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Behaviour and Information Technology 28

Editors:Tom Stewart
Publisher:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Standard No:ISSN 0144-929X
Links:Table of Contents
  1. BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 1
  2. BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 2
  3. BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 3
  4. BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 4
  5. BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 5
  6. BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 6

BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 1

Editorial BIBFull-Text 1-3
  Tom Stewart
Implementation of an electronic health records system in a small clinic: the viewpoint of clinic staff BIBAFull-Text 5-20
  Pascale Carayon; Paul Smith; Ann Schoofs Hundt; Vipat Kuruchittham; Qian Li
In this study, we examined the implementation of an electronic health records (EHR) system in a small family practice clinic. We used three data collection instruments to evaluate user experience, work pattern changes, and organisational changes related to the implementation and use of the EHR system: (1) an EHR user survey, (2) interviews with key personnel involved in the EHR implementation project, and (3) a work analysis of clinic staff. A longitudinal design with two data-collection rounds was employed: data were collected prior to EHR implementation and after EHR implementation. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analysed. Employees of the small clinic perceived few changes in their work after the implementation of the EHR system, except for increased dependency on computers and a small increase in perceived workload. The work analysis showed a dramatic increase in the amount of time spent on computers by the various job categories. The EHR implementation did not change the amount of time spent by physicians with patients. On the other hand, the work of clinical and office staff changed significantly, and included decreases in time spent distributing charts, transcription and other clerical tasks. The interviews provided important contextual information regarding EHR implementation, and showed some positive elements (e.g., planning of training), but also some negative elements (e.g., unclear structure of the project) that would have deserved additional attention.
A theoretical model of health information technology usage behaviour with implications for patient safety BIBAFull-Text 21-38
  Richard J. Holden; Ben-Tzion Karsh
Primary objective: Much research and practice related to the design and implementation of information technology in health care has been atheoretical. It is argued that using extant theory to develop testable models of health information technology (HIT) benefits both research and practice. Methods and procedures: several theories of motivation, decision making, and technology acceptance are reviewed and associated theory-based principles of HIT usage behaviour are produced. Main outcomes and results: the case of medical error reporting technology is used to support the validity of the proposed HIT usage behaviour principles. Further, combining these principles produces a testable, theoretical multilevel model of HIT usage behaviour. The model provides an alternative to atheoretical research and practice related to HIT. Conclusions: developing, testing, and revising models of HIT like the one presented here is suggested to be beneficial to researchers and practitioners alike.
General practitioners' understanding pertaining to reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites BIBAFull-Text 39-44
  Wayne Usher
This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)/Internet use and health website recommendations by GPs as a medium for modern e-health care delivery. A survey instrument consisting of 10 single response questions was mailed to 100 of the 410 GPs (24%) practising on Queensland's Gold Coast. The return rate was 90% (n = 90/100), (males, 67% [n = 60/90]; females, 33% [n = 30/90]). Survey questions were designed to measure the percentages (%, n/n) associated with GPs' indicated component understandings and allowed for participants to indicate their (a) gender, (b) age and (c) years of experience (less experienced ≤10 years/more experienced ≥10 years). Participants for this study were randomly chosen from an online telephone directory (http://www.yellowpages.com.au). This study indicates that gender, age and years of experience do affect a GP's understanding pertaining to reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. More precisely, male GPs aged 41-50 who have had 10 years' or more experience as a GP demonstrated the highest overall percentage of component understanding. This study reports that Gold Coast GPs demonstrate a range of understanding and critical appraisal skills used to determine a health website's level of reliability, interactivity and usability, with many reporting a moderate understanding of these components. This study might help to guide future research and policy and assist GPs to develop the skills necessary for the recommendation of health websites and the delivery of effective modern e-health care. Web-based continuing medical education (CME) courses or medical school programmes aimed at educating GPs about health website components may be a future initiative for the healthcare industry. As this is the first Australian study of its type, further cross-cultural studies should be undertaken to explore why gender, age and years of experience affect a GP's health website component understanding.
The influence of a knowledge-based system on designers' cognitive activities: a study involving professional web designers BIBAFull-Text 45-62
  A. Chevalier; N. Fouquereau; J. Vanderdonckt
Over the last few decades, several usability knowledge-based systems have been developed to provide user interface designers with usability knowledge (e.g. heuristics, usability guidelines, standards). Such systems are intended to assist designers during the design process, and to improve the usability of the user interface being designed. However, the assumption that such systems actually improve the usability of the resulting user interface remains to be demonstrated: virtually no systems have been empirically tested by designers who create products. In order to confirm this assumption, we conducted an experimental study in which professional web designers had to create webpages, either using a knowledge-based system -- MetroWeb -- or without it. This study was intended to determine the influence of MetroWeb on the professional web designers' cognitive activity, and to find out whether MetroWeb actually assists them to develop a user-centred design. The results show that the web designers did not very often use MetroWeb while designing webpages; however, rather surprisingly, the designers who did use MetroWeb more often exhibited a user-centred activity than those working without MetroWeb. We conclude this paper by discussing these findings, and suggesting future possible ways of research intended to assist designers to adopt a user-centred approach to their activity.
Graph theory application and web page ranking for website link structure improvement BIBAFull-Text 63-72
  Babak Abedin; Babak Sohrabi
Since the web is always developing, and users' needs are constantly changing, organisations in recent decades have increasingly focused on developing information and communication technologies (ICTs). To introduce new e-services to their customers, they have largely invested in web development and promotional activities. The present study, therefore, describes a novel approach for evaluating and improving website link structure by using web usage mining, as well as assessing the usage pattern of an Iranian organisation. Analysing this pattern, the visited paths are illustrated and the website is modelled as a directed graph. On the basis of graph theory definitions, some measures are introduced and applied to evaluate website usability and link structures. Finally, a ranking improvement strategy is proposed and findings are discussed.
Factor structure of content preparation for e-business web sites: results of a survey of 428 industrial employees in the People's Republic of China BIBAFull-Text 73-86
  Yinni Guo; Gavriel Salvendy
To better fulfil customer satisfaction, a study of what content e-business web sites should contain is conducted. Based on background literature, a content preparation survey of 70 items was developed and completed by 428 white collar employees of an electronic company in mainland China. The survey aimed at examining the significant content factors of e-business web sites. The results of the study indicated a 0.75% internal consistency of the survey. Factor analysis of the data indicated 15 main content factors for e-business web sites, which accounted for 60.1% of total variance. The factors, in order of importance, are security content, quality content, service content, appearance description, contact information, aid function, customised function, search function, product specification, purchasing aid, price content, detailed description, comment content, matching product, review content. This study concludes with guidelines for the design of content preparation of e-business web sites.
Information structure and practice as facilitators of deaf users' navigation in textual websites BIBAFull-Text 87-97
  I. Fajardo; J. J. Cañas; L. Salmerón; J. Abascal
Deaf users might find it difficult to navigate through websites with textual content which, for many of them, constitutes the written representation of a non-native oral language. With the aim of testing how the information structure could compensate for this difficulty, 27 prelingual deaf users of sign language were asked to search a set of headlines in a web newspaper where information structure and practice were manipulated. While practice did not affect deep structures (web content distributed through four layers of nodes), wide structures (web content concentrated in two layers) did facilitate users' performance in the last trial block and compromised it in the first trial block. It is argued that wide structures generate a textual information overload for deaf users, which decreases with practice. Thus, wide structures seem preferable for websites requiring frequent use, rather than for those intended for occasional interaction.

BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 2

Usability evaluation BIBFull-Text 99-100
  Tom Stewart
User certification of workplace software: assessing both artefact and usage BIBAFull-Text 101-120
  Åke Walldius; Yngve Sundblad; Lars Bengtsson; Bengt Sandblad; Jan Gulliksen
This article summarises activities and results from the quality assessment project 'Quality Assurance of IT Support at Work' (ITQ) which has been performed by Swedish researchers in close cooperation with trade unions 1999-2005. The ITQ project is part of a network, UsersAward, which works for the goal to develop and implement a strategy for good software products on the work floor. A main result of the ITQ project is the first version of a software certification programme, User Certified 2002, which is described in some detail. The underlying theoretical arguments for its design and the performed pilot projects which have informed its implementation are also presented. The outcome of performed certifications is discussed in terms of stakeholder response; in terms of whether to certify artefact, processes, or both; and in terms of the relationship between software certification, standardisation, and public procurement agreements. One conclusion from the project is that a viable software certification programme has to cover the software's built-in features, its deployment process, and its actual situated usage. A second conclusion is that the buying organisation has to implement integrative processes in which its organisational development and its implementation of IT systems are coordinated. Conclusions are also drawn with respect to the set of organisational patterns underlying the UsersAward initiative -- certifications, user panels, user surveys, user conferences and a yearly IT Prize contest. Finally, implications and plans for the future, especially international research and union cooperation activities, and further development of the certification process are described.
The theoretical foundation and validity of a component-based usability questionnaire BIBAFull-Text 121-137
  W. -P. Brinkman; R. Haakma; D. G. Bouwhuis
Although software engineers extensively use a component-based software engineering (CBSE) approach, existing usability questionnaires only support a holistic evaluation approach, which focuses on the usability of the system as a whole. Therefore, this paper discusses a component-specific questionnaire for measuring the perceived ease-of-use of individual interaction components. A theoretical framework is presented for this compositional evaluation approach, which builds on Taylor's layered protocol theory. The application and validity of the component-specific measure is evaluated by re-examining the results of four experiments. Here, participants were asked to use the questionnaire to evaluate a total of nine interaction components used in a mobile phone, a room thermostat, a web-enabled TV set and a calculator. The applicability of the questionnaire is discussed in the setting of a new usability study of an MP3 player. The findings suggest that at least part of the perceived usability of a product can be evaluated on a component-based level.
Comparing of feedback-collection and think-aloud methods in program comprehension studies BIBAFull-Text 139-164
  Amela Karahasanovi&cacut;; Unni Nyhamar Hinkel; Dag I. K. Sjøberg; Richard Thomas
This paper reports an explorative experimental comparison of (i) an experience-sampling method called feedback collection and (ii) the think-aloud methods with respect to their usefulness in studies on program comprehension. Think-aloud methods are widely used in studies of cognitive processes, including program comprehension. Alternatively, as in the feedback-collection method (FCM), cognitive processes can be traced by collecting written feedback from the subjects at regular intervals. We compare FCM with concurrent think-aloud (CTA) and retrospective think-aloud (RTA) regarding type and usefulness of the collected information, costs related to analysis of the collected information and effects of the data collection methods on the subjects' performance. FCM allowed us to identify a greater number of comprehension problems that prevented progress or caused significant delay (FCM: 30 problems; CTA: 5; RTA: 15). It was less precise in identifying strategies for comprehension than CTA (92% correctness for FCM; 100% for CTA). FCM was less expensive in analysis (transcription and coding) than the other two methods (FCM: 0.7 h of analysis per protocol; CTA: 31 h; RTA: 7.9 h). The results indicate that all three methods of data collection were intrusive and affected the performance of the subjects with respect to time and correctness (small to medium effect size). This research confirms that FCM can be used beneficially in studies that trace the cognitive processes involved in, and identify problems related to, the comprehension of software applications. On the basis of our experience, we recommend that FCM be used in studies that have a large number of subjects and as a complement to other methods for tracing cognitive processes, such as user log files. We recommend a design with two groups (verbalisation and silent control) and a pretest task to be used in studies with FCM or CTA that focus on performances.
Scrutinising usability evaluation: does thinking aloud affect behaviour and mental workload? BIBAFull-Text 165-181
  Morten Hertzum; Kristin D. Hansen; Hans H. K. Andersen
Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation. The validity of the method is, however, debatable because it is generally used in a relaxed way that conflicts with the prescriptions of the classic model for obtaining valid verbalisations of thought processes. This study investigates whether participants that think aloud in the classic or relaxed way behave differently compared to performing in silence. Results indicate that whereas classic thinking aloud has little or no effect on behaviour apart from prolonging tasks, relaxed thinking aloud affects behaviour in multiple ways. During relaxed thinking aloud participants took longer to solve tasks, spent a larger part of tasks on general distributed visual behaviour, issued more commands to navigate both within and between the pages of the websites used in the experiment, and experienced higher mental workload. Implications for usability evaluation are discussed.
Multiple robot / single human interaction: effects on perceived workload BIBAFull-Text 183-198
  J. A. Adams
This paper presents results from a user evaluation of a real multiple robot system in which the human's perceived workload and performance were measured. Participants completed tasks with one, two and four real heterogeneous mobile ground-based robots for indoor material transportation tasks. Twelve participants completed four trials of each task over two days. Generally speaking, little difference was found between the one- and two-robot tasks; however, perceived workload significantly increased while performance decreased during the four-robot task. A correlation analysis found that perceived workload increased as the number of commands (in total and by command type) and completion times increased. The highest number of accidents and user errors occurred during the four-robot task. In order to increase the number of robots a single human can supervise, the human must be provided with capabilities that reduce the number of required commands while also optimising the human's interactions with the robots.

BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 3

Usability BIBFull-Text 199-200
  Tom Stewart
Comparison of different documentation styles for frameworks of object-oriented code BIBAFull-Text 201-210
  S. B. Ho; I. Chai; C. H. Tan
Frameworks are increasingly employed as a useful way to enable object-oriented reuse. However, understanding frameworks is not easy due to their size and complexity. Previous work concentrated on different ways to document frameworks, but it was unclear which ones were actually better. This paper presents a novel way of investigating the different philosophies for framework documentation. The philosophies include minimalist, patterns-style and extended javadoc (Jdoc) documentation. Using a survey of 140 novices engaged in Swing intensive coding work, this empirical study discovered some guidelines for effective framework documentation for the Swing framework. The results suggest that different documentation is better for different goals.
The emergence of object-oriented technology: the role of community BIBAFull-Text 211-222
  Hugh Robinson; Helen Sharp
On the basis of an analysis of contemporaneous materials, we present a history of object-oriented technology from the late 1970s, when object orientation was little known, until the early 1990s, when object-oriented technology was widely accepted across computer science. We identify three phases of emergence: interpretative flexibility; community and dissemination; and pervasiveness. We describe the role of various communities, constituencies, fora and programming languages, and show how the intellectual history of an idea underpinning a technology differs from that technology's path of adoption.
How to mitigate the significant negative influence of computer anxiety on ease of use perceptions BIBAFull-Text 223-238
  D. Fakun
The direct or indirect influence of perceived ease of use (EOU) on user acceptance of computerised information systems is well documented. This has led to a number of studies examining system-dependent and system-independent factors that influence EOU perceptions. Among the system-independent factors, computer anxiety (CA) has been found to have a significant negative influence on EOU perceptions. In other words, users judge an application's ease of use on their level of CA. Since the negative relationship may jeopardise the acceptance of an application by some user categories, this study examines the conditions under which the relationship holds and what developers can do to mitigate the relationship so as to increase user acceptance. The information system examined is hypertext/hypermedia applications. The finding suggests that an application that surpasses the expectations of most user categories is likely to invalidate the relationship. Based on this study, a number of recommendations aimed at hypermedia developers are proposed.
Design and evaluation of smart home user interface: effects of age, tasks and intelligence level BIBAFull-Text 239-249
  Bin Zhang; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
Smart homes are expected to promote productivity and enhance living experience, especially for old adults. To achieve this, the level of user interface intelligence should be designed to meet the needs of users and tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of user interface intelligence level on user performances for different tasks and different users. Two objectives were pursued. The first was to investigate how the intelligence of the user interface affects user performance when different cognitive tasks are performed. The second was to determine the differences between young and senior users when interacting with smart homes. A two-dimension conceptual model is proposed to describe the impact of these two factors, i.e., user interface intelligence and cognitive tasks, on smart home user performance. A 3-by-3 experiment was designed and three prototypes were developed. Thirty-six young and 36 senior people were recruited as participants. The results showed that different levels of intelligence of user interfaces facilitated user performance with different cognitive tasks. Users completed skill-based tasks using the least time and committing the least errors using the low-intelligence-level interface; when completing rule-based tasks, users exhibited best performance in terms of less error with the high intelligence interface. However, for senior people, because of the decline in cognitive abilities, their performance was not as clearly differentiated as that of younger people when using different smart home interfaces, especially for highly cognitively demanding tasks. Moreover, when senior people completed skill-based tasks, the task load they perceived increased together with the intelligence level of the smart home interface.
Effects of age, cognitive, and personal factors on PDA menu navigation performance BIBAFull-Text 251-268
  Katrin Arning; Martina Ziefle
The present study examined the PDA menu navigation performance of younger and older adults. The research focus was directed to the understanding of the combination and interaction of user characteristics with PDA menu navigation performance. In order to detail individual factors that influence user's performance, users' age, spatial ability, verbal memory, the confidence to use technical devices and computer-expertise were studied and related to performance outcomes. Younger and older adults, experienced with the usage of different technical devices, but PDA novices, had to complete four common tasks in the digital diary of an emulated PDA and users' effectiveness and efficiency were surveyed. Even though the users of both age groups had a comparably high computer experience, participants had considerable difficulties to solve the PDA tasks successfully. Especially older adults were strongly disadvantaged when navigating through the PDA menu. Among the user characteristics which were revealed to be essential for performance, spatial abilities were the best predictor to explain PDA performance. In addition, an adequate mental representation of the PDA data structure was decisive for navigation performance, especially in the older adult group.
User interface evaluation of a multimedia CD-ROM for teaching minor skin surgery BIBAFull-Text 269-279
  Jamil Shaikh Ahmed; Jane Coughlan; Michael Edwards; Sonali S. Morar
Expert operative information is a prerequisite for any form of surgical training. However, the shortening of working hours has reduced surgical training time and learning opportunities. As a potential solution to this problem, multimedia programs have been designed to provide computer-based assistance to surgical trainees outside of the operating theatre. Few studies, however, have focused on the interface features of surgical multimedia programs, the successful design of which could be conducive to the evaluation of the effectiveness of learning. This study evaluated a multimedia CD-ROM designed for teaching minor skin surgery. A questionnaire, based on an existing user interface rating tool, was administered to 20 trainees (both junior and senior) in plastic surgery. Findings from the study revealed trainees' high rating of the CD-ROM on a scale of 1-10 (mean = 8); the analysis of which contributes towards an understanding of both the characteristics of the learning material and the learners in the evaluation of the user interface.
Usability engineering laboratories: limitations and challenges toward a unifying tools/practices environment BIBAFull-Text 281-291
  Ahmed Seffah; Halima Habieb-Mammar
This article discusses the limitations and challenges surrounding the present usability engineering (UE) labs. Usability laboratories include hardware and software tools to observe users, collect and analyse diverse data about the users' interactions, behaviours, actions, and reactions including their raw feedback regarding their experiences. Using statistical analysis and data mining software, these qualitative and quantitative data are transformed into design insights and recommendations for future usability improvements. First, we survey the existing stationary, portable, and remote laboratories. We then review the current usability tools while highlighting the gap between the existing tools/labs and the UE practices. We will show how this gap can be closed via a roadmap using a computer-assisted usability engineering environment (CAUTE). A CAUTE provides a unifying user interface that exploits a process-sensitive architecture for integrating the large variety of the existing tools into the best UE practices. Beyond the technical problems, there is also a need to address research issues including determining the interest of the CAUTE approach in comparison with the current usability labs.
Task-dependent processing of tables and graphs BIBAFull-Text 293-307
  Talya Porat; Tal Oron-Gilad; Joachim Meyer
In two experiments participants had to detect changes in periodic sinusoidal functions, displayed in either graphic or tabular displays. Graphs had a major advantage over tables when the task required considering configurations of data. Both displays led to similar results when task performance could rely on inspecting individual data points. With graphs almost all participants reported using the optimal method for detecting changes in the function, i.e., they used the method requiring the least effort to perform the task. With tables only about half used the optimal detection method, and these participants showed transfer of learning of detection methods between tasks. Experience in using a detection method led to improved performance if the new task relied on the same method of detection. These findings demonstrate the need to consider task performance methods when determining the relative value of different displays. The set of tasks for which a display is used is likely to affect performance and needs to be analysed as a whole, since methods employed for one task can affect task performance in other tasks.

BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 4

Acceptance, emotion and behaviour BIBFull-Text 309-310
  Tom Stewart
Exploring the emotional, aesthetic, and ergonomic facets of innovative product on fashion technology acceptance model BIBAFull-Text 311-322
  Ren-Chuen Tzou; Hsi-Peng Lu
In the realm of popular consumer electronics, it is important for companies to realise consumers' perceptions that can potentially sway the process of choosing and purchasing decision. This paper attempts to explore the emotional, aesthetic, and ergonomic conceptions into the fashion technology model to examine the impact of the consuming public acceptance. The work extends the literature on brand attachment, need for uniqueness theory, fashion theory, TAM, and innovation diffusion theory. Through empirical study, this proposed model is tested with a structural equation modeling approach. Results indicate that brand attachment is a stronger antecedent of ergonomic and aesthetic facets, and aesthetic facet is the vital determinant to acceptance intention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use had no direct impact but still positively correlate to acceptance intention. This study also finds that different groups of technological innovation will vary in their conceptions of the proposed model.
The effect of online store atmosphere on consumer's emotional responses -- an experimental study of music and colour BIBAFull-Text 323-334
  Fei-Fei Cheng; Chin-Shan Wu; David C. Yen
The current study is a convergence of two research orientations: the effect of ambient factors (e.g. music and colour) in physical stores and the website design in cyber context. The former emphasises the influence of sensory stimuli on the shoppers' responses; whereas the latter address the relationship between website design factors (e.g. usability) and the performance of a virtual store. This article aims to bridge the gap between the above research orientations and explores the impact of two environmental elements -- music and colour -- of an online store on the consumers' emotions -- considered as direct antecedents to shopping behaviours -- by employing a laboratory experiment. The results indicated that both music and colour reveal significant effects on respondents' emotional responses. To be more specific, participants felt more aroused and pleasant when they were under fast music and warm colour conditions than those who were exposed to an environment with slow music and cool colour. In addition, the congruency of these two atmospheric factors enhances the effects of atmosphere on people's emotional responses.
Understanding consumer intention in online shopping: a respecification and validation of the DeLone and McLean model BIBAFull-Text 335-345
  Chien-Wen David Chen; Chiang-Yu John Cheng
The increasing popularity of online shopping has led to the emergence of new economic activities. To succeed in the highly competitive e-commerce environment, it is vital to understand consumer intention. Understanding what motivates consumer intention is critical because such intention is key to survival in this fast-paced and hypercompetitive environment. Where prior research has attempted at most a limited adaptation of the information system success model, we propose a comprehensive, empirical model that separates the 'use' construct into 'intention to use' and 'actual use'. This makes it possible to test the importance of user intentions in determining their online shopping behaviour. Our results suggest that the consumer's intention to use is quite important, and accurately predicts the usage behaviour of consumers. In contrast, consumer satisfaction has a significant impact on intention to use but no direct causal relation with actual use.
Understanding customers' loyalty intentions towards online shopping: an integration of technology acceptance model and fairness theory BIBAFull-Text 347-360
  Chao-Min Chiu; Hua-Yang Lin; Szu-Yuan Sun; Meng-Hsiang Hsu
As with any other information system (IS), the success of online shopping depends largely on customer satisfaction and other factors that will eventually increase customers' loyalty intentions. This article integrates two major variables of technology acceptance model (TAM), trust, and fairness to construct a model for investigating the motivations behind customers' loyalty intentions towards online shopping. The hypothesised model is validated empirically using data collected from 311 customers of an online shopping store. The results indicated that distributive, procedural and interactional fairness were strong predictors of trust, which in turn influenced satisfaction. Distributive fairness and interactional fairness exhibited significant positive effects on satisfaction. Perceived usefulness and satisfaction influenced loyalty intention towards online shopping. Perceived ease of use acts indirectly on loyalty intention through the mediating effect of perceived usefulness. Implications for theory and practice and future research directions are discussed.
An empirical investigation of a modified technology acceptance model of IPTV BIBAFull-Text 361-372
  Dong Hee Shin
This study explores the factors influencing the adoption of IPTV, and tests the applicability of the technology acceptance model (TAM) in a new convergent technology. The behavioural constructs from TAM were tested for predicting user acceptance of IPTV. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse data and to design a theoretical model predicting the individual's intention to adopt IPTV. A modified TAM for IPTV proposes that new constructs determine user-perceived usefulness and enjoyment of using IPTV. Although this study confirms the impact of information quality and system quality on consumers' technology experience, it specifically shows that the perceived quality of content and system were found to have a significant effect on users' perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. In addition, social influences had a positive effect on the intention to use IPTV. These findings suggest an extension of the TAM model for convergence technologies. This research advances theory and contributes to the foundation for future research aimed at improving the understanding of users' adoption behaviour of convergence technologies. Implications of these findings for practice and research are examined.
Modelling electronic customer relationship management success: functional and temporal considerations BIBAFull-Text 373-387
  M. Khalifa; K. N. Shen
Previous information systems satisfaction research predominantly focused on generic technological attributes, failing to account for the specificity of the artefact. Furthermore, viewing satisfaction as a static evaluation state, the prevalent cross-sectional approach could not account for the dynamic nature of satisfaction. In this study, we address these gaps by following a functional approach and taking a temporal view in developing and testing a model explaining the effects of various types of electronic customer relationship management (eCRM) functions on customer satisfaction in the context of online shopping. A framework based on the transaction cycle is used to classify eCRM functions into pre-, at-, and post-purchase eCRM. Two distinct temporal phases, i.e. attraction and retention, are identified. The results of a longitudinal survey involving 670 customers of hardware retailers demonstrate the appropriateness of the functional approach in investigating eCRM success and the necessity of the temporal conceptualisation of customer satisfaction. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
The intention-behaviour gap in technology usage: the moderating role of attitude strength BIBAFull-Text 389-401
  A. Bhattacherjee; C. Sanford
Extant theories of information technology (IT) usage present users' behavioural intention as the primary predictor of their IT usage behaviour. However, empirical evidence reveals only a low-to-medium effect size for this association. We call this inconsistency the 'intention-behaviour gap', and argue that a clearer understanding of this gap requires a deeper theoretical examination of the conditions under which intentions may or may not influence behaviour. Drawing on recent attitude theoretic research in social psychology, we distinguish between two types of attitudes -- strong versus weak -- and suggest that the intention-behaviour association may hold for users with strong attitudes but is likely to be weaker for those with weak attitudes. Using the elaboration-likelihood model, we propose two dimensions of attitude strength relevant to the IT usage context -- personal relevance and related expertise -- and theorise them to moderate the intention-behaviour association in a positive manner. Results from a longitudinal field survey of document management system usage among governmental employees at L'viv City Hall, Ukraine support our theoretical hypotheses. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.

BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 5

Editorial BIBFull-Text 403-404
  Tom Stewart
Virtual communities as a resource for the development of OSS projects: the case of Linux ports to embedded processors BIBAFull-Text 405-419
  S. L. Toral; M. R. Martínez-Torres; F. J. Barrero
Open source software (OSS) projects represent a new paradigm of software creation and development based on hundreds or even thousands of developers and users organised in the form of a virtual community. The success of an OSS project is closely linked to the successful organisation and development of the virtual community of support. The main objective of this article is to analyse the activity of virtual communities. Social network analysis is employed to analyse Linux ports to embedded processors as a case study to achieve this aim. The obtained results confirm the necessity of structuring the virtual community with a selection of active developers and core members to promote community activity and attract peripheral users, expanding the impact of the underlying software. The obtained result will be useful for the software industry migrating to the open source software paradigm.
Examination of cognitive absorption influencing the intention to use a virtual community BIBAFull-Text 421-431
  Hsiu-Fen Lin
Virtual communities have been considered as the most effective means of establishing new social relationships through Internet-based technology. Despite their importance to numerous Internet users, little attention has been paid to whether intrinsic motivations have a significant effect on user intention to use the virtual community. Using the virtual community as the target technology, this study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) to examine the influences of cognitive absorption (defined as a state of deep involvement with the virtual community) on user beliefs (specifically, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) and behavioural intentions. Based on a survey of 172 community members, this study uses a structural equation modelling approach to investigate the research model. The results showed that cognitive absorption significantly affects behavioural intention through perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of the virtual community. Finally, this study discusses the implications of these findings and offers directions for future research.
Determinants of success for online communities: an analysis of three communities in terms of members' perceived professional development BIBAFull-Text 433-445
  Khe Foon Hew
Recent empirical evidence suggests that the updated DeLone and McLean's information systems (D&M IS) model can identify the determinants of success of online communities in terms of member loyalty (Lin and Lee 2006). This study is similarly concerned with the challenge of identifying the determinants of success of online communities, but it explores the problem in terms of members' perceived professional development. A qualitative case study was adopted in this study to gather rich and naturalistic data. Online observation and interview data were gathered from three online communities: nurses, web developers and literacy educators. Results reveal seven determinants of success: a willingness to share knowledge, high-quality content, diversity of views, technology, relevant discussions, a respectful environment and rapid response to members' queries. Contributing factors that lead to some of the identified determinants were also found. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are provided.
Gender differences in website production and preference aesthetics: preliminary implications for ICT in education and beyond BIBAFull-Text 447-460
  G. A. Moss; R. W. Gunn
The purpose of this study was to examine the implications of a gendered website production and preference aesthetic for the teaching of computer studies. Thirty male and thirty female personal websites produced by students at a UK university were rated against 23 factors. The home pages of sites that were deemed to be typical of their gender were then used in preference tests conducted amongst 67 students. Statistically significant differences emerged on 13 of the 23 factors against which the 60 websites were rated. These results were suggestive of a website aesthetic continuum with male and female production aesthetic tendencies at either end. The preference tests revealed a tendency for preferences to be in tune with production aesthetics such that men had a statistically significant tendency to prefer home pages produced by men, and women to prefer home pages produced by women. The tendency for the latter was even higher than the male tendency to prefer male-produced sites. The finding of gendered differences in website production and preference aesthetics has important implications for teaching and assessment. Teachers selecting or assessing websites, whether commercial or produced by pupils and students, need be mindful of the aesthetics employed in those websites. When selecting websites for educational purposes, a match should ideally be made between the website and the likely preferences of the end-user. Assessment of students' work should ideally be mindful of the potential for positive bias on the part of the assessor in the direction of work displaying their own favoured aesthetic.
Understanding user interface needs of e-commerce web sites BIBAFull-Text 461-469
  Travis K. Huang; Fong-Ling Fu
With the growth in the number of web sites, users must choose among many alternative web sites and designers must face the challenge of keeping the user's duration. Web site design is an iterative process of fine-tuning to enhance user satisfaction. According to the hygiene-motivation theory, the emotions of satisfaction and dissatisfaction are caused by two different categories of characteristics. Lack of dissatisfaction does not mean satisfaction, and lack of satisfaction does not mean dissatisfaction. This study proposes a parsimonious and effective multidimensional evaluation tool: a max-min approach to combine the hygiene-motivation factors and thereby provide a strategy to compare the competitive position of different web sites. The interfaces of eight e-retailer web sites for computer and communication products were targeted for evaluation. Four hygiene factors (navigation, information display, ease of learning and response time) and five motivation factors (interaction with people, screen complexity, user empowerment, visual appearance and achievement) are measured. The evaluations on hygiene and motivation factors were transformed into max and min effectiveness scores using the proposed models. Three zones (zone of intolerance, zone of efficiency and zone of satisfaction) were described to illustrate the role of strategic planning of a site interface in shaping a competitive position among the observed web sites.
A user study of accessing web applications via voice cellular phone: a model comparison approach BIBAFull-Text 471-484
  Shuchih Ernest Chang; Shiou-Yu Chen; Yen-Hong Liu
Although most users currently receive web services from web browser interfaces, pervasive computing is emerging and offering new ways of accessing Internet applications from any device, any time and anywhere. It is not only a technological change, but a philosophical and psychological one. Our research project investigated the theoretical concepts of pervasive computing as well as their practical applications, by using cellular phones as the pervasive device to access a web application prototype, the voice-enabled web system (VWS), through the voice user interface technology. The acceptance rate of consumers on new pervasive interfaces was studied using factors (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and fun) adapted from technology acceptance theories. Although our empirical findings were in general consistent with the findings from several prior studies on various information technologies, there were still some discrepancies. Our overall research results, including the implications derived from the user study, may be useful for the purpose of designing and developing successful business applications based on VWS.
Features and predictors of problematic internet use in Chinese college students BIBAFull-Text 485-490
  R. L. Huang; Z. Lu; J. J. Liu; Y. M. You; Z. Q. Pan; Z. Wei; Q. He; Z. Z. Wang
This study was set to investigate the prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) among college students and the possible factors related to this disorder. About 4400 college students, ranging from freshmen to juniors, from eight different universities in Wuhan, China were surveyed. Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale were used to define PIU and depression accordingly. Data was analysed with chi-squared testing and logistic regression. Out of the 3496 participants, 9.58% (male 13.54%, female 4.88%) met the criteria of PIU. Factors such as heavy internet use habits, poor academic achievement, lack of love from the family, etc. were found to be significantly associated with PIU. About 48.51% (1696) of the students were light internet users, who use the internet <5 h/week, while 16.36% (572) were heavy users who use it more than 15 h/week, though heavy users were more likely to develop PIU. Also, 25.53% of the students with depression developed PIU, in comparison with 8.91% of PIU among those without depression (p < 0.001). Being male, frequent internet use, poor academic achievement, poor family atmosphere and lack of love from parents were predictors of PIU among college students. The habit and purpose of using the internet is diverse, which influences the susceptibility of PIU as well. There was a correlation between depression and the development of PIU as well.

BIT 2009 Volume 28 Issue 6

Editorial BIBFull-Text 491-492
  Tom Stewart
Behaviour modelling, instruction and exploration training approaches in group and individual contexts BIBAFull-Text 493-524
  G. E. Truman
Behaviour modelling has been associated with higher learning outcomes compared to other training approaches. These cumulative research findings create imperative to examine underlying causal mechanisms or contingency factors that may promote behaviour modelling's advantages even further. We propose group-based learning as one contingency factor because there exists greater opportunity for observation, imitation and feedback. We use a two-by-three experimental laboratory design involving 84 subjects to test for an interaction effect between training context (group-based, individual-based) and training approach (behaviour modelling, exploration, instruction) on several learning outcomes. We use hierarchical regression to show that, while the interaction effect was not significant, the training approach main effect was significant. Consistent with expectations, behaviour modelling outperformed exploration on task performance. There were no significant differences between behaviour modelling and instruction. We conclude that behaviour modelling is associated with higher task performance levels on a complex word-processing task when compared to exploration.
Action-oriented classification of families' information and communication actions: exploring mothers' viewpoints BIBAFull-Text 525-536
  H. Parkkola; P. Saariluoma; E. Berki
Action-oriented service and technology development begins with the idea that people use technologies to reach their action goals. Consequently, we should investigate user needs and how they can be satisfied, and adapt services and technologies to the natural course of actions. Here, we focus on family communication and investigate mobile communication service types for families. For this study 10 mothers were interviewed; we investigated the nature of their everyday information and communication needs and the different knowledge and information transfer actions that were discovered in their families. Qualitative analysis of these interviews was used to generate a taxonomy, which, in turn, can help in providing enhanced individual services and family-centred design models.
An efficient approach for the maintenance of user behaviours BIBAFull-Text 537-548
  Yue-Shi Lee; Show-Jane Yen; Chung-Wen Cho
Mining sequential patterns is to discover sequential purchasing behaviours for most of the customers from a large number of customer transactions. The strategy of mining sequential patterns focuses on discovering frequent sequences. A frequent sequence is an ordered list of the itemsets purchased by a sufficient number of customers. The previous approaches for mining sequential patterns need to repeatedly scan the database so that they take a large amount of computation time to find frequent sequences. The customer transactions will grow rapidly in a short time, and some of the customer transactions may be antiquated. Consequently, the frequent sequences may be changed due to the insertion of new customer transactions or the deletion of old customer transactions from the database. It may require rediscovering all the patterns by scanning the entire updated customer transaction database. In this paper, we propose an incremental updating technique to maintain the discovered sequential patterns when transactions are inserted into or deleted from the database. Our approach partitions the database into some segments and scans the database segment by segment. For each segment scan, our approach prunes those sequences that cannot be frequent sequences any more to accelerate the finding process of the frequent sequences. Therefore, the number of database scans can be significantly reduced by our approach. The experimental results show that our algorithms are more efficient than other algorithms for the maintenance of mining sequential patterns.
Effect of trust level on mobile banking satisfaction: a multi-group analysis of information system success instruments BIBAFull-Text 549-562
  Namho Chung; Soon Jae Kwon
Mobile banking is increasingly being used for banking service applications. However, few empirical studies have been conducted on mobile banking services. Therefore, the current study focuses on whether or not trust in mobile banking influences the relationship between customer satisfaction and perceptions of the system quality, information quality and information presentation of mobile banking. Using the partial least squares approach, the analysis reveals that information quality and system quality influence customer satisfaction, whereas information presentation does not have an effect on customer satisfaction. Moreover, the research model articulates how perceptions of the system quality, information quality and information presentation of mobile banking moderated by trust influence customer satisfaction with this type of service.
The amplification effects of procedural justice on a threat control model of information systems security behaviours BIBAFull-Text 563-575
  Michael Workman; William H. Bommer; Detmar Straub
Organisations are increasingly impacted by employee failures to implement readily available systems security countermeasures that result in security lapses. An area where this is most intriguing is among those organisational members who know how to implement security measures but do not do so. Important suggestions have been made, but despite them, the problem continues, and even grows worse. Most of the research into these security behaviours have been either purely self-report perceptions (many with low response rates) or have consisted of theory and model building and testing. In addition, the extant research has concentrated on either individual or organisational factors. With our research, we were interested in addressing two literature gaps: (1) to determine how well perceptions of security behaviours translated into the world of practice, and (2) to understand the relationships between individual and organisational factors. Our study found that individual factors outlined in the threat control model amplified with high perceptions of organisational procedural justice on taking specified security countermeasures. Consequently, we make recommendations for research and practice.
Information systems 'in the wild': supporting activity in the world BIBAFull-Text 577-588
  Vivienne Waller
Although conventionally designed information systems provide information via a computerised display, in everyday life, our actions are informed by information obtained from a variety of places in a variety of ways. Drawing on conventional information systems (IS), human-computer interaction (HCI), ecological psychology and sociology and building on existing work on situated information systems, this article explores the idea of obtaining information from the environment to accomplish workplace activity in a routine way. A typology of conceptually distinct sources of information is presented and this has implications for what we understand information systems to be. Just as Hutchins (1995) refers to his conception of cognition as 'cognition in the wild', so we can conceive of situated information systems 'in the wild' rather than confined to computational space. The argument with respect to information systems analysis and design is that abstract representations should not be the only option considered. Using the information source that is most appropriate given the particular context of the actor and the environment will better support the accomplishment of collective routines, increasing efficiency and effectiveness.