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Behaviour and Information Technology 25

Editors:Tom Stewart
Publisher:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Standard No:ISSN 0144-929X
Links:Table of Contents
  1. BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 1
  2. BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 2
  3. BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 3
  4. BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 4
  5. BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 5
  6. BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 6

BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 1

Editorial BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Tom Stewart
Internationalisation of e-commerce: a comparison of online shopping preferences among Korean, Turkish and US populations BIBAFull-Text 3-18
  W. Hwang; H.-S. Jung; G. Salvendy
International e-commerce has been developed as an efficient means of global transaction, and it may be further improved, especially in B2C, if adapted to the conditions of local markets, such as economy, infrastructure and culture. To obtain the insight in the internationalisation of e-commerce, we investigated online shopping preferences in three nations -- the US (well developed in e-commerce), Korea (fast growing with good infrastructure) and Turkey (developing with good potentials). A survey of 205 Korean university students was conducted, and its results were compared with the results of Turkish and US surveys in Lightner et al. (2002). We found significant cross-national differences in online shopping preferences, especially in information accuracy, security and product-price comparison, and discussed those differences in terms of economic, infrastructural and cultural factors. Several practical guidelines were provided for website design in the Korean online market.
Exploring the influence of gender on the web usage via partial least squares BIBAFull-Text 19-36
  Manuel J. Sanchez-Franco
A growing body of research related to the role of gender in human interactions with information technology has emerged in recent years. In this paper we analyse the web acceptance and usage between males and females, incorporating intrinsic human factors. Partial least-squares (PLS), a second-generation multivariate analysis technique, was used to estimate the parameters of the proposed models. First, the scale psychometric characteristics were tested (validity and reliability). Second, the structural model was tested. The empirical results provided strong support for the hypotheses, demonstrating how males and females differ in their 'web acceptance and usage' processes; and highlighting the roles of flow, ease of use and usefulness in determining the actual use of the web between males and females.
Work on the bridge -- studies of officers on high-speed ferries BIBAKFull-Text 37-64
  Eva Olsson; Anders Jansson
The purpose of this paper is to describe the present conditions for officers who work on high-speed bridges, where manoeuvring and navigation are supported by highly sophisticated technical systems. Moreover, we wanted to explore the kind of support the information environment and the interfaces on the bridge provide an officer, who wants to drive safely, detect targets early and achieve efficiency. The officers have been studied at work, to investigate and better understand the interaction between humans and technical support systems in this environment. A control engineering approach has also been used in subsequent interviews with officers.
   The paper describes conditions on the bridge related to manoeuvring, navigation, the computer support systems, information presentation, and the way information is acquired and used by the crew at work. Moreover, the interviews have been analysed according to a control-engineering framework. Finally, the elements of a trip have been explored to identify similarities with other means of transportation studied previously.
   We conclude that the four general preconditions required for control of any system according to control theory are too broad, and need to be decomposed further to provide a correct representation of all the conditions revealed in the interviews.
   From our findings, we argue that the way which information is integrated and presented to the officers is inappropriate. The present conditions are related to how computers are introduced in these environments. Single instruments are replaced with individual displays and control panels. Moreover, without second thought, menus, mice, display hierarchies, etc. are transferred to ship bridges that have completely different demands on operations than, for instance, an office environment. The task to increase the range or track an approaching ship on the radar display is at present performed in an interaction dialogue similar to that of a desktop computer program. The information required on the bridge is available, but sometimes the integration and layout of information is inadequate. With a better integrated information environment, it would be possible to reduce the number of displays and key panels related to navigational devices on the bridge. A more appropriate and integrated design would improve the officers' ability to operate safely, since captains otherwise may devote significant attention to information search and manipulation of controls.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, human-machine interaction, interface design, bridge layout, high-speed craft
Accessibility of ATMS for the functionally illiterate through icon-based interfaces BIBAFull-Text 65-81
  A. Thatcher; S. Mahlangu; C. Zimmerman
This study looks at the preliminary development and evaluation of an icon-based ATM interface for use with functionally illiterate bank account holders. In the first part of the study functionally illiterate bank account holders were closely involved in the development of an icon set for the entire ATM withdrawal transaction. This involved target subjects providing descriptive information on possible icons and then evaluating these descriptions using an icon identification test. Although only seven of the 15 icons met the ISO criterion of 67% correct identification, the 'best' icons for each instruction were evaluated using one of three prototype interfaces -- icon-only, text-only and text-and-icon interface. Comparisons were made between these three interfaces, and a functionally illiterate group and a comparison literate group. Results suggested that within each group there were few significant differences based on the type of interface, although there were significant differences between the groups. Significant differences in the literate group were primarily due to prior exposure to similar ATM interfaces, whereas significant differences in the illiterate group were primarily due to icon comprehensibility.
Width guidelines for rectangular objects with penetrable and impenetrable borders BIBAFull-Text 83-90
  J. Shawn Farris; Brian R. Johnson; Keith S. Jones
Generally, selection times quicken when objects are placed against a display's edge. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not this continues to be true if the width of those objects, i.e. rectangular scrollbars, was manipulated. The results indicated that increasing width affected selection times for objects with penetrable borders, but not for those with impenetrable borders. A follow-up experiment examined whether or not selection times vary when participants selected very thin and wider scrollbars, each with impenetrable borders. The results indicated that width manipulations did not influence selection time, thus designers could use very thin objects with impenetrable borders without slowing selection time.

BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 2

User experience -- a research agenda BIBAFull-Text 91-97
  Marc Hassenzahl; Noam Tractinsky
Over the last decade, 'user experience' (UX) became a buzzword in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and interaction design. As technology matured, interactive products became not only more useful and usable, but also fashionable, fascinating things to desire. Driven by the impression that a narrow focus on interactive products as tools does not capture the variety and emerging aspects of technology use, practitioners and researchers alike, seem to readily embrace the notion of UX as a viable alternative to traditional HCI. And, indeed, the term promises change and a fresh look, without being too specific about its definite meaning. The present introduction to the special issue on 'Empirical studies of the user experience' attempts to give a provisional answer to the question of what is meant by 'the user experience'. It provides a cursory sketch of UX and how we think UX research will look like in the future. It is not so much meant as a forecast of the future, but as a proposal -- a stimulus for further UX research.
User interfaces and consumer perceptions of online stores: The role of telepresence BIBAFull-Text 99-113
  Kil-Soo Suh; Sunhye Chang
As competition in B2C e-commerce becomes more fierce, online stores have made efforts to attract consumer attention by adopting state-of-the-art technologies. Specifically, virtual reality (VR) has recently been gaining prominence on the Internet because it enables consumers to experience products over the web, an activity that plays a key role in obviating consumers' lack of real physical contact with products. VR simulates direct experiences in mediated environments, and it can generate a compelling sense of telepresence.
   The present study proposes a research model to analyse and evaluate the impact of telepresence on consumer perception, based on existing theories of telepresence and consumer learning. A laboratory experiment with three user interfaces -- multiple pictures, video clips and VR -- has been conducted to test the model. The VR interface produced the highest level of telepresence, as expected. Telepresence in turn generally augments consumers' product knowledge, attitudes and purchase intentions, and reduces consumer perceptions of product risk and discrepancies between online product information and actual products, directly or indirectly.
Attention web designers: You have 50 milliseconds to make a good first impression BIBAFull-Text 115-126
  Gitte Lindgaard; Gary Fernandes; Cathy Dudek; J. Brown
Three studies were conducted to ascertain how quickly people form an opinion about web page visual appeal. In the first study, participants twice rated the visual appeal of web homepages presented for 500 ms each. The second study replicated the first, but participants also rated each web page on seven specific design dimensions. Visual appeal was found to be closely related to most of these. Study 3 again replicated the 500 ms condition as well as adding a 50 ms condition using the same stimuli to determine whether the first impression may be interpreted as a 'mere exposure effect' (Zajonc 1980). Throughout, visual appeal ratings were highly correlated from one phase to the next as were the correlations between the 50 ms and 500 ms conditions. Thus, visual appeal can be assessed within 50 ms, suggesting that web designers have about 50 ms to make a good first impression.
Interdisciplinary criticism: analysing the experience of riot! a location-sensitive digital narrative BIBAFull-Text 127-139
  M. Blythe; J. Reid; P. Wright; E. Geelhoed
This paper reports the findings from quantitative and qualitative studies of Riot! -- a location-sensitive interactive play for voices. The paper begins by introducing Riot!; it then explores the growing literature on theories of experience and goes on to report the findings from three empirical studies of the event: a questionnaire-based survey of 563 participants; 30 semi-structured interviews with groups and individuals; and in-depth ethnographic case studies of four participants. It was clear from the survey that most people had enjoyed Riot! However, the interview data demonstrated that they had also experienced frustration even where overall enjoyment ratings were high. This is explored in relation to perception of the system and goal definition. The ethnographic case studies identify barriers to engagement in terms of individual identity and orientation. A critical theory-based analysis of Riot! further explicates the user experience in terms of literary devices such as characterisation and the development of narrative expectation.
   The studies identify a number of usability problems such as inconsistency of interaction and non-reversibility that caused frustration. The critical analysis also identifies problems with the script such as the presentation of linear narrative in a non-linear medium. It accounts for widely differing accounts of the experience with reference to the participant's individual orientations or habitus. The paper demonstrates the value of an interdisciplinary approach for exploring the commonality and particularity of user experience.
Using psychophysiological techniques to measure user experience with entertainment technologies BIBAFull-Text 141-158
  Regan L. Mandryk; Kori M. Inkpen; Thomas W. Calvert
Emerging technologies offer exciting new ways of using entertainment technology to create fantastic play experiences and foster interactions between players. Evaluating entertainment technology is challenging because success isn't defined in terms of productivity and performance, but in terms of enjoyment and interaction. Current subjective methods of evaluating entertainment technology aren't sufficiently robust. This paper describes two experiments designed to test the efficacy of physiological measures as evaluators of user experience with entertainment technologies. We found evidence that there is a different physiological response in the body when playing against a computer versus playing against a friend. These physiological results are mirrored in the subjective reports provided by the participants. In addition, we provide guidelines for collecting physiological data for user experience analysis, which were informed by our empirical investigations. This research provides an initial step towards using physiological responses to objectively evaluate a user's experience with entertainment technology.
Affectemes and allaffects: a novel approach to coding user emotional expression during interactive experiences BIBAFull-Text 159-173
  Lesley Axelrod; Kate S. Hone
The potential importance of human affect during human-computer interaction (HCI) is becoming increasingly well recognised. However, measuring and analysing affective behaviour is problematic. Physiological indicators reveal only some, sometimes ambiguous information. Video analysis and existing coding schemes are notoriously lengthy and complex, and examine only certain aspects of affect. This paper describes the development of a practical methodology to assess user affect, as displayed by emotional expressions. Interaction analysis techniques were used to identify discrete affective messages 'affectemes' and their components. This paper explains the rationale for this approach and demonstrates how it can be applied in practice. Preliminary evidence for its efficacy and reliability is also presented.
Adding method to meaning: a technique for exploring peoples experience with technology BIBAFull-Text 175-187
  Ann Light
This paper suggests a method for gathering and interpreting people's accounts of experiences with technology to inform design. The method combines an interviewing technique that seeks to collect detailed retrospective accounts with discourse analysis as a way of making sense of them. After a description of what each part might contribute, a study looking at what happens when people enter text into websites demonstrates some possibilities of the method. Finally the applicability of the method is discussed.
Usability beyond the website: an empirically-grounded e-commerce evaluation instrument for the total customer experience BIBAFull-Text 189-203
  Marian Petre; Shailey Minocha; Dave Roberts
A customer's experience with an e-commerce environment extends beyond the interaction with the website, including delivery of products, post-sales support, consumption of products and services, and so on. It is the total customer experience that influences the customers' perceptions of value and service quality, and which consequently affects customer loyalty. In our cross-disciplinary research in human-computer interaction (HCI) and relationship marketing, we have been investigating how HCI and customer relationship management (CRM) strategies can be integrated in the design of e-commerce so as to engender customer retention, trust and loyalty. We have performed a series of empirical studies to understand customers' requirements and perceptions about service-quality from e-shopping and e-travel environments. From these studies, we have developed an empirically-grounded evaluation instrument, E-SEQUAL, which we discuss in this paper. The development team can apply it at different phases of an e-commerce development life-cycle to integrate customers' perceived dimensions of service quality into the design and evaluation of e-commerce.

BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 3

Editorial BIBFull-Text 205-206
  Tom Stewart
Assessing the information environment in intensive care units BIBAFull-Text 207-220
  Joseph Sharit; Sara J. Czaja; Jeffrey S. Augenstein; Govind Balasubramanian; Vaunn Schell
This paper describes the development and application of a methodology for evaluating how physicians and nurses view the usefulness of various sources of patient information available within a hospital intensive care unit (ICU). The methodology encompasses semi-structured interviews, task analysis, a simulated case study of a critically ill patient, verbal protocol analysis, questionnaire responses based on both past experiences in the ICU and performance on the simulated task, and a post-task interview. Eleven nurses and six physicians participated in the study. Analysis of the questionnaires revealed significant differences in the rankings of the information sources by both the nurses and the physicians on each of seven evaluation criteria. Significant differences were also found among both the physicians and the nurses in rankings of the relative importance of the individual information sources for meeting task requirements. A framework for describing information gathering applicable to critical care environments was proposed as a means for better understanding how information sources are used. Overall, the methodology was found to be useful in terms of providing valuable data regarding the utility and usability of information sources. The importance of using a systematic approach for assessing the usefulness of information sources, particularly from the perspectives of performing design interventions and predicting the effectiveness of new information technologies, as well as the limitations in adopting this type of approach, are also discussed.
Modelling consumer intention to use gambling technologies: an innovative approach BIBAFull-Text 221-231
  Sharen L. Nisbet
This paper reports the results of a study that sought to analyse the attributes of gambling technologies that affect consumer intention to use card-based gambling in Australia. A 23-item questionnaire was developed from an analysis of interviews with 20 key industry stakeholders, adapted to a modified version of existing technology acceptance model (TAM) questions (Davis 1989, Wang et al. 2003), then administered to 134 patrons of two gambling venues.
   Data reduction yielded three constructs consistent with the TAM: 'ease-of-use', 'perceived usefulness' and 'intention to use' the technology. Significant correlation was found in each component, and each set of component items exhibited high internal reliability. Further analysis using structural equation modelling revealed that 'usefulness' is a significant predictor of 'intention to use' card-based gambling systems, and that 'ease-of-use' also has a positive effect on intention. Replication of these results, complemented by actual usage data, will enhance understanding of the benefits.
A study of the suitability of videophones for psychometric assessment BIBAFull-Text 233-237
  George Demiris; Debra Parker Oliver; Karen Courtney
In order to determine whether videophones are appropriate communication tools for psychometric assessments, we need to determine whether the quality of videophones is adequate to enable this type of assessment or whether it places a burden on the communication. The purpose of this study is to measure the subjective quality of video and audio features of commercially available videophones in the context of a psychometric assessment session. We recruited 52 subjects who used the videophone to participate in a psychometric assessment using the Perceived Stress Scale. After each session, participants filled out the ITU-T P.920 that assesses the context-specific quality of the video-call. Findings indicate that the overall audio and image quality of the video-call was satisfactory and participants perceived the videophones as useful in the context of psychometric assessment. These findings strengthen the call for use of video mediated communication in home and hospice settings and disease management.
Workplace user frustration with computers: an exploratory investigation of the causes and severity BIBAFull-Text 239-251
  Jonathan Lazar; Adam Jones; Ben Shneiderman
When hard-to-use computers cause users to become frustrated, it can affect workplace productivity, user mood and interactions with other co-workers. Previous research has examined the frustration that students and their families face in using computers. To learn more about the causes and measure the severity of user frustration with computers in the workplace, we collected modified time diaries from 50 workplace users, who spent an average of 5.1 hours on the computer. In this exploratory research, users reported wasting on average, 42 -- 43% of their time on the computer due to frustrating experiences. The largest number of frustrating experiences occurred while using word processors, email and web browsers. The causes of the frustrating experiences, the time lost due to the frustrating experiences, and the effects of the frustrating experiences on the mood of the users are discussed in this paper. Implications for designers, managers, users, information technology staff and policymakers are discussed.
A study of presentations of mobile web banners for location-based information and entertainment information websites BIBAFull-Text 253-261
  Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Jenwen Chen; Duye Chen
Compared to the Internet, mobile telecommunication has the characteristics of being anywhere, anytime and always online. As the growth of the Internet advertisements market slows down, there is a substantial increase in mobile advertisements. This research investigates the effectiveness of the presentation (static text and graphics, static text and graphics with audio, and animation) of mobile advertisements on the recognition of advertisements. The two types of websites for mobile advertisements -- entertainment information and location-based information -- are also compared. An experiment was carried out to test the proposed hypotheses. The results show that the effects of static banners with audio mobile advertisement, and animation mobile advertisement were better than static banners in advertisement recognition and memorisation. The participants of websites providing location-based information had higher advertisement attitude and purchase intention than their web-based counterparts providing entertainment information.
A survey of usability capability maturity models: implications for practice and research BIBAFull-Text 263-282
  Timo Jokela; Mikko Siponen; Naotake Hirasawa; Jonathan Earthy
Improving the position and effectiveness of user-centred design (UCD) in software and product development is a challenge in many companies. One step towards improvements is to carry out a usability capability maturity (UCM) assessment to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a development organisation in UCD. While several diverse UCM models have been introduced, little research has been published in the public domain on these models. The paper aims to fill this gap by analysing the main features of the models. The results show that most models represent different approaches -- although some of them have the same roots -- meaning that understanding one model is not enough to understand the basics of another model. All models can be used for examining the status of UCD in individual development projects. In addition, models provide various means for assessment of the status of UCD in other organisational areas. The level of documentation of models varies a lot, and very few empirical research results exist. Based on the results, implications for practice and research are suggested.

BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 4

Computers and accessibility BIBFull-Text 283-284
  Enrico Pontelli; Andrew Sears
Representing coordination and non-coordination in American Sign Language animations BIBAFull-Text 285-295
  Matt Huenerfauth
While strings and syntax trees are used by the Natural Language Processing community to represent the structure of spoken languages, these encodings are difficult to adapt to a signed language like American Sign Language (ASL). In particular, the multichannel nature of an ASL performance makes it difficult to encode in a linear single-channel string. This paper will introduce the Partition/Constitute (P/C) formalism, a new method of computationally representing a linguistic signal containing multiple channels. The formalism allows coordination and non-coordination relationships to be encoded between different portions of a signal. The P/C formalism will be compared to representations used in related research in gesture animation. The way in which P/C is used by this project to build an English-to-ASL machine translation system will also be discussed.
A user study on tactile graphic generation methods BIBAKFull-Text 297-311
  S. E. Krufka; K. E. Barner
Methods to automatically convert graphics into tactile representations have been recently investigated, creating either raised-line or relief images. In particular, we briefly review one raised-line method where important features are emphasized. This paper focuses primarily on the effects of such emphasis and on comparing both raised-line and relief methods (produced by a Tiger Braille printer) through psychophysical experiments including discrimination, identification, and comprehension (involving 14 sighted and 6 blind subjects). Results show that raised-line pictures outperform relief images in all three tasks. Also, emphasizing important features significantly increases comprehension of tactile graphics. Raised-line images, however, disregard intensity/colour information unlike relief pictures. A technique incorporating intensity into raised-line graphics is also presented. Further experiments show the validity of this technique.
Keywords: Tactile pictures, Blindness, Scalable vector graphics, Edge detection
An investigation of handheld device use by older adults with age-related macular degeneration BIBAKFull-Text 313-332
  V. K. Leonard; J. A. Jacko; J. J. Pizzimenti
This study investigates factors affecting handheld human-computer interaction (HCI) for older adults with Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). This is largely an uncharted territory, as empirical investigations of HCI concerning users with visual dysfunction and/or older adults have focused primarily on desktop computers. For this study, participants with AMD and visually healthy controls used a handheld computer to search, select and manipulate familiar playing card icons under varied icon set sizes, inter-icon spacing and auditory feedback conditions. While all participants demonstrated a high rate of task completion, linear regression revealed several relationships between task efficiency and the interface, user characteristics and ocular factors. Two ocular measures, severity of AMD and contrast sensitivity, were found to be highly predictive of efficiency. The outcomes of this work reveal that users with visual impairments can effectively interact with graphical user interfaces on small displays in the presence of low-cost, easily implemented design interventions. Furthermore, results demonstrate that the detrimental influence of AMD and contrast sensitivity on handheld technology interaction can be offset by such interventions. This study presents a rich data set and is intended to inspire future work characterizing and modeling the interactions of individuals with visual impairments with non-traditional information technology platforms and contexts.
Keywords: Older adults, Visual impairment, Macular degeneration, Icons, Drag and drop, Spacing, Auditory feedback, Mobile computing, Handheld computers
Evaluating non-speech sound visualizations for the deaf BIBAKFull-Text 333-351
  Tara Matthews; Janette Fong; F. Wai-Ling Ho-Ching; Jennifer Mankoff
Sounds such as co-workers chatting nearby or a dripping faucet help us maintain awareness of and respond to our surroundings. Without a tool that communicates ambient sounds in a non-auditory manner, maintaining this awareness is difficult for people who are deaf. We present an iterative investigation of peripheral, visual displays of ambient sounds. Our major contributions are: (1) a rich understanding of what ambient sounds are useful to people who are deaf, (2) a set of visual and functional requirements for a peripheral sound display, based on feedback from people who are deaf, (3) lab-based evaluations investigating the characteristics of four prototypes, and (4) a set of design guidelines for successful ambient audio displays, based on a comparison of four implemented prototypes and user feedback. Our work provides valuable information about the sound awareness needs of the deaf and can help to inform further design of such applications.
Keywords: Sound visualization, Peripheral displays, Deaf
Designing the user interface of the computer-based speech training system ARTUR based on early user tests BIBAKFull-Text 353-365
  Olov Engwall; Olle Balter; Anne-Marie Oster; Hedvig Kjellstrom
This study has been performed in order to evaluate a prototype for the human-computer interface of a computer-based speech training aid named ARTUR. The main feature of the aid is that it can give suggestions on how to improve articulations. Two user groups were involved: three children aged 9-14 with extensive experience of speech training with therapists and computers, and three children aged 6, with little or no prior experience of computer-based speech training. All children had general language disorders. The study indicates that the present interface is usable without prior training or instructions, even for the younger children, but that more motivational factors should be introduced. The granularity of the mesh that classifies mispronunciations was satisfactory, but the flexibility and level of detail of the feedback should be developed further.
Keywords: Computer-based speech training system, User interface, Wizard of Oz test, Participatory design
3D sound interactive environments for blind children problem solving skills BIBAKFull-Text 367-378
  Jaime Sanchez; Mauricio Saenz
Audio-based virtual environments have been increasingly used to foster cognitive and learning skills. A number of studies have also highlighted that the use of technology can help learners to develop effective skills such as motivation and self-esteem. This study presents the design and usability of 3D interactive environments for children with visual disabilities to help them solve problems in Chilean geography and culture. We introduce AudioChile, a virtual environment that can be navigated through 3D sound to enhance spatiality and immersion throughout the environment. 3D sound is used to orientate, avoid obstacles, and identify the positions of various characters and objects within the environment. We have found during the usability evaluation that sound can be fundamental for attention and motivation purposes during interaction. Learners identified and clearly discriminated environmental sounds to solve everyday problems, spatial orientation, and laterality.
Keywords: Hyperstories, 3D sound, Virtual world, Problem solving, Role-playing game

BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 5

Editorial BIBFull-Text 379-380
  Tom Stewart
Evaluating causes and consequences of turnover intention among IT workers: the development of a questionnaire survey BIBAKFull-Text 381-397
  P. Carayon; J. Schoepke; P. L. T. Hoonakker; M. C. Haims; M. Brunette
In this paper we describe the process of developing a questionnaire survey that evaluates the causes and consequences of turnover intention among information technology (IT) workers, with specific attention to issues of importance to women and minorities within the IT workforce. The questionnaire development process consisted of four steps: Creation of the initial questionnaire from a literature review of existing scales. Pilot study using interviews to test the questionnaire. Modifications to the questionnaire based on feedback from the pilot study. Implementation of the revised questionnaire survey. The process used for the development of the questionnaire survey is systematic and addresses issues specific to the IT workforce, in particular the underrepresentation of women and minorities in the IT workforce. The questionnaire survey allows the collection of reliable and valid data on causes and effects of retention and intention to turnover, thus making it possible to better understand the reasons for the underrepresentation of women and minorities in the IT workforce.
Keywords: Questionnaire survey, IT workforce, Turnover, Working conditions, Job satisfaction, Job stress
LTV model in consultant sector. Case study: mental health clinic BIBAKFull-Text 399-405
  Mohammad J. Tarokh; Aydin Akbari Sekhavat
Since the early 1980s, customer relationship management (CRM) has been important in the new competitive business environment. Today, due to development of competitive factors in the business, the enterprise's need to create and retain effective relations with customers has been highlighted more and more. With the aim of customer scoring applications, the most profitable customers can be identified. In this paper, we categorized customers by three types of values for the clinic by using logistic regression as a data-mining technique, and calculated the customer defection and future purchase probability in a mental health clinic of the university of Tehran. Model verification and validation (using lift chart) was done and customer segmentation and analysis presented with proper marketing strategies.
Keywords: Analytical CRM, Data mining, Logistic regression, Verification, Validation, Consultant sector
The effect of computer self-efficacy on enterprise resource planning usage BIBAKFull-Text 407-411
  Ya-Yueh Shih
Global competition has impelled numerous organisations to employ enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, although quite frequently without success. Studies have demonstrated that a major factor for failure is employee resistance in organisations using these systems. Exactly the factors that facilitate ERP adoption among users have seldom been identified. This study examines the usage behaviour of a sample of users of the new technology of ERP system using a technology acceptance model (TAM). Furthermore, this paper incorporates an additional behavioural construct, computer self-efficacy (CSE), to improve the predictive value of the original TAM model, named revised TAM. Additionally, the structural equation model (SEM) is used to verify the causal relationships between variables. Analytical results confirm that not only is the TAM appropriate for explaining the use of ERP, but that incorporating CSE enhances the power of the model.
Keywords: Enterprise resource planning systems, Technology acceptance model, Computer efficacy, Structural equation model
On keys meanings and modes: the impact of different key solutions on children's efficiency using a mobile phone BIBAKFull-Text 413-431
  Martina Ziefle; Susanne Bay; Alexander Schwade
The present study investigates the impact of different key solutions of mobile phones on users' effectiveness and efficiency using the devices. In the first experiment, 36 children (9-14 years) and in the second experiment 45 young adults (19-33 years) completed four common phone tasks twice consecutively on three simulated phones that had identical menus, but different key solutions. An approach was undertaken to quantify the complexity of keys in three models, incorporating different factors contributing to the keys' complexity (number of key options, number of modes and number of modes with a semantically dissimilar meaning), in order to predict users' performance decrements. As a further main factor, the degree of the users' locus of control (LOC) was measured and interactions with performance outcomes were studied. As dependent measures, the number of inefficient keystrokes, the number of tasks solved and the processing time were determined. Results showed a significant effect of control key solutions on users' efficiency and effectiveness for both children and young adults. Moreover, children's LOC values significantly interacted with performance: children with low LOC values showed the lowest performance and no learnability, especially when using keys with a high complexity. From the three factors contributing to the complexity of keys, keys exerting different functions with semantically inconsistent meanings had the worst effect on performance. It is concluded that in mobile user interface design keys with semantically inconsistent meanings should be generally avoided.
Keywords: Mobile phones, Key complexity, Modes, Cognitive compatibility, Usability, Menu navigation performance, Children
Important context changes for talking and text messaging during homeward commutes BIBAKFull-Text 433-441
  Martin Colbert; David Livingstone
This paper models the suitability of homeward commutes as a context for talking on a mobile telephone and text messaging. Analysis of these models identifies when and where large changes in suitability frequently arise. To bring commuters the greatest benefits, these are the changes upon which future applications of context-sensitivity and awareness need to focus.
Keywords: Communication, Mobile phone, Text messaging, Context of use, Context sensitivity, Awareness systems
The influence of alarm timing on driver response to collision warning systems following system failure BIBAKFull-Text 443-452
  Genya Abe; John Richardson
This driving simulator study focuses on false and missing alarms produced by a forward collision warning system and estimates the effect of alarm timing on driver response to alarm malfunction from the perspective of driver trust in alarms. The results show that drivers who experience late alarms are reluctant to respond to a false alarm and are not influenced by a missed alarm; however, drivers who experience early alarms tend to respond to a false alarm and suffer a delayed response to critical situations when a missing alarm happens. Furthermore, drivers whose judgement of trust is relatively high, tend to exhibit delayed braking, compared with drivers that have lower levels of trust. Driver behaviour towards false and missed alarms may vary according to alarm timing and its influence on trust in alarms; moreover, impaired system effectiveness caused by alarm malfunction may be mitigated by manipulating alarm timing.
Keywords: Alarm timing, Driver behaviour, Trust

BIT 2006 Volume 25 Issue 6

Editorial BIBFull-Text 453-454
  Tom Stewart
Improving deaf users accessibility in hypertext information retrieval: are graphical interfaces useful for them? BIBAKFull-Text 455-467
  I. Fajardo; J. J. Canas; L. Salmeron; J. Abascal
This paper explores the effect of substituting textual links for graphical ones on the performance of deaf signers in hypertext information retrieval (HIR). Both deaf and hearing users found more targets, were faster and became less disoriented in the verbal hypertext interface than in the graphical one. Deaf users were outperformed by hearing users in all conditions except in short paths with the graphical interface. The results and its applied consequences, which would be also relevant to other users with similar problems than those of deaf signers (elderly people, people with dyslexia, people navigating in a website using a foreign language or people with low literacy) are discussed in relation to the CoLiDeS model of web interaction (Kitajima et al. 2000) and to the overgeneralisation of 'Picture superiority effect' (Nelson et al. 1976).
Keywords: Web accessibility, Graphical user interface, Deafness, Semantic memory
Measuring task-specific perceptions of the world wide web BIBAKFull-Text 469-477
  K. Page-Thomas
This paper describes the development of multi-item scales for measuring user perceptions of the ease-of-use and usefulness of the Web (hereafter web), incorporating a system task focus into the scales dimensional structure (e.g. how easy or useful the web is for information search, communication and or purchasing). The items are tested on 2077 web users recruited using a web survey, revealing four factors for each scale. Perceived ease-of-web use consists of learning, search and find, transaction and communication ease, and perceived web usefulness consists of communication, purchase, information search and acquisition, and access to quality products and information. A regression analysis on web usage frequency shows how easy users find it to learn how to use the web and how useful the web is for purchasing are the best predictors of how frequently they will use the web. These results highlight the importance of training users how to effectively use hypermedia-based systems like the web, and the design of systems that are easy to navigate and that provide advanced functionality for transactional activity.
Keywords: Usability, Technology Acceptance Memo (TAM), Ease of use, Usefulness, System-task focus, World wide web (Web)
Determinants of success for online communities: an empirical study BIBAKFull-Text 479-488
  Hsiu-Fen Lin; Gwo-Guang Lee
Although online communities can significantly facilitate collaboration among Internet users, the determinants of success of online communities have seldom been studied empirically. Using the updated DeLone and McLean information systems success model as a theoretical framework, this study proposes a research model to examine the determinants for successful use of online communities. Based on a survey of 165 community members, this study uses structural equation modelling (SEM) approach to investigate the research model. The analytical results strongly support the appropriateness of the research model in identifying the determinants of success of online communities. The analytical results also showed that system quality, information quality and service quality had a significant effect on member loyalty through user satisfaction and behavioural intention to use the online community. Finally, this study discusses the implications of these findings and offer directions for future research.
Keywords: Success of online communities, System quality, Information quality, Service quality, Member loyalty
Creating names for retrieval by self and others BIBAKFull-Text 489-496
  J. A. Pitman; S. J. Payne
Two experiments aimed to explore the general usability of filenames that were either chosen for personal use or designed for another user, within a document-filing scenario. Both experiments revealed a strong benefit for using self-chosen names over using names that were chosen by another for their personal use. However, both experiments also showed that participants could to some extent adapt their chosen names for use by a wider population. In experiment one, users could recall these 'designed' names more accurately than names that had been chosen for personal use by another (although this difference was not evident in a recognition test). Experiment two supported this effect; names designed for general use were more accurately recalled by another than the names designed for self-use after two sessions of use. Names designed for general use employed higher frequency words than did the self-chosen names, which supports the view that the benefit for self-chosen names partly lies in their exploitation of idiosyncratic associations.
Keywords: Naming, Cooperation, CMC, Design
To buy or not to buy online: adopters and non-adopters of online shopping in Singapore BIBAKFull-Text 497-509
  Thompson S. H. Teo
The Internet, as a dynamic virtual medium for selling and buying information, services and products, is gaining increasing attention from researchers and practitioners. In this study, we examine the perceptions of adopters and non-adopters of online shopping in terms of demographic profile, consumer expectations of online stores, advantages and problems of online shopping and transaction cost. In addition, we also examine the types of products purchased, frequency of online purchase and the extent of communication with e-commerce vendors. The findings are useful in explaining consumers' buying behaviour in the electronic marketplace. Implications of the results are discussed.
Keywords: Adopt, Online, Shopping, Singapore, Problems, Electronic commerce, Expectations
Iterative process of design and evaluation of icons for interactive TV menu BIBAKFull-Text 511-519
  Dokshin Lim; Carole Bouchard; Ameziane Aoussat
This paper shows an iterative process of design and evaluation of icons for future interactive TV services. In doing the RNRT (French National Network of Research in Telecommunications) iTV project, we tried to generate icons easy to identify, associate and memorise for 32 categories and services of our iTV system.
   Through an iterative process, the Multiple Index Approach was applied until an acceptable icon set was achieved. In addition to existing evaluation criteria such as the intuitiveness, associativeness, preference and suitability with subjective certainty of users, we emphasised the importance of the learnability measured by recall tests.
   As a conclusion, we propose a methodology of icon design and evaluation for information appliances that integrate unfamiliar features with common users.
Keywords: Icon usability, User interface design, Interactive TV, Design process