsing interface with a storyboard summarization and an interactive timeline. It allows learners to quickly scan, filter, and review multiple videos without having to play them. Learners can also jump to or repeat a particular step within a clip by clicking interactive indices on the timeline. In a within-subjects study where participants engaged in end-to-end design tasks with ToolScape and a control interface based on YouTube, the participants using ToolScape rated their design work higher and showed a higher gain in self-efficacy. External raters ranked designs using ToolScape higher.
Re-imagining persuasion: designing for self-transcendence BIBAFull-Text 2713-2718
  Bran Knowles
The last few years have seen a flurry of persuasive technologies aiming to encourage pro-environmental behaviors. In this study, I critique the dominant means of persuasion by operationalizing and applying the lessons of a robust body of psychology research on values, specifically exploring the kinds of values accommodated by and appealed to with these technologies. Results indicate that these designs overwhelming appeal to Self-Enhancement values, the same strategic approach associated with historically unsuccessful environmental and social campaigns. This insight is used as a springboard for discussion about a radically different, and thus far untried strategy for addressing the challenge of sustainability within persuasive technology research and sustainable HCI more generally.
Smart subtitles for language learning BIBAFull-Text 2719-2724
  Geza Kovacs
Language learners often use subtitled videos to help them learn the language. However, standard subtitles are suboptimal for vocabulary acquisition, as translations are nonliteral and made at the phrase level, making it hard to find connections between the subtitle text and the words in the video. This paper presents Smart Subtitles, which are interactive subtitles tailored towards vocabulary acquisition. They provide features such as vocabulary definitions on hover, and dialog-based video navigation. Our user study shows that Chinese learners learn over twice as much vocabulary with Smart Subtitles than with dual Chinese-English subtitles, with similar levels of comprehension and enjoyment.
Real-time conversational crowd assistants BIBAFull-Text 2725-2730
  Walter S. Lasecki
When people work together, they converse about their current actions and intentions, building a shared context to inform their collaboration. Despite decades of research attempting to replicate this natural form of interaction in computers, the capabilities of conversational assistants are still extremely limited. In this paper, we investigate how human and machine intelligence can be combined to create assistants that work even in real-world situations. We introduce a crowd-powered conversational interface, called Chorus, that allows users to interact with a group of crowd workers as if they are a single conversional partner. We use Chorus as a personal assistant, and show that our incentive mechanism enables workers to hold consistent conversations and answer 84% of questions accurately. We then discuss a number of potential improvements that can be made by integrating artificial intelligence, and future systems that our work enables.
Theseus: understanding asynchronous code BIBAFull-Text 2731-2736
  Tom Lieber<