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Behaviour and Information Technology 24

Editors:Tom Stewart
Publisher:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Standard No:ISSN 0144-929X
Links:Table of Contents
  1. BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 1
  2. BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 2
  3. BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 3
  4. BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 4
  5. BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 5
  6. BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 6

BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 1

Mobile guides -- an HCI perspective BIBFull-Text 1
  Keith Cheverst; Barbara Schmidt-Belz
How can we best use landmarks to support older people in navigation? BIBAFull-Text 3-20
  J. Goodman; S. A. Brewster; P. Gray
Although landmarks are an integral part of navigation, they have rarely been used explicitly within electronic pedestrian navigation aids. We describe a two-part study into the use of landmarks in such aids, using a set of field experiments. The first part investigated whether such devices can be effective for older adults (over 60 years old), who might particularly benefit from them due to declines in sensory, cognitive and motor abilities. The second part compared the effectiveness of different methods of presenting landmark information. We show that a pedestrian navigation aid based around landmarks is particularly useful for older people and demonstrate that text, speech and photographs are all effective ways of presenting landmark information, although speech on its own has some drawbacks. We found that different people prefer information to be presented in different modalities, indicating a need for personalisation, although multi-modality may also help to address this issue.
Understanding and modelling built environments for mobile guide interface design BIBAFull-Text 21-35
  J. Paay; J. Kjeldskov
The research presented in this paper aims to inform interface design for mobile guides by understanding and modelling the built environments in which the guide will be used. This is important because research into the use of mobile guides has shown that people have a strong ability to make sense of the physical space in which they are situated and make use of this when using mobile guides. Based on a field study and architectural analysis of the recently built Federation Square in Melbourne, Australia, we present a descriptive framework, MIRANDA, which provides a summarized abstraction of the fundamental architectural and informational features of a built environment. The use of this descriptive framework in HCI design for mobile guides is exemplified through the design of a mobile guide system for Federation Square that was informed by the identified architectural characteristics. On the basis of the field study and example design, we argue that mobile guides interface design can benefit from making use of 'knowledge-in-the-world' by streamlining and indexing information and functionality to physical information cues implicit in the built environment surrounding the user.
User acceptance of location-aware mobile guides based on seven field studies BIBAFull-Text 37-49
  E. Kaasinen
Location-awareness provides mobile users with topical and personal contents that may increase the appeal of mobile guides in different application fields. Based on the results of seven field studies, this paper identifies factors of usability, utility and user trust that affect the user acceptance of location-aware mobile guides. The results indicate that on-the-move use sets high requirements for ease-of-use and, in particular, ease of taking the services into use. The need for location-aware mobile guides turned out to be occasional, but in many of those occasional usage situations the guides proved extremely useful. The trade-off between privacy protection and effortless use requires careful consideration, even though in these studies the users turned out to be trusting towards the service providers. The results indicate that location-awareness can provide the users with easy-to-use and situationally relevant mobile guides.
Evaluating the usability of a mobile guide: the influence of location, participants and resources BIBAFull-Text 51-65
  J. Kjeldskov; C. Graham; S. Pedell; F. Vetere; S. Howard; S. Balbo; J. Davies
When designing a usability evaluation, choices must be made regarding methods and techniques for data collection and analysis. Mobile guides raise new concerns and challenges to established usability evaluation approaches. Not only are they typically closely related to objects and activities in the user's immediate surroundings, they are often used while the user is ambulating. This paper presents results from an extensive, multi-method evaluation of a mobile guide designed to support the use of public transport in Melbourne, Australia. In evaluating the guide, we applied four different techniques; field-evaluation, laboratory evaluation, heuristic walkthrough and rapid reflection. This paper describes these four approaches and their respective outcomes, and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses for evaluating the usability of mobile guides.
The impact of interface metaphor and context of use on the usability of a speech-based mobile city guide service BIBAFull-Text 67-78
  M. Howell; S. Love; M. Turner
This experiment investigated the effect of interface metaphor and context of use (private/public) on the usability of a hierarchically structured speech-activated mobile city guide service. Two different versions of the service were evaluated using a Wizard of Oz methodology. The first was a non-metaphor standard service with numbered menu options. The second was a service based on an office filing system metaphor, with different metaphor-related menu options at each level. User performance and attitudes to the services were recorded over a six week period, and post-trial interviews conducted. Results showed that the interface metaphor improved participants' performance compared to the standard service, but had no effect on attitudes. Context of use did not affect the usability of the services, which supports their use for mobile interaction. Visualisation of the metaphor-based service significantly affected participants' attitudes, suggesting an additional benefit of using interface metaphor for the design of speech-based mobile phone services.

BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 2

Editorial BIBFull-Text 79-80
  Tom Stewart
Effect of display factors on Chinese reading times, comprehension scores and preferences BIBAFull-Text 81-91
  Ahs Chan; Psk Lee
This paper presents the results of research on elemental standard reading time estimates for traditional Chinese characters on computer displays and explores the factors that may affect the time estimates. Seventy-two native Chinese readers, aged 19 to 24, were asked to read 16 simple passages and then answer four multiple-choice questions. Results indicated that the basic reading time was 213 milliseconds per character (msC?-?1) for comprehending the messages conveyed by the passages. Analysis of variance showed that font type, character size, line spacing and display polarity affected reading speed. Traditional Chinese characters of Ming style, 14-point size, double line spacing and positive polarity produced faster reading times and higher preferences than characters of Li style, 10-point size, single line spacing and negative polarity. However, only character size had a significant influence on comprehension score. Recommendations for appropriate display formats and layouts for traditional Chinese characters on computer displays based on the results of subjective preferences and objective measures are discussed.
Individual differences in hypertext browsing strategies BIBAFull-Text 93-99
  M. Graff
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in web browsing strategies between older and younger participants and also between individuals displaying verbaliser and imager cognitive styles. Typically, verbalisers process information in word form, whereas imagers process information in terms of images. Ten minutes each were allowed to 58 participants to read information in either a hierarchical or relational hypertext with the expectation of answering questions on this information. Browsing strategies were assessed firstly by using three indices of browsing patterns (number of pages visited, proportion of pages visited and pages revisited) and secondly by analysing assessments of browsing strategies given by independent judges. Differences were found between imagers and verbalisers for the indices of browsing patterns, with verbalisers visiting more pages in the hierarchical architecture and imagers visiting more pages in the relational architecture. Similarly, differences were noted between younger and older participants, with the younger groups visiting more pages in the hierarchical condition and the older groups visiting more pages in the relational condition. No differences were observed for the judge's ratings of browsing strategy. The findings have possible implications for the design of web-based instructional systems.
Determinant elements of customer relationship management in e-business BIBAFull-Text 101-109
  D. Horn; R. Feinberg; G. Salvendy
This study investigates the composition of customer relationship management (CRM) in e-business by examining the possible elements that determine different aspects of the relationship between customers and e-businesses. A web-based CRM survey of 38 items, constructed from SERVQUAL (service quality instrument), SITEQUAL (website service quality instrument) and literature findings, was completed by 200 customer contact professionals. Results of a factor analysis indicated three main customer relationship attributes of e-business, which are: general CRM (accounting for 51% of the total variance); personalization (accounting for 9% of the total variance); and privacy (accounting for 7% of the total variance). Results of a stepwise regression indicated that these customer relationship attributes significantly predict customer attitude (83% of the explained variance). Within the general CRM dimension, website content organization correlated highly with customer attitude (65% of the explained variance). The results of the study indicate that customers perceive three main dimensions of relationship attributes of e-business (general CRM, personalization and privacy) and that all three significantly contribute to customer attitude. These findings support the importance of including relational-type e-business attributes when investigating interactions between customers and e-business. The study concludes with related implications and design guidelines to enhancing customer perception of e-business.
Mobile phones and the evolution of social behaviour BIBAFull-Text 111-129
  L. Srivastava
Today's mobile phone is a pervasive tool. It has become such an important aspect of a user's daily life that it has moved from being a mere 'technological object' to a key 'social object'. This paper explores the societal and human implications of advances in mobile technology, and notably the increasingly personalized nature of the mobile device. It argues that human and identity and social interaction have not been untouched by the mobile phenomenon.
A learning process in email use-a longitudinal case study of the interaction between organization and technology BIBAFull-Text 131-145
  B. van den Hooff
This paper explores the process of adoption, use and effects of an ICT application (electronic mail) in an organization. This process is considered to be a learning process, in which users, over time, learn to use email to a greater extent, for a broader range of tasks, and more effectively. The results of a longitudinal case study are described. In four time periods (1993, 1995, 1997 and 2000), random samples of users were surveyed with regard to their use of email and its effects. This produced a unique dataset. The longitudinal character of this case study provided an excellent opportunity to follow the learning process through time, and analyse the influence of different variables on the course of this process. MANOVAs show empirical support for the 'learning process', manifested in changes in extent, ways and effectiveness of email use. The analysis indicates that technological innovation could be an important influence on the course of this learning process.
Mental models and online consumer behaviour BIBAFull-Text 147-150
  J. M. Stibel
As the Internet evolves into a medium for communication, commerce and information gathering, marketers need to focus on creating an experience for a given task that is intuitive to users. Marketing on the Internet requires an explicit knowledge of not only the user's needs, but also the information necessary to meet those needs. Understanding and applying different models of presenting information, the ways in which the information will be used and the processes by which people think about that information will enable a more intuitive and compelling online experience. The current paper applies relevant research in economics, psychology and marketing to establish a method for analyzing and critiquing different cognitive paradigms.
Social presence in distributed group environments: the role of social identity BIBAFull-Text 151-158
  P. Rogers; M. Lea
This paper argues that to achieve social presence in a distributed environment, it is not necessary to emulate face-to-face conditions of increased cues to the interpersonal. Rather, it is argued, that a sense of belongingness to the group, or perceptual immersion in the group, can be realised through the creation of a shared social identity between group members. From this perspective, social presence is a function of the cognitive representation of the group by group members and not the interpersonal bonds between group members. Furthermore, specific design features and characteristics of the distributed learning environment can be utilised to achieve and maintain this shared group identity. This approach, encapsulated by the SIDE model, is discussed and supported by two case studies of distributed students, each consisting of 10 groups, collaborating for a period of 5 weeks on group projects.

BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 3

Editorial BIBFull-Text 159-160
  Andrew Sears; Julie A. Jacko
Image pre-compensation to facilitate computer access for users with refractive errors BIBAKFull-Text 161-173
  M., Jr. Alonso; A. Barreto; J. G. Cremades; J. A. Jacko; M. Adjouadi
Computer technologies, frequently employed for everyday tasks, often use Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs), presented through monitors or LCD displays. This type of visual interface is not well suited for users with refractive visual limitations, particularly when they are severe and not correctable by common means. In order to facilitate computer access for users with refractive deficiencies, an algorithm has been developed, using a priori knowledge of the visual aberration, to generate on-screen images that counter the effect of the aberration. When the user observes the screen displaying a pre-compensated image, the image perceived in the retina will be similar to the original image. The algorithm was tested by artificially introducing a spherical aberration in the field of view of 14 subjects, totaling 28 individual eyes. This use of pre-compensation improves the visual performance of the subjects with respect to that achieved with no compensation.
Keywords: Point spread function, Retina, Deconvolution, Pre-deblurring, Human-computer interface, Refractive error, Wavefront aberration, Image processing, Universal access
Understanding users with Diabetic Retinopathy: factors that affect performance in a menu selection task BIBAKFull-Text 175-186
  P. J. Edwards; L. Barnard; V. K. Leonard; J. S. Yi; K. P. Moloney; T. Kongnakorn; J. A. Jacko; F. Sainfort
This paper examines factors that affect performance on a basic menu selection task by users who are visually healthy and users with Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) in order to inform better interface design. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine various contextual factors that influenced task efficiency (time) and accuracy (errors). Interface characteristics such as multimodal feedback, Windows accessibility settings, and menu item location were investigated along with various visual function and participant characteristics. Results indicated that Windows accessibility settings and other factors, including age, computer experience, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and menu item location, were significant predictors of task performance.
Keywords: Multimodal feedback, Windows accessibility settings, Visual impairment, Diabetic Retinopathy, Menu selection
Integrated text entry from power wheelchairs BIBAKFull-Text 187-203
  Jacob O. Wobbrock; Htet Htet Aung; Brad A. Myers; Edmund F. Lopresti
Power wheelchair joysticks have be used to control a mouse cursor on desktop computers, but they offer no integrated text entry solution, confining users to point-and-click or point-and-dwell with on-screen keyboards. On-screen keyboards reduce useful screen real-estate, exacerbating the need for frequent window management, and impose a secondary focus of attention. By contrast, we present two integrated gestural text entry methods designed for use from power wheelchairs: one for use with joysticks and the other for use with touchpads. Both techniques are adaptations of EdgeWrite, originally a stylus-based unistroke method designed for people with tremor. In a preliminary text entry study of 7 power wheelchair users, we found that EdgeWrite with a touchpad was faster than the on-screen keyboard WiViK with a joystick, and EdgeWrite with a joystick was only slightly slower. These results warranted a multi-session comparison of text entry with EdgeWrite and WiViK using joysticks and touchpads, in which we found touchpads faster than joysticks, and EdgeWrite faster than WiViK with both devices after initial learning periods.
Keywords: Power wheelchair, Computer access, On-screen keyboard, Joystick, Touchpad, Text entry, Text input, Unistrokes, Gestures, EdgeWrite, WiViK, Pebbles
A submovement analysis of cursor trajectories BIBAKFull-Text 205-217
  F. Hwang; S. Keates; P. Langdon; J. Clarkson
Understanding human movement is key to improving input devices and interaction techniques. This paper presents a study of mouse movements of motion-impaired users, with an aim to gaining a better understanding of impaired movement. The cursor trajectories of six motion-impaired users and three able-bodied users are studied according to their submovement structure. Performance measures based on submovement structure are described, including the frequency and duration of pauses between submovements, verification times, the number of submovements, the peak speed of submovements and the accuracy of submovements in two dimensions. The measures are shown to be sensitive to differences between users with dissimilar physical capabilities. Results include findings that some motion-impaired users pause more often and for longer than able-bodied users, require up to five times more submovements to complete the same task, and exhibit a greater decline in accuracy with increasing speed than able-bodied users.
Keywords: Motion-impaired, Disability, Computer access, Cursor control, Pointing device, Computer mouse, Movement trajectories, Performance measurement, Submovement, Microstructure
Speech-based cursor control using grids: modelling performance and comparisons with other solutions BIBAKFull-Text 219-230
  L. Dai; R. Goldman; A. Sears; J. Lozier
Speech recognition can be a powerful tool for use in human-computer interaction, especially in situations where the user's hands are unavailable or otherwise engaged. Researchers have confirmed that existing mechanisms for speech-based cursor control are both slow and error prone. To address this, we evaluated two variations of a novel grid-based cursor controlled via speech recognition. One provides users with nine cursors that can be used to specify the desired location while the second, more traditional solution, provides a single cursor. Our results confirmed a speed/accuracy trade-off with a nine-cursor variant allowing for faster task completion times while the one-cursor version resulted in reduced error rates. Our solutions eliminated the effect of distance, and dramatically reduced the importance of target size as compared to previous speech-based cursor control mechanisms. The results are explored through a predictive model and comparisons with results from earlier studies.
Keywords: Speech recognition, Navigation, Mouse, Cursor control
Achieving a more usable World Wide Web BIBAFull-Text 231-246
  V. L. Hanson; J. T. Richards
Over the last few years, we have built and tested two systems designed to make Web content more accessible for people with limited vision and dexterity. The first system, based on content transcoding via a proxy server, possessed several attractive features but proved to be unacceptably complex, error prone, and slow. The second system, based on client-side transformations, worked well enough to be broadly deployed. We report here on lessons learned and on the current state of the research effort. We review the two systems, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and examine how the second system is being used.

BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 4

Editorial BIBFull-Text 247-248
  Tom Stewart
Attitudes to and factors affecting unauthorized copying of computer software in Finland BIBAFull-Text 249-257
  M. T. Siponen; T. Vartiainen
Several quantitative studies have sought to determine the factors affecting the unauthorized copying of software, particularly in North America. However, we find no statistically reliable studies on the situation in Europe. In order to address this gap in the literature, we explored the attitudes to and factors affecting the unauthorized copying of computer software of 249 Finnish university students: nine hypotheses derived from the existing research on unauthorized copying of computer software or theories of ethics were tested. A quantitative questionnaire was used as the research instrument. The results shed new light on the characteristics of users and factors affecting the unauthorized copying of software.
Perceived security determinants in e-commerce among Turkish university students BIBAFull-Text 259-274
  M. M. Yenisey; A. A. Ozok; G. Salvendy
Perceived security is defined as the level of security that users feel while they are shopping on e-commerce sites. The aims of this study were to determine items that positively influence this feeling of security by users during shopping, and to develop guidelines for perceived security in e-commerce. An experiment allowed users with different security assurances to shop on simulated e-commerce sites. The participants were divided into three groups, shopping for cheap, mid-range, and expensive products, respectively. Following the shopping environment, the virtual shopping security questionnaire (VSSQ), consisting of fourteen perceived security items, was presented to the users. The VSSQ was presented to the participants to validate these perceived security items. The VSSQ had a Cronbach's alpha internal reliability value of 0.70. With the exception of two items, there were no significant differences in item ratings between the groups of different shopping item values. A factor analysis procedure determined two main factors concerning perceived security in e-commerce. The perceived operational factor includes: the site's blocking of unauthorized access; emphasis on login name and password authentication; funding and budget spent on security; monitoring of user compliance with security procedures; integration of state-of-the-art systems; distribution of security items within the site; website's encryption strategy; and consolidation with network security vendors. The perceived policy-related factor includes: the website's emphasis on network security; top management commitment; effort to make users aware of security procedures; the website's keeping up-to-date with product standards; the website's emphasis on security in file transfers; and issues concerning the web browser.
A flick in the right direction: a case study of gestural input BIBAFull-Text 275-288
  M. Moyle; A. Cockburn
This paper describes the design and evaluation of a gesture-based scheme for issuing the back and forward commands in web browsers. In designing our gesture recogniser we conducted several experiments to determine metrics associated with the magnitude, timing and stereotypical errors of 'natural' linear flick gestures using stylus and mouse input devices. These low-level metrics are important to software designers who must implement algorithms that discriminate between gestures and other actions such as mouse clicks and drags. As well as empirically characterising gestures, the metrics provide various insights into stereotypical behaviour with gestures, including the facts that angular errors are larger in the left and right directions with the pen, that vertical gestures are 'awkward' with the mouse, and that downwards gestures are slower than other directions. An evaluation of gestures for web browsing shortcuts shows that they enhance navigation efficiency, and that participants were extremely enthusiastic about them.
Evaluation on a keystroke authentication system by keying force incorporated with temporal characteristics of keystroke dynamics BIBAFull-Text 289-302
  K. Kotani; K. Horii
This paper presents the study to develop and evaluate techniques to authenticate valid users, using the keystroke dynamics of a user's PIN number entry on a numerical keypad, with force sensing resistors. Added with two conventional parameter lists of elements, i.e. digraph latency times and key hold times, keying force was chosen as a third element. Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment was to evaluate whether the three types of elements derived from keystrokes have a significant effect for subjects and to examine how trials and session effects generated the variation of the three elements. The second experiment was to demonstrate the system performance by calculating the False Rejection Rate (FRR) and the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) of the system. In the second experiment, a total of 20 keystrokes were recorded from each subject one week after the memorizing session, in order to evaluate the FRR of the system. To evaluate the FAR of the system, the subjects pretended to be impostors, and therefore they repeatedly watched videotaped pass trials made by a valid user as many times as they desired, and tried to imitate the keystroke dynamics of the valid users. The subject's keystrokes were then evaluated on whether they could fool the system. The first experiment, ANOVA revealed that a significant effect of subject was found on each of all three elements. Trial was not significantly affected to digraph latency times and peak force; however, it was significantly affected to key hold times. There was a trend that keystroke dynamics characterized by each element showed reformation of their patterns and reached a steady state over the 10 weeks of experimental sessions. The results of the second experiment showed the average equal error rate to be 2.4%. The results of system performance were compared with those of other studies and concluded that it was difficult to obtain enough information to behave as a perfect impostor by monitoring the videotaped keystrokes.
A hybrid technology acceptance approach for exploring e-CRM adoption in organizations BIBAFull-Text 303-316
  I-L Wu; K-W Wu
Customer relationship management (CRM) is replacing the traditional 'four Ps' of marketing?-?product, price, place and promotion. Forging long-term relationships with customers is the key to stability in an increasingly dynamic market. Despite the steady growth in the number of worldwide installations, industry studies indicate that approximately 60% of web-based CRM software (e-CRM) installations are failures. System use is recognized as one of the important indicators for successful implementation of information systems (IS) and is often correlated with other constructs, such as user attitude and behavioral intention, in the literature. The technology acceptance model (TAM) is particularly useful for explaining and analyzing IS-usage behavior and subsequently, the behavior is influenced by attitude and behavioral intention. However, TAM is incomplete for either considering only part of the attributes of the innovation factor or only part of the factors affecting IS innovation process. Therefore, this study integrates TAM with an extension of innovation diffusion theory (IDT), IS innovation model, in a complimentary manner and, furthermore, empirically concludes some guidelines for practitioners to effectively assist in the diffusion of e-CRM in organizations.
Tailoring by integration of domain-specific components: the case of a document search tool BIBAFull-Text 317-333
  V. Wulf; H. Kahler; O. Stiemerling; M. Won
In this paper we describe the evolutionary design and implementation of a search tool for files in shared workspaces used within an off-the-shelf groupware product. The design is based on the assumption that a useful generic search tool must be highly tailorable, which is achieved by applying an innovative software architecture allowing the assembly of components during runtime. In order to understand people's searching methods in shared workspaces and to support the design, we employed interviews and workshops with users as well as a field test to understand the users' needs. During the design process we developed a series of prototypes that were then evaluated by office workers. Consequently, the process described and the lessons learned extend from searching in files as a case via tailorability of software as an answer to the resulting requirements to component architecture as a way to implement this tailorability. The results derived from the treatment of these interrelated aspects constitute the core and value of this paper.

BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 5

Editorial BIBFull-Text 335-336
  Tom Stewart
TouchGrid: Touchpad pointing by recursively mapping taps to smaller display regions BIBAFull-Text 337-346
  M. Hertzum; K. Hornbaek
Touchpad devices are widely used but lacking in pointing efficiency. The TouchGrid, an instance of what we term cell cursors, replaces moving the cursor through dragging the finger on a touchpad with tapping in different regions of the touchpad. The touchpad regions are recursively mapped to smaller display regions and thereby enable high-precision pointing without requiring high tapping precision. In an experiment, six subjects used the TouchGrid and a standard touchpad across different numbers of targets, distances to targets and target widths. Whereas standard touchpad operation follows Fitts' law, target selection time with the TouchGrid is a linear function of the required number of taps. The TouchGrid was significantly faster for small targets and for tasks requiring one tap, and marginally faster for two-tap tasks. Error rates tended to be higher with the TouchGrid than the standard touchpad. All subjects preferred the TouchGrid.
The sound of silence: The case of virtual team organising BIBAFull-Text 347-352
  N. Panteli; S. Fineman
In this paper we discuss the role of silence within a virtual organising context. The paper raises issues related to the construction of silence in the virtual team context and the implications it has on team interactions. By drawing upon existing studies on virtual teams, we argue that members' silence may not always have negative effects on team performance and team relationships, but that silence is an embedded part of this environment as it reinforces the very nature of virtuality. The theoretical and practical significance of this study are discussed and implications for further research are identified.
Polite computing BIBAFull-Text 353-363
  Brian Whitworth
This paper presents politeness as a key social requirement for computer human interaction (CHI). Politeness is defined, in information terms, as offering the locus of control of a social interaction to another party. Software that creates pop-up windows is not illegal, but is impolite, as it preempts user choice. It is proposed that impolite software drives users away, while polite software attracts them. Specifying politeness suggests four requirements: (1) Respect user choice (2) Disclose yourself (3) Offer useful choices (4) Remember past choices. Software that ignores these rules may fail not by logic error but by social error. "Mr. Clippy" is an example of software that users often disable because it is impolite. Operating systems could support application politeness by providing an application source registry and a general meta-choice console. A future is envisaged where software politeness is a critical software success requirement.
Effects of the rate of computer-mediated speech on emotion-related subjective and physiological responses BIBAFull-Text 365-373
  K. Kallinen; N. Ravaja
In this paper, we describe the results of a psychophysiological study on user's judgements on, and physiological responses to, audio news, which were presented on computer with a fast and slow reading rate. Several effects of condition, age, gender, level of education and level of computer-user experience on the evaluation of the understandability, valence, arousal and interest of the news, as well as on electrodermal and facial muscle activity were found. For example, the fast news was judged as more arousing, but the slow news as more understandable. The younger subjects judged the fast news as more positive and interesting, whereas the opposite was true for older subjects. The results have several methodological and practical implications on presenting and studying speech information in computer systems, such as speech interfaces and news services, given the possibilities afforded by modern technology to present multimodal information effectively and adapt the information and/or interfaces to fit the characteristics of the user (e.g. age).
How older adults meet complexity: Aging effects on the usability of different mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 375-389
  M. Ziefle; S. Bay
In this experiment, older and younger novice mobile phone users were examined when using handsets of different complexity. The independent variables were user age (young: 20 - 35 years; old: 50 - 64 years) and cognitive complexity of two mobile phones (Nokia 3210; Siemens C35i). The cognitive complexity of the phones was defined by the number of production rules applied when processing the four experimental tasks. Dependent variables were effectiveness and efficiency as taken from user protocols and the reported ease of use. The less complex phone (Nokia) performed significantly better than the complex one (Siemens). However, the benefit from the lower complexity was much larger than theoretically predicted. Thus, defining cognitive complexity of technical devices by the number of production rules does not account for the real difficulties which users experience. Older users had a lower navigation performance than younger users, however their performance matched younger users' when using mobiles with low complexity.
Information systems management: role of planning, alignment and leadership BIBAFull-Text 391-404
  M. E. Booth; G. Philip
Undoubtedly technology has the potential to provide significant strategic and operational benefits to organisations in the electronic age. Unfortunately the reality is that many organisations are failing to reap the expected benefits from their investment in information systems. This, along with the ubiquitous presence of technology, incessant technological changes and the unrelenting advance of e-commerce, means information systems management (ISM) has become a matter of major concern to many organisations. Given the paramount importance of ISM to organisations, this article seeks to critically examine three of the most fundamental and perhaps elusive aspects of ISM in the context of a rapidly changing technological environment - planning, alignment and managerial responsibilities. Since ISM is a multifaceted concept, it would be futile to attempt a comprehensive analysis of the subject in a single article and hence the above focus on a small number of issues. More specifically, the organisational and managerial aspects of ISM would form the core of this article rather than the more technical issues (e.g. IT infrastructure development). It will also explore problem areas in the literature that represents gaps within both theory and in the prevalent methodologies employed to examine those theories.

BIT 2005 Volume 24 Issue 6

Editorial BIBFull-Text 405-406
  Tom Stewart
A retrospective look at website accessibility over time BIBAFull-Text 407-417
  Stephanie Hackett; Bambang Parmanto; Xiaoming Zeng
Websites were retrospectively analysed to study the effects that technological advances in web design have had on accessibility for persons with disabilities. A random sample of general websites and a convenience sample of US government websites were studied and compared for the years 1997-2002. Web accessibility barrier (WAB) and complexity scores were calculated. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD were used to determine differences among years for general sites. Repeated measures of ANOVA were used to analyse trends in US government sites, and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was computed to evaluate the relationship between accessibility and complexity. Random websites become progressively inaccessible as complexity increases. US government websites remain accessible while increasing in complexity. Increasing complexity, often caused by adding complex components to a Webpage, doesn't have to contribute to increasing barriers to accessibility: US government websites remain accessible despite increasing complexity by limiting the number of scripts used in Webpage design.
Empirical validation of the Windows accessibility settings and multimodal feedback for a menu selection task for users with Diabetic Retinopathy BIBAFull-Text 419-434
  J. A. Jacko; L. Barnard; J. S. Yi; P. J. Edwards; V. K. Leonard; T. Kongnakorn; K. P. Moloney; F. Sainfort
This study investigates the effectiveness of two design interventions, the Microsoft Windows accessibility settings and multimodal feedback, aimed at the enhancement of a menu selection task, for users with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with stratified levels of visual dysfunction. Several menu selection task performance measures, both time- and accuracy-based, were explored across different interface conditions and across groups of participants stratified by different degrees of vision loss. The results showed that the Windows accessibility settings had a significant positive impact on performance for participants with DR. Moreover, multimodal feedback had a negligible effect for all participants. Strategies for applying multimodal feedback to menu selection are discussed, as well as the potential benefits and drawbacks of the Windows accessibility settings.
Development of computer-supported collaborative social networks in a distributed learning community BIBAFull-Text 435-447
  H. Cho; J.-S Lee; M. Stefanone; G. Gay
This study examines the formation and change of collaborative learning social networks in a distributed learning community. A social network perspective is employed to understand how collaborative networks evolved over time when 31 distributed learners collaborated on a design project using a computer-mediated communication system during two semesters. Special attention was paid to how pre-existing friendship networks influenced the formation of macro-level collaborative learning networks and individual level social capital. We discovered that pre-existing friendship networks significantly influenced the formation of collaborative learning networks, but the effect was dependent on the developmental phase of community. Also, pre-existing networks generally acted as a social liability that constrained learners' ability to enhance their social networks and build social capital when they participated in a new learning environment. The results suggest that, in order to fully understand how to build effective collaborative learning and work environments, participants' social network structures need to be considered.
Usage and user experience of communication before and during rendezvous BIBAFull-Text 449-469
  Martin Colbert
This study examines the formation and change of collaborative learning social networks in a distributed learning community. A social network perspective is employed to understand how collaborative networks evolved over time when 31 distributed learners collaborated on a design project using a computer-mediated communication system during two semesters. Special attention was paid to how pre-existing friendship networks influenced the formation of macro-level collaborative learning networks and individual level social capital. We discovered that pre-existing friendship networks significantly influenced the formation of collaborative learning networks, but the effect was dependent on the developmental phase of community. Also, pre-existing networks generally acted as a social liability that constrained learners' ability to enhance their social networks and build social capital when they participated in a new learning environment. The results suggest that, in order to fully understand how to build effective collaborative learning and work environments, participants' social network structures need to be considered.
Are expert users always better searchers? Interaction of expertise and semantic grouping in hypertext search tasks BIBAFull-Text 471-475
  L. Salmeron; J. J. Canas; I. Fajardo
The facilitative effect of expertise in hypertext information retrieval (IR) tasks has been widely reported in related literature. However, recent theories of human expertise question the robustness of this result, since previous works have not fully considered the interaction between user and system characteristics. In this study, the constraint attunement hypothesis (CAH) is considered in order to predict that the effect of expertise in IR would appear only when the user and system characteristics can be combined successfully. Results from an experiment revealed that expert users outperformed novice users in IR when the elements of a system interface are organized semantically, but not when organized randomly. Results are discussed in the framework of the CAH supporting the interactive nature of human behaviour in HCI.