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Behaviour and Information Technology 30

Editors:Tom Stewart
Dates:2011
Volume:30
Publisher:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Standard No:ISSN 0144-929X
Papers:72
Links:Table of Contents
  1. BIT 2011-01-01 Volume 30 Issue 1
  2. BIT 2011-03-01 Volume 30 Issue 2
  3. BIT 2011-05-01 Volume 30 Issue 3
  4. BIT 2011-07-01 Volume 30 Issue 4
  5. BIT 2011-09-01 Volume 30 Issue 5
  6. BIT 2011-11-01 Volume 30 Issue 6

BIT 2011-01-01 Volume 30 Issue 1

Preface: Special Issue: Social Networks and Learning Environments BIBFull-Text 1
  Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos
A problem-solving approach to management of instructional systems design BIBAFull-Text 3-12
  Robert D. Tennyson; Margaret F. Sisk
In this article, we present a dynamic systems approach to instructional systems design (ISD). The fourth generation of ISD represents the attempt to establish a system that can adapt to individual learning and performance problems/needs while also being able to continuously update itself. It is learning-theory-neutral and takes into account the expertise of the instructional designer, while presenting the instructional designer an opportunity to utilise different domains of the system to address instructional problems or needs.
Collaborative systems engineering and social-networking approach to design and modelling of smarter products BIBAFull-Text 13-26
  T. Ahram; W. Karwowski; B. Amaba
Employing systems engineering (SE) methodology and principles to the development of smart products has the potential of establishing a novel field of research. This paper summarises previous work in this area in order to define and characterise a revolutionary SE and social-networking framework for collaborative education, design and modelling of the next generation of smarter products. A conceptual framework and practical applications of SE approaches and social networking to support smarter product development is proposed. Future challenges that collaborative SE and interactive social networking techniques are likely to face in this domain are also discussed.
Design concerns in the engineering of virtual worlds for learning BIBAFull-Text 27-37
  Lucia Rapanotti; Jon G. Hall
The convergence of 3D simulation and social networking into current multi-user virtual environments has opened the door to new forms of interaction for learning in order to complement the face-to-face and Web 2.0-based systems. Yet, despite a growing user community, design knowledge for virtual worlds remains patchy, particularly when it comes to an understanding of the particular nature of design in virtual environments, the relationship between virtual and real-world contexts of design, as well as the engineering issues it raises and the management of any related risks. In this article, we explore such issues based on our experience of socio-technical engineering of a novel learning programme for higher education with a substantial virtual component. The project's significance stems from the large number of stake-holders involved, the relatively large scale of the virtual world development and the strategic significance of such a development within the learning programme. Of particular novelty is our exploration of the relationship between virtual and real-world contexts of design, indicating when they align and differ, showing when tools and techniques translate and when new tools and techniques may be required.
Regional knowledge management: the perspective of management theory BIBAFull-Text 39-49
  Jingyuan Zhao; Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos
Knowledge management is one of the results of combination of management science and information science. Knowledge management has already established its own theoretical system, and has caught the attention of both theorists and practitioners alike. Organisational knowledge management study has made tremendous progress while regional knowledge management study is still in the initial stage, further research on regional knowledge management has become urgent and necessary. This study discusses regional knowledge management from the perspective of management theory, analyses the functions of regional knowledge management in terms of planning, organising, controlling and leadership, and presents a framework of regional knowledge management based on management theory.
Identity crisis: user perspectives on multiplicity and control in federated identity management BIBAFull-Text 51-62
  C. Satchell; G. Shanks; S. Howard; J. Murphy
Federated identity management systems synthesise complex and fragmented user information into a single entity. Literature from the provider's perspective notes this integration extends many benefits to the end user and the privileges provided by digital identity authentication schemes have been well documented from this perspective. Less explored are the perceptions of federation from the user's perspective. This study reports an empirical user study that examines the relationship between identity and technology using contextual interviews, focus groups and cultural probes. It emerges that while current federated systems satisfy user needs by allowing the construction of multiple digital data sets that are moored to a central identifier, they fail to provide the user with control over the capability to act in the 'hatch', 'match' and 'dispatch' phases of the digital identity lifecycle. Ultimately, this reduces the user's trust in providers and results in reluctance to disclose personal details.
Sidestepping implementation traps when implementing knowledge management: lessons learned from Siemens BIBAFull-Text 63-75
  Michael Gibbert; Gilbert J. B. Probst; Thomas H. Davenport
This case study provides an in-depth analysis of Siemens' lessons learned when implementing knowledge management. For the analysis of the case-study data, we use established tools from the marketing literature, and integrate these with the change management literature. The aim is to provide a rich-yet-parsimonious conceptualisation of Siemens' lessons learned in dealing with two distinct implementation traps. The first trap is called customer trap and suggests that the needs of two 'knowledge management customers' have to be carefully balanced. Specifically, the 'end customer' of the initiative (the user of the initiative) and the 'business customer' of the initiative (top management) may have different expectations and requirements that need to be taken into consideration both separately and jointly. The second trap is called personalisation/standardisation trap and points to the need to balance standardisation (often needed due to the global scale of knowledge management initiatives) with customisation (too much of which can lead to an undifferentiated mix in which value propositions of individual initiatives are hard to appreciate).
Understanding e-learning continuance intention: a negative critical incidents perspective BIBAFull-Text 77-89
  Kan-Min Lin; Nian-Shing Chen; Kwoting Fang
This study develops a model to examine the key drivers of users' continuance intention of e-learning, based on negative critical incidents (NCIs) standpoints. The developed research model is tested empirically using a field survey of 230 users. This study finds that users' past service encounters (NCIs), belief (perceived ease of use and usefulness), satisfaction (quality attributes cumulative satisfaction and overall satisfaction) and attitude are key antecedents of continued usage intention. Four dimensions of both NCIs and quality attributes in e-learning (administration procedures, e-learning system functionality, instructional process and human interaction) are explored in this study. Results indicate that NCIs in teaching and administration are comparatively more important in determining user satisfaction and continuance intention. Further analysis finds that the recorded lecture content and the response time to users are the most critical problems in teaching and administration. In practice, this model can identify the key problems of satisfaction and continuance intention to help managers and teachers react promptly or make right decisions about how to better achieve higher user retention rates.
Predicting the continued use of Internet-based learning technologies: the role of habit BIBAFull-Text 91-99
  Moez Limayem; Christy M. K. Cheung
The proliferation and advance of Internet-based technologies create expanded opportunities for educators to provide students with better learning experiences. Although current studies focus mostly on the learning processes and learning outcomes, this article examines the students' usage behaviour with Internet-based learning technologies across time. A research model of continued usage of Internet-based learning technologies was developed by extending the information systems (IS) continuance model. Specifically, the research model attempted to explain the fact that frequently performed behaviours tend to be automatic over time, and habit was posited as a moderating effect on determining student's continued use of the Internet-based learning technologies. The proposed research model was empirically validated using a longitudinal survey of the use of Internet-based learning technologies among student subjects. The research model explained 20% of the variance in IS continuance usage and 50% of the variance in IS continuance intention. Habit was found significantly moderating the relationship between IS continuance intention and IS continuance usage. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of results for research and practice.
Statistical model for predicting roles and effects in learning community BIBAFull-Text 101-111
  Chih-Kai Chang; Gwo-Dong Chen; Chin-Yeh Wang
Functional roles may explain the learning performance of groups. Detecting a functional role is critical for promoting group learning performance in computer-supported collaborative learning environments. However, it is not easy for teachers to identify the functional roles played by students in a web-based learning group, or the relationship between roles and group performance. In a web learning system, interactions among group members can be recorded as a large corpus for further analysis. Tools can then be developed to assist teachers to recognise the roles played by group members and determine the best intervention strategy to support group learning. This study designed a method to identify automatically the role played by students, through an analysis of their online collaborative learning interactions. A regression prediction strategy was proposed to predict group performance according to identified functional roles. Experimental results from a study of 82 students showed that the accuracy of detecting functional roles was acceptable, and the prediction of learning performance is useful for most functional roles except opinion-giver and harmoniser. Finally, three grouping strategies for collaborative learning are proposed from the perspective of functional role-distribution. Teachers can, therefore, recognise the status of group members' participation by identifying roles and reorganising the group to increase learning performance.
Knowledge management system adoption: exploring the effects of empowering leadership, task-technology fit and compatibility BIBAFull-Text 113-129
  Ren-Zong Kuo; Gwo-Guang Lee
Knowledge management system (KMS) is emerging as a powerful source of competitive advantage, and plays an important role in managing an organisational knowledge. Therefore, how to improve the success rate for adopting a KMS becomes important. This study applies a technology acceptance model as its theoretical framework. Critical external variables, empowering leadership, task-technology fit (TTF) and compatibility are proposed as significant contributors to KMS. To test the proposed model, data were collected through a questionnaire survey sent to IT managers of 500 large companies in Taiwan. The results indicate that the perceptions of usefulness, ease-of-use and compatibility significantly affect behavioural intention. Empowering leadership, TTF and compatibility are significant predictors of perceived ease of use (PEOU); however, perceived usefulness is only influenced by compatibility and PEOU. Further, there is a positive and significant relationship between TTF and compatibility. Finally, this study also discusses the implications for practitioners.
Understanding knowledge-sharing behaviour in Wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 131-142
  Heng-Li Yang; Cheng-Yu Lai
Wikipedia is the world's largest multilingual free-content encyclopaedia written by users collaboratively. It is interesting to investigate why individuals have willingness to spend their time and knowledge to engage in it. In this study, we try to explore the influence of self-concept-based motivation and individual attitudes towards Wikipedia on individual's knowledge-sharing intention in Wikipedia. Members from Wikipedia were invited to participate in the investigation. An online questionnaire and structural equation modelling technology was utilised to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Analytical results indicate that internal self-concept-based motivation significantly influences individual's knowledge-sharing intention. Further, both information and system quality have significant effects on individual's attitude towards Wikipedia, and therefore, influence the intention to share knowledge in it.

BIT 2011-03-01 Volume 30 Issue 2

Editorial BIBFull-Text 143-145
  Tom Stewart
Textbook websites: user technology acceptance behaviour BIBAFull-Text 147-159
  Gregory A. Jonas; Carolyn Strand Norman
Compared with course management software (e.g. Blackboard and WebCT), the content and technology offered by a textbook website (TBW) is relatively costless to universities and professors, and is a potentially valuable tool that can be leveraged to help students learn course material. The present study uses the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM2) and structural equation modelling to examine characteristics associated with the voluntary usage behaviour (UB) of TBW by students in entry-level accounting courses. Analysing survey data from 231 participants, our results indicate that perceptions of usefulness, the ability to demonstrate or explain the benefits of usage and peer usage of the TBW are all positively associated with UB. However, our findings also suggest that notwithstanding the potential benefits accruing to students, faculty encouragement is a critical enabling factor for use of the TBW. Because of persistent concerns on the part of students, educators, administrators, textbook publishers, and legislators regarding the cost and quality of higher education, we discuss the implications of our results for these stakeholders.
How do internet surfers become online buyers? An integrative model of e-commerce acceptance BIBAFull-Text 161-180
  Ignacio Rodríguez Del Bosque; Ãngel Herrero Crespo
The present study attempts to analyse the factors that determine e-commerce adoption by final consumers. In particular, following Taylor and Todd's approach (Taylor, S. and Todd, PA., 1995 understanding information technology usage: a test of competing models. Information Systems Research, 6(2), 144-176), an overall adoption model of internet shopping is propounded, which includes the most relevant approaches in e-commerce adoption literature: the theory of planned behaviour and the technology acceptance model. The proposed theoretical model is applied on two different samples: one composed of internet users with no previous experience of virtual shopping, and another formed by subjects that have already made online transactions previously. The results obtained reveal that for both groups the attitude towards e-commerce, influence from a relevant third party and perceived usefulness in the system constitute the main direct determinants of the intention of virtual commerce adoption. Perceived behavioural control does not affect, on the contrary, the intention to shop on the internet in the future.
Integrating website usability with the electronic commerce acceptance model BIBAFull-Text 181-199
  David T. Green; J. Michael Pearson
This paper analyses the role of website usability in a B2C electronic commerce environment. The authors identify dimensions of website usability that have been examined in the literature and integrate those usability dimensions within an electronic commerce acceptance model using an e-commerce simulation. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the relationship between several website usability and e-commerce variables (design credibility, content, interactivity, navigability, responsiveness, download delay, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and satisfaction with design) as well as trust, perceived risk, and intention to transact. The results demonstrate that website usability does influence several outcomes that are important for businesses to attract and retain customers.
Do I have to learn something new? Mental models and the acceptance of replacement technologies BIBAFull-Text 201-211
  Wei Zhang; Peng Xu
Few studies in technology acceptance have explicitly addressed the acceptance of replacement technologies, technologies that replace legacy ones that have been in use. This article explores this issue through the theoretical lens of mental models. We contend that accepting replacement technologies entails both mental model maintenance and mental model building: mental model maintenance enables users to apply their knowledge of the legacy technologies, and mental model building helps users acquire new knowledge and reform their understanding to use replacement technologies. Both processes affect user perceptions about replacement technologies, which in turn affect user intentions to use them. In addition, this study explores how perceived compatibility between replacement and legacy technologies affects both mental model processes. A research model was developed and empirically tested with survey data. The results in general support our arguments. Based on the findings, we offer a few suggestions that can promote user acceptance of replacement technologies.
Knowledge-sharing motivations affecting R&D employees' acceptance of electronic knowledge repository BIBAFull-Text 213-230
  Shin-Yuan Hung; Hui-Min Lai; Wen-Wen Chang
Why would R (2) altruism was also found to be an important antecedent to perceived ease of use; (3) reputation was the most influential factor of perceived usefulness, and another influential factor of perceived usefulness was reciprocity. Three knowledge-sharing motivations that significantly affect the perceived ease of use were listed as reciprocity, altruism, and reputation, according to the relative importance; (4) altruism plays an important role in explaining the EKR usage intentions for knowledge-sharing both directly and indirectly; and (5) the results were consistent with the propositions of TAM. This study contributes theoretically and empirically to the body of EKR usage research and also has practical implications.
Cloud computing adoption and usage in community colleges BIBAFull-Text 231-240
  Tara S. Behrend; Eric N. Wiebe; Jennifer E. London; Emily C. Johnson
Cloud computing is gaining popularity in higher education settings, but the costs and benefits of this tool have gone largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that lead to technology adoption in a higher education setting. Specifically, we examined a range of predictors and outcomes relating to the acceptance of a cloud computing platform in rural and urban community colleges. Drawing from the Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM3) (Venkatesh, V. and Bala, H., 2008. Technology Acceptance Model 3 and a research agenda on interventions. Decision Sciences, 39 (2), 273-315), we build on the literature by examining both the actual usage and future intentions; further, we test the direct and indirect effects of a range of predictors on these outcomes. Approximately 750 community college students enrolled in basic computing skills courses participated in this study; findings demonstrated that background characteristics such as the student's ability to travel to campus had influenced the usefulness perceptions, while ease of use was largely determined by first-hand experiences with the platform, and instructor support. We offer recommendations for community college administrators and others who seek to incorporate cloud computing in higher education settings.
An empirical examination of users' post-adoption behaviour of mobile services BIBAFull-Text 241-250
  Tao Zhou
Extant research has focused on the initial adoption and usage of mobile services and paid little attention to the post-adoption and continuance usage. However, unless users continue using mobile services, service providers cannot achieve success. Drawing upon the expectation confirmation theory, this research develops a mobile post-adoption model. The post-adoption behaviour includes three variables: continuance intention, recommendation and complaint. We conducted data analysis with partial least squares. The results indicated that expectation confirmation, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and usage cost significantly affect users' satisfaction, further determining their post-adoption behaviour. In addition, perceived usefulness has a direct effect on the continuance intention.
Drivers and effects of enterprise resource planning post-implementation learning BIBAFull-Text 251-259
  Hsiu-Hua Chang; Huey-Wen Chou
The use of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems has grown enormously since 1990, but the failure to completely learn how to use them continues to produce disappointing results. Today's rapidly changing business environment and the integrative applications of ERP systems force users to continuously learn new skills after ERP implementation. This study explores the effects of post-implementation learning on ERP usage and ERP impact and identifies the factors that can impact post-implementation learning, such as social capital and post-training self-efficacy. This study employs a survey method to examine the perceptions of ERP users. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modelling on a dataset of 812 users. This study finds that post-implementation learning has a significant positive effect on ERP usage and ERP impact, and that social capital and post-training self-efficacy are important antecedent factors of post-implementation learning. Post-training self-efficacy also significantly affects ERP usage and ERP impact. The implications for research, practice and future research directions are discussed.
Developing an appropriate design of blended learning with web-enabled self-regulated learning to enhance students' learning and thoughts regarding online learning BIBAFull-Text 261-271
  Chia-Wen Tsai; Pei-Di Shen; Meng-Chuan Tsai
The vocational schools in Taiwan regard professional certifications as a badge of skills achievement. The teaching in this context usually focuses on how to help students enhance their professional skills and pass the certificate examinations, particularly for computing courses. However, due to national education policy, pure online courses are not permitted here and in some other nations. In order to provide an appropriate design and arrangement of blended learning (BL) courses, the authors redesigned a course, integrating web-enabled self-regulated learning (SRL) with variations in online class frequency, and explored their effects on enhancing students' skills of deploying database management system (DBMS) and their thoughts regarding blended course and interventions concerning SRL. Three class sections with a total of 112 students were taken as three distinct groups. The results indicated that students in the group of SRL and BL with five online classes had the highest grades for using DBMS among the three groups, and had very positive thoughts regarding the interventions concerning BL and SRL. The authors also provide suggestions and implications for teachers and schools to adopt innovative teaching methods and technologies, and redesign their courses to help students learn.
Effects of different metaphor usage on hypertext learning BIBAFull-Text 273-285
  Ece Merdivan; Nesrin Özdener
There are many studies that offer different opinions on the effects of hypertext usage as an educational tool. Given the differences of opinion, it is useful to research the effects of metaphor usage in hypertext education and the use of hypertext as an educational tool. In this study, the effects of metaphors' uses in constructing the characteristics of the hypertext teaching have been approved. A between-group design experiment was conducted to study the effects of four metaphors on four different groups. Survey results emphasise the importance of metaphor usage and the manner in which metaphor is used. It was also discovered that metaphor usage in the hypertext teaching affects the construction duration of the hypertext but does not have any effects on the acquisition of knowledge.

Book Review

Smart clothing -- technology and applications BIBFull-Text 287-288
  Ahmet Cakir

BIT 2011-05-01 Volume 30 Issue 3

Editorial BIBFull-Text 289-291
  Tom Stewart
Object-oriented modelling with unified modelling language 2.0 for simple software application based on agile methodology BIBAFull-Text 293-307
  H. L. H. S. Warnars
Unified modelling language (UML) 2.0 introduced in 2002 has been developing and influencing object-oriented software engineering and has become a standard and reference for information system analysis and design modelling. There are many concepts and theories to model the information system or software application with UML 2.0, which can make ambiguities and inconsistencies for a novice to learn to how to model the system with UML especially with UML 2.0. This article will discuss how to model the simple software application by using some of the diagrams of UML 2.0 and not by using the whole diagrams as suggested by agile methodology. Agile methodology is considered as convenient for novices because it can deliver the information technology environment to the end-user quickly and adaptively with minimal documentation. It also has the ability to deliver best performance software application according to the customer's needs. Agile methodology will make simple model with simple documentation, simple team and simple tools.
Participatory design in OSS development: interpretive case studies in company and community OSS development contexts BIBAFull-Text 309-323
  Netta Iivari
This article examines distributed participatory design in open source software (OSS) development. User participation is becoming a relevant topic of research in the OSS development context. Though it has not been examined much to date, the OSS development context has been argued to advocate a particular type of participatory design, which can now be scrutinised in its natural setting as it evolves. Two interpretive case studies on user participation in OSS development are included in this article. The first examines a traditional community OSS development project; the second concentrates on the company OSS development context, the case being a software development unit of a global corporation involved in OSS development. Through analysis of the cases, different forms of participatory design (PD), especially of distributed PD, are identified. Distributed PD is interpreted to include gaining an understanding of users' current practices, redesigning them together with users and gathering feedback from users related to the solutions. Different kinds of roles are available to users, as well as to for intermediaries 'representing users'. Especially, the importance of online forum-based and intermediary-driven PD is emphasised in this article. Implications for PD and OSS research and practice are considered.
Understanding OSS development in communities: the perspectives of ideology and knowledge sharing BIBAFull-Text 325-337
  Shih-Wei Chou; Mong-Young He
This study aims to understand why open source software (OSS) developers contribute and how their dispersed efforts are controlled to lead to viable outputs. Drawing on theories related to ideology and information sharing, a model is proposed and tested empirically. We found that OSS values are positively associated with collaborative elaboration and communication competence, which in turn affect the performance of OSS task in terms of task completion. Our results also delineate the relationship among OSS norms, collaborative elaboration and source credibility, and task completion. This research contributes to advancing theoretical understanding of OSS performance as well as providing OSS practitioners with guidelines on how OSS communities use OSS ideology to achieve better performance.
Crisis IT design implications for high risk systems: systems, control and information propositions BIBAFull-Text 339-352
  Earl H. McKinney
The systems view is presented as a complement to the more traditional scientific approach to help reduce and mitigate risk in high risk systems. Implications for this systemic approach are described, principally in the areas of control and information. Most generally, we investigate how high risk systems use information to maintain control, and how IT systems should be designed to support this activity. Two variations in the systems view -- the objective and constructive -- are distilled and compared, and for each, the implications for crisis IT systems design are discussed. The limitations of the two variations of the systems view are presented, as is a brief annotated bibliography for further reading about the systems view.
Do developers matter in system review? BIBAFull-Text 353-378
  Yuk Kuen Wong
The aim of the research is to investigate the impact of software developers' performance in the software review process. A theoretical explicit and implicit input-process-output knowledge model was developed to analyse the important relationships among software developers' performance in software review process. A total of 1380 companies were invited to participate in this research and a total of 205 responses were used for final data analysis. The results suggest that software developers' experiences are the key driver for the software review performance. However, the use of explicit documents has no impact on software review performance. The new findings also suggest that the most critical factor in the software review process is 'teamwork', which can be affected by the characteristics of task, use of software documents and software developers' motivation.
Impact of restrictive composition policy on user password choices BIBAFull-Text 379-388
  John Campbell; Wanli Ma; Dale Kleeman
This study investigates the efficacy of using a restrictive password composition policy. The primary function of access controls is to restrict the use of information systems and other computer resources to authorised users only. Although more secure alternatives exist, password-based systems remain the predominant method of user authentication. Prior research shows that password security is often compromised by users who adopt inadequate password composition and management practices. One particularly under-researched area is whether restrictive password composition policies actually change user behaviours in significant ways. The results of this study show that a password composition policy reduces the similarity of passwords to dictionary words. However, in this case the regime did not reduce the use of meaningful information in passwords such as names and birth dates, nor did it reduce password recycling.
Management of system development knowledge: a cognitive approach BIBAFull-Text 389-401
  Shihchieh Chou
The management of system development knowledge (SDK) is currently sub-optimal regarding the system developer's learning and use of the knowledge due to its inherently complex and cumbersome nature. In this work, we have identified and categorised different approaches to the management of SDK generally having instrumental and technical subject matter. To complement the current literature in this field of study, our approach to the management of SDK has taken into account the system developer's cognitive processing concerns. As such, we have proposed and successfully tested a strategic method for SDK management in a real working situation. In this empirical study, the implementation of an artificial knowledge structure has been shown to be useful as a means of decreasing the system developer's cognitive processing load as regards SDK. The first of two implications is such that cognitive consideration in relation to SDK management has further developmental potential. The second implication is that the system development environment can provide cognitive support to the system developer.
Designing touchpad user-interfaces for vehicles: which tasks are most suitable? BIBAFull-Text 403-414
  Gary Burnett; Glyn Lawson; Laura Millen; Carl Pickering
Designers of in-vehicle computing systems must consider which input devices are most suitable for use in the safety-critical driving situation. This paper describes a study aiming to establish which tasks are best supported by an in-vehicle touchpad system. Eighteen participants (50:50 right/left handed) drove three routes in a right-hand drive simulator while following a lead vehicle at a perceived safe distance. At specific points, participants were asked to carry out seven tasks of varying qualities using a prototype touchpad system, a touchscreen or a rotary controller interface. Results indicated that participants were most negative (in terms of preferences and performance) with the rotary controller interface. Conversely, the results for the touchpad versus the touchscreen interfaces were clearly task dependent. For instance, with the touchpad, subjective opinions and objective performance were most positive for tasks in which simple commands enabled drivers to bypass the need for complex menu interactions (e.g. changing the interior temperature). In contrast, results for the touchscreen were evidently superior for simple menu selection tasks (e.g. selecting a preset radio station). Conclusions are drawn regarding the nature of tasks that are best suited to alternative input devices within vehicles and the potential for a touchpad/touchscreen solution.
Effects of sensorimotor transformations with graphical input devices BIBAFull-Text 415-424
  C. Sutter; J. Müsseler; L. Bardos
The impact of sensorimotor transformations with graphical input devices is surveyed with regard to action control. Recent evidence lets us assume that the distal action effect (the moving cursor) rather than the proximal action effect (the moving hand) determines the efficiency of tool use. In Experiment 1, different gains were explored with a touchpad and a mini-joystick. In correspondence with our assumptions the results revealed evidence that Fitts' law holds for distal action-effect movements, but less for proximal action-effect movements. Most importantly, this was not only true for the touchpad but also for the mini-joystick. We further found a more efficient use of the touchpad in comparison to the mini-joystick when a high gain was used. In Experiment 2, the dominance of the action effect on motor control was confirmed in an experiment with a digitiser tablet. The tablet amplitude was held constant, but again, movement times followed the perceived index of difficulty on the display. It is concluded that Fitts' law did not rely on the movements of the motor system, but on the distal action effects on the display (changes in visual space). Distal action-effect control plays an important role in understanding the constraints of the acquisition and application of tool transformations.
A study on how usability flaws in GUI design increase mouse movements and consequently may affect users' health BIBAFull-Text 425-436
  Nektarios Kostaras; Michalis Xenos
The objective of this study is to discuss how software usability flaws may cause a significant increase in mouse movements and, as a potential side effect, may even affect users' health. During the literature review, this article examines the potential relationship between mouse movement and musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity, based on studies from medical sciences. Subsequently, in the main part of the present study, three software products were selected that had at least one usability flaw related to extra mouse movement (the selection of the software was made out of over 20 software programs that had been evaluated in our Software Quality Assessment Laboratory). For these products, all additional mouse movements were measured, involving actual users in various settings and computer configurations. The findings showed that even a single usability flaw may increase mouse movement to a magnitude of between 3.6 and 4.7 m/h. The article concludes that the role of software engineering is to focus on software usability as well, taking into account that a user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) which is able to eliminate unnecessary mouse movement may also eventually contribute to the reduction of fatigue and discomfort, caused by musculoskeletal disorders.

BIT 2011-07-01 Volume 30 Issue 4

Medical team meetings: utilising technology to enhance communication, collaboration and decision-making BIBFull-Text 437-442
  Bridget Kane; Kristina Groth; Dave Randall
Physical space and information space: studies of collaboration in distributed multi-disciplinary medical team meetings BIBAFull-Text 443-454
  Jane Li; Toni Robertson
We conducted field studies with three multi-disciplinary cancer teams at three hospitals. We investigated distributed multi-disciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) at each setting focusing on the organisational context, existing collaboration technology facilities and the use and availability of digital medical information systems. Our results highlight how factors such as room size, team size, seating arrangements, display configuration and variations in preparing and presenting medical information clearly influence the dynamics of the conversation and information sharing in distributed MDTMs. Our analysis shows how these configurations, arrangements and practices arise and the implications they have for any technical interventions that might be introduced. We discuss how to configure a collaborative work space to support information sharing and communication in distributed MDTMs, such as a shared physical space facilitating interaction, a shared information space affording varied styles of medical information interaction and, importantly, configuring available technologies and resources to support collaboration in shared spaces without compromising local contexts.
References to personal experiences and scientific evidence during medical multi-disciplinary team meetings BIBAFull-Text 455-466
  Oscar Frykholm; Kristina Groth
We present a field study of medical multi-disciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) where decisions are made concerning the diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from diseases in the upper abdomen. The study shows how evidence is referred to during weekly team meetings; this evidence is related both to scientific studies and to personal experiences of similar cases. We focus on the conversations during the meetings, on the complicated nature of the cases and on the details in the discussions that led the meeting participants to refer to scientific evidence or previous cases. We identify possibilities for improving the use of already documented information from medical records, in order to identify clinically relevant similarities and to bring additional information into the treatment discussion.
Waiting times for cancer treatment: the impact of multi-disciplinary team meetings BIBAFull-Text 467-471
  Tracy Goolam-Hossen; Chris Metcalfe; Alison Cameron; Brett Rocos; Stephen Falk; Jane M. Blazeby
In the UK, treatment recommendations for patients with cancer are all made within multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meetings. This has benefits, but it may delay treatment starting if MDT decisions require revision before implementation. This study examined whether changes in MDT treatment decisions after the meeting led to a delay in the start of treatment. Consecutive MDT treatment recommendations were recorded and times to start of treatment were calculated. Comparisons of the time from MDT meeting to start of treatment were made between implemented and non-implemented MDT recommendations. Of 363 MDT recommendations, 71 (19.5%, 95% CIs 15.6-24.0) were not implemented. The median time to start of treatment was 24 days (IQR 12-33), increasing to 35 days (IQR 17-77.5), if the MDT decision required revision to another active therapy (p=0.009). Decisions were changed because details about co-morbidity (n=32, 45%), new clinical information (n=24, 34%) or patient choice became apparent (n=13, 18%) and two changed for no clear reason. Significant delays in starting treatment occur if team treatment recommendations are not implemented. Effort and resources are required to ensure that information is present at meetings to allow comprehensive patient-centred decisions to be made and implemented.
Real-time multidisciplinary team meeting management systems. A comparison with paper records for staging completeness and waiting times BIBAFull-Text 473-477
  Giulio Napolitano; Elizabeth Ranaghan; Richard Middleton; Colin Fox; Anna Gavin
A bespoke electronic system, now being used regularly across Northern Ireland to facilitate the multidisciplinary team process in its recording of the team decisions for cancer patients, is investigated. Over 80% of the expected targets for cancer waiting times are being achieved and clinical stage recording for lung cancers has increased from 67% in 2006 to 88% in 2009.
'Sound of silence' -- changing from an oral to a computer-mediated handover BIBAFull-Text 479-488
  Torbjørg Meum; Gunnar Ellingsen
In this article, we study the change from oral to computer-mediated handover among nurses in the psycho-geriatric ward at the University Hospital of Northern Norway. We explore what issues are at stake when introducing written handover to a particular nursing practice. At the core of nursing documentation is the electronic care plan, and we discuss its role and interplay vis-á-vis the other information sources in the ward. Furthermore, we examine the inherent tension between the increased pressure (among nurses) to document on the one hand, and the need to discuss patient issues first on the other. Finally, we discuss how the use of the care plan, video-projector and the newly established morning meeting collectively served as a basis for a new and better collaborative setting for the nurses.
The ConStratO model of handover: a tool to support technology design and evaluation BIBAFull-Text 489-498
  Rebecca Randell; Stephanie Wilson; Peter Woodward; Julia Galliers
Handovers are a specific kind of multi-disciplinary team meeting. Shift handovers and transfers are both regular features of hospital work but there is currently great variation in how such handovers are conducted, presenting a challenge for those seeking to develop technology to support handover. This article presents the ConStratO model of handover, which captures aspects of the context that influence how the handover is conducted, a range of different handover strategies relating to different aspects of the handover and possible outcomes of handover. The model is based on detailed data collection in a range of clinical settings. We present the model as a tool for developing and evaluating technology support for handover.
Safe use of symbols in handover documentation for medical teams BIBAFull-Text 499-506
  Julia Galliers; Stephanie Wilson; Rebecca Randell; Peter Woodward
Concern has been reported about the safe use of medical abbreviations in documents such as handover sheets and medical notes, especially when information is being communicated between staff of different specialties (BBC 2008, Sheppard et al. 2008). This article describes a study to investigate whether the use of symbols in handover documentation that is shared within and between multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) has similar safety implications. We asked 19 healthcare professionals from a range of specialties to identify 45 different combinations of 38 individual symbols. The symbols and combinations of symbols were extracted from 102 handover sheets taken from 6 different healthcare contexts in 4 London hospitals. Three symbols proposed in Microsoft's Common User Interface guidelines for alert symbols were also included. Results reveal that while some symbols are well understood, many others are either ambiguous or unknown. These results have implications for the safe use of symbols in medical documents, including paper and electronic handover documents and Electronic Patient Records (EPRs), especially where teams comprise individuals from different professional backgrounds, i.e. MDTs. We offer initial suggestions for standardisation and further research.
Collaboration and learning in medical teams by using video conference BIBAFull-Text 507-515
  Line Lundvoll Nilsen
This study explores how teams create opportunities for learning through medical talk in video conferences (VCs). The empirical context is 47 real-time VCs carried out between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists to examine collaborative work through medical talk. Sixteen of the observations were consultations wherein knowledge was shared with the purpose of solving a specific medical problem. Eight interviews were done face-to-face with a focus on the content of the talk, with the purpose of examining the findings of the observations. Analysis of information and knowledge sharing in medical talk through discussing a patient's medical record shows that collaborative work creates opportunities for learning. The participants describe, inform, recommend, explain and confirm in a two-way process. Individuals' different experience-based knowledge and scientific knowledge closes the knowledge gaps between GP and specialist. Contradictions between the individual's thinking and the knowledge collectively shared furthers the activity. Regular VCs offer the opportunity to be part of a distributed team that expands the opportunity provided by irregular phone calls, deviates from the expected course of traditional procedures for doing medical work and creates a space for learning. The VC facilitates collaboration and collective reflection as a distributed health care team.
Meeting community needs through leadership and innovation: a case of virtual psychiatric emergency department (ED) BIBAFull-Text 517-523
  Gokul Bhandari; Barbara Tiessen; Anne Snowdon
In this paper, we discuss a telehealth project aimed at delivering mental health crisis interventions to patients in two rural hospitals in Southern Ontario, Canada, by creating a virtual psychiatric emergency department (ED) using telehealth technology. A participatory action research approach was followed as a design framework for this project. A formal process based on Kouzes and Posner's five practices of exemplary leadership was crafted and closely followed, given the critical role of leadership necessary for the success of this project. The programme achieved its goal and was well received by patients and staff. ED physicians felt supported by the available psychiatric and mental health nursing expertise. Staff satisfaction with the protocols and processes were high, and ED physicians felt confident in the support they received during the decision-making process for appropriate disposition of the patient.
Morality and expert systems: problem solving in medical team meetings BIBAFull-Text 525-532
  Per Måseide
The article derives from a study of inter-professional and collaborative medical problem solving, an activity in which moral issues are invariably implied, if not explicitly stated. Data come from fieldwork in the thoracic ward of a Norwegian hospital. Focus is on a regular inter-professional meeting called 'the thoracic meeting'. This meeting functions as an expert system characterised by socially distributed cognition. The work of the expert system is communicatively accomplished and moral dimensions appear as characteristics of the problem-solving talk. Three cases or sequences of talk from institutionalised collaborative medical problem-solving work are presented. Each of them displays moral aspects of medical practice. The first case concerns the question of in whose interest decisions are made. Are they made in the patient's best interest, the institution's best interest or in the professional practitioners' best interest? The second case regards the interaction order, which is seen as a normative or moral order that characterise sequences of collaborative problem-solving talk. It has to do with discursive dominance, discursive tactics and adherence to the norms of interaction order. The third case shows that turning medical problems into moral problems may be used as a discursive tactic to manage professional and institutional problems. The cases show the comprehensiveness of moral issues in medical problem solving in such expert systems as the thoracic meeting.

BIT 2011-09-01 Volume 30 Issue 5

Editorial BIBFull-Text 533-535
  Tom Stewart
A case study analysis of a constructionist knowledge building community with activity theory BIBAFull-Text 537-554
  Chee S. Ang; Panayiotis Zaphiris; Stephanie Wilson
This article investigates how activity theory can help research a constructionist community. We present a constructionist activity model called CONstructionism Through ACtivity Theory (CONTACT) model and explain how it can be used to analyse the constructionist activity in knowledge building communities. We then illustrate the model through its application to analysing the Wiki-supported community associated with a computer game. Our analysis focuses mainly on two perspectives: individual and collective actions, as well as individual and collective mediations. Experiences and challenges from the analysis are reported to demonstrate how CONTACT is helpful in analysing such communities.
Ontology-based empirical knowledge verification for professional virtual community BIBAFull-Text 555-586
  Yuh-Jen Chen
A professional virtual community provides an interactive platform for enterprise experts to create and share their empirical knowledge cooperatively, and the platform contains a tremendous amount of hidden empirical knowledge that knowledge experts have preserved in the discussion process. Therefore, enterprise knowledge management highly prioritises how to verify the empirical knowledge effectively before archiving it into enterprise knowledge repository for reuse. This work develops a novel scheme of ontology-based empirical knowledge verification for professional virtual community to assist domain experts in a professional virtual community to verify the logics of empirical knowledge, thus ensuring the quality of empirical knowledge and providing accurate knowledge decision support for knowledge workers. In particular, this work has the following objectives: propose an empirical knowledge verification model for a professional virtual community, design an ontology-based empirical knowledge verification process, develop techniques related to the ontology-based empirical knowledge verification and implement an ontology-based empirical knowledge verification mechanism with an illustrative example of securities trading. Results of this study facilitate efforts within the professional virtual community to verify empirical knowledge in order to provide knowledge workers with logic-correct empirical knowledge for decision support.
Exploring the antecedents of trust in virtual communities BIBAFull-Text 587-601
  Meng-Hsiang Hsu; Chun-Ming Chang; Chia-Hui Yen
Although previous research has established that interpersonal trust and system trust are critical in shaping individual behaviour in virtual settings, the two perspectives have not been examined by IS researchers in virtual communities (VCs) simultaneously. Drawing from prior literature on trust and VCs, a research model for understanding the importance of trust in members and trust in system and their antecedents in VCs is presented. Six trust-building factors were identified using three trust-building bases (calculative base, relationship base and technology base). Data were collected from 324 members of a technical VC to test the model. The study shows that trust in members and trust in system have significant influences on knowledge sharing intention. The study also indicates that knowledge growth, perceived responsiveness and shared vision affect trust in members positively, while knowledge quality influences trust in system significantly. The study discusses the theoretical and managerial implications of this study and proposes several future research directions.
How virtual community participation influences consumer loyalty intentions in online shopping contexts: an investigation of mediating factors BIBAFull-Text 603-615
  Pei-Yu (Patty) Pai; Hsien-Tung Tsai
Extant studies generally recognise that virtual community building is an effective marketing programme for forging deep and enduring affective bonds with consumers. This study extends previous research by proposing and testing a model that investigates key mediating processes (via trust, satisfaction and identification) that underlie the relationship between virtual community participation and consumer loyalty intentions. The authors test the hypotheses using data obtained from three large online retailing stores. Virtual community participation significantly enhances loyalty intentions, through both social mechanisms (via community identification) and psychological mechanisms (via trust and satisfaction). Moreover, the findings provide insights into the complex relationship between the two mechanisms in online shopping settings. Community identification is a pivotal factor for enhancing customer loyalty intentions. The results advance understanding of the process by which virtual community building facilitates the development of business-to-consumer relationships in the computer-mediated environment. The authors discuss the managerial implications of the findings, as well as avenues for further research.
A comparison of empathic communication pattern for teenagers and older people in online support communities BIBAFull-Text 617-628
  Panote Siriaraya; Caleb Tang; Chee Siang Ang; Ulrike Pfeil; Panayiotis Zaphiris
This article reports a study that investigated the occurrences of empathy in online support communities for teenagers. Qualitative content analysis with 400 messages from a discussion board about depression was used to identify how empathy was expressed in the specific online communication. Emphasis was also placed on the comparison of this age group to older people, by comparing the results with those from a previous study on empathy in an online support community about depression for older people. Specifically, the analysis focused on the frequencies of the categories of the code scheme, linguistic characteristics of the communication content, the occurring components of empathy, and the roles as well as activities of the members. From our analysis, we concluded that young people exchanged a substantial amount of empathic emotional communication when participating in an online support community, and they communicated on a more personal level compared to older people, who tended to engage in a more formal communication. In addition, teenagers also showed a high level of understanding but lower level of concern compared to older persons when expressing empathy online.
Age-related differences in the initial usability of mobile device icons BIBAFull-Text 629-642
  Rock Leung; Joanna McGrenere; Peter Graf
Mobile devices offer much potential to support older adults (age 65+). However, older adults have been relatively slow to adopt mobile devices. Although much ongoing HCI research has examined usability problems to address this issue, little work has looked at whether existing graphical icons are harder to use for this population compared with younger adults. We conducted a qualitative exploratory study and a follow-up experimental study to determine which icon characteristics help initial icon usability for older adults. We found that our older participants did have more problems using existing mobile device icons, but that particular icon characteristics -- semantically close meaning (i.e. natural, close link between depicted objects and associated function), familiar, labelled and concrete (i.e. those depicting real-world objects) -- improved icon usability for them. We discuss how these findings can help icon designers to create mobile device icons that are more suited to the abilities and technology experience of older adults.
Increased memory load during task completion when procedures are presented on mobile screens BIBAFull-Text 643-658
  Keena S. Byrd; Barrett S. Caldwell
The primary objective of this research was to compare procedure-based task performance using three common mobile screen sizes: ultra mobile personal computer (7 in./17.8 cm), personal data assistant (3.5 in./8.9 cm), and SmartPhone (2.8 in./7.1 cm). Subjects used these three screen sizes to view and execute a computer maintenance procedure. Results from 65 student participants indicated a significant difference in completion times between the three screen sizes [F(2, 120)=690, p <0.050], but no differences in subjectively assessed cognitive workload, errors or performance time. Competing memory strategies in procedure-based tasks were revealed through the access frequency and amount of time subjects spent reading the procedure before starting the experiment [F(2, 105)=25.17, p <0.001]. When using the 7 in./17.8cm screen, users read more of the procedure before executing the procedure. In contrast, when using the smaller screen, users sampled the procedure in longer intervals during execution.
Exploring factors influencing mobile users' intention to adopt multimedia messaging service BIBAFull-Text 659-672
  Shuchih Ernest Chang; Ying-Hui Vera Pan
While short messaging service (SMS) is discussed often in recent literature, multimedia messaging service (MMS), a media rich successor of SMS, is seldom heard or understood by mobile users in Taiwan. The adoption rates of MMS are far from satisfactory, implying that there might be some factors keeping the potential users away from using MMS. This research integrates a qualitative method, the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique, with the quantitative questionnaire survey to elicit and validate underlying factors which influence potential users' attitude and intention toward the adoption of MMS. A research model together with eight hypotheses was formulated, and a questionnaire based survey was administrated to mobile users knowledgeable about mobile messaging services for empirically validating the research model and testing the hypotheses. Our research findings show that relative advantage and ease of use are important factors significantly influencing mobile users' adoption of MMS but the other two antecedents, facilitating conditions and previous experience, do not have significant and direct impacts on mobile users' intention to use MMS. These study results can be referenced by service providers for designing and developing successful business applications to catch the valuable opportunity and benefit of MMS.
Mobile device impairment ... similar problems, similar solutions? BIBAFull-Text 673-690
  Simon Harper; Yeliz Yesilada; Tianyi Chen
Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained environment. Relatively little is known of its extent or the magnitude of the problems faced by the user. Here, we place the work that has been undertaken into a comparative framework of impairment in the context of data input. Our survey finds that 12 problems exist which define all impaired input and we look to understand the similarities and possible solutions in the new impairment group of small device users. For instance, from the literature, we find that users who are both situationally and motor impaired: press keys more than once, do not use enough force and so a key is not activated, and accidentally type keys in reverse order. A wealth of other errors exist in the motor impaired domain but work does not exist to support their existence in the situational domain. However, if commonalities exist for some -- it seems work should be enacted to uncover the commonalities of all. Establishing these possible commonalities is important because solutions from one domain can be leveraged into another thereby saving the need to reinvent interventions which already exist elsewhere.
Exploring the logic of mobile search BIBAFull-Text 691-703
  Oscar Westlund; José-Luis Gómez-Barroso; Ramón Compañó; Claudio Feijóo
After more than a decade of development work and hopes, the usage of mobile Internet has finally taken off. Now, we are witnessing the first signs of evidence of what might become the explosion of mobile content and applications that will be shaping the (mobile) Internet of the future. Similar to the wired Internet, search will become very relevant for the usage of mobile Internet. Current research on mobile search has applied a limited set of methodologies and has also generated a narrow outcome of meaningful results. This article covers new ground, exploring the use and visions of mobile search with a users' interview-based qualitative study. Its main conclusion builds upon the hypothesis that mobile search is sensitive to a mobile logic different than today's one. First, (advanced) users ask for accessing with their mobile devices the entire Internet, rather than subsections of it. Second, success is based on new added-value applications that exploit unique mobile functionalities. The authors interpret that such mobile logic involves fundamentally the use of personalised and context-based services.

BIT 2011-11-01 Volume 30 Issue 6

Editorial BIBFull-Text 705-708
  Tom Stewart
An investigation of the usability of the stylus pen for various age groups on personal digital assistants BIBAFull-Text 709-726
  Xiangshi Ren; Xiaolei Zhou
Many handheld devices with stylus pens are available in the market; however, there have been few studies which examine the effects of the size of the stylus pen on user performance and subjective preferences for handheld device interfaces for various age groups. Two experiments (pen-length experiment and pen-tip width/pen-width experiment) were conducted to determine the most suitable dimensions (pen-length, pen-tip width and pen-width) for a stylus pen among young adult, child and older users. In pen-length experiment, five pen-lengths (7, 9, 11, 13 and 15cm) were evaluated for young adult, child and older users, respectively. In pen-tip width/pen-width experiment, six combinations of three pen-tip widths (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mm) and two pen-widths (4 and 7mm) were compared for young adult, child and older users, respectively. In both experiments, subjects conducted pointing, steering and writing tasks on a PDA. The results were assessed in terms of user performance and subjective evaluations for all three pointing, steering and writing tasks. We determined that the most suitable dimensions of the pen are as follows: pen-length 11-15cm, pen-tip width 1.0-1.5mm and pen-width 7mm for older users; for child users, pen-length 7-13cm, pen-tip width 1.0-1.5mm and pen-width 4mm; and for young adult users, pen-length 11cm, pen-tip width 0.5mm, and pen-width 7mm.
Investigating the effects of multimodal feedback through tracking state in pen-based interfaces BIBAFull-Text 727-737
  Minghui Sun; Xiangshi Ren
A tracking state increases the bandwidth of pen-based interfaces. However, this state is difficult to detect with default visual feedback. This paper reports on two experiments that are designed to evaluate multimodal feedback for pointing tasks (both 1D and 2D) in tracking state. In 1D pointing experiments, results show that there is a significant effect for input types on movement time while feedback type and the use of different hands for receiving feedback (i.e. the dominant or non-preferred hand) do not affect movement time significantly. We also report that there is a significant effect for feedback types and input device types on error rate while the choice of hand (used for detecting feedback vibrations) does not affect the error rate significantly. In the 2D pointing experiment, results show that there are no significant effects for either input type or the use of different hands on movement time while feedback type affects movement time significantly. Results for both the 1D and 2D pointing tasks show that tactile plus visual feedback can improve accuracy and audio is not efficient to give user feedback in tracking state. This paper proposes several guidelines for feedback design in tracking state. We believe these results can aid designers of pen-based interfaces.
Integrating discrete events and continuous head movements for video-based interaction techniques BIBAFull-Text 739-746
  Tatiana V. Evreinova; Grigori Evreinov; Roope Raisamo
Human head gestures can potentially trigger different commands from the list of available options in graphical user interfaces or in virtual and smart environments. However, continuous tracking techniques are limited in generating discrete events which could be used to execute a predefined set of commands. In this article, we discuss a possibility to encode a set of discrete events by integrating continuous head movements and crossing-based interaction paradigm. A set of commands can be encoded through specific sequences of crossing points when a head-mouse cursor such as a scaled pointer interacts with a graphical object. The goal of the present experiment was testing the perceptual-motor performance of novices in target acquisition tasks using a subset of round head gestures and symbolic icons designating eight types of directional head movements. We have demonstrated that the novices can equally well execute round head gestures in clockwise and counter-clockwise directions by making two crossings for about 2s or three crossings for about 3s. None of the participants reported neck strain or other problems after 360 trials performed during a 40-min test in each of 5 days.
Video-based person recognition using fovea intensity comparison code BIBAFull-Text 747-760
  M. Balasubramanian; S. Palanivel; V. Ramalingam
This article proposes a feature extraction method for automatic person recognition in video. The method proposed by Viola and Jones (Viola, P. and Jones, M., 2001. Rapid object detection using a boosted cascade of simple features. In: IEEE international conference on computer vision and pattern recognition (CVPR 2001), Kauai Marriott, Hawaii, Vol. 1, 511-518) is used to detect the face region. Face region is processed in YC b C r colour space to determine the locations of the eyes. The centre of the mouth is determined relative to the locations of the eyes. Facial and mouth features are extracted using multiscale morphological erosion and dilation operations, respectively. The facial features are extracted relative to the locations of the eyes, and mouth features are extracted relative to the locations of the eyes and mouth. Fovea intensity comparison code and exclusive-OR operation for matching are used to recognise a person in video sequences. Projected fovea intensity comparison code (PFICC) and Euclidean distance for matching are also used to recognise a person in video sequences. The performance of the system using PFICC is evaluated in real time in the laboratory environment, and the system achieves a recognition rate (RR) of 99.0% and an equal error rate (EER) of about 0.84% for 50 subjects. The performance of the system is also evaluated for the eXtended Multi Modal Verification for Teleservices and Security (XM2VTS) database, and the system achieves an RR of 100% and an EER of about 0.23%.
Supporting dictation speech recognition error correction: the impact of external information BIBAFull-Text 761-774
  Yongmei Shi; Lina Zhou
Although speech recognition technology has made remarkable progress, its wide adoption is still restricted by notable effort made and frustration experienced by users while correcting speech recognition errors. One of the promising ways to improve error correction is by providing user support. Although support mechanisms have been proposed for inline speech recognition error correction, how to develop user support for third-party error correction has been under studied. To address the unique challenges associated with third-party error correction, external information that is obtained outside of an erroneous sentence was employed in this research. Specifically, three types of external information were selected, including word alternative hypotheses, noisy context and accurate context, and their impacts on dictation speech recognition error correction were assessed empirically. As expected, results revealed the importance of context information to improving both the performance and perception of error correction. Additionally, the results also provided insights into possible effects of word error rate and sentence length on error correction. These findings have significant implications to interface design for transcript proofreading systems.
Colour size illusion on liquid crystal displays and design guidelines for bioinformatics tools BIBAFull-Text 775-785
  Hyun Seung Yoo; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson
Although the influence of colour on size perception has been known for a century, there is only limited research on interventions that can reduce this effect. This study was therefore undertaken in order to identify appropriate interventions and propose design guidelines for information visualisation, especially in applications where size judgement is critical. The colour size illusion was replicated on an LCD monitor, revealing that yellow images appeared the smallest among a series of red, yellow, green and blue images on a white background. Three types of interventions (background brightness, border colour and background grid brightness) were tested to identify conditions that reduce the colour illusions, but none proved to be statistically significant. Based on these experimental results and an extensive literature survey, a set of design guidelines is proposed to enhance the usability of LCD monitors and a set of design recommendations given to extend these guidelines to applications in the field of bioinformatics. These design recommendations are accompanied by an evaluation of effectiveness obtained by interviewing domain experts.
The influence of product aesthetics and user state in usability testing BIBAFull-Text 787-796
  Juergen Sauer; Andreas Sonderegger
An empirical study examined the effects of two influencing factors in usability tests on user performance and usability ratings. Product aesthetics (high vs. low) as the main independent factor and prior usage event (positive vs. negative) as a subsidiary independent factor were varied in a between-participants design. 60 participants took part in the experiment, completing a number of typical tasks of mobile phone users. The results showed that increased product aesthetics had a positive effect on perceived usability and led to longer task completion times. After a negative usage event had been experimentally induced, usability ratings dropped as expected but user performance on subsequent tasks remained unaffected. An important implication of the study is that the aesthetic properties of a product may have multiple effects that go beyond perceived product attractiveness.
Effects of typographic variables on eye-movement measures in reading Chinese from a screen BIBAFull-Text 797-808
  Nai-Shing Yen; Jie-Li Tsai; Pei-Ling Chen; Hsuan-Yu Lin; Arbee L. P. Chen
To investigate the most efficient way to represent text in reading Chinese on computer displays, three typographic variables, character size (41° arc/24 pixels and 60° arc/32 pixels), character spacing (1/4 and 1/8 character width) and font type (Kai and Ming), were manipulated. Results showed that the reading speed for Chinese characters of Kai type in 24 pixels with 1/8 character spacing was the shortest. Character size significantly affected overall reading speed; in specific, text in 24-pixel characters was read faster than text in 32-pixel characters. Further eye-movement analyses revealed that text in smaller-sized characters had longer fixation duration, fewer fixations and fewer regressions than text in larger-sized characters. The interaction between character spacing and font type was observed on overall reading efficiency and on some eye-movement measures, which suggests that different character spacings should be considered in different font types for more efficient reading. Generally, characters in Kai font were easier to read with 1/8 character spacing than with 1/4 character spacing. The relationship between eye-movement measures and overall reading efficiency was further discussed.
The effect of user characteristics on the efficiency of visual querying BIBAFull-Text 809-819
  Peter Bak; Joachim Meyer
Information systems increasingly provide options for visually inspecting data during the process of information discovery and exploration. Little research has dealt so far with user interactions with these systems, and specifically with the effects of characteristics of the displayed data and the user on performance with such systems. The study reports an experiment on users' performance with a visual exploration system. Participants had to identify target graphs within a large set of candidate graphs by using visual filtering criteria that differed in their efficiency for reducing the number of candidate graphs. A pay-off matrix and a time limit served to motivate users to select filter criteria efficiently. Performance was measured as the number of correct identifications of target graphs within a time-limit, and the number, type and position of filter criteria selected for the search. Efficiency was somewhat biased by users' preference to select filter criteria sequentially, starting from the left to the right. Rational and experiential cognitive styles affected performance, and they interacted with learning and the types of filter criteria chosen. The study shows that not only visual search tools can be used effectively but also that data and user characteristics affect task performance with such systems.
Evaluating gaze-based interface tools to facilitate point-and-select tasks with small targets BIBAFull-Text 821-831
  Henrik Skovsgaard; Julio C. Mateo; John Paulin Hansen
Gaze interaction affords hands-free control of computers. Pointing to and selecting small targets using gaze alone is difficult because of the limited accuracy of gaze pointing. This is the first experimental comparison of gaze-based interface tools for small-target (e.g. <12x12 pixels) point-and-select tasks. We conducted two experiments comparing the performance of dwell, magnification and zoom methods in point-and-select tasks with small targets in single- and multiple-target layouts. Both magnification and zoom showed higher hit rates than dwell. Hit rates were higher when using magnification than when using zoom, but total pointing times were shorter using zoom. Furthermore, participants perceived magnification as more fatiguing than zoom. The higher accuracy of magnification makes it preferable when interacting with small targets. Our findings may guide the development of interface tools to facilitate access to mainstream interfaces for people with motor disabilities and other users in need of hands-free interaction.
The influence of different electronic maps and displays on performance and operator state in a geographic orientation task BIBAFull-Text 833-844
  Claudius Pfendler; Jürgen Thun; Thomas Alexander; Christopher Schlick
Mobile electronic displays for geographic orientation and navigation are used increasingly in various civil and military domains. But it is still unclear which displays and kinds of map presentation suit best for specific purposes. In the present experiment, a head-mounted display (HMD) and a display from a personal digital assistant (PDA) were compared in a simulated geographic orientation task in an urban environment. Furthermore, the effect of three kinds of map presentation (egocentric, geocentric and geocentric with colour cues) was analysed. The simulated orientation task was projected on a screen and participants controlled their locomotion within the urban area by means of a joystick. Task completion time, peripheral attention, workload, fatigue and simulator sickness were registered as dependent variables. In comparison to the geocentric map the egocentric map showed a significant shorter task completion time and the geocentric map with colour cues a significant higher peripheral attention. Task completion time of the HMD and the PDA did not differ significantly. However, peripheral attention and most indices of workload, fatigue and simulator sickness were significantly better for the PDA. Therefore, the results recommend to apply PDAs and egocentric maps for comparable orientation tasks.
Using the Internet for speech research: an evaluative study examining affect in speech BIBAFull-Text 845-851
  Monja A. Knoll; Maria Uther; Alan Costall
The Internet has rarely been used in auditory perception studies due to concerns about standardisation and calibration across different systems and settings. However, not all auditory research is based on the investigation of fine-grained differences in auditory thresholds. Where meaningful 'real-world' listening, for instance the perception of speech, is concerned, the Internet may be a more appropriate and ecologically valid setting to collect data. This study compared affective ratings of low-pass-filtered infant-, foreigner- and British adult-directed speech obtained with traditional methods in the laboratory, with those obtained from an Internet sample. Dropout rates and demographic distribution of participants in the Internet condition were also assessed. The results show that affective ratings were similar for both the Internet and laboratory samples. These findings indicate the viability of Internet-based research into affective speech perception and suggest that precise acoustic environmental control may not always be necessary.
The promise of zoomable user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 853-866
  Benjamin B. Bederson
Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with their challenges. It describes design guidelines, and offers a cautionary tale about research and innovation.

Book review

The handbook of human-machine interaction -- a human centered design approach BIBFull-Text 867-868
  Ahmet Cakir