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BIT Tables of Contents: 192021222324252627282930313233

Behaviour and Information Technology 29

Editors:Tom Stewart
Publisher:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Standard No:ISSN 0144-929X
Links:Table of Contents
  1. BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 1
  2. BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 2
  3. BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 3
  4. BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 4
  5. BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 5
  6. BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 6

BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 1

Editorial BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Tom Stewart
The expressive and conversational affordances of mobile messaging BIBAFull-Text 3-22
  Fraser J. M. Reid; Donna J. Reid
This study investigates the popularity of mobile messaging as a social medium. Using data from an Internet questionnaire (N = 635) on the use of the short message service (SMS) for mobile phone text messaging ('texting'), we examine two components of an affordance pathways hypothesis of SMS uptake: (1) mobile phone users must first discover and make use of hidden social affordances of texting in order to obtain significant interpersonal benefit from the medium, and (2) key social and psychological variables differentially predispose users to capitalise on these affordances. We developed and validated latent factor measures of texting affordances and relationship outcomes, examined the differential effects of a range of predictor variables on these measures, and tested a model in which the expressive and conversational use of texting mediates the effects of social anxiety, loneliness, age, and relationship status on relationship outcomes. This model proved a significant fit to the data, and was superior to alternative models which systematically varied the causal priority of SMS affordances and relationship outcomes. The results suggest that young, single, and socially anxious mobile phone users are predisposed to recognise and take advantage of the social functionality of SMS to enrich their personal relationships.
Acceptability of an asynchronous learning forum on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 23-33
  Chih-Kai Chang
Mobile learning has recently become noteworthy because mobile devices have become popular. To construct an asynchronous learning forum on mobile devices is important because an asynchronous learning forum is always an essential part of networked asynchronous distance learning. However, the input interface in handheld learning devices, which is generally handwritten, is not efficient. Hence, most learners do not attempt to use online asynchronous learning forums on a handheld learning device. Although the wireless internet learning device (WILD) can recommend proper online learning partners depending on the level of a learner, the mechanism is similar to a synchronous learning forum, such as a chat room. In other words, learners should be online at the same time to chat with each other. For a learning community with few learners, there is not always a learner online for the synchronous learning forum. Consequently, the degree of interaction among learners must be decreased without an easy-to-use, asynchronous learning forum. This study constructs an audio-based asynchronous learning forum on a WILD and is supported by streaming media technology. Furthermore, this study used technology acceptance model (TAM) to measure learners' degree of subjective satisfaction of an asynchronous learning forum on a WILD. The preliminary results show that learners' acceptance of audio-based input is not significantly higher than handwritten input on a WILD for the asynchronous discussion. However, learners' perceived usefulness is higher than handwritten input on a WILD. Most important of all, the mechanism of audio-based input can enrich the processes of interaction in a learning environment with WILD activities.
Measuring perceived interactivity of mobile advertisements BIBAFull-Text 35-44
  Qin Gao; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
Interactivity is considered a prominent characteristic of mobile advertising; however, a properly developed tool to measure the concept has not been developed. This study focusses on the development and validation of an instrument for measuring the interactivity perceived by individuals who interact with mobile advertisements on handheld devices. The confirmatory factor analysis results show that perceived interactivity in mobile advertising is comprised of six correlated but distinct constructs: user control, synchronicity, two-way communication, connectedness, playfulness and interpersonal communication. The result from a series of tests and examinations indicated that the multidimensional scale exhibits content validity and discriminant validity. The internal consistency of the scale reaches an acceptable level. The relationship with personal variables was also analysed. Gender, education, monthly income, years using cell phones, monthly cell phone charges, monthly cost for data services on cell phones and previous experiences with mobile advertisements have no influences on respondent interactivity perception with mobile advertisements. But user age is negatively correlated with perceived interactivity and years using the Internet are positively correlated with perceived interactivity. Young people with more Internet experience are more likely to perceive interactivity of mobile advertisements.
Exploring critical usability factors for handsets BIBAFull-Text 45-55
  Ting Zhang; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
Handsets are being transformed from the traditional cellular phone to an integrated content delivery platform for communications. Their increasing capabilities and value-added features provide more utilities, and at the same time, make the design more complicated and the devices more difficult to use. The objective of this study was to explore and identify the critical factors that predicate the handset's perceived usability. An online survey was conducted by using a seven-point Likert-scale structured questionnaire tailored to measure the user's perception of the usability level of their current handset. A total of nine usability dimensions were derived from the results of exploratory factor analysis. The total variance explained by these nine factors was 65.20% of the overall variance of the data. Relationships between the nine usability factors and handset design features were described by regression models.
Design guidelines for effective recommender system interfaces based on a usability criteria conceptual model: results from a college student population BIBAFull-Text 57-83
  A. Ant Ozok; Quyin Fan; Anthony F. Norcio
With the retail electronic commerce being a major global shopping phenomenon, retailers need to develop additional tools to improve their sales. One such tool is a recommender system through which the shopping page recommends products to the shoppers using their past Web shopping and product search behaviour. While recommender systems are common, few studies exist regarding their usability and user preferences. In this study, a structured survey concerning what recommender systems should contain and how this content should be presented was administered on 131 college-aged online shoppers. Results indicate participants prefer specific recommender content. Price, image and names of products are identified as essential information, while product promotions, customer ratings and feedback are identified as secondary types of information. Shoppers preferred short and relevant recommender information, with a maximum of three recommendations on one page. Future studies may explore differences in preference of recommender systems based on different product types.
Joint influence of online store attributes and offline operations on performance of multichannel retailers BIBAFull-Text 85-96
  Byoungho Jin; Jin Yong Park; Jiyoung Kim
This study examines the synergistic interchange between online and offline operations. To this end, this study proposed a multichannel performance model integrating Herzberg's (Herzberg 1966: Work and the Nature of Man, World Publishing, Cleveland, OH) motivation-hygiene theory and Thorndike's (Thorndike 1920: J. Appl. Psychol., 4, 25-29) halo effect, and empirically tested it. The essence of the model was that e-satisfaction is formed by a varying influence of online (basic and marketing-related attributes) and offline (firm reputation, consumer offline channel use, and consumer offline satisfaction) factors, which then increases e-loyalty. Analyses on a sample of 203 multichannel consumers revealed that, in general, the hypothetical paths were significant except in two cases. In a multichannel's online operation, marketing-related online attributes (e.g. merchandising) exerted significant influence on e-satisfaction, but basic attributes (e.g. security) did not. In a multichannel's offline operation, firm reputation and consumer offline satisfaction contributed to increasing e-satisfaction. Both firm reputation and consumer offline channel use increased consumer offline satisfaction, which in turn increased online satisfaction. However, consumer offline loyalty did not transfer to online loyalty. Theoretical and managerial implications were suggested based on findings.
Dogmas in the assessment of usability evaluation methods BIBAFull-Text 97-111
  Kasper Hornbæk
Usability evaluation methods (UEMs) are widely recognised as an essential part of systems development. Assessments of the performance of UEMs, however, have been criticised for low validity and limited reliability. The present study extends this critique by describing seven dogmas in recent work on UEMs. The dogmas include using inadequate procedures and measures for assessment, focusing on win-lose outcomes, holding simplistic models of how usability evaluators work, concentrating on evaluation rather than on design and working from the assumption that usability problems are real. We discuss research approaches that may help move beyond the dogmas. In particular, we emphasise detailed studies of evaluation processes, assessments of the impact of UEMs on design carried out in real-world systems development and analyses of how UEMs may be combined.

BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 2

Editorial BIBFull-Text 113-114
The effect of motor difficulty on the acquisition of a computer task: a comparison between young and older adults BIBAFull-Text 115-124
  K. Fezzani; C. Albinet; B. Thon; J. -C. Marquie
The present study investigated the extent to which the impact of motor difficulty on the acquisition of a computer task varies as a function of age. Fourteen young and 14 older participants performed 352 sequences of 10 serial pointing movements with a wireless pen on a digitiser tablet. A conditional probabilistic structure governed the succession of target keys to be pointed at on a virtual keyboard. Detecting and learning with practice how to use this probabilistic structure was expected to allow the participants to anticipate the location of the targets, and thus to improve pointing performance in terms of speed, accuracy, and trajectory rectitude. Motor difficulty was manipulated through the size of the targets to be pointed at. Results showed that for older participants, but not for younger ones, motor difficulty had a detrimental effect on their ability to learn the probabilistic structure. This finding suggests that decreasing the target size provides complex detrimental influence on the performance, affecting the efficiency of both the motor and cognitive processes involved in the task, especially for the elderly.
An investigation of subjective operational biases in steering tasks evaluation BIBAFull-Text 125-135
  Xiaolei Zhou; Xiangshi Ren
The steering law is an excellent performance model for trajectory-based tasks, such as drawing and writing in GUIs. Current studies on steering tasks focus on the effect of system factors (i.e. path width and amplitude) on the movement time and steering law's related applications. We conducted a series of experiments to further explore the effect of different operational biases (bias speed or accuracy) on steering completion time and standard deviation for two steering trajectory shapes, i.e. a straight steering task and a circular steering task, and then establish a new model accommodating system and subjective factor in steering tasks. Empirical results showed that the new model is more predictive and robust than the traditional steering law.
Pen pressure control in trajectory-based interaction BIBAFull-Text 137-148
  Jibin Yin; Xiangshi Ren; Shumin Zhai
This study presents a series of three experiments that evaluate human capabilities and limitations in using pen-tip pressure as an additional channel of control information in carrying out trajectory tasks such as drawing, writing and gesturing on computer screen. The first experiment measured the natural range of force used in regular drawing and writing tasks. The second experiment tested human performance of maintaining pen-tip pressure at different levels with and without a visual display of the pen pressure. The third experiment, using the steering law paradigm, studied path steering performance as a function of the steering law index of difficulty, steering path type (linear and circular) and pressure precision tolerance interval. The main conclusions of our investigation are as follows. The natural range of pressure used in drawing and writing is concentrated in the 0.82 N (SI force unit Newton (N) is used in this article) to 3.16 N region. The resting force of the pen tip on the screen is between 0.78 N and 1.58 N. Pressure near or below the resting force is markedly more difficult to control. Visual feedback improves pressure-modulated trajectory tasks. Up to six layers of pressure can be controlled in steering tasks, but the error rate changed from 4.9% for one layer of pressure to 35% for six layers. The steering law holds for pressure steering tasks, which enables systematic prediction of successful steering time for a given path's length, width and pressure precision criterion. The steering time can also be modelled as a logarithmic function of pressure control precision ratio s. Taken together, the current work provides a systematic body of empirical knowledge as basis for future research and design of digital pen applications.
Beyond errors: measuring reliability for error-prone interaction devices BIBAFull-Text 149-163
  Jinjuan Feng; Andrew Sears
The development of assistive technologies and ubiquitous computing highlights the need to better understand errors associated with both the limitations of the devices being used and difficulties introduced by the environment in which interactions occur. At the same time, we need to better understand the relationship between the user experience and the consequences users encounter when errors occur. Although error rates are the most common measure of reliability reported in the human-computer interaction literature, this simple metric fails to address the different consequences users may experience. We propose a new metric, leveraging the concepts of entropy and desirability, to quantify the concept of reliability. An empirical study provides a preliminary validation of this new metric, focusing on its ability to describe several aspects of user satisfaction as well as task completion time. Results confirm that our new metric is more effective than error rates when describing user satisfaction and that the metric can also be used to describe task completion times when error rates are high.
Anticipatory movement compatibility for virtual reality interaction devices BIBAFull-Text 165-174
  Sarah Lukas; Henning Brau; Iring Koch
In the present study, we examined the impact of movement compatibility on the usability of two interaction devices for virtual reality (VR). To this end, we compared performance with the isometric spacemouse with that with the isotonic flystick, assuming that the flystick induces more movement compatibility in continuous movement and thus results in better performance. In the study, 28 subjects performed an object rotation task on a holobench with the two devices. Additionally, rotation axis and rotation degree were varied. Results showed a notable advantage for the flystick with regard to handling time (the time from the beginning of the object's appearance until the end of rotation, determined by subjects). The data support the idea that the compatibility of motor movements with the resulting (i.e. anticipated) object movements is an important determinant of usability in VR environments.
Increasing the geometric field of view in head mounted displays through proprioceptive task and multimodal feedback for effective close range interaction BIBAFull-Text 175-186
  Ungyeon Yang; Gerard Jounghyun Kim
This article explores the synergistic interaction among the geometric field of view (GFOV), proprioceptive interaction and multimodal feedback in a virtual environment. We hypothesise that, with proprioceptive interaction and multimodal feedback, the GFOV can be set larger than its reference value originally set to give similar distance perception when viewed with a given physical field of view of a head mounted display. This in turn would help a user carry out a task more effectively with the increased visibility. We tested our hypothesis with an experiment to measure the user's change in distance perception according to different values of egocentric GFOV and task/feedback conditions (15 subjects). Our experimental results have shown that, when coupled with proprioceptive interaction, the GFOV could be increased up to 170% of the reference without introducing change in user's distance perception. When additional visual and tactile feedback was introduced, the GFOV could be increased up to 200%. The results offer a useful guideline for designing multimodal interfaces for close range spatial tasks in virtual environments. In addition, it demonstrates one way to overcome the inadequacy of the narrow physical fields of view often found in most general purpose head mounted displays.
The relationship between monochronicity, polychronicity and individual characteristics BIBAFull-Text 187-198
  Ravindra S. Goonetilleke; Yan Luximon
With the increasing complexity of control rooms and the information explosion, effective multitasking is now desired. Monochronicity and polychronicity, which describe a person's ability to do one thing and many things at a time, respectively, have been studied for a long time. However, it is not clear these abilities are related to various individual characteristics. Forty-eight Chinese participants were tested on their perception, memory, judgement, attention ability and cognitive style. They also performed a task that required search and calculation under three conditions of unpaced, paced and paced with sequencing. There were significant differences in the performance and strategy between monochronic and polychronic individuals in the selective attention test. Monochronic individuals focused their attention on the primary task and achieved higher performance. Polychronic individuals had somewhat better total performance in more than one task under time-constrained conditions. The results clearly indicate that an individual's time use behaviours ought to be considered in training and control scenarios to account for differences among people.
Improved link analysis method for user interface design -- modified link table and optimisation-based algorithm BIBAFull-Text 199-216
  Cheng-Jhe Lin; Changxu Wu
Link analysis (LA) is one of most widely used methods in user interface design to arrange control elements on user interfaces. However, traditional LA method is insufficient for evaluating transitional cost associated with accessibility (the easiness for the operator to reach certain control element on the interface) and the link table commonly used contains no directional information for assessing difficulty. To address these two problems, an improved LA method based on a modified link table and a branch-and-bound algorithm is proposed in this study. A case study on a simplified control interface of a boiling water reactor (BWR) in a real-world nuclear control system was exemplified to elucidate the improved method and an experiment was conducted to validate the effectiveness of the method in improving users' performance time. The results showed that the total completion time (CT) and the completion time of accessibility-associated operations were significantly shorter on the interface modified by the improved method than by the traditional LA method, while the difference of the completion time of proximity-associated operations between the two interfaces was non-significant. Therefore, although the traditional LA method can significantly ameliorate the random interface by optimising the proximity between control elements, the improved method can further improve the CT by optimally trading off the accessibility and proximity. The method can be applied to the interface which requires physical movements between the user and the interface and within the interface, especially touch screen and control panels.
Writing and Designing Manuals and Warnings BIBFull-Text 217-218
  Ahmet Cakir

BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 3

Editorial BIBFull-Text 219-220
Perception of information security BIBAFull-Text 221-232
  Ding-Long Huang; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
The objective of this study was to investigate people's perception of information security and to unveil the factors that influence people's perception of different threats to information security. In the survey study, 602 respondents were asked to evaluate one of 21 common threats to information security with regard to its rank related to each of the 20 threat-related features. An exploratory factor analysis was then conducted, and a six-factor structure was derived, which includes factors of Knowledge, Impact, Severity, Controllability, Possibility and Awareness. Using this factor structure, the characteristics of the five most dangerous threats (hackers, worms, viruses, Trojan horses and backdoor programs) and the five least dangerous threats (spam, piratical software, operation accidents, users' online behaviour being recorded and deviation in quality of service) were discussed and compared. The relationships between the factors and the perceived overall danger of threats were found and then tested by multiple regression analyses. Significant effects were also found in people's perception of information security related to computer experience and types of loss.
The psychology of password management: a tradeoff between security and convenience BIBAFull-Text 233-244
  L. Tam; M. Glassman; M. Vandenwauver
Despite technological advances, humans remain the weakest link in Internet security. In this study, we examined five password-management behaviours to answer questions about user knowledge of password quality, motivation behind password selection and the effect of account type on password-management behaviour. First, we found that users know what constitutes a good/bad password and know which common password-management practices are (in)appropriate. Second, users are motivated to engage in these bad password-management behaviours because they do not see any immediate negative consequences to themselves (negative externalities) and because of the convenience-security tradeoff. Applying Construal Level Theory, we found that this tradeoff can be positively influenced by imposing a time frame factor, i.e. whether the password change will take place immediately (which results in weaker passwords) or in the future (which results in stronger passwords). Third, we found a time frame effect only for more important (online banking) accounts.
Individual attitude toward improvisation in information systems development BIBAFull-Text 245-255
  M. Magni; B. Provera; L. Proserpio
In the area of information systems development (ISD) the traditional approaches to developing innovative projects, which are historically characterised by top-down, meticulously planned procedures, may not allow the effective handling of the emergent and continuously evolving needs of users. This article investigates the role of improvisation in addressing the shortcomings of traditional approaches to ISD in the fulfilment of the user's need for the maximisation of IS effectiveness. Prior research on software engineering and human-computer interaction (HCI) has focused considerable attention on the need for a shift in the developer's attitude in dealing with contingencies departing from the original plan, while less emphasis has been placed on the factors that may augment the incidence of the attitude towards extemporaneous action (i.e. improvisation). In an attempt to fill this gap, we theoretically analyse the antecedents of individual attitude toward improvisation, grounding our theoretical framework on the ISD domain.
A structurational analysis of how course management systems are used in practice BIBAFull-Text 257-275
  Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi
An understanding of the role of e-learning needs to be accompanied by a realisation of the variety of social dimensions in the innovation process. As most studies in this domain are typically context-independent, this research, building on structuration theory, seeks to investigate different interpretations and uses of course management systems (CMSs) in an academic context. For the purpose of this research, a case study has been conducted on the introduction of a CMS in a higher education institution. Findings from this empirical study have been drawn on to illuminate how this system is employed in disparate manners by different groups of academics and what are the reasons behind this discrepancy. The study also demonstrates that the practice lens (Orlikowski, W.J., 2000. Using technology and constituting structures: a practice lens for studying technology in organizations. Organization Science, 11 (4), 404-428), viewing the use of technology as a process of enactment, presents a useful insight for explanation and synthesis of the variations in usage patterns.
What do computer science students think about software piracy? BIBAFull-Text 277-285
  Nikos I. Konstantakis; George E. Palaigeorgiou; Panos D. Siozos; Ioannis A. Tsoukalas
Today, software piracy is an issue of global importance. Computer science students are the future information and communication technologies professionals and it is important to study the way they approach this issue. In this article, we attempt to study attitudes, behaviours and the corresponding reasoning of computer science students in Greece regarding software piracy. The statements taken in 56 semi-structured interviews with students indicate that computer science students in Greece make intensive use of pirated software, mention as main reason for their practice the cost of genuine software, and blame the academic environment, coincidental stereotypes and their student status for this behaviour. They acknowledge the immoral character of their actions, as well as the fact that others are affected by software piracy, but they pay little attention to this action and they practically don't care. While keeping distance from software development companies, when specifically asked, they easily adopt the role of a software developer and attempt to substantiate their current and eventually future attitude out of hand. They consider software copyright laws to be inapplicable and unrealistic and fail to argue against intellectual property rights for mere digital products, such as software.
How employees' perception of information technology application and their knowledge management capacity influence organisational performance BIBAFull-Text 287-303
  Yen-Ku Kuo; Kung-Don Ye
This study investigates how workers' gender, work experience, designated division, and appointment affect (i) their perception of information technology (IT) within the organisation, (ii) their self-perceived capacity in knowledge management (KM), and (iii) their perception of organisational performance (OP). Furthermore, the study also examines the correlation among the above three dimensions by using t-test, one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis. These results show a positive correlation among IT application, KM capacity, and OP. In addition, the study discovers that (i) adequate IT investment and acceptance will improve employees' KM capacity, (ii) appropriate IT investment and training and employees' knowledge replication ability can better predict organisational outcomes, and (iii) employees' KM capacity is a better predictor of OP than IT application. Results also show that personal factors do affect workers' perception of the organisation's IT application, their KM capacity, and overall OP.
Investigating the role of identity and gender in technology mediated learning BIBAFull-Text 305-319
  Yujong Hwang
Instructors and trainers are increasingly using online education and technology-mediated learning (TML) to supplement or replace traditional approaches to classroom teaching. Because mandatory involvement requirements may not intrinsically motivate learners to achieve high quality learning, social factors with commitment, such as identification among group members, are especially important determinants of TML success. This article investigates an individual's social and self identities as important determinants in developing affective commitment (identification) and intrinsic motivation (perceived enjoyment) to share knowledge by email in the TML environment. Furthermore, given the recent emphasis on gender in system adoption and socio-linguistic literature, this study investigates gender as a moderating variable in the proposed model. An empirical test of the proposed model was conducted in the pilot test (n = 155) as well as the main test (n = 411). Social and self identities influence identification (R2 = 0.42) and perceived enjoyment (R2 = 0.52) of sharing knowledge by email. As expected, there are significant moderating effects of gender in these relationships in that male shows stronger effects of self identity while female shows stronger effects of social identity. The results of this study will help us understand the antecedents of effective knowledge sharing intervention in the TML environment, based on the integrated model of social identity theory, social influence theory, self determination theory and socio-linguistic literature.
Distance learning success -- a perspective from socio-technical systems theory BIBAFull-Text 321-329
  Jianfeng Wang; David Solan; Abe Ghods
With widespread adoption of computer-based distance education as a mission-critical component of the institution's educational program, the need for evaluation has emerged. In this research, we aim to expand on the systems approach by offering a model for evaluation based on socio-technical systems theory addressing a stated need in the literature for comprehensive models for evaluating e-learning environments (Holsapple, C.W. and Lee-Post, A., 2006. Defining, assessing, and promoting e-learning success: an information systems perspective. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 4(1), 67-85). The proposed systems model evaluates distance learning success from the instructor's perspective. It defines and develops measures for course quality, system quality and corresponding impacts. The model is tested based on the data collected from 548 instructors of seven universities in the Midwest region of the USA. The results suggest that the proposed multi-dimensional system flexibility scale is reliable. The course quality significantly affects both system flexibility and faculty perceived impacts of distance education. The system flexibility also significantly affects both course quality and faculty perceived impacts.
Book Review BIBFull-Text 331-332
  Ahmet Cakir

BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 4

Relationship of Metacognitive Monitoring with Interaction in an Asynchronous Online Discussion Forum BIBAFull-Text 1
  Abdullah Topcu
Monitoring one's own performance accurately is essential for information-processing and self-regulation, which are indispensable in an online learning environment. In this paper, the effect of metacognitive monitoring on interaction in an asynchronous online discussion forum was investigated. Transcripts of this forum, which was integrated in a face-to-face traditional undergraduate course, were analyzed in terms of Henri's (1992) cognitive and interactive dimensions. Metacognitive monitoring was measured by the "cognitive-title" technique, which makes use of the cognitive dimension. Analysis indicated that metacognitive monitoring had a large effect size on interaction in the asynchronous online discussion forum. The study particularly suggests that labeling messages with a "cognitive-title" should be a rule of asynchronous online discussion forum protocol. Moreover, this activity might also be a useful tool for improving metacognitive monitoring in a virtual environment.
Does government effort or citizen word-of-mouth determine e-Government service diffusion? BIBAFull-Text 1-1
  Hui-Chih Wang; Her-Sen Doong
Ranked best in the world for E-Government Readiness in 2002, 2004, and 2005, second in 2006 and third in 2007, Taiwan's experience in promoting e-Government services could provide governments worldwide with practical knowledge for planning and implementation. In general, e-Government services can be seen as innovations for citizens to adopt. This study uses the tax e-filing system (TEFS) in Taiwan as an example and investigates the determinants of citizens' adoption of such an innovative e-Government service. Three diffusion models -- the external, internal, and mixed influence models -- are employed to reveal whether the diffusion of the TEFS in Taiwan is affected by government promotion efforts, interactions among acquaintances, or a combination of both. Findings indicate that the influence of acquaintances is the major predictor of Taiwan's TEFS diffusion and the mixed influence model is the best fit. "Source-Strategy Fit" implications are proposed based on this study's findings.
Editorial BIBFull-Text 333-335
  Tom Stewart
Knowledge contribution in virtual communities: accounting for multiple dimensions of social presence through social identity BIBAFull-Text 337-348
  Kathy Ning Shen; Angela Yan Yu; Mohamed Khalifa
Integrating social presence theory and social identity theory, this study brings system design and social influence aspects together to explain their joint effects on knowledge contribution in virtual communities (VCs). Different from most prior information systems (IS) research that adopts a uni-dimensional approach and restricts social presence to be the subjective nature of media, we developed and empirically tested a model explaining the effects of multi-dimensional social presence on social identification processes and knowledge contribution. An online survey was conducted with four different VCs of interest. The results showed the difference in relative contribution of social presence dimensions on social identity as well as knowledge contribution. Both practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
Knowledge retrieval through virtual communities of practice BIBAFull-Text 349-362
  Jens Gammelgaard
This article explores how Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) manages knowledge retrieval by employees when they need to access documents written by colleagues in geographically distant units. CSC's establishment of virtual communities of practice facilitates the coordination of knowledge, and minimises contextual gaps between senders and receivers of knowledge. Furthermore, the knowledge-sharing friendly culture of the case company quickly establishes swift trust, which enables receivers to directly approach the original, often previously unknown, author of a document for additional information.
Does virtual team composition matter? Trait and problem-solving configuration effects on team performance BIBAFull-Text 363-375
  Ofir Turel; Yi Zhang
Due to the increased importance and usage of self-managed virtual teams, many recent studies have examined factors that affect their success. One such factor that merits examination is the configuration or composition of virtual teams. This article tackles this point by (1) empirically testing trait-configuration effects on virtual team performance, which are based on supplementary, complementary and interaction person-team fit perspectives and (2) extending the suggested trait-configuration model to include virtual team configuration in terms of the perceived problem-solving demands of the task as a predictor of team performance. To this end, median regression techniques were applied to data from 62 self-managed virtual teams that used an asynchronous bulletin board for working on a case study analysis. The findings suggest a plausible negative main effect of within-team conscientiousness heterogeneity on team performance, operationalised as standardised team grade. This effect depends on the level of the within-team extroversion heterogeneity which helps to mitigate the negative effect of within-team conscientiousness heterogeneity on team performance. Furthermore, within-team heterogeneity of the perceived problem-solving demands of the task reduces team performance. Overall, this study proves that virtual team configuration matters, and demonstrates that the joint utilisation of multiple person-team fit perspectives for improving virtual team performance has merit. Implications for research and practice are further discussed.
Students and social networking sites: the posting paradox BIBAFull-Text 377-382
  Robert Miller; Kristine Parsons; David Lifer
This article reports the results of a field study in which undergraduate students were questioned about their use of social networking sites and the appropriateness of the content that they post. The responses indicate that students routinely post content that they realise is not appropriate for all audiences, especially potential employers. Considering how extensively the press has covered the negative impacts of inappropriate posting, the fact that students are knowingly continuing the practice is surprising. The article discusses the implications of these results and proposes areas for future research.
Predicting continuance in online communities: model development and empirical test BIBAFull-Text 383-394
  Xiao-Ling Jin; Matthew K. O. Lee; Christy M. K. Cheung
Popular interest in online communities has grown rapidly in recent years as a result of the widespread diffusion of Web 2.0 applications. However, the full values and potential of online communities cannot be realised without users' ongoing participation. Thus, this study aims at developing and empirically testing a research model to examine users' continuance intention to participate in an online community based on an extended information systems (IS) continuance model. Specifically, entertainment value and affective commitment are included in the IS continuance model and empirically examined in the context of online communities. A total of 240 returns collected from an online survey, which was conducted among users of a website bulletin board-based community in China, were analysed using partial least squares. The results reveal that users' continuance intention to participate in an online community is determined by both satisfaction and affective commitment. Satisfaction and affective commitment are, in turn, influenced by positive disconfirmations of purposive and entertainment values. The findings of this study contribute not only to theory building in online community continuance but also inform online community moderators in their effort to develop strategies for retaining their users.
The use of information and communication technology in the sea fishing industry BIBAFull-Text 403-413
  C. Chauvin; G. Morel; G. Tirilly
The advent of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has profoundly altered relations between vessels and the shore. Thanks to ICTs, vessels are no longer cut off from land. The technologies in use in today's fisheries, however, remain fairly rudimentary. This article describes the use of ICTs aboard offshore fishing vessels. It relies on the concepts of 'instruments' and 'usage scheme' defined by Rabardel (Rabardel, P., 1995. Les hommes et les technologies. Paris: Armand Colin) and analyses the use of ICTs in terms of objectives, information sought and communication targets. It points to the prevalence of vessel-to-vessel interchange, and to a frequent use of ICTs to seek out and locate fish. It shows the existence of a 'key instrument', the Inmarsat standard C, and defines the way in which fishermen are organised in cognition-sharing networks.
Cultural issues in developing E-Government in Malaysia BIBAFull-Text 423-432
  Wong Meng Seng; Stephen Jackson; George Philip
In recent years, information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly web-based technologies, have created a more complex and challenging information technology (IT) environment for governments throughout the world. As more and more activities are migrating from physical to virtual media, users and employees have been faced with relentless pressure to use technology. This calls for a greater understanding of the human, social and cultural issues involved in the acceptance of IT systems by all stakeholders of the organisation. Indeed increasingly it has been acknowledged that one of the main determinants of IT success is organisational culture, and consequently the purpose of this research is to examine cultural barriers and enablers which have impeded or facilitated the implementation of E-Government initiatives in Malaysia. An anthropological framework based on the Grid and Group Cultural Theory of Mary Douglas is used to study this issue in more depth. This framework identifies four cultural cosmologies -- hierarchism, egalitarianism, individualism and fatalism. We argue that cultural cosmologies can have both enabling and constraining characteristics and that cultural pluralism in the enabling forms of hierarchism, egalitarianism and individualism is essential for the successful implementation and operation of E-Government services. We illustrate these points through two case studies in Malaysia -- one displaying constraining characteristics, which impeded IT implementation/use and the other displaying enabling characteristics, which facilitated IT implementation/use. Finally, a cross comparison of the two case studies on cultural issues is also provided.
Building better government IT: understanding community beliefs and attitudes toward smart card technologies BIBAFull-Text 433-444
  Nigel J. Martin; John L. Rice
Government smart cards have promised substantial improvements in public services delivery, yet they often seem to encounter great public suspicion, distrust and hostility. Very few contemporary studies have addressed the issue of understanding the actual beliefs and attitudes toward such initiatives. In this study, we investigate the beliefs and attitudes surrounding the ill-fated Australian Government's Health and Social Services Smart Card. We apply a proven electronic business theory model to address the research question: what are the general beliefs and attitudes of the Australian community and industry toward the introduction and use of the smart card? The study uses a composite concept mapping and content analysis technique to reveal that information security, personal privacy and the spectre of a national identification card engender serious community concerns over the proposed introduction of the smart card. The article brings further empirical understanding of the use of public smart cards, while highlighting the importance of political transparency, broad ranging community consultations, and sound technical design in electronic government projects.

BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 5

Systems and applications BIBFull-Text 445-446
  Tom Stewart
Exploring the evaluation framework of strategic information systems using repertory grid technique: a cognitive perspective from chief information officers BIBAFull-Text 447-457
  Vincent Cho; Robert Wright
This study aims at developing an evaluation framework of strategic information systems (SIS) and evaluating the SIS planning and implementation by using a cognitive approach called the repertory grid technique. The findings are based on in-depth interviews with chief information officers (CIOs) involved with SIS developments in their organisations. This exploratory study builds on a cognitive methodology and enables us to develop the evaluation framework of SIS within the CIO's mind. In a practical viewpoint, we evaluated the effectiveness of the essential activities in the SIS planning and implementation. Results showed that activities on analysing industry and environment, analysing information system weakness and strength, formulating SIS strategy, identifying SIS initiatives, prioritising and allocating resources for SIS, documenting SIS, and liaising with top management team are well performed.
Stress training and simulator complexity: why sometimes more is less BIBAFull-Text 459-466
  Jennifer G. Tichon; Guy M. Wallis
Through repeated practice under conditions similar to those in real-world settings, simulator training prepares an individual to maintain effective performance under stressful work conditions. Interfaces offering high fidelity and immersion can more closely reproduce real-world experiences and are generally believed to result in better learning outcomes. However, absolute fidelity in stress training is not critical for skills to be transferable. The present study compared the performance outcomes achieved by trainees using two different simulator types to complete a training program aimed at improving decision-making skills. The purpose of this research was to assess both the overall level of training effectiveness and to determine whether performance levels were influenced when high (160 degree curved wide screen) versus low fidelity (small cab-based flat screen) simulator types were in use. Sixty-three train drivers drove for 40 min on a simulated track on which they encountered four major high stress driving events. One year later, 42 of the original drivers returned and repeated the training scenario a second and third time. Results revealed trainees using the lower fidelity flat screen simulator made fewer errors in both years than trainees using the high fidelity curved screen simulator. The implications of these results are discussed.
A prototype Greek text to Greek Sign Language conversion system BIBAFull-Text 467-481
  Dimitris Kouremenos; Stavroula-Evita Fotinea; Eleni Efthimiou; Klimis Ntalianis
In this article, a prototype Greek text to Greek Sign Language (GSL) conversion system is presented. The system is integrated into an educational platform that addresses the needs of teaching GSL grammar and was developed within the SYNENNOESE project (Efthimiou et al. 2004a. Developing an e-learning platform for the Greek sign language. In: K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, and W. Zagler, eds. Computer helping people with special needs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 3118, 1107-1113). The detailed implementation of the language-processing component of a Greek text to GSL conversion system is provided, focusing upon the inherent problems of knowledge elicitation of sign language (SL) grammar and its implementation within a parser framework. It is based on an SL dictionary (Efthimiou et al. 2004a) database of coded GSL knowledge. The proposed system has been designed and implemented after considering most state-of-the-art SL machine translation or Conversion systems, such as Vsigns (Papadogiorgaki et al. 2004. VSigns -- a virtual sign synthesis web tool. In: Proceedings of Sixth COST 276 Workshop on Information and Knowledge Management for Integrated Media Communication, May 2004, Thessaloniki, Greece), ZARDOZ (Veale et al. 1998. The challenges of cross-modal translation: English to sign language translation in the ZARDOZ system. Machine Translation, 13, 81-106) and SignSynth (Angus 2001. SignSynth: a sign language synthesis application using Web3D and Perl. In: Gesture and Sign Language in Human-Computer Interaction. London, UK: International Gesture Workshop), and taking into account their advantages and disadvantages. The overall architecture is innovative since other existing systems either do not consider the GSL or they cannot be effectively applied on sentences but just on single words. The system is demonstrable on any conventional PC.
Effects of communication style and time orientation on notification systems and anti-virus software BIBAFull-Text 483-495
  Ding-Long Huang; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Hui Su; Nan Tu; Chen Zhao
The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of communication style (CS) and time orientation (TO) on people's perception of and proficiency in responding to notification systems and (2) to study the applications of these effects in the design of user notification in anti-virus software. Significant effects were found in the experiment; the results showed that users with a low-context CS can remember and make sense of the information provided by the notification system better than users with a high-context CS. Polychronic users perceive a lower level of interruption of the notification messages than monochronic users; polychronic users prefer rapid and accurate responses to the stimuli provided by the notification system, whereas monochronic users tend to avoid responding to the stimuli. Four sessions of focus group discussions were then carried out with users of different CS and TO, which focused on the virus attack warning provided by anti-virus software. The results should prove useful to aid designers in creating more effective and appealing ways to give notification or warnings to users.
A benefit-cost perspective of the consumer adoption of the mobile banking system BIBAFull-Text 497-511
  Yung-Cheng Shen; Chun-Yao Huang; Chia-Hsien Chu; Chih-Ting Hsu
The present research adopts a benefit-cost perspective to study consumer adoption of the mobile banking services. It is suggested that because of the specific product context of the mobile banking service, such as the difficulty to assess some experiential qualities like the ease of use due to a low trial rate of mobile banking and the inherent risk factor involved in a new financial service technology, models complementary to the technology adoption model may be needed to accommodate these product contexts. In the present research, the benefit-cost framework was employed as an example of the complementary framework to study consumers' adoption of the mobile banking system. The key benefit of mobile banking is convenience, while the key cost is security. A set of ability and risk factors were modelled via structural equation model (SEM) as the antecedents of the benefit and cost of adopting the mobile banking system. The results showed that the empirical data supported most hypothesised relationships among the factors. It is concluded that consumers' new technology adoption behaviour is a complicated phenomenon which may require different models in different product contexts. It is suggested that future research should address the issue of the preconditions and product contexts under which a certain class of models may be most suitable to explain the adoption behaviour.
Assessing the suitability of process and information technology in supporting tacit knowledge transfer BIBAFull-Text 513-525
  Chien-Hsing Wu; Shu-Chen Kao; Lan-Hsin Shih
The transfer of tacit knowledge, one of the most important issues in the knowledge sharing context, needs a multi-dimensional perception in its process. Information technology's (IT) supporting role has already been addressed in the process of tacit knowledge transfer. However, IT has its own characteristics, and in turn, may have dissimilar support suitability. On the basis of the knowledge transfer process proposed by Garavelli et al. (Garavelli, C., Gorgoglione, M., Scozzi, B., 2002. Managing knowledge transfer by knowledge technologies. Technovation 22, 269-279), this study conducts an assessment using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique to disclose (1) importance rank of transfer stages for the transfer efficacy and (2) the support suitability of IT types for the transfer stages. The assessment hierarchy has three levels, which are the goal, process and support levels. According to the 21 domain scholars and specialists' assessment analysis, the main results suggest that (1) for goal level, both the knowledge provider's and receiver's cognitive system are of more importance, (2) for process level, database techniques and information system applications obtain the higher importance in supporting the provider's cognitive system and externalisation, and (3) software tools and information system applications are more likely to support the receiver's cognitive system and interpretation. Discussion and implications are also addressed.
A reference level for assessing the acceptable visual demand of in-vehicle information systems BIBAFull-Text 527-540
  Alan Stevens; Gary Burnett; Tim Horberry
With the increasing use of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) by drivers whilst the vehicle is in motion, the risk of distraction-related crashes is expected to increase. Distraction in this case arises from engagement of the driver with the visual demand of an IVIS display, but measurement of such visual demand, and design decisions about how much visual demand is acceptable in this context, is problematic. Using the visual 'occlusion' technique, this paper uses data from visual demand metrics (from 4 reference in-vehicle tasks with 60 participants) and makes comparisons with several other approaches including expert usability analysis, other reference levels, social acceptability survey data, and a comparison with alcohol impairment. Based on these considerations an approach is taken to represent the distribution of occlusion measurements and a demand reference level (DRL) is proposed to be used as a criterion for design of IVIS displays. The DRL comprises a metric derived from occlusion measurements and an absolute value.
Trust in medical technology by patients and healthcare providers in obstetric work systems BIBAFull-Text 541-554
  Enid N. H. Montague; Woodrow W. Winchester; Brian M. Kleiner
Multiple types of users (i.e. patients and care providers) have experiences with the same technologies in healthcare environments and may have different processes for developing trust in those technologies. The objective of this study was to assess how patients and care providers make decisions about the trustworthiness of mutually used medical technology in an obstetric work system. Using a grounded theory methodology, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 patients who had recently given birth and 12 obstetric healthcare providers to examine the decision-making process for developing trust in technologies used in an obstetric work system. We expected the two user groups to have similar criteria for developing trust in the technologies, though we found patients and physicians differed in processes for developing trust. Trust in care providers, the technologies' characteristics and how care providers used technology were all related to trust in medical technology for the patient participant group. Trustworthiness of the system and trust in self were related to trust in medical technology for the physician participant group. Our findings show that users with different perspectives of the system have different criteria for developing trust in medical technologies.

BIT 2010 Volume 29 Issue 6

Online communities BIBFull-Text 555-556
  Tom Stewart
Understanding continuance intention of knowledge creation using extended expectation-confirmation theory: an empirical study of Taiwan and China online communities BIBAFull-Text 557-570
  Shih-Wei Chou; Hui-Tzu Min; Yu-Chieh Chang; Chun-Tung Lin
Grounded on expectation-confirmation theory (ECT), this study proposes an integrated model aiming to understand how participants' continuance intention of knowledge creation and satisfaction are affected by their perceived identity verification (PIV) and performance expectancy in an online community. To assess the theoretical model, we surveyed two online communities -- Baidu (China) and Yahoo knowledge+ (Taiwan), including 213 and 216 useable responses, respectively. Both PIV and performance expectancy are positively associated with continuance intention of knowledge creation. In Baidu community, satisfaction is affected either directly by performance expectancy or indirectly by PIV (through performance expectancy). Our findings have implications for both practice and theory.
Elementary students' participation style in synchronous online communication and collaboration BIBAFull-Text 571-586
  C. H. Chiu; H. Y. Yang; T. H. Liang; H. P. Chen
This research investigated how differently elementary school students participate in synchronous online collaborative learning by analysing their discussions with their partners. Two hundred and seventy-eight Taiwanese students, ranging in age from 11 to 12 years old, were involved in this study. The students were randomly arranged within-class into three-member groups. Each group used a collaborative learning system to discuss and accomplish a group assignment (creating a shared concept map). The textual discussions by each individual student were collected, categorised and accumulated. Cluster analysis was adopted to statistically classify students based on their discussion characteristics. We found that a student, while participating in online collaboration and communication, exhibited a distinct style: less contributing, coordination emphasising, communicative or task-oriented. In addition, students exhibiting the task-oriented pattern and students predominantly showing communicative behaviours were found to have better learning performance and retain more knowledge than students observed to be coordination emphasising or less contributing within group collaboration.
What makes online community members commit? A social exchange perspective BIBAFull-Text 587-599
  Byoungho Jin; Jin Yong Park; Hye-Shin Kim
A growing number of firms are using online communities (OCs) as integral parts of their strategies because of the value an OC provides to a firm. This study maintains the commitment to an OC to be critical in developing a sustainable OC and examines how members' commitment to an OC develops in the context of OCs hosted by firms and freely available to anyone. Built on the social exchange theory, the proposed model posits that two aspects of OC attributes (Sociability and Usability) facilitate members' participation in an OC, as well as bring social and functional benefits to participants. In return for the benefits gained from OC participation, participants reciprocate with affective and calculative commitment to the OC. Data were collected via online survey from OC participants who were 18 years old or above and resided in South Korea. An analysis of 595 cases supported the proposed model. Results indicated that the members' perceived social benefits from active OC participation led to an affective commitment to the OC, while members' perceived functional benefits led to a calculative commitment to the OC. Theoretical and managerial implications were suggested based on the findings.
Validating the distinction between computer addiction and engagement: online game playing and personality BIBAFull-Text 601-613
  John P. Charlton; Ian D. W. Danforth
This article considers validatory evidence for the previously made distinction between (pathological) computing-related addictions and (non-pathological) high engagement in computing activities, and an associated distinction between core and peripheral criteria for diagnosing computing-related addictions. Using data provided by 388 players of a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG) via an online questionnaire, psychometric measures of engagement and addiction to the MMORPG taking into account the distinction between core and peripheral addiction criteria are shown to be differentially related to personality factors (extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, negative valence, and attractiveness). Addiction scale scores are shown to increase as negativity on all five personality characteristics increases, with these characteristics predicting 20% of the variance in addiction scores, but the same pattern is shown to occur for only one characteristic (negative valence) for the engagement scale, with personality characteristics predicting only around 2% of the variance in engagement scores. It is concluded that there is reasonable support for the distinctions between addiction and engagement and between core and peripheral criteria. Implications are discussed.
Modelling the acceptance of internet sites with domestic-violence information BIBAFull-Text 615-620
  Paul van Schaik; Jill Radford; Leanne Hogg
Both in terms of prevalence and impact, domestic violence is a significant problem in modern society. The current study investigated women's acceptance of internet sites with domestic-violence information as an additional source of support. Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, social influence and awareness of sites were predictors of intention to use sites. However, awareness and experience of domestic violence predicted use of sites. We argue that technology acceptance needs to be studied in the context of a detailed analysis of 'Everyday Life Information Seeking' to better understand acceptance and as a basis for designing effective support sites.
Online shopping viewed from a habit and value perspective BIBAFull-Text 621-632
  Seppo Pahnila; Juhani Warsta
In this article, we study e-commerce customer behaviour towards online shops. The theoretical model is based on Triandis' behavioural framework. Prior value research has mostly focused on users' attitudes towards online shopping. We explore the role of perceived value and habit in e-commerce behaviour. Structure equation results suggest that the utilitarian as well as the hedonic values have a significant impact on affect, and indirectly also on e-commerce behaviour. We also assessed the importance of habit on shoppers' online behaviour. According to our results, online shoppers' habitual behaviour has a significant impact on affect. We also found that normative beliefs (social factors) are the preceding factor of habit in cases in which the shopping experience is not recurrent.
Connection between customer emotions and relationship quality in online music services BIBAFull-Text 633-651
  Manuel Sanchez-Franco; Francisco J. Rondan-Cataluña
Previous research focuses primarily on studying the influence of emotions on satisfaction in online music services, whereas few studies analyse their effects on trust and commitment. This study specifically examines the interaction role of emotions in relationship quality (i.e. a higher-order construct composed of commitment, satisfaction and trust). We hypothesise that emotions will exert a direct effect on relationship quality, but will also moderate the relationship between its components. An empirical survey is used to test the hypotheses. Data are collected from a total of 408 users of online music services from the UK, Germany and Denmark. The results provide strong support for the proposals that, on the one hand, satisfaction and trust lead customers towards developing high commitment to online music services; and, on the other hand, emotions are important quasi-moderators to engage in online service relationships. The results of this study could help online music service providers (a) to create a successful business model; and (b) to determine the main drivers of online loyalty.