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Behaviour and Information Technology 32

Editors:Tom Stewart
Dates:2013
Volume:32
Publisher:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Standard No:ISSN 0144-929X
Papers:112
Links:Table of Contents
  1. BIT 2013-01-01 Volume 32 Issue 1
  2. BIT 2013-02-01 Volume 32 Issue 2
  3. BIT 2013-03-01 Volume 32 Issue 3
  4. BIT 2013-04-01 Volume 32 Issue 4
  5. BIT 2013-05-01 Volume 32 Issue 5
  6. BIT 2013-06-01 Volume 32 Issue 6
  7. BIT 2013-07-01 Volume 32 Issue 7
  8. BIT 2013-08-01 Volume 32 Issue 8
  9. BIT 2013-09-01 Volume 32 Issue 9
  10. BIT 2013-10-01 Volume 32 Issue 10
  11. BIT 2013-11-01 Volume 32 Issue 11
  12. BIT 2013-12-01 Volume 32 Issue 12

BIT 2013-01-01 Volume 32 Issue 1

Editorial

New year, new iPad BIBFull-Text 1-3
  Tom Stewart

Digital Living

Bridging the digital divide -- an Australian story BIBAFull-Text 4-13
  Robyn Broadbent; Theo Papadopoulos
There is increasing evidence that the lack of access to information and communication technology (ICT) or the 'digital divide' severely limits education, employment and economic prospects. This paper reports on the evaluation of a project that aims to bridge the digital divide. In particular, the case study data has been used to bring to life the impact that access to the internet, often for the first time, can make in people's lives. If you are isolated, suffer poor health or do not speak English then the internet can take on a very different meaning, it becomes an essential tool to your ability to communicate, feel connected and to your health and well-being. What is evident from this snapshot of practice of the Wired Community@Collingwood project is actually how it can improve these outcomes for the current participants. A multi-method approach was implemented in the first year of the evaluation, included the collection of qualitative data. Connecting with participants to engage them to tell their story provided the project with a rich source of information, but it required a time-consuming methodology that respected the barriers which participants faced. However, the narrative that is now a part of this project brought to life the impact of ICT in this community. Being a part of the digital divide in the twentieth century disconnects you from a part of your world that now exists for others. At Collingwood, these participants are making those connections on a daily basis and are excited about the new possibilities of being a part of the available technology. This study evidences the impact of bridging the digital divide in one of the most disadvantaged communities in Australia.
Public Internet access points (PIAPs) and their social impact: a case study from Turkey BIBAFull-Text 14-23
  Gulgun Afacan; Erkan Er; Ali Arifoglu
Building public Internet access points (PIAPs) is a significant contribution of governments towards achieving an information society. While many developing countries are investing great amounts to establish PIAPs today, people may not use PIAPs effectively. Yet, the successful implementation of PIAPs is the result of citizens' acceptance to use this opportunity. Hence, based on the Diffusion of Innovation Model, this study aims to detect the determinants of behavioural intention to use PIAPs. Essential data were collected from 3477 users of BELNET PIAPs established by the municipality of Istanbul in Turkey. We found that observability, compatibility and relative advantage all positively impact the intention to use PIAPs. The results reveal academic and practical implications for the future development and implementation of PIAPs.
Social capital: the benefit of Facebook 'friends' BIBAFull-Text 24-36
  Kevin Johnston; Maureen Tanner; Nishant Lalla; Dori Kawalski
This research investigated the role Facebook use plays in the creation or maintenance of social capital among university students in South Africa. Data were collected using questionnaires completed by over 800 students from 7 universities. The questionnaire was obtained from a study conducted in Michigan State University (Ellison N.B., Steinfield, C., and Lampe, C., 2007. The benefits of Facebook "Friends": social capital and college students' use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143-1168.). Empirical research has linked social capital to many positives in society, such as improved mental and physical health, economic well-being, etc. Thus, social capital is important for the success of civil society. This research examined the relationships between Facebook use and the formation and maintenance of social capital amongst university students. The study also examined factors specific to the South African context and drew comparisons to the results of the original study. Analysis of the results suggests a strong association between the intensity of Facebook use and perceived bridging, bonding and maintained social capital. This paper broadens the understanding of Facebook usage by introducing the dimensions of race and age. Facebook usage was found to interact with measures of psychological well-being, suggesting that it might be beneficial to students experiencing low self-esteem and low life satisfaction.
The effects of a Creative Commons approach on collaborative learning BIBAFull-Text 37-51
  Chen-Chung Liu; Shu-Yuan Tao; Wei-Hung Chen; Sherry Y. Chen; Baw-Jhiune Liu
Social media on the World Wide Web, such as Wiki, are increasingly applied to support collaborative learning for students to conduct a project together. However, recent studies indicated that students, learning in the collaborative project, may not actively contribute to the collaborative work and are involved only in a limited level of positive interdependence due to the ambiguous ownership on the collaborative work. To this end, this study proposes an approach to support collaborative learning based on the notion of Creative Commons (CC). CC may be helpful to enhance positive interdependency because it provides a mechanism which protects individual creations while encouraging remixing and deriving new creations from them. This study conducted an empirical evaluation to examine how students react to the collaborative learning with CC notions. The results showed that CC can significantly improve participants' attitude to the derivative works, the satisfaction level of remix outcomes, perception to the peer interaction and the sense of work ownership. Such results suggest that CC may be a potential avenue for increasing individuals' responsibilities and motivating them to participate in the collaborative learning activity.
User experience in social commerce: in friends we trust BIBAFull-TextCorrigendum 52-67
  Dong-Hee Shin
Social commerce (s-commerce), a new form of commerce that involves using social media, has been rapidly developing. While the adoption of social technology is well studied, new theoretical development is needed to explain the specific characteristics of s-commerce and their interactions with the user. This study analyses consumer behaviours in s-commerce, focusing on the role of social influence in s-commerce. A model is created to validate the relationship between the subjective norm and trust, social support, attitude, and intention. The results of the model show that the subjective norm is a key behavioural antecedent to use s-commerce. In the extended model, the moderating and mediating effects of the subjective norm on relationships among variables were found to be significant. The new set of variables adapted from previous research can be s-commerce-specific, acting as factors that enhance attitudes and behavioural intentions in s-commerce. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of building a theory of social interaction and providing practical insights into developing user-centered s-commerce as a platform.

Medical applications on the Internet

Exploring the use of design pattern maps for aligning new technical support to new clinical team meeting routines BIBAFull-Text 68-79
  Carl Åke Walldius; Ann Lantz
We propose the collaborative activity of mapping design patterns against stakeholder values as a viable method for grounding conceptual design of information and communication technology (ICT) services for heterogeneous sets of stakeholders. Preliminary experiences from designing a case book service for video-mediated gastro-medical team meetings are presented. A diverse set of stakeholders and the challenge to apply novel technologies in a demanding environment have placed more responsibility on the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) team to conceptualise new work practices and their expected effects than what traditional participatory design projects typically entail. By combining the methodologies of genre analysis and pattern languages, design pattern maps have been used to conceptualise solutions that span both work and interface aspects of the solution and that match declared values of the stakeholders concerned. A series of mapping sessions with different stakeholders helped the inter-disciplinary project team to better define, what stakeholder values called for what new work patterns and what kind of supporting interaction design patterns these new work patterns in turn called for.
Implementing telemedicine technologies through an unlearning context in a homecare setting BIBAFull-Text 80-90
  Juan-Gabriel Cegarra-Navarro; Gabriel Cepeda Carrión
Despite the opportunities the health sector will offer as a result of the design and development of a technology infrastructure, the fact is that hospitals have been slow to adopt telemedicine technologies, largely because very few organisations are prepared to face this challenge. A possible explanation for the efficiency and effectiveness gaps of services provided by Hospital-in-the-Home Units (HHUs) may relate to the advantages and disadvantages of the knowledge processes that these units exhibit as a result of their different structural properties. This paper investigates the approaches that HHUs have used to update the knowledge of physicians and their members' knowledge of technology, and relates them to an unlearning context (UC) and improvement in the quality of health services. These relationships are examined through an empirical investigation of 55 doctors and 62 nurses belonging to 44 HHUs. The research findings suggest that the key benefits of a UC in HHUs are clear. It enables them to identify and replace poor practices and also avoids the reinvention of the wheel; it enables cost reduction by minimising unnecessary work caused by the use of poor methods and it enables improvements adopting new telemedicine technologies.
Satisfaction with health status among cyber patients: testing a mediation model of electronic coping support BIBAFull-Text 91-101
  Gül Seçkin
There has been a growing interest among researchers about the Internet-based social support. However, not much is known about whether electronic support is associated with subjectively reported patient health outcomes. This study examines variation in satisfaction with physical health status among users of self-help groups for patients with cancer (N=350). The analytical approach of the study differs from previous work in that satisfaction with physical health is modelled not as a predictor, but as an outcome variable. The study tested the hypothesis that perceived ability to cope with cancer mediates the association between electronic support and health satisfaction. Path analyses using ordinary least squares multiple regressions showed that there is an indirect association between electronic support and health satisfaction via perceived ability to cope with cancer. Electronic support increased perception of control over cancer, which in turn led to higher levels of satisfaction with health status. External health locus of control was associated with greater benefits derived from electronic support. This article concludes that the evaluation of physical health status includes not only clinical indicators but also subjective assessment of coping ability. Thus, the cyber social context in which health perceptions are developed has important medical implications for patient outcomes.

BIT 2013-02-01 Volume 32 Issue 2

Editorial

Editorial BIBFull-Text 103-105
  Tom Stewart

Voice Applications

Investigating memory constraints on recall of options in interactive voice response system messages BIBAFull-Text 106-116
  Ludovic Le Bigot; Loïc Caroux; Christine Ros; Agnès Lacroix; Valérie Botherel
This study examined the effects of the number of options in a message and different message endings on the memorisation of multiple-option messages. Twenty-seven participants were told to pay attention to the quality of interactions between users and an interactive voice response system and were asked to recall system messages. The multiple-option messages contained three, five or seven options and ended either in a pseudoword suffix, in a natural-language prompt or in a beep. Results showed that option recall was impaired when messages were longer and contained a suffix. The interaction between the number of options and the presence of a suffix was not significant. Results also showed that, in messages with five or more options, the recency effect was greater than the primacy effect. These results bolster our knowledge about the design of spoken menus.
Subjective responses to synthesised speech with lexical emotional content: the effect of the naturalness of the synthetic voice BIBAFull-Text 117-131
  Mirja Ilves; Veikko Surakka
This study aimed to investigate how the degree of naturalness and lexical emotional content of synthesised speech affects the subjective ratings of emotional experiences and how the naturalness of the voice affects the ratings of voice quality. Twenty-four participants listened to a set of affective words produced by three different speech synthesis techniques: formant synthesis, diphone synthesis and unit selection synthesis. The participants' task was to rate their experiences evoked by the speech samples using three emotion-related bipolar scales for valence, arousal and approachability. The pleasantness, naturalness and clarity of the voices were also rated. The results showed that the affective words produced by the synthesisers evoked congruent emotion-related ratings in the participants. The ratings of the experienced valence and approachability were statistically significantly stronger when the affective words were produced by the more humanlike voices as compared to the more machinelike voice. The more humanlike voices were also rated as statistically significantly more natural, pleasant and clear than the less humanlike voice. Thus, our findings suggest that even machinelike voices can be used to communicate affective messages but that increasing the level of naturalness enhances positive feelings about synthetic voices and strengthens emotional communication between computers and humans.

Communication Media

Psychological costs of support seeking and choice of communication channel BIBAFull-Text 132-146
  Vivien K. G. Lim; Thompson S. H. Teo; Xiuxi Zhao
While seeking support brings benefits, it also entails some costs to the seeker. We propose that seeking support involves two types of psychological costs: intra- and inter-personal costs. Intra-personal cost is defined as the psychological threat arising from the perception that one fails to achieve one's own aspiration, while inter-personal cost is defined as the psychological threat arising from the perception that one fails to meet others' expectation. These costs result from individuals focusing on different aspects of the self and will deter individuals from seeking support. We conducted two studies. In the first study, we adapted, developed and validated scales to measure the two types of psychological costs. In the second study, we examined the impact of both types of psychological costs on individuals' choice of communication channel when seeking support. We found that only inter-personal cost was significantly related to seekers' choice of communication channel. Specifically, the higher the inter-personal cost perceived, the greater the likelihood that individuals would prefer email over face-to-face communication. We also found that women were more likely to seek support through email than face-to-face communication compared to men. Implications of the results for research and practice are discussed.
The role of information and communication technologies in the relationship between group potency and group maintenance outcomes: a longitudinal study BIBAFull-Text 147-155
  E. M. Lira; P. Ripoll; J. M. Peiró; A. M. Zornoza
Group potency is one of the major factors influencing work group success. However, little is known about the effects of potency on group maintenance outcomes, especially in virtual teams. The present study examines the moderating role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the relationships between potency and group maintenance outcomes in a longitudinal study. The study involved 44 groups of four members each, working in two communication media: face-to-face (F-t-F) and computer-mediated communication (CMC). The groups developed a project during four weekly sessions over a 1-month period. The results showed that ICTs moderated the relationship between potency and maintenance outcomes (process satisfaction and identification). The positive relationship between potency and maintenance outcomes was stronger in CMC groups than in F-t-F groups. The study has provided useful information that contributes to understanding in which contexts group potency produces the best results. Specifically, ICT appears to be a key moderating variable in the relationships between group potency and group maintenance outcomes.
Smart TV: are they really smart in interacting with people? Understanding the interactivity of Korean Smart TV BIBAFull-TextCorrection 156-172
  Dong-Hee Shin; Yongsuk Hwang; Hyunseung Choo
Smart TV (STV), a new digital television service, has been rapidly developing, particularly in Korea. With the conceptual model of interactivity, this study empirically investigates the effects of perceived interactivity on the motivations and attitudes towards STV in Korea. The model is created to validate the relationship of perceived interactivity to performance, attitude and intention. Further, the model examines the mediating roles of perceived interactivity in the effect of performance on attitude towards STV. Empirical evidence supports the mediating role of perceived interactivity. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of building a theory of interactivity and providing practical insights into developing a user-centred STV interface.

e-learning

An investigation of employees' use of e-learning systems: applying the technology acceptance model BIBAFull-Text 173-189
  Yi-Hsuan Lee; Yi-Chuan Hsieh; Yen-Hsun Chen
The purpose of this study is to apply the technology acceptance model to examine the employees' attitudes and acceptance of electronic learning (e-learning) systems in organisations. This study examines four factors (organisational support, computer self-efficacy, prior experience and task equivocality) that are believed to influence employees' perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitudes and intention to use e-learning systems. Participants were selected from Taiwanese companies that have already implemented e-learning systems. Three hundred and thirty-two valid questionnaires were collected, and structure equation modelling was conducted to test the research hypotheses. The findings provided practical implications for organisational trainers, educators and e-learning system developers.
A development of learning widget on m-learning and e-learning environments BIBAFull-Text 190-202
  SooHwan Kim; HyeonCheol Kim; SeonKwan Han
This article describes the development of learning widget on m-learning and e-learning environments. A widget is a small, simple and useful application supporting user-oriented contents. The user may select and install widgets that are convenient as well as an auto-updating application including weather or calendar. These widgets are especially more useful, because they are able to be installed on a mobile device, a website or a desktop computer. If we take advantage of widgets for education, we may use this learning tool for delivering and pulling learning contents, essences of lessons or word learning. To that end, we developed an effective learning widget and then verified its usability, usefulness and effectiveness for m-learning and e-learning. That is, we evaluated the learning widget with a heuristic evaluation method. We identified 72 interface problems by using a set of 10 usability criteria or heuristics. In addition, we considered how to design the learning widget with consideration given to devices on m-learning and e-learning. Moreover, we experimented by conducting a pilot test with 34 students, a field test with 60 teachers and technology acceptance model (TAM) analysis with 15 teachers. We verified the effectiveness and usefulness of learning with a questionnaire, a quiz and TAM, where the subjects, after using the learning widget in real learning activities, rated the widget's efficacy. The result shows that the learning widget is useful for m-learning and e-learning environments.
Exploring the user experience of three-dimensional virtual learning environments BIBAFull-TextCorrection 203-214
  Dong-Hee Shin; Frank Biocca; Hyunseung Choo
This study examines the users' experiences with three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments to investigate the areas of development as a learning application. For the investigation, the modified technology acceptance model (TAM) is used with constructs from expectation-confirmation theory (ECT). Users' responses to questions about cognitive perceptions and continuous use were collected and analysed with factors that were modified from TAM and ECT. Whilst the findings confirm the significant roles by users' cognitive perceptions, the findings also shed light on the possibility of 3D application serving as an enabler of learning tools. In the extended model, the moderating effects of confirmation/satisfaction and demographics of the relationships amongst the variables were found to be significant.

BIT 2013-03-01 Volume 32 Issue 3

Editorial

Editorial BIBFull-Text 215-216
  Tom Stewart

Technology Adoption

Exploring perceptions toward biometric technology in service encounters: a comparison of current users and potential adopters BIBAFull-Text 217-230
  Sookeun Byun; Sang-Eun Byun
Biometrics is a new technology that authenticates an individual's identity via his or her unique physical or behavioural characteristics, such as the iris, fingerprints, hand geometry, voice and signature. Although its application is becoming pervasive in the public and private sectors due to the potential benefits of the technology, its adoption by end-users is progressing slowly. This study investigates multiple aspects of the benefits and risks that consumers perceive in using biometric technology. A survey was conducted by contacting the actual customers of an American bank that has utilised fingerprint technology at its ATMs. The proposed model was tested with current users as well as potential adopters of the target technology. We found that enjoyment was the most salient perceived benefit for using fingerprint ATMs for both current users and potential adopters. Banks thus may highlight intrinsic values, such as the novelty of biometrics, to motivate the use of the technology. However, to promote potential users' adoption decisions, banks need to educate them about the security benefits of financial transactions under the technology. The result also showed that the current users were highly concerned about information privacy risk in using the fingerprint ATMs. Therefore, banks are advised to develop internal policies to protect personal biometric data from any identity theft or illegal uses to encourage continuous usage by the current users.
Adoption of free and open source software within high-velocity firms BIBAFull-Text 231-246
  Matthew Paul Mount; Kiran Fernandes
Free and open source software (FOSS) solutions are not only considered to be a disruptive force in the proprietary software industry but have helped firms deliver efficient and proficient processes and position themselves in global supply networks. The purpose of this study was to conduct an investigation of FOSS adoption in firms operating in high-velocity environments and identify factors that have an impact on the adoption process. Primary data were gathered from a cluster of firms operating in a high-velocity environment. The results provide an insight about the FOSS adoption process to both practitioners and academics alike. Our results indicate that performance attitude of managers, data regulation and facilitating conditions are important determinants of a firm's behavioural intention (BI) to adopt and use FOSS. Interestingly, influences from social and organisational domains have little effect on a firm's BI to adopt FOSS solutions. Overall, the article provides a structure to FOSS adoption which is relevant to managers and academics.
Systems approach for analysing problems in IT system adoption at work BIBAFull-Text 247-262
  Eija Korpelainen; Mari Kira
The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse use-related problems when new information technology (IT) systems are adopted in organisations. Traditionally, IT adoption has been studied with the help of technology acceptance models (TAMs). However, an alternative approach, the activity system model, was used as a systemic and holistic tool to analyse and understand the problems relating to the adoption of an IT system in an organisational context. The data were collected using qualitative semi-structured interviews with 39 employees in three organisations. The results show that most of the problems were identified in the social context and only one-fifth of the problems were related to the employees' experiences of a lack of skills and competencies in using the IT systems. A practical implication is that the successful adoption and use of an IT tool requires interventions and innovations that also address the social mediatedness of the use. A theoretical implication is that the activity system model proved to be a useful yet rather complex tool for describing and analysing IT adoption problems.
The effect of flow experience on user adoption of mobile TV BIBAFull-Text 263-272
  Tao Zhou
The wide broadband of third generation (3G) mobile communication technologies enables advanced mobile data services such as mobile TV. However, users' adoption intention of mobile TV may decrease with their poor experience caused by the lack of usability, such as small screens and slow response. Drawing upon the flow theory, this research examined mobile TV user adoption. The results indicated that perceived ease of use, access speed and content quality have significant effects on the flow experience, which involves three dimensions: perceived enjoyment, perceived control and attention focus. In turn, flow experience affects perceived usefulness and usage intention. Thus, service providers need to present an engaging experience to users in order to facilitate their adoption and usage of mobile TV.

Digital Living

Towards a more accessible e-government in Jordan: an evaluation study of visually impaired users and Web developers BIBAFull-Text 273-293
  Iyad Abu-Doush; Ashraf Bany-Mohammed; Emad Ali; Mohammed Azmi Al-Betar
Accessibility of e-government services is a key issue for people with disabilities. E-government services can significantly save lot of their effort and provide them with lot of easy to reach services. Yet, accessibility of e-government websites is still under-explored topic in Jordan. In order to understand the accessibility of e-government websites and its problems, this study evaluates a set of e-government websites using 20 blind and visually impaired volunteers and at the same time conducts a survey on e-government websites developers. The results from e-government websites accessibility evaluation are compared with expert's review. For both the evaluation and the survey we used a set of accessibility guidelines developed by W3C [i.e. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.0)], Section 508 of the US Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998, and other literature review. In order to evaluate a reasonable number of e-government Web sites, a set of common e-government websites visited by the blind community were identified and a set of specific common tasks to test were defined. The analysis of the research results revealed a serious weakness in understanding, adopting and implementing Web accessibility guidelines throughout nearly all Jordanian e-government websites. Improving awareness, training developers and users, and developing formal guidelines of Web accessibility are needed to enable visually impaired and blind users in accessing e-government Web sites and their services. Further research analysis discusses and identifies key areas in which e-government accessibility can be enhanced.
An empirical study of cultural dimensions and e-government development: implications of the findings and strategies BIBAFull-Text 294-306
  Fang Zhao
We aim to examine whether national culture has an impact on e-government development. We used methods of correlation and multiple regression to analyse two sets of index: (1) Hofstede's cultural dimension index and (2) the e-government development index of the 2010 United Nations e-government survey. We found that there is a correlation to a various degree between e-governmental development and the cultural dimensions defined by Hofstede. Of the five cultural dimensions, we found that, individualism (i.e. the extent to which an individual is integrated into a group), power distance (i.e. the extent to which a society accepts the differences and inequalities in power distribution) and long-term orientation (i.e. the extent to which a culture programs its members to accept delayed satisfaction of their material, social and emotional needs) are significantly correlated with e-government development. The implications of the findings and the strategies proposed by this study could help governments and decision makers design and implement policies that take into account cultural factors to improve e-government services and their overall development. This study confirms and supports previous research and extends the scope of, and updates the results of, similar studies in the field.
Identification of new added value services on intelligent transportation systems BIBAFull-Text 307-320
  M. R. Martínez-Torres; M. C. Díaz-Fernández; S. L. Toral; F. J. Barrero
The evolution of electronics and the growing capabilities of in-vehicle and public infrastructure equipment make feasible the development of new value-added services in the field of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). However, initiatives in this sense frequently failed due to the lack of agreement or coordination among service providers, public authorities and final users. This article proposes a scientific method based on concept mapping techniques to extract these value-added services. The main benefit of the proposed methodology is its ability to take into account the different points of view of the main actors involved in the transportation field. Obtained results will provide the general guidelines for future ITS services.

BIT 2013-04-01 Volume 32 Issue 4

Editorial

Editorial BIBFull-Text 321-322
  Tom Stewart

Technology Adoption

Personality and technology acceptance: the influence of personality factors on the core constructs of the Technology Acceptance Model BIBAFull-Text 323-334
  Gunnvald B. Svendsen; Jan-Are K. Johnsen; Live Almås-Sørensen; Joar Vittersø
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one of the most used models in information science. Although several studies investigate the relationship between individual difference variables and TAM, none are conclusive about the relationship between personality and the TAM constructs. The current study seeks to investigate the degree to which users' assessments of the core constructs of TAM are influenced by their personality as measured by a short version of the IPIP Big Five inventory. A web-based survey method was used where users (n=1004) read a description of a software tool before completing personality and TAM inventories. The results indicate that personality influence behavioural intention (BI) both directly and mediated through the TAM beliefs. Personality can also influence the TAM beliefs without influencing BI. Extraversion has significant, positive relations to BI and this relation is fully mediated by the TAM beliefs. Emotional stability is related to BI, but this relation is not mediated by the TAM beliefs. Openness to experience is significantly and positively related to perceived ease of use, but does not influence BI.
User satisfaction affecting the acceptance of an e-learning platform as a mean for the development of the human capital BIBAFull-Text 335-343
  Guendalina Capece; Domenico Campisi
This study aims to explore how satisfaction -- from employees' view -- using e-learning technology influences organisational learning effectiveness. To this aim, the level of satisfaction using an e-learning platform as a complementary instrument of training and education is measured in a multinational company operating in the energy sector. Our case study focuses on two purely on-line courses involving 5395 employees, who responded to a questionnaire at the end of their learning activities on the basis of a Technology Acceptance Model. The major finding is that the usage of e-learning technology plays a full mediating role in the relationship between e-learning system service and measured employees satisfaction (organisational effectiveness in implementing knowledge improvement). This result has practical direct implications for companies with a distributed layout unable to implement conventional classroom learning. Furthermore, our investigation results ensure that well conducted e-learning programmes can effectively be adopted by a large amount of companies: more the users satisfied with e-learning service, the better in enhancing organisational learning.
The importance of identification for the acceptance of consumer electronics on the example of the Wii BIBAFull-Text 344-358
  Michaela Kauer; Heike Theuerling; Ralph Bruder
Research on information technology has focused mainly on the acceptance of work-related technology. During the last few years, the importance of information technology in private life has tremendously increased and therefore, the fit of models developed especially for working environments is decreasing. This article stresses two main points. First, important key constructs such as technology acceptance are defined, because a clear definition is still absent in literature. Second, a model integration of the Technology Acceptance Model and the need-based approach from user experience research is presented, which focuses on the explanation of technology acceptance of hedonic systems. A first empirical investigation of the integrated model on the example of the Nintendo Wii™ closes this article. The results show that identification adds great explanatory strength to the model in case of hedonic systems and that a differentiation between usage modes is valuable for a better understanding of technology acceptance.
Antecedents of information systems user behaviour -- extended expectation-confirmation model BIBAFull-Text 359-370
  Semina Halilovic; Muris Cicic
The study examines antecedents that affect information systems (IS) users' behaviour and influence their decision to either continue or discontinue with IS use. Two models were used: the expectation-confirmation model of IS continuance (ECM-IS) and the extended expectation-confirmation model of IS continuance (EECM-IS) -- the ECM-IS model extended by the additional construct of conditions of support. Confirmatory factor analysis has shown that both models demonstrated good factor, convergent and discriminant validity based on data collected from questionnaires filled out by users of the integrated accounting and budgeting software (IABS) Finova. ECM-IS explained 49% of IS continuance intention, and EECM-IS 59%. Users' perceived conditions of support, satisfaction and perceived usefulness determine their IS continuance intention, contributing to 48.5%, 33.9% and 17.6% of the R 2, respectively. Confirmation (confirmed user expectation) has a positive impact on perceived usefulness, conditions of support and satisfaction. Conditions of support, perceived usefulness and confirmation are significant predictors of satisfaction, contributing to 61.3%, 20.5% and 18.2% of the R 2, respectively.
Why do we blog? From the perspectives of technology acceptance and media choice factors BIBAFull-Text 371-386
  Yao-Sheng Chang; Chyan Yang
Blogs, or weblogs, have rapidly grown in recent years. Blogs are easy to use, possess interactive features and attract widespread use, leading them to be recognised as a communication medium in web-based information technology. However, why do so many people use blogs? The purpose of this study is to incorporate the technology acceptance model (TAM) with media choice factors to explain and predict blog acceptance behaviours. The media choice factors include media richness, critical mass, social influence (SI) and media experience (ME). This study conducted an online field survey and applied the structure equation modelling method to investigate the empirical strength of the relationships in the proposed model. In this study, 521 experienced blog users were surveyed to examine this model. The results strongly support the proposed hypotheses, indicating that technology acceptance and media choice factors influence blog acceptance behaviours. This article provides implications and recommendations resulting from the study.

Digital Living

Counterfactual thinking and anticipated emotions enhance performance in computer skills training BIBAFull-Text 387-396
  Amy Y. C. Chan; Peter Caputi; Rohan Jayasuriya; Jessica L. Browne
The present study examined the relationship between novice learners' counterfactual thinking (i.e. generating 'what if' and 'if only' thoughts) about their initial training experience with a computer application and subsequent improvement in task performance. The role of anticipated emotions towards goal attainment in task performance was also assessed. Undergraduate students (N=42) with minimal experience in using computer spreadsheets underwent basic training in using Microsoft Excel. All participants were assessed on their anticipated positive and negative emotions regarding goal attainment at the outset. After completing their first task, participants allocated to a counterfactual condition received instructions to generate counterfactual thoughts regarding their initial task performance, whereas participants in a control condition did not. The counterfactual group showed only marginally greater improvement in task performance (measured by task completion time and accuracy) than the control group. However, we also found that positive anticipated emotions were associated with improvement in task performance but for the counterfactual group only. Our data have implications for incorporating counterfactual thinking into information technology skills training to enhance learning outcomes for novice learners.
An empirical investigation of the consumer demand for digital television application services BIBAFull-Text 397-409
  Hsien-Tang Ko; Chi Chang; Nan-Shiun Chu
In the era of convergence of digital television (DTV) broadcasting and internet, DTV application services will be the key to success. Through theoretical and empirical analysis, this study showed that the integrated model which includes basic products/services, value-added services, interactive services, and behavioural intention is applicable to explain consumer's demands of DTV application services. Results indicated that value-added services is the most important factor affecting the behavioural intention to adopt DTV application services, while interactive services is the best way to create consumer's emotional value. In addition, this study also provided some impetus for both researchers and practitioners.
An investigation of the intention to share media files over peer-to-peer networks BIBAFull-Text 410-422
  Roger H. Blake; Eric S. Kyper
File-sharing over peer-to-peer (P2P) networks once consisted largely of music files, which, when shared, were infringements of copyrights. For this reason, studies of the behavioural intentions (BIs) to share files over P2P networks have often focused on the piracy of music files. However, with improved technology and increased bandwidth, large files such as videos are routinely shared. As industry-led efforts may have had some success stemming illegal file-sharing, and as new and legitimate applications of P2P file-sharing are emerging, it is important to include media files of all types and consider file-sharing that is both legitimate and that which constitutes piracy within the scope of our study. To study the intention to share media files over P2P networks, we evaluate two alternative models. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is the underlying theory for both models, one of which is based on the original TPB and one on the decomposed TPB. We test both models using previously validated instruments and find that both models can explain a significant portion of the variance in the intentions to share media files over P2P networks. However, the model based on the decomposed TPB can explain more of the variance. A second advantage of this model is that it can be more readily translated to managerial actions, which are also explored.

BIT 2013-05-01 Volume 32 Issue 5

Editorial

Netlife: Living and Working with the Internet BIBFull-Text 423-424
  Tom Stewart

Articles

Navigating a car in an unfamiliar country using an internet map: effects of street language formats, map orientation consistency, and gender on driver performance, workload and multitasking strategy BIBAFull-Text 425-437
  Changxu Wu; Guozhen Zhao; Bin Lin; Jonghoon Lee
Navigating a car in an unfamiliar country becomes one of the major concerns with driving safety. Existing studies mainly used survey, focus group and statistical analysis to study this problem. Although the navigation system (e.g. GPS) gains an advantage in providing navigation assistances, paper maps and particularly internet maps are one of major ways for navigating in an unfamiliar area. This study is one of a few experimental studies which addressed a typical multitasking driving behaviour (driving and navigation task) in a cross-culture context. Twenty-four native American-English speakers navigated a driving simulator in urban environments which involved three formats of language settings of the street signs (English, Chinese or no street signs) and two types of map orientation consistency (driving from south to north vs. driving from north to south with a north-up map). It was found that female drivers made more wrong turns only with Chinese street signs but not in the other two conditions compared to male drivers. This indicated that female drivers actually behaved differently from male drivers in an unfamiliar driving environment with unfamiliar street names language. Both male and female drivers benefited from English street signs and reported higher driver workload with Chinese street signs. Interestingly, the average glance duration of maps with Chinese street signs was significantly less than that with English street signs, indicating that even though Chinese language belongs to ideograph with graphical information, its graphical information was not that helpful in assisting navigation task. In addition, female drivers had more instances of collisions with other vehicles, a longer distance of deviation from central line position, higher driver workload and a longer time period of map glance duration. For the main effect of map consistency, drivers made more wrong turns and perceived higher driving workload when they drove with inconsistent maps. Further implications of the current study in transportation safety of globalisation were also discussed, including improvement of street sign infrastructures and optimal ways of using and designing internet maps for drivers navigating in an unfamiliar country.
The new neighbourhood in the internet era: network communities serving local communities BIBAFull-Text 438-448
  Guendalina Capece; Roberta Costa
The past two decades have witnessed many attempts to transform online communities in new neighbourhoods of the Internet era. In particular, one of the most interesting applications of Internet Technologies in this field have been 'network communities', that differ from online communities because they refer to a specific territory and, for this reason, serve as a social catalyst for the corresponding territorial community. Network communities, as virtual neighbourhoods, have the purpose of allowing a better understanding of physical ones, contributing to the creation and the proliferation of services most suited to the needs of residents. For this reason, municipalities and local governments should consider the opportunity to exploit network communities as useful tools for local community management. Following this lead, this article analyses a real case study and highlights the existence of a positive correlation between a constructive utilisation of a network community by its members, their sense of community and the degree of their involvement in local problems.
Controllable accountabilities: the Internet of Things and its challenges for organisations BIBAFull-Text 449-467
  Daniel Boos; Hannes Guenter; Gudela Grote; Katharina Kinder
Current expectations are that the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies (e.g. radio frequency identification devices (RFID) in supply chains) will improve accountability in organisations. However, it remains unclear if, why and when such expectations will actually be met. This is because new technologies not only address, but also produce new accountability demands and human actors might experience difficulties in satisfying these accountabilities. This article presents a theoretical framework for understanding how IoT technologies enable or constrain control capabilities of actors and how this influences actors' capabilities to satisfy accountability demands. We discuss multiple dimensions of accountability (i.e. visibility, responsibility and liability) and control (i.e. transparency, predictability and influence), and explain how control and accountability are constitutively entangled with the capacities of IoT technologies (i.e. informate, automate and transform). To illustrate the framework, we provide vignettes from an IoT application used to detect counterfeits in the supply chain. The article contributes to the on-going debate on benefits and risks of IoT technologies and emphasises the importance of predicting organisational issues already in early stages of technology development.
Why don't consumers go internet shopping in Korea? Segmentation of consumer lifestyle approach BIBAFull-Text 468-479
  Seung-Bae Park; Yong-Ki Lee; Namho Chung
Due to the rapid increase of internet users, internet shopping malls in Korea are growing at a very rapid rate, though a structural vulnerability is also being revealed. About 55.8% of internet users in Korea use internet shopping malls. Therefore, to enlarge the sizes of internet shopping markets, it is paramount to attract shoppers who do not currently shop on the internet. In this regard, this study analysed the characteristics of internet shoppers and non-internet shoppers from diverse aspects based on surveys conducted on 4298 subjects residing across Korea, using 28 consumer lifestyle measurement items. The results of the analysis indicated that non-internet shoppers are married, earning relatively high incomes, and have little experience in accessing the internet. A Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) analysis was conducted, and the result indicated that internet shoppers pursued the product/service information from internet shopping, but non-internet shoppers did not want to use credit cards during internet shopping. Based on the above mentioned study results, it was attempted to present detail strategies for internet shopping mall businesses to attract non-internet shoppers to internet shopping markets.
The equivalence of Internet versus paper-based surveys in IT/IS adoption research in collectivistic cultures: the impact of satisficing BIBAFull-Text 480-490
  Jiaming Fang; Chao Wen; Victor Prybutok
An increasing proportion of information technology (IT)/information system adoption research collects data using online surveys. However, a paucity of research assesses the equivalence of paper-based versus Internet-based surveys in collectivistic cultures. Furthermore, no theoretical or empirical research investigates how cultural differences between collectivistic and individualistic cultures influence the measurement equivalence (ME) of these survey modes. To explore these issues, online and paper-based surveys with comparable samples were carried out in both an individualistic (the USA) and a collectivistic culture (China). Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the ME across both survey modes in these different cultures. Results indicate that the relatively larger satisficing discrepancy between paper and online surveys causes respondents in collectivistic cultures to have an increased likelihood of providing responses that vary as compared to respondents in individualistic cultures. The disparate responses, in turn, result in increased measurement variance between the two survey modes. The findings of this study bridge a gap in the literature and address the question of how culture influences online satisficing behaviour and how that behaviour causes measurement invariance across survey modes. This study also explains the possible underlying mechanisms by which different national cultures exert their influence on survey results. The findings provide important implications for IT researchers, especially those in collectivistic cultures or those who need to collect data in collectivistic cultures using online surveys or mixed-mode surveys that include an online survey mode.
Analysing the visual complexity of web pages using document structure BIBAFull-Text 491-502
  Simon Harper; Caroline Jay; Eleni Michailidou; Huangmao Quan
The perception of the visual complexity of World Wide Web (Web) pages is a topic of significant interest. Previous work has examined the relationship between complexity and various aspects of presentation, including font styles, colours and images, but automatically quantifying this dimension of a web page at the level of the document remains a challenge. In this paper we demonstrate that areas of high complexity can be identified by detecting areas, or 'chunks', of a web page high in block-level elements. We report a computational algorithm that captures this metric and places web pages in a sequence that shows an 86% correlation with the sequences generated through user judgements of complexity. The work shows that structural aspects of a web page influence how complex a user perceives it to be, and presents a straightforward means of determining complexity through examining the DOM.
Interaction of textual and graphical information in locating web page widgets BIBAFull-Text 503-515
  Saraschandra Karanam; Herre van Oostendorp; Mari Carmen Puerta Melguizo; Bipin Indurkhya
Current models of web navigation focus only on the influence of textual information and ignore the role of graphical information. We studied the differential role of text and graphics in identifying web page widgets classified into two kinds: textual and graphical. Four different versions of web pages were created by systematically removing textual and graphical information from each page. The task of the participants was to locate either textual or graphical widgets on the displayed web page. Results show that for any widget, the task-completion time and the number of clicks were significantly less in web pages with graphics than in those with no graphics. This demonstrates the importance of graphical information. However, textual information is also important because performance in locating graphical widgets under no-graphics conditions was better when text was present than with no text. Since, for identifying graphical widgets, text and graphics interact and complement each other, we conclude that cognitive models on web navigation should include the role of graphical information next to textual information.

BIT 2013-06-01 Volume 32 Issue 6

Editorial

Editorial: Web based cooperation and collaboration BIBFull-Text 517-518
  Tom Stewart

Web based cooperation and collaboration

Collaboration processes, outcomes, challenges and enablers of distributed clinical communities of practice BIBAFull-Text 519-531
  Marie G. Friberger; Göran Falkman
Modern healthcare's need for knowledge sharing and bridging the research-practice gap requires new forms of collaboration, in which clinicians of varying clinical and research expertise work together over geographical and organisational borders. To support such distributed communities of practice (CoPs), an understanding of their collaboration processes, outcomes, challenges and enablers is needed. The article examines these issues through a case study of a long-running CoP, the Swedish Oral Medicine Network (SOMNet). SOMNet's main form of collaboration is monthly telephone conference meetings centred on case consultations. Cases are submitted by the clinicians via a Web-based system. The methods used were interviews, observations, and a questionnaire. The work adds to previous research by studying a distributed CoP explicitly focused on supporting the transfer of scientific results from researchers to practitioners. We found that the regular meetings give a rhythm to the community. The centrality of cases means an immediate benefit for the submitter while the community is provided an authentic context for learning. SOMNet yields opportunities for help and learning for diverse expertise levels; the type of benefits is affected by the participant's degree of oral medicine knowledge and collaboration involvement. There are challenges in accommodating varying levels of expertise and encouraging those less experienced to participate. Enablers of the collaboration include the participation of experts, meeting facilitators and well-adapted ITs.
A text categorisation tool for open source communities based on semantic analysis BIBAFull-Text 532-544
  M. R. Martínez-Torres; S. L. Toral; F. J. Barrero; D. Gregor
Open source software (OSS) projects are supported by communities interacting through software repositories and mailing lists. Thousands of contributors participate in the development of the projects although they rarely meet each other. The result is a huge archived repository with thousands of questions, answers and contributions usually difficult to explore. We propose a tool based on semantic analysis for both performing an automatic knowledge discovery and a categorisation of the content of mailing lists repositories. Semantic analysis is a practical method for extracting and inferring relations of words in passages of discourse, producing measures of relations among words or passages that are well correlated with semantic similarity. The objective of this article is two-fold: (1) to develop a text categorisation tool based on indexing terms and semantic annotation, and (2) to apply the developed tool to extract the main dimensions related to knowledge sharing activities in virtual communities. Debian Linux ports to embedded processors are used as a case study to accomplish the proposed double objective.
Pre-release member participation as potential predictors of post-release community members' adoption behaviour: evidence from the motion picture industry BIBAFull-Text 545-559
  Pradeep Kumar Ponnamma Divakaran
Web 2.0-based online communities have seen a growing popularity in recent years both in terms of the volume of academic research publications and practical implications. Earlier studies have investigated the consequences of member participation in online brand communities such as improving brand image, product recommendation behaviour, creating oppositional loyalty towards competitor brands, etc. As a development of this research, this study shows pre-release member participation and members' online activities as potential predictors of community members' future adoption behaviour by (1) focusing on product-specific member participation and (2) by differentiating between pre-release and post-release member participation. Community members participate in online communities not only after product purchase or usage but also long before the product is introduced in the market (i.e. pre-release member participation) and especially in response to firms' announcement of upcoming product releases. Within this context of new product preannouncement, the Theory of Planned Behaviour is applied to show that pre-release member participation in online activities is a potential predictor of the entire community's post-release adoption behaviour, using a movie-based online community. Moreover, the community adoption behaviour shows a strong positive association (mirroring effect) with market adoption behaviour suggesting that online community is a good representation of market adoption behaviour.
Verbal irony use in personal blogs BIBAFull-Text 560-569
  Juanita M. Whalen; Penny M. Pexman; Alastair J. Gill; Scott Nowson
Blogs are a widely growing form of computer-mediated communication used to achieve various personal and professional communicative goals. In the present study, we examined previously posted entries from 71 regular bloggers. We examined the blogs for the use of five forms of verbal irony: hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical question, sarcasm and jocularity. In addition, topic and emotional valence of the ironic utterances were examined. Results showed that hyperbole and understatement were more frequently used than the other forms of ironic language. Discussion of hobbies and social outings was the most commonly occurring topic of ironic language, and bloggers used verbal irony to convey both positive and negative intent. The results of this study demonstrated that adult bloggers do use a variety of forms of verbal irony in their personal blogs, despite the potential risk of being misunderstood.
Continuance intention of blog users: the impact of perceived enjoyment, habit, user involvement and blogging time BIBAFull-Text 570-583
  Wen-Lung Shiau; Margaret Meiling Luo
The purpose of this study is to understand factors that affect continuance intention of a popular hedonic information system, blogs. The expectation-confirmation theory (ECT) is adapted with perceived enjoyment, habit and user involvement. Data was collected via an online survey. A total of 430 valid responses were collected. The research model was assessed by structural equation modelling (SEM). The results show that continuance intention of blog use was predicted collectively by user involvement, satisfaction and perceived enjoyment. Habit, however, exhibited no strong relationship with satisfaction and use intention. Users' satisfaction with blog use was predicted primarily by perceived enjoyment, followed by users' confirmation of expectation and user involvement. Perceived enjoyment was predicted by users' involvement and users' confirmation of expectation. Blogging time significantly moderates the effect of habit on perceived enjoyment, but not on satisfaction and continuance intention. The integrated model explains 65% of the satisfaction and 57% of continuance intention. The results suggest that integrating perceived enjoyment and user involvement into the ECT provides better insights into continuous use in the blog context.
Phishing for phishing awareness BIBAFull-Text 584-593
  K. Jansson; R. von Solms
Using various social-engineering techniques, criminals run havoc on the Internet and defraud many people in a number of different ways. This puts various organisational communities at risk. Therefore, it is important that people within such communities should learn how to protect themselves when active in cyberspace, or when dealing with cyber-related technologies. Training can indeed play a big role in this regard, and consequently, assist by altering the insecure behaviour of many people. The objective of this article is to ascertain whether simulating phishing attacks together with embedded training can contribute towards cultivating users' resistance towards 'phishing attacks'. In order to achieve this objective, a phishing exercise at an institution in South Africa was conducted.
Using Facebook out of habit BIBAFull-Text 594-602
  Michail N. Giannakos; Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Konstantinos Giotopoulos; Panayiotis Vlamos
This article investigates the uses and gratifications of the popular social networking site Facebook. In the exploratory stage, 70 users generated phrases to describe the manner they used Facebook. Interestingly, some users not only described the uses, but also mentioned how they perceive these uses. These phrases were coded into 14 items and clustered into four factors. The principal component analysis that was conducted in the third stage of the study, which was addressed to 222 Facebook users, verified the validity of the four factors: Social Connection, Social Network Surfing, Wasting Time and Using Applications. Previous user studies on Facebook have examined the immediate social effects of this popular social networking site, but they have not regarded emerging uses of the platform, such as gaming and applications, which do have a social component as a feature and not as a core principle. The 'Wasting Time' factor and the growth of 'Using Applications' factor indicate that Facebook has already become an integral part of daily computing routine, alongside with the rest of the entertainment desktop and web applications.
The influence of equivocality in purchasing tasks on the selection of transaction channels in online auctions BIBAFull-Text 603-611
  Shao-Kang Lo
Online auctions are one of the most active business models used in electronic commerce. Previous researchers address issues of online auction behaviour focusing on the factors influencing bidding intentions, but how bidders choose transaction channels to complete the consumption process is not examined before. This study conducts an experiment to manipulate the equivocality of purchasing task. Results show that when purchasing a product with higher task equivocality, bidders tend to choose a communication channel with higher information richness, and select a payment and product delivery channel with lower risk. When purchasing a product with lower task equivocality, bidders tend to select a communication channel with lower information richness, and tolerate higher risk to complete the payment and product delivery process.
Uploaders' definition of the networked public on YouTube and their feedback preferences: a multi-method approach BIBAFull-Text 612-624
  Cédric Courtois; Peter Mechant; Valerie Ostyn; Lieven De Marez
Since its launch in 2005, video-sharing service YouTube has become one of the most popular Web 2.0 platforms with a daily increment of over 150,000 videos. Still, despite the large research body on the platform, it remains unclear for whom ordinary YouTube users upload their videos. A first qualitative study indicates that uploaders distinguish three types within YouTube's networked public. First, videos are uploaded for a select group of people with whom the uploader shares an offline bond (offline-identified public). Second, uploaders define part of their potential viewers as people with whom they are unfamiliar, but with whom they share a similar interest, opinion or practice (online-identified public). Third, uploaders also take into account the YouTube platform as a whole (online-unidentified public). A second, quantitative study of 450 recent uploaders validates these findings and tests the proposed associations with the importance that is attributed to receiving different types of feedback. As hypothesised, the expectancy of an offline-identified public positively predicts both offline and online off-platform feedback, while expecting an online-identified public positively predicts both on- and off-platform online feedback. However, the expectancy of an online-unidentified public yields a negative prediction for on-platform feedback.

Book review

Computer access for people with disabilities: a human factors approach BIBFull-Text 625-626
  Ahmet Çakir

BIT 2013-07-01 Volume 32 Issue 7

Editorial

Editorial BIBFull-Text 627-629
  Tom Stewart

Facets of e-Commerce

The effects of the number of alternative products and the way they are presented on the consumers' subjective statuses in online travel sites BIBAFull-Text 630-643
  Rong-An Shang; Yu-Chen Chen; Shin-Yi Chen
Since the Internet can aggregate and distribute a large amount of information to users, providing numerous products for consumers has been recognised as a major advantage of electronic commerce. As a result of information overload, however, consumers facing many alternatives in online shops may have difficulty deciding which one they prefer. Based on the theory of decision style and prospect theory, this study explores whether too many products sold in online shops reduces consumers' subjective statuses towards their buying decision. A 3x3 between subjects experiment was conducted and showed that the buyers' decision styles, the quantity of alternative products and the information about it affect consumers' subjective statuses. These results suggest that we should consider the role of electronic intermediaries more carefully, and further examine the theory of information overload and the need for appropriate information literacy.
Cultural differences in online beer marketing: findings from automated attention analysis BIBAFull-Text 644-654
  Tomás Kincl; Pavel Štrach
The impact of culture on consumer behaviour has been an important research area for decades. The rise of e-commerce prompted the importance of culturally bound differences between websites. Web designers are compelled to adjust website development to the cultural characteristics of the target audience and to reflect local perspectives. The actual target users are often invited to provide valuable feedback on e-commerce applications. However, user tests are extremely costly and time consuming. Tools for automated web design assessment have only recently been introduced and have provoked debate regarding their ability to simulate human interaction. In this article, 40 leading beer-brand-related websites from four different groups (countries) are analysed. The aim of this study is to discover if automated tools predicting user eye activity are able to distinguish between websites from different cultures. The findings indicate that automated tools provide quick and inexpensive results for initial assessment of the website interface, clearly differentiating between websites from different cultural backgrounds, resonating with the current literature.
Online and mobile customer behaviour: a critical evaluation of Grounded Theory studies BIBAFull-Text 655-667
  Aikaterini C. Valvi; Constantinos C. Frangos; Christos C. Frangos
With the rapid increase in electronic and mobile commerce over the last few years, the academic literature on online and mobile customer behaviour has been fairly plentiful with a great deal of quantitative studies testing variations of existing customer behaviour theories. However, little attention has been given to qualitative studies in the field, which seek to explore new aspects of online or mobile customer behaviour, adding to existing theories or even creating new ones. Thus, the purpose of the present paper is to critically evaluate studies employing Grounded Theory (GT), a method commonly used for theory building in qualitative social research. Nine studies were identified examining online or mobile customer behaviour under this approach, providing theories based on emerging categories. Results of their studies seem to be very similar to existing customer behaviour theories, occasionally adding new categories to the existing theory nomenclature. Studies presented weaknesses regarding the accurate methodological conduct of GT and the process of generating theory, attributed predominantly to methodological, verification and reporting bias. Nevertheless, the main advantage of GT studies remains the generation of theory that can be applied in practice, reinforced by the presentation of conceptual prospects for testing new variables in quantitative studies. Overall, the contribution of GT studies to online and mobile customer behaviour research should be based on more rigorous methodology and aim to challenge rather than confirm existing theories with the purpose of advancing knowledge in the field.
Acceptance of online banking information systems: an empirical case in a developing economy BIBAFull-Text 668-680
  Fida Hussain Chandio; Zahir Irani; Muhammad Sharif Abbasi; Hyder Ali Nizamani
This paper proposes an extended model of technology acceptance to understand potential users' acceptance of online banking information systems (OBIS). The proposed model integrates key constructs from information systems and e-commerce acceptance research streams into the theoretical frame of the technology acceptance model. The model was tested on a sample of 353 Internet banking users in Pakistan. Using structural equation modelling with Analysis of Moment Structures software, data analysis showed considerable support for the extended hypothesised model. The results suggested that, in order of importance: perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU) and trust explained 45.7% of the variance in intended acceptance behaviour. Trust and technological self-efficacy (TSE) predicted 28.1% of the variance in PU. While in PEOU 21.8% of the variance was predicted by TSE, accessibility and terminology clarity. This study produced valuable insights into the factors that influence acceptance of OBIS by intended users and offers new ideas in understanding the acceptance of technology, especially in developing countries.
E-banking in Jordan BIBAFull-Text 681-694
  Muneer M. Abbad
The reasons why some customers use e-banking systems whereas others do not is the problem that motivated this study. This study examines the factors underlying customers' technology adoption based on the technology acceptance model (TAM). E-banking adoption is studied from the information systems acceptance point of view; banking customers use the information system to make financial transactions and hence more knowledge of the factors that affect information technology adoption is useful to better understand and facilitate their acceptance. Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, subjective norms, security and trust, Internet experience and enjoyment are the important factors that affect customers' adoption of e-banking in Jordan.
Showering behavioural response to alarming visual display monitors: longitudinal mixed method study BIBAFull-Text 695-711
  Rodney A. Stewart; Rachelle M. Willis; Kriengsak Panuwatwanich; Oz Sahin
Residential households have the potential to conserve water, especially in behaviourally influenced end uses such as showering. Visual display monitors detailing shower water consumption parameters provide householders with a better understanding of their water use consumption and serve as a prompt to conserve. This longitudinal study first applied high resolution smart meters to create a registry of shower end use event parameters (i.e. shower duration, flow rate and duration) before and after the introduction of an alarming visual display monitor. The study showed a statistically significant mean reduction of 15.40 L (27%) in shower event volumes shortly after the implementation of the shower monitor. However, two subsequent smart metering reads indicated that shower end use water consumption savings diminished over time and mean showering volumes reverted back to their pre-intervention level after 4 months. That is, the longitudinal study provides empirical evidence that technological devices informing resource consumption may not be effective unless instilled habits or attitudes can be also modified; old habits die hard. Follow-up questionnaire surveys allowed for qualitative interpretations of the behavioural findings, through demographic summaries, residents' perceptions on shower monitor performance and their use of device over time, to name a few.

Netlife: living, playing and learning with the Internet

An effective online teaching method: the combination of collaborative learning with initiation and self-regulation learning with feedback BIBAFull-Text 712-723
  Chia-Wen Tsai
In modern business environments, work and tasks have become more complex and require more interdisciplinary skills to complete, including collaborative and computing skills for website design. However, the computing education in Taiwan can hardly be recognised as effective in developing and transforming students into competitive employees. In this regard, the author adopted collaborative learning (CL) with initiation and self-regulated learning (SRL) with feedback to develop students' collaborative skills and regular learning habits and further contribute to practical computing skills for website design. This study comprised an experiment that included 279 second-year university students from five class sections, including four experimental groups (CISF group, n=57; CIS group, n=53; CI group, n=68; C group, n=68), and a control group (T group, n=33). The results reveal that students who received the combined treatment of online CL with initiation and SRL with feedback attained the best grades for their computing skills for website design among the five groups. The author further discusses the implications for teachers, schools and educators who plan to design practical scenarios and online learning activities for their students.
Challenges of designing for sociability to enhance player experience in Massively Multi-player Online Role-playing Games BIBAFull-Text 724-734
  Georgios Christou; Effie Lai-Chong Law; Panayiotis Zaphiris; Chee Siang Ang
Massively Multi-player Online Role-playing Games (MMORPGs) have become a popular leisure activity. It has been suggested that the reason for their popularity is that they offer a new 'third-place' for people to socialise. However, designing for sociability in these games has been shown to be a challenge. In this article, we discuss the results of an online survey that was directed towards game design researchers and professionals. We then present a subsequent discussion on the results of the survey at a Special Interest Group (SIG) held at CHI 2011. Through analysis of the findings of the survey and the discussion, we propose six requirements that facilitate the design of MMORPGs: In-game Communication, Off-game Communication, Empathy, Grouping and Rewards, World Design, and Designed Relationships. We state that it is not necessary to add all the proposed requirements in the design of such games, but we also caution that a game that does not include any of the requirements presented here cannot belong to this genre. We discuss limitations of this work, and offer future research directions that result from this work.
Mechanisms underlying aggravation and relaxation of virtual aggression: a Second Life survey study BIBAFull-Text 735-746
  Sang-Gun Lee; Mincheol Kang; Hyun-Soo Kang
Most studies on user aggression in virtual worlds have mainly focused on the causes of aggressive behaviour, but only a few have focused on the factors that relieve it. This study was conducted to determine the causes of aggression relaxation and aggravation in virtual worlds, using an approach that significantly differs from that used in previous research. We examined the mechanisms that affect aggravation and relaxation of virtual aggression, and suggested ways to resolve problems with aggression. A survey was conducted with 112 Second Life users to examine how commitment, belief, avatar attachment, desensitisation, and addiction were related to self-control and control disorder, and how the two latter factors affected virtual aggression. The survey also examined how virtual aggression influenced the intention for attacking behaviour in the real world. The results showed that (1) belief is a positive predictor of self-control, which has a negative impact on virtual aggression, (2) addiction is a positive predictor of control disorder, and (3) anger in virtual worlds is significantly connected to aggression in the real world.

Miscellany

Corrigendum to the paper 'Effects of search interface and Internet-specific epistemic beliefs on source evaluations during Web search for medical information: an eye-tracking studyâ BIBFull-Text 747
  Yvonne Kammerer; Peter Gerjets

BIT 2013-08-01 Volume 32 Issue 8

Editorial

Ergonomics, usability and accessibility BIBFull-Text 749-751
  Tom Stewart

Original Articles

Focus groups as a requirements gathering method with adults with severe speech and physical impairments BIBAFull-Text 752-760
  Suzanne Prior; Annalu Waller; Thilo Kroll
Technological supports have the potential to greatly improve the quality of life and independence of adults with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI). In particular, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices can enable people with little or no speech to communicate with others. However, the rate of rejection of AAC devices is estimated to be as high as 53.3%. It is suggested that a major reason for this rejection is a lack of user-centred design in the development of these devices. As part of a wider study looking at involving adults with SSPI in all stages of user-centred design, this paper looks at the use of focus groups in requirements gathering with this user group.
Highlighting items as means of adaptive assistance BIBAFull-Text 761-777
  Liat Antwarg; Talia Lavie; Lior Rokach; Bracha Shapira; Joachim Meyer
Providing adaptive help during interaction with the system can be used to assist users in accomplishing their tasks. We propose providing guidance by highlighting the steps required for performing a task that the user intends to complete according to the prediction of a system. We present a study aimed at examining whether highlighting intended user steps in menus and toolbars as a means of assisting users in performing tasks is useful in terms of user response and performance. We also examined the effects of different accuracy levels of help and the control format on user response and performance. An experiment was conducted in which 64 participants performed tasks using menus and toolbars of a simulated email application. Participants were offered a highlighted guidance of the required steps in varying levels of accuracy (100%, 80%, 60% and no guidance). Our results support the benefits of highlighted help both in user performance times and in user satisfaction from receiving such assistance. Users found the assistance necessary and helpful and by the same token not unduly intrusive. Additionally, users felt that such assistance generally helped in reducing performance time on tasks. We did not find a significant difference when users receiving help at 80% accuracy was compared to those receiving help at 100% accuracy; however, such a difference does appear for those receiving 60% accuracy. In such cases, we found that the user's satisfaction level, perceived usefulness and trust in the system decreased while their notion of perceived intrusiveness increased. We conclude that assisting users by highlighting the required steps is useful so long as the minimal accuracy level of help is higher than 60%. Our study has implications on the implementation of highlighting next steps as a means of adaptive help and on integrating probability-based algorithms such as intention prediction to adaptive assistance systems.
Post-error expression of speed and force while performing a simple, monotonous task with a haptic pen BIBAFull-Text 778-782
  Miguel Bruns Alonso; David V. Keyson; Maria E. Jabon; Caroline C. M. Hummels; Paul P. M. Hekkert; Jeremy N. Bailenson
Control errors often occur in repetitive and monotonous tasks, such as manual assembly tasks. Much research has been done in the area of human error identification; however, most existing systems focus solely on the prediction of errors, not on increasing worker accuracy. The current study examines force responses before, during and after errors in a simulated assembly line task in order to determine an optimal feedback system for error reduction. Confirming previous findings, enhanced movement speed and reduced force occurred before erroneous trials and slowing occurred after erroneous trials. Given the results, we suggest a haptic feedback system which stimulates users to exert increased force levels after completing an erroneous task in order to increase degree of control and re-build worker confidence and thereby reduce overall error rate.
Towards a full emotional system BIBAFull-Text 783-799
  Khadoudja Ghanem; Alice Caplier
This study proposes a system that is able to classify a facial expression in one of the six categories, namely, Joy, Disgust, Anger, Sadness, Fear and Surprise and also to assign to each expression its intensity in the range: High, Medium and Low. This is carried out in two independent and parallel processes. Permanent and transient facial features are detected from still images, and pertinent information about the presence of transient features on specific facial regions and about facial distances computed from permanent facial features is extracted. Both classification and quantification processes are based on transient and permanent features. The belief theory is used with the two processes because of its ability in fusing data coming from different sensors. The system outputs a recognised and quantified expression. The quantification process allows recognising a new subset of expressions deduced from the basic ones. Indeed, by associating to each expression three intensities low, medium and high, we deduce three facial expressions. Finally, a set of 18 facial expressions is categorised instead of the six ones. Experimental results are given to show the system classification accuracy.
Perceptions of electronic navigation displays BIBAFull-Text 800-823
  Talia Lavie; Tal Oron-Gilad
This study evaluated aesthetics and usability of in-vehicle electronic navigation maps. Experiment 1 examined map displays that varied in the amount of information presented, abstraction level, graphic/colour style and the existence of landmarks in both urban and rural environments using objective and subjective measures. Twenty participants performed navigation/localisation tasks using various map configurations while driving a driving simulator and completed usability and aesthetic questionnaires. The minimal detail map produced better performances and higher usability and aesthetic ratings when using maps with no landmarks. Adding information in the form of landmarks was found advantageous compared to additional textual information. Abstractions were most advantageous when combined with minimal amount of detail. Moderate abstractions were sufficient for obtaining the desired benefits when more details were present. The graphic/colour style affected subjective perceptions. Overall, high correlations were found for the perceived aesthetics and usability scales, however, low correlations were found between actual usability (i.e. performance) and perceived usability pointing to the importance of using both objective and subjective usability measures. Experiment 2 examined how maps varying in their aesthetic level (aesthetic versus non-aesthetic), different colour arrangements, and 2D versus 3D landmarks affect subjective and objective measures. Participants distinguished between usability and aesthetic perceptions and usability perceptions were less affected by aesthetics when the aesthetic level of the maps was low. Colour arrangement did not affect the measures examined. Both 2D and 3D landmarks were found to be aesthetic and usable. We conclude this article with guidelines for designing in-vehicle navigation map displays.
Exploring the cognitive costs and benefits of using multiple-view visualisations BIBAFull-Text 824-835
  Esther Jun; Steven Landry; Gavriel Salvendy
Multiple-view visualisations offer several advantages, such as providing different perspectives on the data. However, there are also associated cognitive costs, including the load on working memory and the effort required for comparison. Furthermore, little perception-based research has been conducted, with few answers to questions such as what tasks multiple views are best used for. Since task performance can be limited by visual attention and working memory, this article investigates how different tasks and their respective loads on attention and working memory affect the usability of two different multiple-view visualisations, namely sequential and simultaneous views. In Study 1, the effects when attention was loaded were studied, where users performed a real-time monitoring task. The results suggest that the divided attention problem was an issue with both view types, but design issues apparent with the simultaneous view were not issues with the sequential view. In Study 2, the effects when working memory was loaded were studied, where users made comparisons of different object sets. The results support the previous work on visual- and memory-based comparisons, i.e. the simultaneous view was more useful than the sequential view. The outcomes from both studies illustrate the importance of understanding how different tasks and their impact on attention and working memory can influence the usability of multiple-view visualisations.

Research Article

Gaze-augmented interaction improves problem-solving: new evidence from verbal protocols BIBAFull-Text 836-844
  Roman Bednarik; Tersia Gowases; Markku Tukiainen
When interacting with a problem on a computer screen, users need to select from a range of strategies that the user interface supports. Previous research shows that the problem-solving user interface plays a significant role in the strategy selection, such as by making recall unnecessary or by facilitating planning. What is not very well understood is how the interaction devices, themselves, affect problem-solving strategies. We conducted an experiment in which users interacted with a problem using either a computer mouse or gaze-augmented input. We analysed the qualitative differences in the problem-solving process by investigating the content of verbal protocols. We present a new evidence that shows that the gaze-based interaction is characterised by an increased cognitive processing of the currently attended information, leading to better plan development and improved problem-solving strategies. The findings have implications on the design of future gaze-aware problem-solving user interfaces.

Original Articles

Evaluating 2D and 3D geovisualisations for basic spatial assessment BIBAFull-Text 845-858
  Stefan Seipel
This study investigates the use of 2D and 3D presentations of maps for the assessment of distances in a geographical context. Different types of 3D representations have been studied: A weak 3D visualisation that provides static monocular depth cues and a strong 3D visualisation that uses stereoscopic and kinetic depth cues. Two controlled experiments were conducted to test hypotheses regarding subjects' efficiency in visually identifying the shortest distance among a set of market locations in a map. As a general result, we found that participants were able to correctly identify shortest distances when the difference to potential alternatives was sufficiently large, but performance decreased systematically when this difference decreased. Noticeable differences emerged for the investigated visualisation conditions. Participants in this study were equally efficient when using a weak 3D representation and a 2D representation. When the strong 3D visualisation was employed, they reported visual discomfort and tasks solved were significantly less correct. Presentations of intrinsic 2D content (maps) in 3D context did not, in this study, benefit from cues provided by a strong 3D visualisation and are adequately implemented using a weak 3D visualisation.

BIT 2013-09-01 Volume 32 Issue 9

Editorial

Editorial BIBFull-Text 859-861
  Tom Stewart

User Interface Design

The moderating role of sensation seeking tendency in robotic haptic interfaces BIBAFull-Text 862-873
  Seung-A Annie Jin
This study examined the interaction effects between haptic force feedback and users' sensation seeking tendency (i.e. need for sensations) on users' feelings of presence (i.e. the state in which users experience virtual objects and virtual environments as if they were actual) in robotic haptic interfaces. Users with low sensation seeking tendency felt stronger physical presence and spatial presence in response to force feedback haptic stimuli (versus no force feedback), whereas users with high sensation seeking tendency did not show any difference between the two conditions, thus confirming the moderating role of the users' sensation seeking tendency in the robotic haptic interface. Theoretical implications for human-computer interaction (HCI) research and managerial implications for the interactive media market are discussed.
Designing touchpad user-interfaces for right-hand drive vehicles: an investigation into where the touchpad should be located BIBAFull-Text 874-887
  Gary Burnett; Glyn Lawson; Laura Millen; Carl Pickering; Emily Webber
Touchpads in vehicles offer a range of potential benefits over existing input devices, such as touchscreens. This article describes a study aiming to establish where a touchpad should be located within a right-hand drive vehicle. Sixteen participants (50:50 right/left handed) drove three routes in a right-hand drive simulator while following a lead vehicle at a perceived safe distance. At specific points, participants were asked to carry out three tasks of varying complexity using the touchpad. For each of the routes travelled, the touchpad was positioned in one of the three locations: in the centre console; in the door armrest and in the steering wheel. Differences in the performance and preferences of right-handed people vs. left-handed people were found. Right-handed people rated the door armrest location highly and made few glances towards this location while driving. In contrast, left-handed drivers were more positive towards the centre console location. The steering wheel location required a particularly high-visual demand. It is concluded that, for right-hand drive vehicles, a touchpad should be located in both the centre console and the door armrest to suit the diverse needs of the driver population.
Effects of display modality on critical battlefield e-map search performance BIBAFull-Text 888-901
  Feng-Yi Tseng; Chin-Jung Chao; Wen-Yang Feng; Sheue-Ling Hwang
Visual search performance in visual display terminals can be affected by several changeable display parameters, such as the dimensions of screen, target size and background clutter. We found that when there was time pressure for operators to execute the critical battlefield map searching in a control room, efficient visual search became more important. We investigated the visual search performance in a simulated radar interface, which included the warrior symbology. Thirty-six participants were recruited and a three-factor mixed design was used in which the independent variables were three screen dimensions (7, 15 and 21 in.), five icon sizes (visual angle 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 min of arc) and two map background clutter types (topography displayed [TD] and topography not displayed [TND]). The five dependent variables were completion time, accuracy, fixation duration, fixation count and saccade amplitude. The results showed that the best icon sizes were 80 and 70 min. The 21 in. screen dimension was chosen as the superior screen for search tasks. The TND map background with less clutters produced higher accuracy compared to that of TD background with clutter. The results of this research can be used in control room design to promote operators' visual search performance.
A comparative study of information input devices for aging computer users BIBAFull-Text 902-919
  Nicole Jochems; Sebastian Vetter; Christopher Schlick
The fast aging of many western and eastern societies and their increasing reliance on information technology create a compelling need to reconsider older users' interactions with computers. Changes in perceptual and motor skill abilities that often accompany the aging process have important implications for the design of information input devices. This paper summarises the results of two comparative studies on information input with 90 subjects aged between 20 and 75 years. In the first study, three input devices -- mouse, touch screen and eye-gaze control -- were analysed concerning efficiency, effectiveness and subjective task difficulty with respect to the age group of the computer user. In the second study, an age-differentiated analysis of hybrid user interfaces for input confirmation was conducted combining eye-gaze control with additional input devices. Input confirmation was done with the space bar of a PC keyboard, speech input or a foot pedal. The results of the first study show that regardless of participants' age group, the best performance in terms of short execution time results from touch screen information input. This effect is even more pronounced for the elderly. Regarding the hybrid interfaces, the lowest mean execution time, error rate and task difficulty were found for the combination of eye-gaze control with the space bar. In conclusion, we recommend using direct input devices, particularly a touch screen, for the elderly. For user groups with severe motor impairments, we suggest eye-gaze information input.
User requirements of social media for the elderly: a case study in Taiwan BIBAFull-Text 920-937
  Wen Huei Chou; Yu-Ting Lai; Kuang-Hsia Liu
Numerous researchers have proposed website design norms that are suitable for the elderly. However, in the design of community platforms, elderly users were not considered in social media usage. Young and middle-aged people are the main targets in several social media platforms. To co-ordinate the digital lives of elderly users, the emphasis in this study was to determine the problems and to search for solutions. The real requirements and proper solutions for the elderly were integrated by analysing possible factors. This study is an anthropological user centred approach, to explore the verbal behaviour of senior citizens while they accessed Facebook. Facebook, which is a social media platform with a multilingual language interface, is currently used worldwide and served the purpose of an experimental base for this research. By determining the user environments that are suitable for the elderly, including web page accessibility, interface design and real social life transformation, this article proposes the factors for a social media website, the factors for the elderly to use social media platforms, a social media platform design that can be easily used by the elderly and design factors suitable for the elderly.

Children Learning

Exploring how children use their hands to think: an embodied interactional analysis BIBAFull-Text 938-954
  Alissa N. Antle
In order to better understand how to design hands-on child-computer interaction, we explore how different styles of interaction facilitate children's thinking while they use their hands to manipulate objects. We present an exploratory study of children solving a spatial puzzle task. We investigate how the affordances of physical, graphical and tangible interfaces may facilitate the development of thinking skills including mental visualisation, problem space exploration and collaboration. We utilise the theory of complementary actions taken from embodied cognition to develop a video coding methodology that allows us to classify behavioural activity and make inferences about thinking skills development. Our findings indicated that the combination of direct hands-on input style with audio-visual feedback facilitated by the tangible user interface enabled a dynamic task completion strategy, which supports the development of mental skills with a slight time cost. The mouse and graphical user interface supported a trial and error approach, which may limit skills development. The physical cardboard puzzle enabled effective task completion but provided less support for social interaction and problem space exploration. We conclude with design recommendations.
An exploratory study on how children interact with pedagogic conversational agents BIBAFull-Text 955-964
  Diana Pérez-Marín; Ismael Pascual-Nieto
A pedagogic conversational agent (PCA) can be defined as a computer system that interacts with the student in natural language assuming the role of the instructor, a student or a companion. It can have a personality and can generate different sentences according to the agent or the student mood. Empathy with the students' feelings seems to increase their motivation to study. However, the influence of the agent personality and role as well as the students' opinion is still unclear. Therefore, in this article, it is explored with the help of a field experiment, for the first time, how these factors can affect the interaction of children with PCAs, and their opinions according to an anonymous and voluntary opinion questionnaire and some personal interviews.

BIT 2013-10-01 Volume 32 Issue 10

Editorial

Technology and social behaviour BIBFull-Text 965-967
  Tom Stewart

Article

Measuring social behaviour as an indicator of experience BIBAFull-Text 968-985
  Siân E. Lindley; Andrew F. Monk
This paper explores and evaluates two techniques that measure aspects of social behaviour as an indicator of experience. The rationale driving the work is the idea that experience is entwined with social interaction and so, while experience itself is difficult to quantify, we might tap into it by measuring aspects of conversation that are related to it. Two techniques are considered as possible ways of doing this: (i) process measures of social behaviour derived from video analysis and (ii) thin-slice ratings ascribed by naïve judges. Regarding (i), process measures of conversational equality, freedom and number of turns are shown to be reliable, sensitive and linked to unfolding experience. Regarding (ii), a Thin Slice Enjoyment Scale is developed and shown to be a reliable and less time-consuming, but also less sensitive, alternative to the process measures. Both methods are of interest to researchers and practitioners who would wish to assess user experience in a group context. Additionally, analysis of the process measures is of broader relevance to researchers who conduct quantitative analyses of talk.
Effects of technical and social design on virtual community identification: a comparison approach BIBAFull-Text 986-997
  Kathy Ning Shen; Mohamed Khalifa
We investigated how virtual community (VC) design, both technical and social decisions adopted by VC management teams, might affect the development of members' identification with the VC. Adopting a comparison approach developed in studying formal organisational identification, we develop the research model explaining the effects of VC design on VC identification. A survey study involving 412 members from seven VCs revealed that identified VC design factors (community presentation and community empowerment) have significant impacts on identification by making the perceived VC identities attractive. We concluded with a discussion of the key managerial and research implications of our findings.
Social construction of information systems in the banking sector BIBAFull-Text 998-1013
  Elaine Tavares
This article presents the results of a study conducted in order to understand under what circumstances the process of social construction of information systems (ISs) in the banking sector in Brazil takes place. It presents an analysis of the implementation, use and procedures for improvement of three systems, used in two of the country's largest banks. We started from the premise that technology is a socially constructed phenomenon, with a structure of use that is formed by its practical application. The data were collected through 46 semi-structured interviews, direct observation and documental analyses. A structural protocol has been used to interpret and analyse the data. This analysis revealed a process of social construction that generated four types of use of IS: total use, partial use, combination and adaptation. The characteristics and outcomes of each will be explained in this article. The assimilation of systems has been influenced by the confluence of individual and organisational objectives and the type of training applied. The main findings revealed practices that integrate the structure that underlies the process of social construction of the systems investigated.
Dissecting social engineering BIBAFull-Text 1014-1023
  Pekka Tetri; Jukka Vuorinen
In information security terms, social engineering (SE) refers to incidents in which an information system is penetrated through the use of social methods. The literature to date (40 texts), which was reviewed for this article, emphasises individual techniques in its description of SE. This leads to a very scattered, anecdotal, and vague notion of SE. In addition, due to the lack of analytical concepts, research conducted on SE encounters difficulties in explaining the success of SE. In such explanations, the victim's psychological traits are overemphasised, although this kind of explanation can cover only a small portion of SE cases. In this article, we have sought to elaborate the concept of SE through analysis of the functions of different techniques. In this way, we have been able to extrapolate three dimensions of SE: persuasion, fabrication, and data gathering. By utilising these dimensions, SE can be grasped in all its aspects instead of through individual techniques. Furthermore, research can benefit from our multidimensional approach as each of the dimensions pertains to a different theory. Therefore, the victim's personal traits cannot function as the only explanation. All in all, the analysis, understanding, and explanation of the success of SE can be furthered using our new approach.
Knowledge sharing in information system development teams: examining the impact of shared mental model from a social capital theory perspective BIBAFull-Text 1024-1040
  Chunjie Xiang; Yaobin Lu; Sumeet Gupta
Shared mental model (SMM), a concept from psychology, is defined as a common thinking style developed when individuals perform similar tasks in a cohesive manner. In this article, we investigate the relationship between the three dimensions of social capital and SMM. We also examine whether SMM mediates the impact of social capital on knowledge sharing (KS) behaviour in information system development (ISD) teams. Social capital is defined as the resource of social relationships owned by individuals. It is useful for explaining human behaviour in social networks. The data collected represent 492 ISD professionals in 118 teams from 18 middle-sized enterprises. The results of this study indicate that social capital theory is useful for explaining the antecedents of SMM, and SMM is positively related to KS and team performance. This research also emphasises the importance of developing SMM in a team.
Trust, empathy, social identity, and contribution of knowledge within patient online communities BIBAFull-Text 1041-1048
  Jing Zhao; Kathleen Abrahamson; James G. Anderson; Sejin Ha; Richard Widdows
People are increasingly utilising patient online communities (POC) to seek useful health information and empathetic support. Success of POC is reliant upon the willingness of members to contribute useful information and knowledge. Few studies have examined the influence of interpersonal bonds between members on members' contribution of information and knowledge within the context of POC. We investigated how trust, social identity, and empathy influence members' willingness to contribute knowledge to POC. Results indicated that trust and social identity within POC positively influenced the development of empathy. Empathy in turn exerted a positive influence on willingness to contribute personal knowledge and experience. Social identity also directly influenced members' willingness to contribute knowledge. The findings highlight the importance of trust, empathy, and a sense of group cohesiveness within online health settings in motivating members to contribute knowledge and support to other participants in POC.
My mom's on Facebook: an evaluation of information sharing depth in social networking BIBAFull-Text 1049-1059
  Aaron M. French; Aaron Read
Information sharing in social networking sites (SNSs) provides users the opportunity to maintain relationships and express themselves. However, users share information with a heterogeneous audience with varied expectations. As a result, various social spheres may influence the information individuals share or their decision to share at all. The current research describes dimensions of information in terms of horizontal and vertical information sharing. Previous research has demonstrated the salience of social spheres with conflicting norms for SNS users. We build on previous research by exploring the effects of social spheres on the depth of information shared by SNS users. Students from a university in the USA and South Korea were interviewed to understand their perceptions of information sharing and the influence social spheres have on the depth of information they provide. We found that conflicting social spheres influence the depth of information provided when a user posts to their SNS and that impression management plays a key role.
An investigation of the impact of media capabilities and extraversion on social presence and user satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 1060-1073
  Fengchun Tang; Xuequn Wang; Carolyn Strand Norman
A significant body of research examines media use and user satisfaction, and these studies are mostly focused on the choice of a specific media. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of media capabilities and individual characteristics on social presence, and the subsequent impact on user satisfaction. Drawing on Media Synchronicity Theory, we propose a research model that identifies five physical media capabilities as the determinants of social presence (i.e. the degree to which individuals feel connected to others in online communities), and we then assess the effect of social presence on user satisfaction. Our results suggest that (1) certain media capabilities and (2) extraversion have a positive impact on whether individuals feel connected to others in online communities (i.e. computer-mediated communications). In addition, our moderation analysis shows that extraversion affects social presence differently across communication tasks, suggesting that social presence is a result of the dynamic interaction between media capabilities, the individual, and the task. These results should be of interest to organisations that rely upon virtual meetings to accomplish tasks, as well as to media developers who seek media capabilities that promote a feeling of connected communication between individuals in virtual space.

BIT 2013-11-01 Volume 32 Issue 11

Editorial

Editorial BIBFull-Text 1074-1076
  Tom Stewart

Developing Technology

Decisions in software development projects management. An exploratory study BIBAFull-Text 1077-1085
  Ricardo Colomo-Palacios; Cristina Casado-Lumbreras; Pedro Soto-Acosta; Ángel García-Crespo
Given the importance of software in today's world, the development of software systems is a key activity that requires complex management scenarios. This article explores the implications of hard decisions in the context of software development projects (SDPs). More in deep, it focuses on the emotional consequences of making hard decisions in IT organisations. Complex SDPs involve a great variety of actors. This fact entails morale, feelings and emotions, which play an important role for communication, interaction and, ultimately, decision making. The aim of the article is twofold. First (Study 1), to identify which are the most important hard decisions in SDPS. Second (Study 2), to study the influence of emotions on decision-making processes (Study 2). Findings show the complex emotional consequences and difficulties that managers must face in hard decision-making processes.
Kilowhat? A multidisciplinary approach on the development of a home energy management system BIBAFull-Text 1086-1104
  Jeroen Stragier; Jan Derboven; Lieve Laporte; Laurence Hauttekeete; Lieven De Marez
To a consumer, knowing how much energy you use is often a question mark. We get our energy bills and more often than not, they are surprisingly high. The coming of the smart grid and more specifically smart metering provides opportunities to create a better awareness on energy use among consumers. This research presents the user-centric development of a home energy management system. The focus of the research is not specifically on the functionalities per se, rather it lies on the inclusion of the energy end-user in the development process. Throughout the development, end-user research provided valuable input for the development of the system. Large quantitative surveys were alternated with small scale in-depth qualitative research. Each step generated the input for the next step in the research process, resulting in a system with functionalities tailored to the end-users needs and wants.
The contingent effect of personal IT innovativeness and IT self-efficacy on innovative use of complex IT BIBAFull-Text 1105-1124
  Wei Wang; Xixi Li; JJ Po-An Hsieh
While organisational investment in complex information technologies (IT) keeps growing, these technologies are often applied at a superficial level and fail to attain the promised benefits. To further extract the value potential of complex IT, this study investigates employee users' innovate with IT (IwIT), which is a post-acceptance behaviour that refers to individual users applying IT in novel ways to support their task performance. Drawing on the information system continuance (ISC) model, we propose a research framework with perceived usefulness (PU) and satisfaction (SAT) as the antecedents of IwIT. We further emphasise the contingent role of personal characteristics and include personal innovativeness with IT (PIIT) and IT self-efficacy (ITSE) as the moderators of the framework. We validate the model with data from users of two complex ITs: enterprise resource planning and business intelligence technologies. The results suggest that positioning personal factors as moderators significantly increases the explanatory power of the ISC model and offers a more comprehensive understanding about IwIT. Specifically, ITSE positively moderates the effect of PU and negatively moderates the effect of SAT on IwIT. The moderating role of PIIT, however, is subject to the specific type of IT of investigation.
Exploring the determinants of IS developers' behavioural intention to learn business skills BIBAFull-Text 1125-1138
  Tung-Ching Lin; Yi-Shun Wang; Yu-Yin Wang
While previous research has emphasised the importance of business skills for information systems (IS) developers in the process of IS development, few studies have investigated the determinants of IS developers' behavioural intention to learn business skills. The current study explores the factors affecting IS developers' intention to learn business skills based on previous theories and research. Data collected from 258 valid respondents are tested against the research model using the partial least-squares approach. The results indicate that both job involvement and career insight have significant positive effects on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations for learning business skills. Additionally, learning self-efficacy is not only found to have a significant influence on learning intention, but is also found to have a moderating effect on the positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and learning intention. The findings of this study provide several important theoretical and practical implications for IS developers' behaviour of learning business skills.

Adopting Technology

Web-enabled wireless technology: an exploratory study of adoption and continued use intentions BIBAFull-Text 1139-1154
  Andrew J. Setterstrom; J. Michael Pearson; Robert A. Orwig
This study builds upon previous research by comparing and contrasting the decision to adopt wireless technologies with the decision to continue to use wireless technologies. In the context of web-enabled cell phones, we propose, test and compare the predictive ability of two value-based models using a multi-group analysis. The findings suggest that regardless of whether an individual was choosing to adopt or continue to use a web-enabled cell phone, perceived usefulness, enjoyment and perceived fee influenced perceived value. In turn, perceived value influenced the adoption or continued use decision. Technicality had a significant negative effect on perceived value in the context of continued use, but not for adoption. Our results also suggested a shift in the importance of benefits in the formation of perceived value; perceived usefulness played a greater role for adopters, while enjoyment played a better role for continued users. Lastly, our results indicated that uncertainty avoidance did not mediate the relationship between perceived value and intention in either the continued use or adoption contexts, while habit was significant in its mediation of the relationship between perceived value and continued use intention. Collectively, habit and perceived value explained 71% of the variation in continued use intention.
The role of attributional judgments when adopted computing technology fails: a comparison of Microsoft Windows PC user perceptions of Windows and Macs BIBAFull-Text 1155-1167
  A. Vishwanath; Katherine H. LaVail
The bulk of research to date on diffusion of innovations and the user acceptance of computing technology has focused on modelling the factors that lead to a user's decision to adopt and use a technology, instead of how individuals use technology and experience it after adoption. The current paper explores how users rationalise failures in their adopted innovations; their biases in the assessment of competing technologies; and the ultimate influence of these attributions on their interpersonal word of mouth communication with other users. The findings of the research point to the mechanisms of ego enhancement and innovativeness influencing users' reactions to the failure of their adopted computing technology. Biases regarding competing technologies are, however, influenced by information presented in the mass media. Experienced users and users who are technologically innovative are more likely to exhibit biased optimism towards the technology they have adopted. When such users hear about the failure of the computing technology they have adopted, they are far more likely to blame other users for it. In contrast, less innovative, later adopters of a technology are far more likely to blame their adopted technology and consider it to be inferior.
An empirical investigation linking learners' adoption of blended learning to their intention of full e-learning BIBAFull-Text 1168-1176
  Kamla Ali Al-Busaidi
Learning management system (LMS) is playing a major role in higher academic institutions worldwide. Even though full e-learning is becoming a feasible strategy for a number of institutions in the world, some institutions, especially those in developing countries, are resisting a full e-learning environment. Consequently, these academic institutions initially adopt LMS for blended learning to assess their readiness for full e-learning transformation. There are a number of studies that investigate the determinants of full e-learning, but very limited studies investigate the link between learners' perception of blended learning and full e-learning. The objective of this study was to link learners' adoption (perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness (PU) and satisfaction) of LMS in blended learning and their personal characteristics (self-efficacy, technology experience and personal innovativeness) to their intention to use full e-learning. Data were collected through a questionnaire from 512 learners in Oman. The study found that personal innovativeness, PU and satisfaction of LMS in blended learning are significant to learners' intention to engage in full e-learning. Thus, learners' adoption of LMS in blended learning boosts their intention to full e-learning. The results provide useful insights for practitioners and researchers on full e-learning planning and strategy.
Strategic demand forecasts for the tablet PC market using the Bayesian mixed logit model and market share simulations BIBAFull-Text 1177-1190
  Jae Young Choi; Jungwoo Shin; Jongsu Lee
Since the release of the Apple iPad and the explosion of consumer demand for tablet PCs, a number of companies are entering into the tablet PC market, creating a situation that is becoming more fiercely competitive, complex, and difficult to predict. Under the singularity of the Korean tablet PC market, into which both the iPad and Galaxy Tab (with an Android operating system) were simultaneously released, this study closely analyses consumer preferences for tablet PCs. It uses the Bayesian mixed logit model, which can reflect consumers' heterogeneous preferences based on data collected from a conjoint method, and using the estimates of the consumer utility function with model verification, it offers forecasts for the tablet PC market under six likely situations.

Corrigendum

User experience in social commerce: in friends we trust BIBFull-TextOriginal Article 1191-1192
  Dong-Hee Shin
Exploring the user experience of 3D virtual learning environments BIBFull-TextOriginal Article 1193
  D. Shin; F. Biocca; H. Choo
Smart TV: Are they really smart in interacting with people? Understanding the interactivity of Korean smart TV BIBFull-TextOriginal Article 1194-1195
  D. Shin; Y. Hwang; H. Choo

BIT 2013-12-01 Volume 32 Issue 12

Editorial

Editorial BIBFull-Text 1196-1198
  Tom Stewart

Service Quality

Beyond synthesis: re-presenting heterogeneous research literature BIBAFull-Text 1199-1215
  Allan Sylvester; Mary Tate; David Johnstone
This article examines the nature, role and function of the literature review in academic discourse. Researchers in information systems (IS) are often advised to espouse a neutral viewpoint and adapt the goal of synthesising previous literature when conducting a literature review. However, since research literature in many areas of IS is diverse and heterogeneous, this synthesis is not value neutral, but is a construction of the researchers. We suggest that other goals and viewpoints for reviewing and presenting previous literature are possible, and in some cases, desirable. Using the example of service quality literature, we use a lens of historical discourse, and techniques of soft systems analysis and rich pictures, to present previous research literature on ServQual-related research in IS and electronic commerce. We identify seven 'stories' from service quality research literature and analyse the clients, actors, transformations, world-view (weltanschauung), owners and environment in each story. We conclude that alternative presentations of research literature can offer fresh insights, especially in areas where the research literature is diffuse, contradictory and heterogeneous.
Exploring determinants of early user acceptance for an audio-visual heritage archive service using the vignette method BIBAFull-Text 1216-1224
  Guido Ongena; Lidwien van de Wijngaert; Erik Huizer
The purpose of this study is to investigate factors, which explain the behavioural intention of the use of a new audio-visual cultural heritage archive service. An online survey in combination with a factorial survey is utilised to investigate the predictable strength of technological, individual and contextual constructs. The case used to validate this model is that of a not-yet-existing audio-visual archive service. Based on data collected from the survey (N=1939), it is confirmed that payment and interpersonal influence the intention to adopt a new service thus partially supporting our three-dimensional model (i.e. technology, individual and context). The study contributes to the field of adoption research by studying a new service rather than an existing one. Subsequently, a vignette study is adopted. Moreover, the field of audio-visual archives is introduced in user research, which is considered novel. Pioneering on the unlocking of audio-visual archive this research seeks answers in the user needs and determinants for services upon these archives. Furthermore, the practical and scientific implications are discussed.
Modelling the impact of mHealth service quality on satisfaction, continuance and quality of life BIBAFull-Text 1225-1241
  Shahriar Akter; John D'Ambra; Pradeep Ray; Umme Hani
Understanding the impact of service quality on economic and social outcomes is critical to extend the focus of IT service research. This study evaluates the impact of quality on both these dimensions in mHealth using a cross disciplinary approach. The conceptual model is rooted in the traditional cognition-affective-conation chain but explicitly incorporates convenience, confidence, cooperation, care and concern as the primary dimensions of mHealth quality. The model is validated in the context of a business-to-consumer mHealth services using partial least squares path modelling. The results confirm that service quality has both direct and indirect impact on continuance intentions (i.e. economic outcome) and quality of life (i.e. social outcome). In this relationship, satisfaction plays the key mediating role, whereas service quality does not have any moderating effect. Research implications point to scale and sustain this new healthcare paradigm by linking service quality to satisfaction, continuance intentions and quality of life.
A study of executives' use of biometrics: an application of theory of planned behaviour BIBAFull-Text 1242-1256
  Afzaal H. Seyal; Rodney Turner
Biometrics has become an important alternative in user authentication to a system. The Brunei Government has embarked on various e-government projects. Some of these projects embed biometric mechanism for authentication. The acceptance of biometric security services appears to be affected by several factors, some of which may be the personal attitude of the users, influences of normality and context in which it is used. The study focuses on 155 executives from the 10 ministries of Brunei Darussalam to explore the behavioural intent of the executives towards biometrics through their attitudes. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used as a reference framework, to understand the intention of using biometrics. The data analyses through Smart-PLS suggest that government officers' attitudes towards biometrics is a predictor of behavioural intention, whereas, subjective norms is a predictor of attitude, perceived behavioural control, behavioural intention and behaviour, i.e. the use of the biometric technology. The implications of these findings are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.

Working with Technology

A multi-level socio-technical systems telecommuting framework BIBAFull-Text 1257-1279
  France Bélanger; Mary Beth Watson-Manheim; Bret R. Swan
Telecommuting can help to create organisational efficiencies and improve competitive advantage. It has been studied from a variety of perspectives, including that of transportation, management, psychology, and information systems. However, telecommuting literature, while abundant and diversified, often reports contradictory results, creating dilemmas for practice and research. Past researchers noting such conflicting findings often identify the lack of guiding theoretical bases as a key problem. In an attempt to explain the contradictory results found in prior research and in practice, we review telecommuting literature and expose conceptualisation issues that need to be addressed in the development of a telecommuting research model: telecommuting as both a context and an aspect of work, as a multi-level concept and as a time-dependent concept. The proposed multi-level model, guided by socio-technical systems theory, illustrates the inter-relationships of telecommuting antecedents and outcomes across levels of analysis and over time. The research offers a number of important implications for future research, as well as for managers involved in or affected by telecommuting in their organisations.
Understanding determinants of information systems users' behaviour: a comparison of two models in the context of integrated accounting and budgeting software BIBAFull-Text 1280-1291
  Semina Halilovic; Muris Cicic
This study examines determinants that affect the behaviour of information systems (IS) users, and influence of the users' decisions to continue using IS by two models: the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the expectation-confirmation model of IS continuance (ECM-IS). The behaviour of professionals who utilise complex software solutions for performing their working tasks has been in the focus of this research. Based on data gathered from questionnaires filled-out by users of the integrated accounting and budgeting software (IABS), the confirmatory factor analysis has shown that both models demonstrate good factor, convergence and discriminatory validity, respectively. The comparison of the obtained results has been performed, and it shows that ECM-IS has a larger explanatory power (R2) over TAM, explaining 49% of the dependent variable (IS continuance intention) in relation to 29%. The IS continuance intention is determined by the users' satisfaction and perceived usefulness. The user satisfaction is influenced by perceived usefulness and confirmation. The confirmation of the user's expectations has had a positive influence on perceived usefulness. The perceived ease of use has not exerted a significant influence on the user's intention of IS continuance.
Collaborative concept mapping activities in a classroom scenario BIBAFull-Text 1292-1304
  J. A. Elorriaga; A. Arruarte; I. Calvo; M. Larrañaga; U. Rueda; E. Herrán
The aim of this study is to test collaborative concept mapping activities using computers in a classroom scenario and to evaluate the possibilities that Elkar-CM offers for collaboratively learning non-technical topics. Elkar-CM is a multi-lingual and multi-media software program designed for drawing concept maps (CMs) collaboratively. Concept mapping is a widely accepted technique that promotes meaningful learning. Graphically representing concepts of the learning domain and relationships between them helps students integrate new knowledge into their current cognitive structure. This study was carried out with Social Education degree students at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). The experiment included two learning activities. First, all students collaboratively constructed in the classroom a CM on the subject of Moral Development. Second, students were organised into groups to complete the CM generated in the first part.
A short version of the visual aesthetics of websites inventory BIBAFull-Text 1305-1311
  Morten Moshagen; Meinald Thielsch
The present paper addresses a need for a brief assessment instrument to measure perceived visual aesthetics of websites. A short version of the Visual Aesthetics of Websites inventory (VisAWI; Moshagen and Thielsch 2010) called VisAWI-S was developed and evaluated in three studies comprising 1673 participants in total. The results indicate that the VisAWI-S is a reliable measure that captures a single dimension of perceived visual aesthetics and provides a good approximation to the full-length version. Convergent validity was established by a strong relationship to overall appeal. Evidence for divergent validity was obtained by weaker correlations to perceived usability, pragmatic quality and quality of content as well as by absence of a significant correlation to participants' mood. In addition to this, the VisAWI-S was found to be substantially related to the intention to revisit a website. Overall, the results indicate that the VisAWI-S may gainfully be employed to measure perceived visual aesthetics of websites when assessment times must be kept to a minimum.