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Behaviour and Information Technology 31

Editors:Tom Stewart
Publisher:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Standard No:ISSN 0144-929X
Links:Table of Contents
  1. BIT 2012-01 Volume 31 Issue 1
  2. BIT 2012-02 Volume 31 Issue 2
  3. BIT 2012-03 Volume 31 Issue 3
  4. BIT 2012-04 Volume 31 Issue 4
  5. BIT 2012-05 Volume 31 Issue 5
  6. BIT 2012-06 Volume 31 Issue 6
  7. BIT 2012-07 Volume 31 Issue 7
  8. BIT 2012-08 Volume 31 Issue 8
  9. BIT 2012-09 Volume 31 Issue 9
  10. BIT 2012-10 Volume 31 Issue 10
  11. BIT 2012-11 Volume 31 Issue 11
  12. BIT 2012-12 Volume 31 Issue 12

BIT 2012-01 Volume 31 Issue 1

Cognitive modelling of web navigation BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Herre van Oostendorp; Paul van SchaikBipin Indurkhya
Information scent determines attention allocation and link selection among multiple information patches on a webpage BIBAFull-Text 3-15
  Marilyn Hughes Blackmon
This paper draws from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience to develop a preliminary similarity-choice theory of how people allocate attention among information patches on webpages while completing search tasks in complex informational websites. Study 1 applied stepwise multiple regression to a large dataset and showed that success rate for web navigation tasks approaches 100% if a single information patch is highly similar in meaning to the user goal, and success rate falls dramatically if two or more information patches compete for the user's attention and if only one contains a link that leads to accomplishing the search goal. Study 2 (n = 82) manipulated the independent variables task difficulty and website design and found statistically significant differences in success rate for both main effects and the interaction. Study 2 also found that the distribution of attention among available information patches was strongly determined by the rank ordering of semantic similarity between user goal and information patch but was not influenced by website designs with very different visual layouts. While these results offer verification of a similarity-choice theory of attention to information patches, caution is warranted in generalising too broadly from these results.
CoLiDeS+ Pic: a cognitive model of web-navigation based on semantic information from pictures BIBAFull-Text 17-30
  Herre van Oostendorp; Saraschandra Karanam; Bipin Indurkhya
Comprehension-based linked model of deliberate search (CoLiDeS) + Pic is a cognitive model of web-navigation that takes into account the semantic information from graphical elements present on a web-page to compute the information scent value of the hyperlinks. The model is based on CoLiDeS, which has a two-phase processing cycle: (a) attention phase, which first parses the web-page and focuses attention on the region of the web-page that is semantically most similar to the goal, and (b) action-selection phase, which evaluates the available actions in the focused region and selects a particular action such as clicking a link. The graphical elements are important both for attracting attention to a region of the web-page and for communicating semantic meaning that may alter or enhance the meaning of the hyperlink labels. In the first part of this article, we give a theoretical explanation of the CoLiDeS + Pic model and describe the methodology followed to implement it. In the second part, we run a simulation on a mock-up website and evaluate the effect of pictures on information scent of hyperlinks by means of the CoLiDeS + Pic model on basis of the simulation results. It was found that CoLiDeS + Pic with highly relevant pictures increases the values of information scent of task-relevant hyperlinks, and therefore it increases the probability of selecting those hyperlinks compared to CoLiDeS (without pictures) or CoLiDeS + Pic with lowly relevant pictures. These results confirm the importance of including information from pictures into the modelling of web-navigation.
Evaluating CoLiDeS + Pic: the role of relevance of pictures in user navigation behaviour BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  Saraschandra Karanam; Herre van Oostendorp; Bipin Indurkhya
CoLiDeS + Pic is a cognitive model of web-navigation that incorporates semantic information from pictures intoCoLiDeS. In our earlier research, we have demonstrated that by incorporating semantic information from pictures, CoLiDeS + Pic can predict the hyperlinks on the shortest path more frequently, and also with greater information scent, compared to earlier cognitive models of web-navigation like CoLiDeS that relied only on textualinformation from hyperlinks. In this article, we investigate the following research questions. First, would the increase in information scent have an impact on the actual user navigation behaviour? Second, do users actually follow the navigation path predicted by CoLiDeS + Pic? In other words, would CoLiDeS + Pic predict actual user navigation behaviour more accurately than CoLiDeS? We investigate these questions by varying the relevance of pictures on a web page and studying the impact of varying relevance on the user navigation patterns. We found that under the highly relevant picture condition, users were more accurate and took less time to finish their tasks. Also, under the highly relevant picture condition, CoLiDeS + Pic predicts significantly greater number of actual user clicks. There was no significant difference in model predictions between the lowly relevant picture condition and no-picture condition. These results validate the predictions made by CoLiDeS + Pic.
Simulating navigation behaviour based on the architecture model Model Human Processor with Real-Time Constraints (MHP/RT) BIBAFull-Text 41-58
  Muneo Kitajima; Makoto Toyota
Navigation behaviour is characterised by a strong interaction between the navigating agent (i.e. human beings) and the environment in which the navigation occurs. As the interaction is time critical, a theory for understanding the navigation behaviour must be capable of simulating navigation along the time dimension. This article introduces the Model Human Processor with Real-Time Constraints (MHP/RT; Toyota, M. and Kitajima, M., 2010a. MHP/RT: model human processor with real time constraints. In: S. Ohlsson and R. Catrambone, eds., Proceedings of the 32nd annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society, 529.) as an architecture model for simulating the human navigation behaviour. MHP/RT was created by combining two seminal works in different fields that deal with human behaviour. The first work is the Model Human Processor (MHP) in the field of applied psychology (Card, S.K., Moran, T.P., and Newell, A., 1983. The psychology of human-computer interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.). MHP successfully simulates the human users' operating information devices to accomplish computerised tasks. The other work focuses on Two Minds that operate in human beings' economical decisions (Evans, J.S.B.T. and Frankish, K., eds., 2009. In Two Minds: dual processes and beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press.). This is the basis of the field of behaviour economics founded by D. Kahneman. This study demonstrates how MHP/RT simulates people's navigation behaviour by drawing a concrete example of navigation in a train station. The results of an observational study that was conducted independently of MHP/RT are introduced and further examined by running the processes defined in MHP/RT. The results of the observed navigation behaviour can be plausibly simulated by MHP/RT, confirming the validity of MHP/RT.
Seeking information online: the influence of menu type, navigation path complexity and spatial ability on information gathering tasks BIBAFull-Text 59-70
  Mari Carmen Puerta Melguizo; Uti Vidya; Herre van Oostendorp
We studied the effects of menu type, navigation path complexity and spatial ability on information retrieval performance and web disorientation or lostness. Two innovative aspects were included: (a) navigation path relevance and (b) information gathering tasks. As expected we found that, when measuring aspects directly related to navigation performance such as time and lostness, path complexity plays an important role. During navigation, expandable menus are more beneficial than sequential menus, especially for people with low spatial skills and when the semantic similarity between the information goal and the navigation path is high. When measuring aspects only related to information retrieval, once navigation has occurred, the effects of menu type depend on the spatial skills and the difficulty of the task itself. Participants with high skills perform well in all conditions. Participants with low spatial skills benefit from the use of expandable menus showing only problems with the sequential menu and when the tasks demanded more than simply combining information from different locations on a web page. The opposite pattern found with participants with medium spatial skills needs further research.
Incidental learning of links during navigation: the role of visuo-spatial capacity BIBAFull-Text 71-81
  Jean-François Rouet; Zsofia Vörös; Csaba Pléh
We investigated the impact of readers' visuo-spatial (VS) capacity on their incidental learning of page links during the exploration of simple hierarchical hypertextual documents. Forty-three university students were asked to explore a series of hypertexts for a limited period of time. Then the participants were asked to recall the layout and the contents of the pages. We found that low VS capacity readers had more difficulty recalling the links located at a deeper level in the page hierarchy. A content map included in half the trials had a limited effect on recall accuracy. We conclude that reading networked digital documents taps VS working memory, possibly due to readers? attempts to construct a topological representation of the network that coexists with the semantic representation of the contents.
Effects of search interface and Internet-specific epistemic beliefs on source evaluations during Web search for medical information: an eye-tracking study BIBAFull-Text 83-97
  Yvonne Kammerer; Peter Gerjets
The present study examined how both the interface of search engines and Internet-specific epistemic beliefs influence novices' source evaluations during Web search on a medical topic. A standard Google-like list interface was compared to a tabular interface that presented search results grouped according to objective, subjective, or commercial information in order to provide users with affordances for source evaluations. Results revealed that university students using the tabular interface paid less visual attention to commercial search results and selected objective search results more often and commercial ones less often than students using the list interface. Furthermore, the epistemic belief that the Web contains (among other types of information) correct knowledge was related to an increased selection of objective search results and to longer fixations on non-selected search results. Moreover, epistemic beliefs moderated the effects of the search interface, such that students with strong beliefs that the Web contains correct knowledge showed a more focused information selection and better search outcomes in terms of their argumentative summaries when using the tabular interface than when using the list interface. In contrast, these effects were not found for students with doubts about the Web containing correct knowledge.

BIT 2012-02 Volume 31 Issue 2

Editorial BIBFull-Text 99-100
  Tom Stewart
Identifying mutual engagement BIBAFull-Text 101-125
  Nick Bryan-Kinns; Fraser Hamilton
Mutual engagement occurs when people creatively spark together and enter a state of group flow. We present a characterisation of mutually engaging interaction, discuss design features which contribute to mutually engaging interactions, and identify a set of measures for identifying mutual engagement in collaboration. A collaborative music editor's interface features are systematically manipulated in an empirical study of their effect on mutual engagement. The results of the study show that providing shared annotation mechanisms and awareness of identity of others significantly increases mutually engaging interaction.
Development of an assistance environment for tutors based on a co-adaptive design approach BIBAFull-Text 127-141
  Élise Lavoué; Sébastien George; Patrick Prévôt
In this article, we present a co-adaptive design approach named TE-Cap (Tutoring Experience Capitalisation) that we applied for the development of an assistance environment for tutors. Since tasks assigned to tutors in educational contexts are not well defined, we are developing an environment which responds to needs which are not precisely identified or not expressed by these users. Our approach rests on three development cycles which aim at gradually clarifying and refining users' needs and expectations which we translate into computing functionalities. Each cycle is composed of three steps that allow the use of prototypes developed with regard, on the one hand, to theories of users' activities and, on the other hand, to the needs that we have identified to be observed. We finally obtain a stable typology of users' needs and expectations upon which we base the development of the computer environment. We illustrate the two first cycles of this iterative and co-adaptive approach during the development of TE-Cap. We then discuss the difficulties raised by this type of approach.
How information organisation affects users' representation of hypertext structure and content BIBAFull-Text 143-154
  Jacqueline Waniek
Previous studies have shown that hypertext users generate a mental representation of the hypertext structure and content. This study examines how information organisation in hypertext affects users' comprehension of the hypertext structure and content of the text. In a 2 ? 2 factorial design text interconnectedness (low vs. high) and coherence (coherent vs. incoherent) were manipulated. Users' mental representations were accessed by various tests such as card sorting, summary writing and questionnaires. Results showed that participants' representation of hypertext structure and content was better under the coherent than under the incoherent condition. Interconnectedness did not have an effect on users' representation. Recommendations for hypertext designers are discussed.
Integrating complex information with object displays: psychophysical evaluation of outlines BIBAFull-Text 155-169
  Mikko Berg; Ilpo Kojo
The interactive use of visual interface tools has diversified the use of visualisations. This article reviews the relevant aspects of interaction and challenges the sufficiency of traditional evaluation criteria developed for static graphs. Traditionally, the problem for statisticians has been to maintain perceptual discriminability of details, when quantities of data increase. Currently, however, even non-professional users need to integrate qualitatively different kinds of information. The review of task requirements indicates the use of a visual outline: (1) visual tools can facilitate parallel separation of individual data entities and integration of their features and (2) more focused comparisons require visual memory due to eye movements. The article reports psychophysical experiments that measure performance accuracy and response latency conditioned by the above task requirements. The impact of shape and colour on performance interacted with display times; the times were shorter (100 ms) or longer (1 s) than the duration of typical gaze fixation. The features of graphs in the experiments were derived from a popular internet service. Thus, we describe methods for evaluating visual components of real services and provide general guidelines for visual design of human-computer interaction.
Selective attention in web forms: an exploratory case study with older people BIBAFull-Text 171-184
  Sergio Sayago; José-María Guijarro; Josep Blat
This article reports on an exploratory study aimed to identify which ways of marking required and optional fields help older people fill in web forms correctly. Drawing on a pilot study and selective attention research in ageing, modified versions of widely used forms were created, in which standard asterisks were replaced with one of three alternatives: large asterisks (double standard size), textual labels and a simple binary classification of fields. Older novice computer users participated in this study (N = 88). The quantitative results were independent of the type of form and showed that the method of denoting required fields had a significant effect on the number of errors (measured as required fields not being filled (p < 0.05)). The participants made fewer errors in the binary classification than in the others (p < 0.05), while the differences between standard asterisks, large asterisks and labels were not significant (p > 0.05). The qualitative findings revealed that the participants felt overloaded with information when using every method except the binary classification. These results challenge widespread design solutions for older people (e.g. enlarging elements) and suggest that reducing selective attention demands can help us meet their accessibility needs.
Increasingly emotional design for growingly pragmatic users? A report from Finland BIBAFull-Text 185-204
  Sacha Helfenstein
Researchers and practitioners in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) have for a while been embracing the concepts of user and consumer experience as well as emotions in design, encouraging the industry to emphasise hedonic and symbolic qualities of products and services, over and beyond their utilitarian characteristics. However, the idea that mobile phone users, for instance, seek increasingly experience-rich, personalised products can not be taken for granted. Therefore, it is valuable to investigate the degree to which users really share designers' increasingly socio-emotional stances. The presented longitudinal study investigated users' mobile phone-related product meaning, particularly its development from 2004 to 2008. Product meaning was conceptualised in terms of an affective-cognizant choice mode dimension complemented by items capturing utilitarian, hedonic, and symbolic facets of the construct. The findings provide grounds for raising an important discussion about a possible pragmatic shift in product meaning, away from emotional and holistic, towards piecemeal and rational valuation. This would obviously challenge current design maxims. Linking these results to users' personality and mobile phone ownership history, subgroups with notably dissimilar product meaning development could be distinguished mainly with regard to levels of neuroticism, extraversion and brand loyalty -- however, not gender.

BIT 2012-03 Volume 31 Issue 3

New opportunities for services and human -- computer interaction BIBFull-Text 205-208
  Peter J. Wild; Geke van Dijk; Neil Maiden
Affective and social determinants of mobile data services adoption BIBAFull-Text 209-219
  Dimitrios C. Karaiskos; Dimitris A. Drossos; Alexandros S. Tsiaousis; George M. Giaglis; Konstantinos G. Fouskas
Technology acceptance theories predict user intentions to use services tailored for organisational needs. However, in this paper, we postulate that the aforementioned theories do not apply when investigating intentions towards the use of mobile data services (MDS), as the latter encompasses supplementary characteristics, such as fun and enjoyment, which are not taken into account under available models of user acceptance. The incorporation of the affective dimension is proposed by reintroducing the Triandis theory of human behaviour to the MDS domain. A web-based survey (N = 219) was conducted to investigate our research hypotheses and validate our model of MDS usage intention. Results showed that the MDS usage intention can be predicted by cognitive and affective factors under the lens of social influences. Additionally, the main antecedents of MDS actual use are perceived usefulness, perceived value and intention to use MDS.
Storytelling Group -- a co-design method for service design BIBAFull-Text 221-230
  Anu Kankainen; Kirsikka Vaajakallio; Vesa Kantola; Tuuli Mattelmäki
In this article, we will introduce a co-design method called Storytelling Group that has been developed and tested in three service design cases. Storytelling Group combines collaborative scenario building and focus group discussions. It inspires service design by providing different types of user information: a fictive story of a customer journey is created to illustrate a "what if" world, users tell real-life stories about their service experiences, users come up with new service ideas, and they are also asked about their opinions and attitudes in a focus-group type of discussion. The method was developed for service design cases where a longer time perspective has an important role. Moreover, the method is a quick start for actual design work but still includes users in the process.
The role of HCI models in service front-end development BIBAFull-Text 231-244
  Fabio Paterno; Carmen Santoro; Lucio Davide Spano
This article discusses how human-computer interaction (HCI) models can support the development of interactive applications based on Web services. It also introduces a specific method exploiting such models for this purpose and the associated tool support. An example application of the method for an educational scenario is presented. The results of an early test of the development environment are reported as well. Lastly, some conclusions are drawn along with indications for future work.
Lowering the line of visibility: incidental users in service encounters BIBAFull-Text 245-260
  Ohad Inbar; Noam Tractinsky
Recent economic and technological developments have led to the emergence of the services industry and to the important role that information technology (IT) plays in it. The emergence of IT-based services, which has merged people's roles as customers and users, calls for closer collaboration between the domains of human-computer interaction (HCI) and services science. This article offers three contributions within this context. First, we elaborate on the concept of the "incidental user" -- a person involved as a customer in a service encounter that includes exchange of information with an IT system, often mediated by a service representative who is the main user of the system. Second, we suggest that two key design aspects -- sharing information with incidental users and increasing their control over the interaction -- can improve the service provided by the organisation to its customers. We propose a theoretical model that describes the consequences of such design decisions on the incidental user and on the service encounter. Specifically, we propose that these decisions improve the effectiveness of the service encounter and customers' trust in the service-providing organisation. Finally, we suggest and demonstrate design solutions that expand the range of information exchanged between the service representative and the customer -- by sharing information and/or by extending the level of interaction available to the customer. By applying established HCI practices and theories, and considering new design solutions, designers of service encounter environments can improve the customer's service experience and the service provider's effectiveness.
The tension between user-centred design and e-government services BIBAFull-Text 261-273
  Nalini P. Kotamraju; Thea M. van der Geest
The absence of user involvement in the design and development of e-government is often cited as a reason for the lag in e-government uptake. Drawing on our involvement with PortNL, an integrated e-government service for expatriates in the Netherlands, we explain this absence as a result of an inevitable tension between user-centred design -- the most common way to involve users -- and e-government. User-centred design is a structured approach to produce interactive systems by involving users or potential users and addressing their needs at every stage of the design process. Governments, while concerned with their users' needs, have their own considerable needs to address. We outline four manifestations of the tension between user-centred design and e-government: users' and governments' contradictory visions of the tasks to be accomplished; governments' mandate to design for exceptions, as well as for the mainstream, governments' and users' differing commitments to the law and governments' and users' contradicting desires about the nature of their relationship. We conclude with observations about the design and development of e-government services to improve their quality and, thus, increase their uptake.
Design of a patient-centric, service-oriented health care navigation system for a local health integration network BIBAFull-Text 275-285
  Gokul Bhandari; Anne Snowdon
Efficient and timely access to health care services has a profound impact on the well-being of individuals. A local health integration network (LHIN) located in South-western Ontario, Canada, is mandated to plan, identify, integrate, and fund regional health care services through its 88 member agencies. However, for the public, it is difficult to locate the right services at the right time due to the absence of a system-level navigation tool. In this ongoing system design project, we discuss a proposed patient-centric, service-oriented navigation system to be used by the public for accessing the regional health care services funded by the LHIN. We also propose that basic building blocks of service design be incorporated into the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology for developing an evaluative framework for assessing the impact of service design elements on the user's acceptance and usage of technology such as our web-based health care navigation tool.
Adding user experience into the interactive service design loop: a persona-based approach BIBAFull-Text 287-303
  Djilali Idoughi; Ahmed Seffah; Christophe Kolski
Approaches to service design share human-computer interaction's (HCI's) commitment to developing with and for people useful, usable and accessible services. However, there has been little explicit interaction between the emerging service sciences and the interaction design communities. This article explores HCI's actual position and opportunities to service design and requirements and vice versa. We propose a design framework for service-oriented interactive systems integrating the concept of persona. This enables to extract relevant elements towards deriving the design of the main functionalities of the user interface. This framework is applied to a case study of the e-maintenance of an agro-alimentary group.
User-centred design and evaluation of EnergyCoach -- an interactive energy service for households BIBAFull-Text 305-324
  Cecilia Katzeff; Åsa Nyblom; Sara Tunheden; Carin Torstensson
The article presents a case study of a user-centred design process of an energy service to be used by households. This case study is used to explore the nature of participation of users in the design process. The purpose of the design was to create a prototype for an IT-based service to facilitate for households to learn about their electricity consumption and implicitly to reduce it. By applying methods from human-computer interaction (HCI) throughout the design process, we designed the digital prototype EnergyCoach. The final prototype of EnergyCoach is structured to visualise electricity consumption in households and to coach members of the household in learning about, and reducing their own consumption. The service is mediated through a combination of a web-based platform and one for the mobile phone. EnergyCoach was tested and evaluated in its intended context. Qualitative interviews were carried out with six households who tested the service for six months in their home environment. Results reveal that although the design of EnergyCoach was appreciated and the service as such considered useful, informants varied in how frequently they used it. Reasons to this are discussed and related to methods for early and later phases of the design process.

BIT 2012-04 Volume 31 Issue 4

Computers are everywhere BIBFull-Text 325-327
  Tom Stewart
Marketing implications of traditional and ICT-mediated leisure activities BIBAFull-Text 329-341
  Steffen Frank Zorn; Richard Yee Lee; Jamie Murphy
This study investigates the role of traditional and information and communication technology (ICT)-mediated leisure activities in consumer behaviour. An online survey of 558 members and 1319 ex-members of an Australian DVD rental company gathered preferences for nine traditional leisure activities and seven ICT-mediated leisure activities. The results of a cluster analysis showed four clusters with significant cluster differences across leisure activities and across demographics and consumer behaviours. For practitioners, the study illustrates how profiling customers on their leisure preferences can increase advertising effectiveness, reflect loyalty and help predict customer lifetime value. For academia, the results reveal how another consumer dimension, leisure activities, relates to demographic and behavioural characteristics.
Cyberloafing at the workplace: gain or drain on work? BIBAFull-Text 343-353
  Vivien K. G. Lim; Don J. Q. Chen
This study examined the impact of cyberloafing on employees' emotion and work. We also examined gender differences in employees' perception towards cyberloafing. In general, respondents felt that some form of cyberloafing at work was acceptable. Men were also more likely to report that cyberloafing has a positive impact on work compared to women. As well, our findings suggest that browsing activities have a positive impact on employees' emotion while emailing activities have a negative impact. Results of our study provide useful insights for researchers and managers in understanding employees' attitudes towards cyberloafing, and how cyberloafing can result in gain or drain in employees' work productivity.
Privacy in instant messaging: an impression management model BIBAFull-Text 355-370
  Alfred Kobsa; Sameer Patil; Bertolt Meyer
Instant messaging (IM) has evolved into an important tool for collaborative work. It supports informal near-synchronous communication and fosters awareness of the online presence of one's communication partners. Like all awareness systems, IM runs into concerns regarding privacy. Drawing upon prior literature and exploratory interviews, we postulate a model that posits impression management as an underlying cause for privacy desires of IM users. We verify our hypotheses using linear structural modelling on data from a large online survey of IM users across the US. The model establishes that the desire for privacy in IM arises due to the desire for impression management (both directly, as well as indirectly through the desire for visibility of one's impression to oneself). Based on this model, we suggest that IM systems could support privacy needs of users better by providing them with more knowledge and control over aspects that affect their IM-conveyed impression on others (i.e. by making impression management functionality available). Specifically, to help convey and sustain appropriate impressions on IM contacts, IM systems should allow for increased visibility of one's actions to oneself, facilitate easy comparison of one's practices with those of others, and allow one to view oneself from the perspective of others and to make finer-grained adjustments to IM settings than is possible today.
Informing the development of a fraud prevention toolset through a situated analysis of fraud investigation expertise BIBAFull-Text 371-381
  Thomas C. Ormerod; Linden J. Ball; Nicola J. Morley
Insurance fraud is a growing problem. This article describes a project that aimed to specify and develop a suite of computer-based tools to support the early detection and subsequent investigation of potentially fraudulent claims. System requirements were informed by ethnographic studies focusing on: (1) understanding current fraud detection practices and (2) characterising fraud investigation expertise. Tools were designed that sift claims for potential problem cases and assist in the processes of investigation and detection of new fraud types by providing anomaly capture, argumentation and visualisation environments. The resulting tools capitalise upon expertise and embody processes that can subsequently be used by inexperienced claims handlers to detect and deal with fraudulent claims.
User-based assessment of website creativity: a review and appraisal BIBAFull-Text 383-400
  Liang Zeng; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
The ever-changing market demand structure galvanises a shift from product-based to value-based competition. Creativity is regarded as one important source adding supplemental value to the consumer's overall product experience. It also plays a pivotal role in achieving the synergy between both instrumental and hedonic qualities via a comprehensive ergonomic design process, which is superior to what is achieved via the traditional ergonomic design process only considering functionality and usability. This article focuses on website creativity, as compared to previous studies that have mainly dealt with issues regarding traditional hardware product creativity. The authors review relevant literature on creativity, product creativity, website development, consumer behaviour, and measurement tools for creativity, and appraise the salient differences between traditional hardware products and websites. The overall conclusion drawn from the review and appraisal is that web technology has potentially more creativity components and opportunities than do traditional hardware products. By addressing both pragmatic and hedonic design requirements, a creative website should become more attractive, appealing, and thus promote positive user experience and be more commercially competitive.
The effect of experience and socio-economic status on web searching performance: a South African perspective BIBAFull-Text 401-412
  Pieter Blignaut; Theo McDonald
The digital divide can be described in terms of two dimensions: access and usage. Many statistics exist to prove the existence of the gap with regard to access to information and communication technology, and specifically the Internet, in South Africa. In this study, the focus was on users' aptitude in searching for information on the World Wide Web once access had been obtained. It was found that experience of 20 browser sessions is not adequate to ensure that learners from lower socio-economic communities improve in their ability to obtain the correct information during web searches but learners from higher socio-economic communities may, depending on the level of difficulty of the task and the phase of search, benefit from this amount of experience. Web experience has no effect on users' efficiency in terms of the number of mouse clicks made although socio-economic status (SES) is a significant predictor of efficiency for users with no or limited experience. Although low-SES users make fewer clicks en route to an answer as they gain experience, it does not necessarily mean that they perform better in obtaining the correct information.
Connecting generations: developing co-design methods for older adults and children BIBAFull-Text 413-423
  Bo Xie; Allison Druin; Jerry Fails; Sheri Massey; Evan Golub; Sonia Franckel; Kiki Schneider
As new technologies emerge that can bring older adults together with children, little has been discussed by researchers concerning the design methods used to create these new technologies. Giving both children and older adults a voice in a shared design process comes with many challenges. This paper details an exploratory study focusing on connecting generations through cooperative design (co-design) methods that can enable idea construction and elaboration to flourish. Design techniques were adapted that ranged from low-tech prototyping and sticky-note feedback to distributed collaboration. The critical finding in this research was that children and older adults need not only time together to start the collaboration but also time apart to further the collaboration at a distance. This case study research reports on how our methods evolved and how others can apply these methods for their own work.
Training software developers and designers to conduct usability evaluations BIBAFull-Text 425-435
  Mikael Brasholt Skov; Jan Stage
Many efforts to improve the interplay between usability evaluation and software development rely either on better methods for conducting usability evaluations or on better formats for presenting evaluation results in ways that are useful for software designers and developers. Both of these approaches depend on a complete division of work between developers and evaluators. This article takes a different approach by exploring whether software developers and designers can be trained to conduct their own usability evaluations. The article is based on an empirical study where 36 teams with a total of 234 first-year university students on software development and design educations were trained through an introductory course in user-based website usability testing that was taught in 40 h. They used the techniques from this course for planning, conducting, and interpreting the results of a usability evaluation of an interactive website. They gained good competence in conducting the evaluation, defining user tasks and producing a usability report, while they were less successful in acquiring skills for identifying and describing usability problems.

BIT 2012-05 Volume 31 Issue 5

Editorial BIBFull-Text 437-438
  Tom Stewart
Attitude, aptitude, ability and autonomy: the emergence of 'offroaders', a special class of nomadic worker BIBAFull-Text 439-451
  Brian M. Harmer; David J. Pauleen
Freedom to choose when, where and on what to work might be viewed as mere telework. However, when we mix the adoption of ubiquitous technologies with personalities that take pleasure in problem solving and achievement for its own sake, a strong need for autonomy, the freedom to work wherever and whenever the mood strikes, and add a dash of entrepreneurial spirit, then perhaps we are seeing an emergent class of worker, and even the possibility of new organisational forms. This research draws on adaptive structuration theory to search for evidence of a different way of working, hidden among otherwise familiar patterns. It concludes by considering what implications the employment of such individuals might have for management processes with organisations.
Age as a moderator of attitude towards technology in the workplace: work motivation and overall job satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 453-467
  Steven M. Elias; William L. Smith; Chet E. Barney
Given the prevalence of technology in the workplace, an understanding of employees' attitudes towards technology is essential. Such attitudes have been linked to such important issues as the successful implementation of new technologies in the workplace, employee intent to use technology, and the actual usage of technology by employees. As a result of the rapidly aging workforce, and because age has been linked to computer use and comfort, it is important to examine the relationship that may exist between age and attitudes towards technology. This study examines age as a moderator of 612 employees' attitudes towards technology in relation to work motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) and overall job satisfaction. Further, given the technological socialisation of the Generation X (Gen X) versus the Baby Boomers, our sample comprised these two demographics. Hierarchical moderated multiple regression indicates age moderates the relationship between attitude towards technology and intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and to a lesser extent, overall job satisfaction. In each instance, older employees exhibit the strongest relationships with the outcome variables when possessing a high attitude towards technology. In contrast, older employees exhibit the weakest relationships when possessing a low attitude towards technology. These results are supportive of the moderating effect of age on attitude towards technology. Lastly, implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Reconsidering the boundaries of the cyberloafing activity: the case of a university BIBAFull-Text 469-479
  Pablo Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara
While many scholars generally conceptualise cyberloafing as just one more type of conventional deviant behaviour at work, others consider this activity to be innocuous or even productive. In either case, cyberloafing is viewed as merely misusing Internet resources, without contemplating its potential online character. The purpose of this study is to address these aspects of the cyberloafing ontology. It suggests that under certain conditions cyberloafing (a) could become a virtual activity, (b) is distinct from conventional forms of deviance and (c) that it may impair the organisation's effectiveness. Cyberloafing by instructors in degree courses was examined in a university with a specific culture of teaching and using e-resources. The argument developed here is that cyberloafing among instructors acts as a contextual activity that obstructs the technological core of this university over the Internet. This fact would lead cyberloafing to be (a) perceived by students "on the other side of the Net", (b) significantly differentiated by teachers as a behaviour distinct from conventional deviance and (c) counter-productive since it would harm the teaching-learning process. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that cyberloafing and conventional deviance measures are separate. Unlike conventional deviance, individual cyberloafing was found to be negatively associated with student satisfaction with the teaching service, as rated in each degree course. Since this negative impact mainly occurred in a virtual environment, the results also suggest that cyberloafing can become online behaviour that impairs the organisation's effectiveness over the Internet. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are finally discussed.
The dilemma of renqing in ISD processes: interpretations from the perspectives of face, renqing and guanxi of Chinese cultural society BIBAFull-Text 481-493
  Christina Ling-Hsing Chang
This article explores the way in which the resource allocator (RA) uses information knowledge to wield power in the information system development (ISD) process, and achieve goals of self-interest. We analyse these power methods through the lens of the "renqing dilemma" in ISD processes -- a theoretical model of face and guanxi in Chinese cultural society. This study relies on qualitative data collected over 19 months from TaiWire (pseudonym) in the form of interviews, documented data, archival data and observation. The article goes on to interpret the way in which the RA manipulates his/her power when requests are made to him/her, and highlights the influence of face (mianzi), favour (renqing) and relation (guanxi) in this manipulation of power. In practice, the detailed descriptions used to describe the operating power process in ISD processes can help in similar cases to show how to reduce or prevent the negative consequences of such behaviour.
An agent-based debiasing framework for investment decision-support systems BIBAFull-Text 495-507
  Gokul Bhandari; Khaled Hassanein
Though researchers agree on the role of psychological forces on individuals' decision-making and emphasise the need for developing decision-support systems (DSS) that make individuals aware of these forces, a framework that can guide us in building such systems is still non-existent. In this article, we attempt to bridge this gap by proposing an agent-based debiasing framework for developing investment DSS. Identifying the primary characteristics of major biases influencing investment decisions through a thorough literature review, we propose a taxonomy to categorise them as cognitive, affective or conative. Cognitive biases are information-processing biases. Affective biases involve general moods and emotions. Conative biases are relatively stable personality traits such as overconfidence and inertia. We then outline debiasing strategies for each of these bias categories and identify decision-support characteristics necessary in software agents to carry out the appropriate debiasing tasks. An agent-based DSS architecture is then proposed, and a detailed trading example triggering a sample bias detection and debiasing algorithm is discussed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.
Adoption of information and communication technologies and dominant management orientation in organisations BIBAFull-Text 509-523
  M. Cudanov; O. Jaško
The purpose of this research was to contribute to the efforts in the research of organisational factors of information and communication technologies (ICT) adoption. We have studied dominant management orientation, researching whether there is a significant difference in the adoption of ICT between organisations where dominant management orientation is towards results and organisations where dominant management orientation is towards people. Research was conducted using case studies for 71 organisations, which yielded quantitative data used for statistical analysis. Empirical research has shown significant difference between two mentioned groups of organisations, and organisations where dominant management orientation was towards results had much better ICT adoption. Also, composite index of ICT adoption, which we have used in previous research, was checked again as a tool for ICT adoption measurement in a different context. Results can provide guidelines regarding desired changes in dominant management orientation for organisations adopting ICT and contribute to improving theoretical framework of factors in ICT adoption.
Extended conceptualisation of perceived usefulness: empirical test in the context of information system use continuance BIBAFull-Text 525-540
  Ralph Keng-Jung Yeh; James T. C. Teng
A technology or an information system provides value to its users. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) successfully operationalised such value as the degree that a system can improve users' job performance. The proposed construct, perceived usefulness, has been proved to be the most important factor for technology adoption. However, many scholars have called for further theoretical development to enrich this critical construct but not much effort has been put forward (Bagozzi, R.P., 2007. The legacy of the technology acceptance model and a proposal for a paradigm shift. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 8 (4), 244-254; Benbasat, I. and Barki, H., 2007. Quo vadis, TAM? Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 8 (4), 212-218). To respond to this call on deepening the conceptualisation of perceived usefulness, this article argues that system usefulness can be formulated beyond job performance improvement and explores several additional usefulness constructs based on well-established management concepts and human need theory. The information system (IS) use continuance model (Bhattacherjee, A., 2001. Understanding information systems continuance: An expectation-confirmation model. MIS Quarterly, 25 (3), 351-370) has been adopted as the theoretical foundation of this study because certain types of system usefulness can be recognised only in a use continuance stage. The empirical results of the research have validated most of the proposed constructs. Significant contributions to research and practice are identified and discussed.
Human performance on the flight deck BIBFull-Text 541-543
  Ahmet Cakir

BIT 2012-06 Volume 31 Issue 6

Editorial BIBFull-Text 545-546
  Tom Stewart
Exploring software piracy as a factor of video game console adoption BIBAFull-Text 547-563
  Sigi Goode; Anasthasiou Kartas
The market for video game consoles is substantial and competition is heated. At the same time, software piracy has seen substantial literature coverage. The hardware controls that ordinarily prevent illegally modified software can be bypassed. As part of an ongoing research project, this paper explores the role of software piracy in the decision to adopt a video game console. This work presents a new research direction, observing software piracy as a previously unforeseen driver of system adoption. This study explores a set of consumers with low disposable incomes, who must make a moral choice with regard to consumption for entertainment. The study used focus groups and a literature review to develop a set of factors based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. These factors were operationalised in a survey of 150 young adults. Analysis was conducted on the basis of adoption level and gender. In contrast to much prior information systems research, the ability to pirate console software was significant for adopters and both genders, but not non-adopters. Cost was not a significant factor.
Digital piracy intention: a comparison of theoretical models BIBAFull-Text 565-576
  Cheolho Yoon
Digital piracy intention research has yielded different sets of piracy intention determinants based on various theoretical models. In this study, we reviewed the digital piracy literature and empirically compared two theoretical models, which are the models most often used: the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the Hunt-Vitell ethical decision model. Data were obtained from university students in South Korea, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to examine and compare the two competing theoretical models in terms of explanatory power, overall model fit and paths' significance. The findings of this study revealed that the TPB is a more appropriate model for predicting digital piracy than the Hunt-Vitell ethical decision model.
The frequency of the dyadic influence tactics according to communication media BIBAFull-Text 577-586
  Vicenc Fernandez; Pep Simo; Mihaela Enache; Jose Maria Sallan
One of the most important determinants of managerial effectiveness in achieving organisational objectives is the success in influencing subordinates, lateral peers and supervisors through influence tactics. However, little attention has been paid to the use of a communication medium in the context of influence tactics. Our objective is to study the frequency of these dyadic influence tactics on diverse communication media. The study involves a questionnaire-based survey conducted on Spanish post-graduate students who had been working in medium-sized or large companies during the last 2 years or more. The results suggest that the richness of the medium explains most similarities and differences in the frequency of influence tactics for different communication media. Furthermore, in the study of hard influence tactics in communication media with similar richness, it is necessary to introduce social aspects and the level of surveillance in order to explain it fully. This study helps managers to understand the relationships between influence tactics and the use of communication media in order to improve their communication effectiveness.
Using insights from email users to inform organisational email management policy BIBAFull-Text 587-603
  Judith Ramsay; Karen Renaud
One would expect email substantially to increase organisational productivity and efficiency. There is little empirical evidence of this since email use is such a complex tool that it would be well nigh impossible to attribute efficiency increases solely to email. There is anecdotal evidence of the positive aspects of email (Phillips, S.R. and Eisenberg, E.M., 1996. Strategic uses of electronic mail in organisations. The Public, 3 (4), 67-81; Virji, A., et al., 2006. Use of email in a family practice setting: opportunities and challenges in patient- and physician-initiated communication. BMC Medicine, 4 (18), doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-4-18), and of aspects of email usage that cause aggravation and concern (Whittaker, S. and Sidner, C., 1996. Email overload: exploring personal information. Management of email. In: Proceedings of the ACM conference on human factors in computer systems, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. New York: ACM, 276-283; Fischer, D., et al., 2006. Revisiting Whittaker and Sidner's "email overload" ten years later. In: Proceedings of the 2006 20th anniversary conference on computer supported cooperative work, 4-8 November 2006 Banff, Alberta, Canada. New York: ACM, 309-312). Such anecdotal evidence is of limited use in assessing efficiency gains but serves to prompt studies into the impact of the pervasiveness of organisational email on individual employees. To study this, we spoke to email users about their experiences through a series of reflective semi-structured interviews to gauge the effects of email on the individual user. We linked our findings to a number of behavioural principles and assessed whether the identified email-related behaviours should be encouraged, forbidden or modified. We propose one way of addressing unhelpful emailing behaviours to maximise email's potential for enhancing productivity. We argue that such insights from the level of the individual emailer are the key to maximising email's potential to fulfil its original purpose as a productivity enhancer.
The impact of verbal interaction on driver lateral control: an experimental assessment BIBAFull-Text 605-616
  Nikolaos Gkikas; John Richardson
Driver distraction is acknowledged as one of the key contributors to driver accidents (Treat, J.R., et al., 1977. Tri-level study of the causes of traffic accidents (No. DOT-HS-034-535-77-TAC(1)). Bloomington, IN: Institute for Research in Public Safety -- Indiana University; Knipling, R.R., et al., 1993. Assessment of IVHS countermeasures for collision avoidance: Rear-end crashes (No. DOT HS 807 995). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). As driving is mainly considered a visual task (Wierwille, W.W., 1993. Visual and manual demands of in-car controls and displays. In: B. Peacock and W. Karwowski, eds. Automotive ergonomics. London: Taylor and Francis, 229-320) the use of auditory channels for interacting with intelligent vehicle systems has been suggested as a solution to possible visual overload. This article presents two studies which assess the potential impact of distraction caused by verbal interaction on the driving task. The first study used a low-cost, game-based, simulation and the second study used the same experimental design with a generic driving simulation, the Lane Change Task (Mattes, S., 2003. The lane change task as a tool for driver distraction evaluation. In: H. Strasser, H. Rascher, and H. Bubb, eds. Quality of work and products in enterprises of the future. Stuttgart: Ergonomia Verlag, 57-60). Twenty-four young adults, 12 males and 12 females, participated in the first study and 12 young adults, 6 males and 6 females, in the second study. Road departures, time/speed and subjective workload were the measures in the first study, while the second study used mean course-departure and subjective workload as dependent variables. The results indicated that game-based simulation can be a solution when realism is needed but resources are limited, and suggested that concurrent verbal interaction may impair lateral vehicle control.
Developing expertise in military communications planning: do verbal reports change with experience? BIBAFull-Text 617-629
  Rich C. McIlroy; Neville A. Stanton; Bob Remington
The purpose of this study was to investigate novices learning to use a mission planning system. Novice participants received one training session, followed by three test sessions. This was compared to expert performance. During the test sessions, all participants were required to "think aloud", based on Ericsson and Simon's (Ericsson, K.A. and Simon, H.A., 1993. Protocol analysis: verbal reports as data. Revised ed. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press) description of the technique. Objective measures of time to complete the task, number of errors made, mouse travel and number of mouse clicks were also recorded. It was hypothesised that error, time and mouse data would reflect the acquisition of skill and improved problem-solving abilities. The verbal data were analysed in an exploratory fashion to see what changes individuals experienced. The results of the study showed that participants acquired a level of skill across sessions, and that the cognitive processes reflected in the verbal protocols changed as a function of this skill acquisition. These changes in cognitive processing mirrored a number of the differences between novices and experts.
An experimental investigation into the effects of information revelation in multi-attribute reverse auctions BIBAFull-Text 631-644
  Kholekile L. Gwebu; Michael Y. Hu; Murali S. Shanker
Bid-takers in multi-attribute reverse auctions (MRA) are typically confronted with a myriad of information revelation options and must make decisions on which pieces of information to reveal to bidders and which ones to conceal. This study explores how the choice of different types and combinations of information can affect bidding behaviour and bidder perceptions in MRA. The results of a computer-based laboratory experiment suggest that by reducing the level of information asymmetry and using certain combinations of information a bid-taker can reduce bidder drop-out and spur the submission of high quality bids, i.e. bids that yield high levels of utility for the bid-taker.

BIT 2012-07 Volume 31 Issue 7

Websites -- Quality and Usability BIBFull-Text 645-646
  Tom Stewart
Measuring website quality: asymmetric effect of user satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 647-657
  Tomás Kincl; Pavel Štrach
Website quality measurement tools have been largely static and have struggled to determine relevant attributes of user satisfaction. This study compares and contrasts attributes of user satisfaction based on usability guidelines seeking to identify practical easy-to-administer measurement tools. The website users assessed business school homepages according to six criteria and fulfilled a randomly assigned yet typical task. After completing the task, respondents assessed the same six website quality/satisfaction criteria again. The consumer-product relationship seems similar to the link between a user and a website. User satisfaction, just like consumer satisfaction, is asymmetric and non-linear. Content and navigation have been identified as key ingredients when users judged website quality, alerting web designers and website practitioners to focus more closely on those attributes. Similar lessons can be drawn for marketing professionals, who typically supervise or determine the content, structure and other website facets.
Accessibility levels of Portuguese enterprise websites: equal opportunities for all? BIBAFull-Text 659-677
  Ramiro Gonçalves; José Martins; Jorge Pereira; Manuel Au-Yong Oliveira; João José Pinto Ferreira
Web accessibility is growing in importance. We may also find an increasing need for access to web resources by those with some sort of disability. The Web is very important for spreading information and for promoting interaction between the various elements in society. Given this, it is essential that the Web presents itself as a totally accessible resource, so that it can help citizens with disabilities and their integration in society. This obligation should be even greater for enterprises as primarily the Web is used as a marketing and business platform. With this document, we present indicators regarding the [lack of] accessibility levels of Portuguese enterprise websites. This article contains theoretical and background considerations as well as the results of two different studies that the research team undertook. First of all, the research team made a comparison between the 1000 largest Portuguese enterprises (annual sales volume) and the 1000 best Portuguese small and medium enterprises (sales growth and profit) using a specialised software tool and according to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0; the research team then also considered WCAG 2.0 and its impact on enterprise Web accessibility. In the second study (qualitative in nature), focus group interactions led to a set of recommendations towards greater accessibility.
Predicting user attention in complex web pages BIBAFull-Text 679-695
  Alistair Sutcliffe; Abdallah Namoun
Users' visual attention measured by eyetracking fixations was investigated in web pages with different designs. Browsing and search conditions were tested. Layout structure influenced attention with fixation densities being concentrated in upper parts of pages according to the layout structure. In sites with open graphical layouts, animations and images dominated attention. In the search condition, attention patterns focused on salient objects and information-scent components leading to the targets. Based on the results, a model of structured directed visual attention was proposed and implemented in the Web Page Analyser tool (WPA) to predict heat maps of visual attention. Validation of the tool demonstrated good accuracy in browse and search modes.
Public websites and human -- computer interaction: an empirical study of measurement of website quality and user satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 697-706
  Hanne Sørum; Kim Normann Andersen; Ravi Vatrapu
The focus of this paper is to investigate measurement of website quality and user satisfaction. More specifically, the paper reports on a study investigating whether users of high-quality public websites are more satisfied than those of low-quality websites. Adopting a human-computer interaction perspective, we have gathered data from the 2009 public website awards in Scandinavia. Our analysis of Norwegian and Danish websites reveals that the use of quality criteria is highly technical compared to the traditional usability testing focus on efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction of the actual system use by representatives. A Pearson correlation analysis of user evaluation from 296 websites that participated in the Danish web award Bedst på Nettet ("Top of the Web") showed no significant positive correlation between website quality and user satisfaction. We put forward recommendations for further investigation: (1) inclusion of real users (citizens and businesses) in real-use setting in the evaluation process could help move forward the understanding of the relationship between website quality and end-user satisfaction; (2) the lack of correlation between website quality and user satisfaction could be a point of departure for critical discussions of future implementation of public information and services and (3) additional and in-depth research of the measurement of website quality in the public sector, user expectations and the impacts of website quality improvements on user satisfaction.
A comparison of usability evaluation methods for evaluating e-commerce websites BIBAFull-Text 707-737
  Layla Hasan; Anne Morris; Steve Probets
The importance of evaluating the usability of e-commerce websites is well recognised. User testing and heuristic evaluation methods are commonly used to evaluate the usability of such sites, but just how effective are these for identifying specific problems? This article describes an evaluation of these methods by comparing the number, severity and type of usability problems identified by each one. The cost of employing these methods is also considered. The findings highlight the number and severity level of 44 specific usability problem areas which were uniquely identified by either user testing or heuristic evaluation methods, common problems that were identified by both methods, and problems that were missed by each method. The results show that user testing uniquely identified major problems related to four specific areas and minor problems related to one area. Conversely, the heuristic evaluation uniquely identified minor problems in eight specific areas and major problems in three areas.
What should a corporate website look like? The influence of Gestalt principles and visualisation in website design on the degree of acceptance and recommendation BIBAFull-Text 739-751
  Birte Möller; Cornelia Brezing; Dagmar Unz
Internet users decide within seconds, whether to elaborate on a website, or to go on to a new page. This calls for investigation of the factors influencing this decision. In two studies, we presented websites for 3 s and analysed the effect implementation of Gestalt principles (GPs) and visualisation of an interaction partner has on acceptance, recommendation of the site by the user, and social presence. Study 1 implemented a 3 (Gestalt principle of proximity: no, medium and strong implementation) × 3 (Gestalt principle of a common region: no, medium and strong implementation) -- design and found more acceptance and recommendation with more GPs used. Study 2, using a 2 (GPs: implemented and not implemented) × 3 (visualisation: no, drawing and photograph) -- design, showed more social presence with more realistic visualisation and more recommendation with higher social presence. Thus, GPs and realistic visualisation should be implemented in web design to intensify interaction with the user.

BIT 2012-08 Volume 31 Issue 8

Informal learning in work environments: training with the Social Web in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 753-755
  Francisco J. García-Peñalvo; Ricardo Colomo-Palacios; Miltiadis D. Lytras
The Internet and its increasing usage has changed informal learning in depth. This change has affected young and older adults in both the workplace and in higher education. But, in spite of this, formal and non-formal course-based approaches have not taken full advantage of these new informal learning scenarios and technologies. The Web 2.0 is a new way for people to communicate across the Internet. Communication is a means of transformation and knowledge exchange. These are the facts that cannot be obviated by the organisations in their training programmes and knowledge management. This special issue is devoted to investigating how informal learning changes or influences online information in Social Web and training strategies in institutions. In order to do so, five papers will present different approaches of informal learning in the workplace regarding Web 2.0 capabilities.
Informal learning through expertise mining in the social web BIBAFull-Text 757-766
  Rafael Valencia-García; Francisco García-Sánchez; Cristina Casado-Lumbreras; Dagoberto Castellanos-Nieves; Jesualdo Tomás Fernández-Breis
The advent of Web 2.0, also called the Social Web, has changed the way people interact with the Web. Assisted by the technologies associated with this new trend, users now play a much more active role as content providers. This Web paradigm shift has also changed how companies operate and interact with their employees, partners and customers. The challenge for companies and research institutions is now to develop (semi-) automated tools for gathering usable and explicit knowledge from such content. With the aim of facilitating the achievement of such a challenge, in this work a platform architecture for informal learning, which is based on semantic technologies, is proposed. Such platform permits to perform expertise mining from Social Web-generated content. Given a topic of interest, the system carries out semantically enhanced operations on blog and microblog posts to identify experts in that specific topic area. The comprehensive evaluation of the tool has demonstrated very promising results and is also presented in this article.
Wiki as a corporate learning tool: case study for software development company BIBAFull-Text 767-777
  Milos Milovanovic; Miroslav Minovic; Velimir Štavljanin; Marko Savkovic; Dusan Starcevic
In our study, we attempted to further investigate how Web 2.0 technologies influence workplace learning. Our particular interest was on using Wiki as a tool for corporate exchange of knowledge with the focus on informal learning. In this study, we collaborated with a multinational software development company that uses Wiki as a corporate tool since 2001. For our research, we used three different sources for acquisition of data. Primarily, we did an interview with top management. Next we acquired the data on usage statistics from the company Wiki. And finally we distributed a questionnaire in order to acquire users' feedback. Analysis provided many interesting results. One of the main conclusions is that Wiki is successfully used in this company, and large majority of employees finds it useful. Additionally, Wiki did aid informal learning, but there is still plenty of room for improvement.
Web-based knowledge exchange through social links in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 779-790
  Tomasz Filipowski; Przemyslaw Kazienko; Piotr Bródka; Tomasz Kajdanowicz
Knowledge exchange between employees is an essential feature of recent commercial organisations on the competitive market. Based on the data gathered by various information technology (IT) systems, social links can be extracted and exploited in knowledge exchange systems of a new kind. Users of such a system ask their queries and the system recommends known and unknown experts selected out of user's friends. The friends either provide the solution or forward the query to their friends. By means of the established social paths to experts, the system facilitates informal learning and exchange of latent knowledge between organisation members in their workplace. The overall concept, limitations and detailed features of this novel knowledge exchange system are discussed in the article.
Evaluation of fostering students' creativity in preparing aided recalls for revision courses using electronic revision and recapitulation tools 2.0 BIBAFull-Text 791-797
  Oliver Christ; Christoph Weber; Toshihiko Sato
In this study, the electronic revision and recapitulation tools 2.0 (EREP2.0) were used to foster creative moments while creating aided recalls (ARs) (pictures electronic notes etc.). Creative and critical thinking is associated with vital skills which enable students to deal with often complex knowledge domains through an informal way of learning. Enabling learners to develop their own representations of information can be a first step to deal with complexity and to foster creativity. In an exploratory study, n = 25 students used EREP2.0 to develop learning questions and ARs for an ongoing course on biological psychology. EREP 2.0 was evaluated with respect to user friendliness, the fostering of creativity and the expected support for cognitive skills according to Bloom's taxonomy. The influence of students' experienced creativity on experienced learning support was tested via Kruskal-Wallis test. Fifteen students reported moderate to high, 4 students low and 5 students no support in creativity. Students who experienced their work as creative felt better supported in comprehension, χ²(3) = 9.04; p = 0.029, and synthesis, χ²(3) = 9.46; p = 0.024. No statistically significant effects were found for other categories of Bloom's taxonomy. EREP 2.0 did support the experience of creativity and thus synthesis and comprehension skills.
Challenges of knowledge management and creation in communities of practice organisations of Deaf and non-Deaf members: requirements for a Web platform BIBAFull-Text 799-810
  Daniela de Freitas Guilhermino Trindade; Cayley Guimarães; Diego Roberto Antunes; Laura Sánchez Garcia; Rafaella Aline Lopes da Silva; Sueli Fernandes
This study analysed the role of knowledge management (KM) tools used to cultivate a community of practice (CP) in its knowledge creation (KC), transfer, learning processes. The goal of such observations was to determine requirements that KM tools should address for the specific CP formed by Deaf and non-Deaf members of the CP. The CP studied is a formal knowledge organisation based on learning and the evaluation of socio-linguistic aspects pertaining to the Brazilian Sign Language (Libras). Non-Deaf and members of the Deaf community cultivated such knowledge organisation through specific collaborative meetings and the use of Internet-based tools for KM. Knowledge was created to validate an intellectual artefact (a computational description model of the phonetic structure of Libras (PSL)) to be used as basis in the development of tools to aid the Deaf community in their learning, communication, informational, educational and other needs necessary for full exercise of citizenship. The Internet-based KM tools were paramount for the cultivating of the CP. Nevertheless, additional requirements for the KM tools emerged, such as: video-conferencing, video manipulation features, better management of asynchronous communication, among others.

BIT 2012-09 Volume 31 Issue 9

Editorial BIBFull-Text 811-813
  Tom Stewart
Role of trialability in B2B e-business adoption: theoretical insights from two case studies BIBAFull-Text 815-827
  Probir Banerjee; K. K. Wei; Louis Ma
Trialability has been conceptualised in prior research as a belief signifying opportunity to experiment with a technical innovation would facilitate its adoption. It has been found to be a weak predictor and though indications exist of possible significant impact in situations of high perceived risk, it has not received serious academic attention. In this research we argue that in situations of high perceived risk, the belief-based concept of trialability without actual evaluation of experimental outcomes is questionable. Based on the Theory of Trying, Expectancy Disconfirmation theory and prior research on risk and trust in e-business, we develop and validate propositions in the context of B2B e-market transactions by two small firms. Our findings indicate that due to high perceived risk of B2B e-market transactions, in contrast to the received notion of trialability as a belief-based factor, it was in the nature of an active post-intent recursive process of experimentation involving 'Trying' for trial transactions with controlled risk, execution of 'Trial' transactions and 'Assessment of Trial Outcomes'. Also, in contrast to weak impacts observed in prior research, the trialability process was found to be a necessary condition for translation of initial intent to adoption. Other implications of the findings are discussed.
The role of Internet buyer's product familiarity and confidence in anchoring effect BIBAFull-Text 829-838
  Chin-Shan Wu; Fei-Fei Cheng; David C. Yen
Although anchoring effect is a robust phenomenon and has been discussed in different decision making domains, related research efforts in the Internet purchasing domain are still lacking. Furthermore, little research has been conducted to examine the role of individual differences (e.g. product familiarity and confidence level) in the anchoring effect. Thus, the current study aims to conduct an online experiment to examine the role of Internet buyers' level of product familiarity and confidence in the anchoring effect under online shopping context. The results indicated that the significant anchoring effect was observed only among people who are low in familiarity, but not among people who are high in familiarity. In addition, the participants' confidence in their judgements is also demonstrated to be a moderator to influence the anchoring effect. Specifically, the anchoring effect emerged only among the less confident group. One possible reason for this result is that less confident people tend to look for other attentional resources (such as banner advertisement) as anchor because they are not sure whether or not the final estimate generated on their own is close to the actual value. Consequently, they are more susceptible to external anchors and, hence, a more salient anchoring effect was expected to occur.
Development and validation of a formative and a reflective measure for the assessment of online store usability BIBAFull-Text 839-857
  Timo Christophersen; Udo Konradt
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a reflective and a formative measure of online store usability. Perceived usability, related constructs (i.e. trust and aesthetics), controls (i.e. user and product characteristics) and consequences (i.e. intention to buy and purchase) were examined within a nomological network. Three hundred and seventy-eight participants completed an experimental study. Each participant visited 2 out of 35 online stores and rated the usability and intention to buy for both stores. Purchase behaviour was determined by combining the participants' reward with the decision to buy. Results from partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modelling indicate that the formative usability measure forms a valid set of items for the user-based assessment of online store usability and that both measures are positively related to the intention to buy, suggesting criterion validity. As hypothesised, positive relationships of usability with trust and aesthetics were supported. Furthermore, both measures provided a good prediction of the decision to buy, indicating overall predictive validity. Limitations and implications for usability measures and human-computer interaction research are discussed.
The antecedents of online financial service adoption: the impact of physical banking services on Internet banking acceptance BIBAFull-Text 859-871
  Jyh-Shen Chiou; Chung-Chi Shen
The cost-effectiveness of operations on the Web enables financial service firms to employ Web technology to replace or substantially reduce the need for personal interactions in the provision of their services. However, recent cases have shown that the use of Web technology in financial services may not be as promising as expected. This study utilises the constructs derived from transaction cost analysis (TCA), the technology acceptance model (TAM) and relationship marketing literature to develop a framework of the antecedents to using Internet banking. The model explicitly incorporates the impact of the experiences a customer has had with services provided by the physical bank whose Web services the customer is considering using. The results show that the major antecedent variables in TAM and the customers' specific assets already invested in the focal physical bank have a significant impact on customers' attitude towards the use and the intention to use a bank's Internet banking services. Our findings suggest that beyond the ease of use and usefulness of information system, companies have to take advantage of customer relationship built up in the offline environment that has the potential to influence customers' use intention towards Internet service. The study advances the technology acceptance literature in terms of explaining users' new-service-adoption behaviour by adding the concepts from TCA and customer relationship literature.
Perceptual differences of enterprise resource planning systems between management and operational end-users BIBAFull-Text 873-887
  Vathsala Wickramasinghe; Manoja Karunasekara
This article seeks to explore the perceptions of two different user groups -- management and operational end-users -- on enterprise resource planning (ERP) system product performance and post-implementation impact of usage on them. One hundred and sixty-seven management and operational end-users from 15 manufacturing firms operating in Sri Lanka responded. Over 88% of the respondents came from firms that employed more than 500 employees; 68% responded that more than 200 employees are using ERP in their firms; and 70% responded that ERP is in use for more than 3 years in their firms. Significant differences have not been found between the two groups in their perceptions towards ERP system product performance. However, problem-solving support, authority and decision rights and overall performance improvement have been identified as important post-implementation outcomes of ERP usage that discriminate between management and operational end-users.
Impact of top management team on firm performance in small and medium-sized enterprises adopting commercial open-source enterprise resource planning BIBAFull-Text 889-907
  Sandra J. Cereola; Benson Wier; Carolyn Strand Norman
Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily operations. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the top management team in SMEs that have adopted and implemented commercial open-source enterprise systems and to investigate the impact assimilation has on firm performance. Our results represent a significant contribution to understanding the use of open-source enterprise resource planning (ERP) software for SMEs, as these data are not publicly available. Findings suggest that (1) the information technology (IT) experience and knowledge of the team and the absorptive capacity of the SME play a significant role in the ability of the firm to assimilate open-source ERP systems, (2) assimilation mediates the role between customisation and operational performance and (3) the more aligned the open-source ERP system to the SME's business processes, the greater the opportunity to assimilate the technology and achieve higher levels of performance.
Dual strategy for managing user resistance with business integration systems BIBAFull-Text 909-925
  Shari S. C. Shang
To build a deeper understanding of, and to propose strategies for, managing different kinds of user resistance to business integration systems, this study explores the reasons, behaviours and strategies of user resistance. Delphi techniques were used to collect in-depth data from 20 industry experts. The major implication of the study is that there are great differences between operational and managerial user behaviour in reacting to integration technologies. Operational users resist systems primarily due to self-interest, and they tend to resist the system by passively communicating negative feelings across the organisation and by making careless mistakes. Managerial users, mainly due to concerns about overall benefits to the organisation, tend to actively disrupt project implementation and operation and accept inferior-quality performance. Directive strategies in smoothing the system transition are perceived to be more effective in managing resistance from operational users. Participative strategies are perceived to be effective in managing resistance from managerial users. Organisations applying business integration systems need to distinguish between different types of users and apply dual strategies in managing the business integration.
Modelling dynamics in decision support systems BIBAFull-Text 927-941
  Ralph Riedel; Vincent Wiers; Jan C. Fransoo
Decision support systems (DSS) play an important role in supporting scheduling tasks in industrial settings. In this article, a special aspect of DSS for scheduling, namely their development, implementation and usage in relation to user participation, is examined. The outlined research model proposes that different forms of user participation lead to different levels of model complexity. This complexity influences in turn such outcome variables like system performance and user satisfaction. The research model integrates several existing concepts from technology acceptance, planned behaviour, involvement and participation research as well as control theory. These theories are expanded by the dynamics of the modelling process. For the empirical analysis, multiple case studies examining different cases of DSS development and implementation processes in different settings were conducted.

BIT 2012-10 Volume 31 Issue 10

Editorial BIBFull-Text 943-945
  Tom Stewart
The perceived rudeness of public cell phone behaviour BIBAFull-Text 947-952
  Jonathan Forma; Stan A. Kaplowitz
We report two studies comparing cell phone conversations with face-to-face conversations. The first (N = 60) measured the volume of cell phone conversations with face-to-face conversations in the same location and found that, controlling for gender, cell phone conversations are slightly (1.90 dB) louder. We then replicated (N = 160) a study that compared rudeness ratings that observers gave cell phone conversations with ratings of face-to-face conversations in which either one or both speakers were audible. We found that, controlling for volume, cell phone conversations were rated significantly ruder than conversations between two audible speakers. But face-to-face conversations in which only one speaker was audible were, controlling for volume, rated as ruder than cell phone conversations. Several observer characteristics (age, gender and amount of cell phone use) had no significant relationship to the observer's rating of the rudeness of the conversation.
Understanding what determines consumers' expanded use of mobile videophones BIBAFull-Text 953-967
  Wen-Kuo Chen; Heng-Chiang Huang; Seng-Cho T. Chou
The research proposes a framework incorporating the flow theory and the theory of planned behaviour to understand the intention of subscribers to expand their use of mobile videophones. The research model was tested with the partial least square graph software based on its structural equation modelling approach. The data used in this research were collected from online questionnaires done by 151 respondents. The findings show that the flow and the subjective norm are positively related to the expanded intention to use mobile videophones and the privacy concern is negatively related to that intention. The results also reveal that the effects of media characteristics such as interactivity and telepresence may have significant influences on the flow. Moreover, the effects of the flow, the subjective norm and the privacy concern are moderated by self-monitoring. Regardless of personality, people are likely to expand the intention to use mobile videophones when they immerse themselves in the flow. Several implications for research and practice are derived from these findings.
The relation between usability and product success in cell phones BIBAFull-Text 969-982
  Kyungdoh Kim; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
The cell phone is not a simple communication tool. People use embedded mobile phone features such as games, cameras and wireless internet for various purposes of entertainment and shopping. In some cases usability problems impact negatively on product success, whereas in other cases they do not. The objective of our study was to develop a questionnaire for cell phones and investigate the relation between usability and product success. We reviewed existing usability studies and factors for product success to develop the questionnaire for cell phones. Subjects then evaluated the usability and success factors of cell phones. Finally, re-purchase intention and success scores including usability scores were analysed to determine whether they are positively related and which usability factors impact cell phone product success. Design, customer needs and innovativeness of cell phones were especially important among success factors, whereas more attention should be paid to satisfaction, feedback and efficiency among the usability dimensions.
Providing customisation guidelines of mobile phones for manufacturers BIBAFull-Text 983-994
  Pilsung Choe; Chen Liao; Wei Sun
Customisation of mobile phones is a process of producing products according to individual needs on design, cost, and easiness of the phones. With the aim of identifying the most important features in customising mobile phones, 288 questionnaires were collected and analysed. The result showed that 'text message', 'battery', 'contacts', 'software updates', and 'display size' were highly required to customise. Among six factors (physical design, technical design, cost of entertainment, cost of information, cost of durability, easiness of use) obtained from a factor analysis, the most important reason for users to customise mobile phones was that they wanted to use a mobile phone easily. Cost of durability and cost of information were also important motivations for customisation of mobile phones. Finally, this research showed that gender and user experience were significant factors for customisation.
An empirical analysis of smartphone personalisation: measurement and user variability BIBAFull-Text 995-1010
  Chad C. Tossell; Philip Kortum; Clayton Shepard; Ahmad Rahmati; Lin Zhong
The present report is an empirical analysis of smartphone personalisation. We collected data from two groups of users to measure how they adapt the content, interface and physical appearance of their devices. This user-driven personalisation is measured with a simple heuristic approach to quantify the behaviour. Using these scores, we explore how users differ from each other in how they personalise their smartphones with a focus on gender differences, usability and device usage in the wild. Among our findings are that not all users personalise their smartphones, females and males personalise their iPhones differently, and those who personalised their phones more tended to rate it as more usable. The users who personalised more also used their device for greater periods of time on a broader range of applications. For instance, individuals who adapted their iPhones to a greater degree also accessed the Web more often and spent more time browsing once it was accessed. We conclude with a discussion of possible factors underlying the large user diversity of smartphone personalisation found in this research.
Digital games as creativity enablers for children BIBAFull-Text 1011-1019
  Michela Ott; Francesca Pozzi
This article deals with the issue of creativity and the way this can be supported within technology-enhanced learning experiments. Drawing on a long-term research project in the field of games-based learning, the article describes the methodology adopted during the in-field experiments carried out with the aim of developing young children's creativity. The results of the study, which are presented and discussed, confirm the hypothesis that digital tools can contribute to fostering creativity. As a matter of fact, the analysis of the available data showed that during the 3-year study, students' creative skills and attitudes appreciably increased, in particular those related to figuring out and enacting original solution strategies for the digital games at hand.
Impact of intangibility on perceived risk associated with online games BIBAFull-Text 1021-1032
  Lily Shui-Lien Chen; Yung-Hsin Lee; Shih-Tse Wang
Online computer gaming is growing at a rapid pace. However, this phenomenon is stigmatised by many negative connotations. This study investigated the influence of intangibility on perceived risks (social, time, financial, physical, performance and psychology) among online gamers. The self-completed market survey questionnaire employs the Intangibility and Perceived Risk scales. Data were gathered in Taipei city, the biggest metropolitan area in Taiwan. Both public (1018) and online (400) voluntary interviews were conducted. The collected data were analysed with a structural equation model. There is a significant positive relationship between intangibility and all dimensions of perceived risk. The findings have managerial implications and future research is suggested.
Playability: analysing user experience in video games BIBAFull-Text 1033-1054
  José Luis González Sánchez; Francisco Luis Gutiérrez Vela; Francisco Montero Simarro; Natalia Padilla-Zea
Currently, few studies focus on analysing the degree of the Player eXperience (PX) in video games. Video games have now become interactive entertainment systems with a high economic impact on society; these are interactive systems characterised by their subjectivity, which differ from other systems in that their main objective is to entertain and amuse the user (player). This work discusses the analysis and evaluation of the User eXperience (UX) in interactive entertainment systems, exploring how usability, given its definition, objectives and the fact it is one of the main dimensions of UX, is not sufficient to characterise the PX, giving rise to a new concept: Playability. In this paper, we present a framework for the analysis and evaluation of the UX in video games. The results show the need and importance of a framework to help us understand and measure the experience that players feel using these types of interactive systems, in order to improve the experience during play time. The proposed framework characterises the experience using attributes to identify and properties to measure UX. It thus provides a multifaceted analysis mechanism to assess the impact of the gaming experience and its relationship with the elements of a video game. We therefore present a system to represent UX based on this framework, with the aim of ensuring and measuring a satisfactory experience of the entertainment system. Finally, we discuss a practical experiment in which an evaluation of the playability of a commercial video game was carried out using the methods proposed in this work.

BIT 2012-11 Volume 31 Issue 11

Knowledge sharing BIBFull-Text 1055-1056
  Tom Stewart
Towards sharing life-log information with society BIBAFull-Text 1057-1067
  Reza Rawassizadeh
We are living in an era of social media such as online communities and social networking sites. Exposing or sharing personal information with these communities has risks as well as benefits and there is always a trade off between the risks versus the benefits of using these technologies. Life-logs are pervasive tools or systems which sense and capture contextual information from the user's environment in a continuous manner. A life-log produces a dataset, which consists of continuous streams of sensor data. Sharing this information has a wide range of advantages for both user and society. On the other hand, in terms of individual privacy, life-log information is very sensitive. Although social media enable users to share their information, due to life-log data structure, current sharing models are not capable of handling life-log information while maintaining user privacy. Our approach here is to describe the sharing of life-log information with society based on the identification of associated risks and benefits. Subsequently, based on the identified risks, we propose a data model for sharing life-log information. This data model has been designed to reduce the potential risks of life-logs. Furthermore, ethics for providing and using life-logs will be discussed. These ethics focus on reducing risks as much as possible while sharing life-log information.
Understanding knowledge sharing between IT professionals -- an integration of social cognitive and social exchange theory BIBAFull-Text 1069-1080
  Ming-Tien Tsai; Nai-Chang Cheng
The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was used with 252 IT professionals from IT companies and departments in Taiwan. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data and to evaluate the research model. The results showed that the research model fitted the data well, and the main determinant of knowledge-sharing intention was the building of organisational justice between knowledge intensive workers, confirming our hypotheses that trust and commitment foster organisational commitment. In turn, organisational commitment will help to build individual knowledge-sharing self-efficacy and both directly and indirectly affect intentions to share knowledge.
Experience differences and continuance intention of blog sharing BIBAFull-Text 1081-1095
  Hsi-Peng Lu; Ming-Ren Lee
Although many studies focus on information sharing in communities and organisations, little research has been carried out on the antecedents of continuance intention of blog sharing. This study focuses on amateur blogs, which are the major customers for blog service providers (BSPs). The purposes are to investigate the antecedents of continuous blog sharing and determine whether they change with gender, age, and blog experience differences. Based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) framework and related social-psychological foundations, this study proposes outcome expectancy of financial capital, knowledge capital, and social capital, perceived usability, social influence, self-disclosure, and information literacy as the antecedents of continuous blog sharing. A survey of 268 blog authors reveals that usability is a necessary condition for continuous blog sharing. Outcome expectancy for knowledge capital and social capital can encourage continuous sharing behaviour, but expectancy for financial capital does not. Meanwhile, blog sharing is primarily a personal endeavour facilitated by inner self-disclosure, not extrinsic information literacy or social influence. In addition, the antecedents differ according to gender, age, and blog experience differences.
A unified model of knowledge sharing behaviours: theoretical development and empirical test BIBAFull-Text 1097-1115
  Anitha Chennamaneni; James T. C. Teng; M. K. Raja
Research and practice on knowledge management (KM) have shown that information technology alone cannot guarantee that employees will volunteer and share knowledge. While previous studies have linked motivational factors to knowledge sharing (KS), we took a further step to thoroughly examine this theoretically and empirically. We developed a unified model that is comprehensive and yet parsimonious, based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour (DTPB) with three sets of critical antecedents: psychological, organisational and technological that are theorised to influence KS behaviours. Results of a field survey of knowledge workers support the majority of hypothesised relationships, and explained 41.3% of the variance in the actual KS behaviours and 60.8% of the variance in the intention to share knowledge. These results far exceed the predictive powers achieved by previous studies. Among our significant findings include a strong positive influence of perceived enjoyment in helping others (PEH) and a strong negative influence of perceived loss of knowledge power (PLK). Based on the findings, we discussed the study's implications for research and practice.
Effects of information technologies, department characteristics and individual roles on improving knowledge sharing visibility: a qualitative case study BIBAFull-Text 1117-1131
  Xi Zhang; Douglas R. Vogel; Zhongyun Zhou
Knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) is a critical environmental factor which can reduce social loafing in knowledge sharing (KS). This is especially true in ICT-based KS in learning organisations. As such, it is imperative that we better understand how to design technology enabled knowledge management systems (KMS) to support high KSV. This article examines the impact of knowledge management technology functions (e.g. tracking, knowledge storing) on KSV through qualitative analysis of 16 semi-structured interviews with participants in a Chinese company. Impact and implications of use for their existing KMS are examined. This article also examined the effects of department characteristics (i.e. group size and task characteristics) and individual roles (i.e. employee positions) on the IT-KSV relationship. Results encourage applied statistical, tracking, knowledge distribution and knowledge storing functions for monitoring explicit KS, and suggest integration of visualised knowledge maps with communication tools (e.g. Instant Messenger (IM)) to support visibility for implicit KS. Findings also suggest that KM technologies are more salient on improving KSV in large department with routine tasks, and that low-level employees may have more positive attitude on accepting communication tools on sharing knowledge. Extension to use of Web 2.0 technologies (e.g. weblogs) in KMS is also explored.
Knowledge-sharing in virtual communities: familiarity, anonymity and self-determination theory BIBAFull-Text 1133-1143
  Cheolho Yoon; Erik Rolland
Although the role of motivation has been emphasised in knowledge-sharing literature, traditional motivation theories, such as self-determination theory (SDT), have not been actively used as a research framework in knowledge-sharing research. The purposes of this study are twofold. The first objective is to propose a model, based on SDT, to test the effect of the three basic psychological needs -- perceived competence, perceived autonomy and perceived relatedness -- on knowledge-sharing behaviours in virtual communities. The second objective is to explore the effects of familiarity and anonymity on the basic psychological needs to better understand individuals' knowledge-sharing behaviours in virtual communities. The results show that perceived competence and perceived relatedness influence knowledge-sharing behaviours in virtual communities; however, perceived autonomy does not influence knowledge-sharing behaviours; familiarity influences positively perceived competence and perceived relatedness, and anonymity influences negatively perceived autonomy and perceived relatedness.

BIT 2012-12 Volume 31 Issue 12

EDITORIAL BIBFull-Text 1145-1146
  Tom Stewart
Assessing roles of people, technology and structure in emergency management systems: a public sector perspective BIBAFull-Text 1147-1160
  Minkyun Kim; Raj Sharman; Catherine P. Cook-Cottone; H. Raghav Rao; Shambhu J. Upadhyaya
Emergency management systems are a critical factor in successful mitigation of natural and man-made disasters, facilitating responder decision making in complex situations. Based on socio-technical systems, have which four components (people, technology, structure and task), this study develops a research framework of factors affecting effective emergency management. People factors include psychological factors such as responders' self-efficacy, support from family, peers and community, and training. Technology factors are task technology and information sharing. The structure factors are leadership, labour and logistics. Finally, the task factor refers to effective emergency management. This study empirically tests this framework by collecting surveys from emergency responders who participated in the 2006 Buffalo October Storm. The research results demonstrate that training and support positively affect emergency management self-efficacy which, in turn, has a positive significant relationship with effective emergency management. Task technology and information sharing also have a positive impact on effective emergency management. However, findings suggest that the structure factors do not show a significant relationship with effective emergency management. This research presents that human factors in emergency management are essential to conduct effective operations. More importantly, investing in technology to assist responders in performing their jobs during the emergency is crucial during the emergency operations.
An elaboration likelihood model based longitudinal analysis of attitude change during the process of IT acceptance via education program BIBAFull-Text 1161-1171
  Woong-Kyu Lee
The principal objective of this study was to gain insight into attitude changes occurring during IT acceptance from the perspective of elaboration likelihood model (ELM). In particular, the primary target of this study was the process of IT acceptance through an education program. Although the Internet and computers are now quite ubiquitous, and thus many people can come to an acceptance of IT organically -- including acceptance of such products as new released online services or software, some software -- most notably programming languages and spreadsheets -- may require education programs, and the efficacy of that education may determine the rate of acceptance. Thus, education programs for such IT may be regarded as not only teaching and training how to use the product from a technical standpoint, but also as a process by which program participants are persuaded to have a positive attitude towards accepting the new IT. This study adopted an ELM based longitudinal approach to capture the changes in the roles of persuasion routes and attitude during IT acceptance -- in this case, the education program. To validate empirically the suggested model, junior students majoring in business administration, all of whom were taking an Excel class, were surveyed twice -- just after mid-term and just after their final exam. These data were analysed via partial least-square method to deduce some possible implications. Our results supported all the hypotheses put forward.
Location does not have to be destiny: student evaluation and integrity controls in a management accounting class BIBAFull-Text 1173-1179
  Paul M. Goldwater; Timothy J. Fogarty
As accounting education transitions to more distance-learning formats, the integrity of student evaluation continues to serve as an obstacle to adoption. Greater technological possibilities will be opposed if faculty members believe that testing is compromised. This article investigates whether students taking exams remotely (and under no surveillance) performed better than students taking exams under conventional exam security. The results suggest an equivalent degree of achievement. The lack of human-based integrity controls over students taking exams did not produce a situation where grades were no longer accurate manifestations of student abilities. Although the results may be the results of the specific testing environment that was in use, they are encouraging for the proliferation of distance education in the accounting discipline. Integrity controls can be designed into the programs that administer the assessment.