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Behaviour and Information Technology 23

Editors:Tom Stewart
Publisher:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Standard No:ISSN 0144-929X
Links:Table of Contents
  1. BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 1
  2. BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 2
  3. BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 3
  4. BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 4
  5. BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 5
  6. BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 6

BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 1

SlideBar: Analysis of a linear input device BIBAFull-Text 1-9
  Leslie E. Chipman; Benjamin B. Bederson; Jennifer A. Golbeck
The SlideBar is a physical linear input device for absolute position control of 1° of freedom, consisting of a physical slider with a graspable knob positioned near or attached to the keyboard. Its range of motion is directly mapped to a one dimensional input widget such as a scrollbar. The SlideBar provides absolute position control in one dimension, is usable in the non-dominant hand in conjunction with a pointing device, and offers constrained passive haptic feedback. These characteristics make the device appropriate for the common class of tasks characterized by one-dimensional input and constrained range of operation. An empirical study of three devices (SlideBar, mouse controlled scrollbar, and mousewheel) shows that for common scrolling tasks, the SlideBar has a significant advantage over a standard mouse controlled scrollbar in user preference. In addition, users tended to prefer it over the mousewheel (without statistical significance).
Improving performance on procedural tasks through presentation of locational procedure context: an empirical evaluation BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Jennifer J. Ockerman; Amy R. Pritchett
Procedures in some form are used in almost all work domains to guide and define work. Using new small electronic devices, task guidance systems can be developed that change how workers follow and use procedures. The capability of task guidance systems to store large amounts of information in a small physical space allows for a single system to provide guidance for various tasks in a mobile environment. However, task guidance systems often have small information displays. Preliminary studies have shown that this drawback can impede task performance by causing a blind adherence to the presented procedures. To mitigate this effect, we examined the impact of presenting locational procedure context, in order to portray procedure steps within the larger organization of the procedure. The study examined the relationship between locational procedure context and task performance for the task of preflight inspection of a general aviation aircraft using wearable-computer task guidance systems. Results of the study suggest that the presentation of locational procedure context improves inspection performance by one measure but was not effective for another measure, and also provides some evidence that the medium on which a procedure is presented is not a factor in performance.
Denotation and connotation in the human?-?computer interface: The 'Save as ...' command BIBAFull-Text 21-31
  Chris Condon; Mark Perry; Robert O'Keefe
This paper presents a semiotic technique as a means of exploring meaning and understanding in interface design and use. This is examined through a study of the interaction between the 'file' metaphor and 'save as' command metaphor. The behaviour of these (from a functional or computational basis) do not exactly match, or map onto, the meaning of the metaphor. We examine both the denotation of a term to the user, i.e. its literal meaning to that person, and the term's connotations, i.e. any other meanings associated with the term. We suggest that the technique applied is useful in predicting future problems with understanding the use of metaphor at the interface and with designing appropriate signification for human-computer interaction. Variation in connotation was expected but a more fundamental difference in denotation was also uncovered. Moreover, the results clearly demonstrate that consistency in the denotation of a term is critical in achieving a good user understanding of the command.
Why are mobile phones annoying? BIBAFull-Text 33-41
  Andrew Monk; Jenni Carroll; Sarah Parker; Mark Blythe
Sixty four members of the public were exposed to the same staged conversation either while waiting in a bus station or travelling on a train. Half of the conversations were by mobile phone, so that only one end of the conversation was heard, and half were co present face-to-face conversations. The volume of the conversations was controlled at one of two levels: the actors' usual speech level and exaggeratedly loud. Following exposure to the conversation participants were approached and asked to give verbal ratings on six scales. Analysis of variance showed that mobile phone conversations were significantly more noticeable and annoying than face-to-face conversations at the same volume when the content of the conversation is controlled. Indeed this effect of medium was as large as the effect of loudness. Various explanations of this effect are explored, with their practical implications.
CRT monitors: Do they interfere with learning? BIBAFull-Text 43-52
  Kate J. Garland; Jan M. Noyes
Research suggests screen reading is slower and possibly less accurate than reading from paper. Six study and test sessions over 10 months examined correct scores and retrieval responses for learning material presented via these two media. Correct scores did not differ suggesting that close matching of material can eliminate any decrement in reading speed or accuracy from screens. However, the way in which knowledge was retrieved varied between the presentational formats. These differences were time related and suggest that repeated exposure and rehearsal of computer-based information is necessary to equate knowledge application with that achievable from hard copy alternatives. It is suggested that this difference might be due to cognitive interference caused by cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitor characteristics of refresh rates, fluctuating luminance, and contrast levels.
Long-term working memory and interrupting messages in human?-?computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 53-64
  Antti Oulasvirta; Pertti Saariluoma
The extent to which memory for information content is reliable, trustworthy, and accurate is crucial in the information age. Being forced to divert attention to interrupting messages is common, however, and can cause memory loss. The memory effects of interrupting messages were investigated in three experiments. In Experiment 1, attending to an interrupting message decreased memory accuracy. Experiment 2, where four interrupting messages were used, replicated this result. In Experiment 3, an interrupting message was shown to be most disturbing when it was semantically very close to the main message. Drawing from a theory of long-term working memory it is argued that interrupting messages can both disrupt the active semantic elaboration of content during encoding and cause semantic interference upon retrieval. Properties of the interrupting message affect the extent and type of errors in remembering. Design implications are discussed.
Comparative usability evaluation BIBAFull-Text 65-74
  Rolf Molich; Meghan R. Ede; Klaus Kaasgaard; Barbara Karyukin
This paper reports on a study assessing the consistency of usability testing across organisations. Nine independent organisations evaluated the usability of the same website, Microsoft Hotmail. The results document a wide difference in selection and application of methodology, resources applied, and problems reported. The organizations reported 310 different usability problems. Only two problems were reported by six or more organizations, while 232 problems (75%) were uniquely reported, that is, no two teams reported the same problem. Some of the unique findings were classified as serious. Even the tasks used by most or all teams produced very different results-around 70% of the findings for each of these tasks were unique. Our main conclusion is that our simple assumption that we are all doing the same and getting the same results in a usability test is plainly wrong.

BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 2

Reading vertical text from a computer screen BIBAFull-Text 75-82
  J. Laarni; J. Simola; I. Kojo; Nasaen Risto
In Western languages, text is traditionally presented in horizontal lines. However, reading of vertically arranged text might be more efficient because of the elimination of horizontal eye movements. We investigated the effect of vertical arrangement upon reading text presented on a computer screen. Even though vertically aligned text was read at a slower rate than horizontally aligned text, the difference was smaller than in previous studies. Analysis of eye-movement data revealed that there were no differences in fixation numbers and numbers of regressions between vertical formats and the standard-text format. But fixation durations were shorter for the standard-text format than for the vertical formats. Taken together, the results indicate that reading vertically presented text from a display device may be nearly as efficient as reading normal horizontal text. Therefore, the fact that text is normally vertically arranged in small-screen devices is not a usability problem.
Computerized feature systems for identifying suspects: empirical tests using crime scenarios BIBAFull-Text 83-96
  Eric Lee; Thom Whalen; Michael Terris; Andrew McCarthy
When a witness in a criminal investigation is asked to identify a suspect in a conventional, randomly ordered album of photographs, identification success deteriorates rapidly as more photos are examined. An alternative is a feature-based retrieval system in which mug shots of previous offenders are displayed in order of similarity to a witness's description of a suspect's facial features. Previous studies have shown that the use of a feature system increases identification success by reducing the number of photographs witnesses examine. However, those studies failed to test feature systems in naturalistic settings. Two experiments are reported showing that feature systems are, indeed, effective in more naturalistic settings. In one, subject witnesses viewed a 37-second videotape of a crime in progress. In the other, they witnessed a live confrontation between two people. Afterwards, witness descriptions of the facial features of each suspect were compared with those of 1000 official police mug shots on file. The number of photos to be examined to find target suspects was reduced from the 500 expected for the traditional album to an average of less than 25.
Empathy and online interpersonal trust: A fragile relationship BIBAFull-Text 97-106
  Jinjuan Feng; Jonathan Lazar; Jenny Preece
The rapid growth of personal email communication, instant messaging and online communities has brought attention to the important role of interpersonal trust in online communication. An empirical study was conducted focusing on the effect of empathy on online interpersonal trust in textual IM. To be more specific, the relationship between empathic accuracy, response type and online interpersonal trust was investigated. The result suggests both empathic accuracy and response type have significant influence on online interpersonal trust. The interaction between empathic accuracy and response type also significantly influences online trust. Interestingly, the results imply a relationship between daily trust attitude and online interpersonal trust. People who are more trusting in their daily life may experience more difficulty in developing trust online. There is also some evidence to suggest that different communication scenarios may have an influence on online trust.
Loyalty to computer terminals: is it anthropomorphism or consistency? BIBAFull-Text 107-118
  Shyam S. Sundar
The psychological tendency to behave socially with a computer is quite well documented in the literature. But does the short-term socialness of human-computer interaction extend over to long-term social relationships with computers? In particular, do we show loyalty to particular computer terminals over a period of time? An electronic observation of campus computer laboratories provided an affirmative answer, following which a survey of computer lab users was conducted to understand theoretical mechanisms governing self-reported loyalty to computers. In particular, it explored whether individual differences relating to psychological anthropomorphism and/or preference for consistency played a role in human loyalty toward computers. Results indicate that anthropomorphism more strongly predicts 'hardcore loyalty' to computers whereas consistency is more strongly associated with 'reinforcing loyalty.' This paper discusses theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
A modelling method for the development of groupware applications as socio-technical systems BIBAFull-Text 119-135
  Thomas Herrmann; Marcel Hoffmann; Gabriele Kunau; Kai-Uwe Loser
Special methodological approaches are needed, particularly in the area of modelling, to develop socio-technical systems in the field of CSCW. Engineering tasks and the development of organizational structures have to be integrated including elements of participatory design. From a theoretical background, needs for new modelling concepts can be derived: representation of contingency, explicit incompleteness, multiplicity of perspectives and self-referential meta-relations. Based on these concepts we developed the semi-structured, socio-technical modelling method SeeMe and used it in five empirical cases to assess its practical relevance. We found that SeeMe can help people to become aware of the specific features and requirements of 'their' socio-technical system and therefore enables them to take part in processes of learning and improvement.
Early use of Internet-based educational resources: effects on students' engagement modes and flow experience BIBAFull-Text 137-146
  Leif Hedman; Parvaneh Sharafi
This case study explores how educational training and clinical practice that uses personal computers (PCs) and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to access Internet-based medical information, affects the engagement modes of students, flow experience components, and IT-competence. A questionnaire assessing these variables was administered before and after a training course. A follow-up interview investigated the contextual factors related to the use of PDAs. There were significant increases in IT-competence and in the positive and negative modes of engagement except for the Ambition/Curiosity mode. The overall flow experience did not change significantly over time. The PDA users showed an increase in negative modes across time larger than PC users due to technical, emotional, and motivational factors. This study concludes that a student's interaction with PCs and, in particular, PDAs produces positive and negative engagement modes and flow experiences that can be better understood by using the Engagement Modes model (EM-model).

BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 3

Guest Editorial: HCI studies in management information systems BIBFull-Text 147-151
  Ping Zhang; Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah; Jenny Preece
A study on tolerable waiting time: how long are Web users willing to wait? BIBAFull-Text 153-163
  Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah
Web users often face a long waiting time for downloading Web pages. Although various technologies and techniques have been implemented to alleviate the situation and to comfort the impatient users, little research has been done to assess what constitutes an acceptable and tolerable waiting time for Web users. This research reviews the literature on computer response time and users' waiting time for download of Web pages, and assesses Web users' tolerable waiting time in information retrieval. It addresses the following questions through an experimental study: What is the effect of feedback on users' tolerable waiting time? How long are users willing to wait for a Web page to be downloaded before abandoning it? The results from this study suggest that the presence of feedback prolongs Web users' tolerable waiting time and the tolerable waiting time for information retrieval is approximately 2 s.
Do size and structure matter to mobile users? An empirical study of the effects of screen size, information structure, and task complexity on user activities with standard web phones BIBAFull-Text 165-181
  Minhee Chae; Jinwoo Kim
The small screens of mobile Internet devices, combined with the increasing complexity of mobile tasks, create a serious obstacle to usability in the mobile Internet. One way to circumvent the obstacle is to organize an information structure with efficient depth/breadth trade-offs. A controlled lab experiment was conducted to investigate how screen size and information structure affect user behaviours and perceptions. The moderating effects of task complexity on the relationship between screen size/information structure and user navigation/perceptions were also investigated. Study results indicate that both information structure and screen size significantly affect the navigation behaviour and perceptions of mobile Internet users. Task complexity was also found to heighten the influence of information structure on user behaviour and perceptions. The paper ends with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications, among them a key implication for mobile Internet businesses: for corporate intranet systems as well as m-commerce transaction systems, the horizontal depth of information structures should be adapted to task complexity and anticipated screen size.
The impact of web page text-background colour combinations on readability, retention, aesthetics and behavioural intention BIBAFull-Text 183-195
  Richard H. Hall; Patrick Hanna
The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text/background colour combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioural intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four colour-combination conditions. Major findings were: (a) Colours with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater readability; (b) colour combination did not significantly affect retention; (c) preferred colours (i.e., blues and chromatic colours) led to higher ratings of aesthetic quality and intention to purchase; and (d) ratings of aesthetic quality were significantly related to intention to purchase.
Senior government executives' use of the internet: A Bruneian scenario BIBAFull-Text 197-210
  Afzaal H. Seyal; Guus G. M. Pijpers
In gearing up the task of e-Government, the governments of the various economies are investing heavily in Information Technology (IT). The success of e-Government program therefore depends upon the IT literacy and skills of the senior government executives, especially in the use of the Internet. This study focuses on 100 senior government executives of the 10 different ministries of Brunei Darussalam. The results indicate that 70% of the senior executives have positive attitudes about the Internet. Results further show that 50% of these senior executives are in fact using the Internet and 66% of them are underutilizing the technology by just sending and receiving e-mails. The study further develops a normative model by using Davis's Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and by adding external variables. A Structural Equation Modelling technique is used to test the parsimony of the model. The final model has confirmed that external variables, PC self-efficacy and task variety contribute toward both the beliefs perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Only perceived ease of use contributes in determining the attitude that further predicts the Internet use of the senior government executives.
Adopters and non-adopters of internet stock trading in Singapore BIBAFull-Text 211-223
  Thompson S. H. Teo; Margaret Tan; Suat Nee Peck
This study examines the attitudes of adopters and non-adopters toward Internet stock trading in Singapore. Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire survey. Usable responses totaled 208 for adopters and 222 for non-adopters. This study examines the demographic profiles of adopters and non-adopters, stock trading frequency, and preferred stock trading method. It also examines the attitudes towards Internet stock trading in terms of security, economics of cost, importance of investment services, willingness to pay for financial services, percentage of stock trades transacted through the Internet, and change in trading behaviour due to the Internet. Implications of the results are discussed.

BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 4

An empirical evaluation of textual display configurations for supervisory tasks BIBAFull-Text 225-235
  Avi Parush
There is often a need to display logged information textually for real-time event-based supervisory tasks. Textual display design can follow several directions that reflect a tradeoff between a visual load and an operational load. The study reported here was designed in order to examine this tradeoff and its implications for such display design. An event-based monitoring and handling task was used with different event types having either a high or a low handling priority. The events were presented in four different display configurations varying in their degree of visual and operational load. The specific performance indices were event dwelling times, event handling proportion, and handling errors. In general it was found that the high priority events were handled faster and more accurately than the low priority events. In addition, performance with the various display configurations was dependent upon event type. These findings are discussed in terms of visual vs. operational load tradeoff and its context-sensitivity. Some implications for display design and further research on event presentation approaches are discussed.
Consumer reactions toward clicks and bricks: investigating buying behaviour on-line and at stores BIBAFull-Text 237-245
  Glenn J. Browne; John R. Durrett; James C. Wetherbe
The development of the world wide web created a new sales channel for retailers, and many thousands of companies have attempted to take advantage of this new method for reaching customers. Analysis of the 2000 stock market collapse suggests that business models relying on both internet ('clicks') and physical ('bricks') presences may be the most successful. Internet business problems include the need to structure internal and external business processes to serve customers appropriately, the need to provide adequate technological and physical infrastructures, and the need to understand customer consumption processes in 'virtual' and physical environments. The purpose of this research is to provide insight into these problems by investigating consumer beliefs and preferences about shopping on-line and in physical stores. We developed a research model and then performed an empirical investigation using two studies. Results and implications of the findings for business strategy are discussed.
The effects of multimodal feedback on older adults' task performance given varying levels of computer experience BIBAFull-Text 247-264
  Julie Jacko; V. Kathlene Emery; Paula J. Edwards; Mahima Ashok; Leon Barnard; Thitima Kongnakorn; Kevin P. Moloney; Francois Sainfort
This experiment examines the effect that computer experience and various combinations of feedback (auditory, haptic, and/or visual) have on the performance of older adults completing a drag-and-drop task on a computer. Participants were divided into three computer experience groups, based on their frequency of use and breadth of computer knowledge. Each participant completed a series of drag-and-drop tasks under each of seven feedback conditions (three unimodal, three bimodal, one trimodal). Performance was assessed using measures of efficiency and accuracy. Experienced users responded well to all multimodal feedback while users without experience responded well to auditory-haptic bimodal, but poorly to haptic-visual bimodal feedback. Based on performance benefits for older adults seen in this experiment, future research should extend investigations to effectively integrate multimodal feedback into GUI interfaces in order to improve usability for this growing and diverse user group.
On-the-move destination entry for vehicle navigation systems: Unsafe by any means? BIBAFull-Text 265-272
  G. E. Burnett; S. J. Summerskill; J. M. Porter
This paper outlines the arguments (and supporting evidence) both for and against allowing drivers to enter a destination with a vehicle navigation system while active in the primary driving task ('on-the-move'). The benefits and limitations of various safety-related interventions are discussed, including the use of warnings/instructions, safeguards and design improvements. Whilst it is clear that the visual, manual and cognitive demands associated with entering destinations using current vehicle navigation systems can be high, it is concluded that inhibiting the use of this functionality whilst on-the-move, particularly through the use of reactionary legislation, will not be the ideal solution. Rather, human factors research must investigate the potential for novel user-interfaces, develop reliable and valid methods for assessing the safety impact of different designs, and consider the wider issues of system use and behavioural adaptation.
The cognitive task analysis methods for job and task design: review and reappraisal BIBAFull-Text 273-299
  June Wei; Gavriel Salvendy
This paper reviews and reappraises the current research on the cognitive task analysis methodology for job or task design and analysis. Specifically, it classifies the current cognitive task analysis methods for job or task design and analysis, sorts out commonalities and differences among all these cognitive task analysis methodology for job and task design and analysis by conducting pros and cons comparisons, and provides guidelines in selecting cognitive task analysis methods for job and task design and analysis. Moreover, based on the current literature review, a validated human-centered information-processing model for cognitive task performance was developed based on human information processing theory. This new model focuses on identifying all cognitive aspects of human performance in technical work, with the goal of assisting job (re)design to increase human job performance.

BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 5

Hearing only one side of normal and mobile phone conversations BIBAFull-Text 301-305
  Andrew Monk; Evi Fellas; Eleanor Ley
Mobile (cell) phone conversations are commonly perceived as annoying when conducted in a public space. An experiment is described that demonstrates one factor contributing to this phenomenon: hearing only one side of a conversation makes it more noticeable and intrusive. Two actors repeatedly staged the same conversation under three conditions: cell phone; normal, co-present both audible, and co-present only one audible. After the staged conversation, which took place on a train, a third person obtained verbal ratings from members of the travelling public. As in a previous experiment published in this journal, the cell phone conversation was rated as more noticeable and intrusive than the normal co-present both audible conversation. Critically, a new experimental condition, co-present one-audible, in which both actors were present but only one side of the conversation was heard, produced ratings equivalent to the cell phone condition. This 'need-to-listen' effect is discussed with regard to implications for design and theories of language use.
CASSM and cognitive walkthrough: usability issues with ticket vending machines BIBAFull-Text 307-320
  Iain Connell; Ann Blandford; Thomas Green
We focus on the ability of two analytical usability evaluation methods (UEMs), namely CASSM (Concept-based Analysis for Surface and Structural Misfits) and Cognitive Walkthrough, to identify usability issues underlying the use made of two London Underground ticket vending machines. By setting both sets of issues against the observed interactions with the machines, we assess the similarities and differences between the issues depicted by the two methods. In so doing we de-emphasise the mainly quantitative approach which is typical of the comparative UEM literature. However, by accounting for the likely consequences of the issues in behavioural terms, we reduced the proportion of issues which were anticipated but not observed (the false positives), compared with that achieved by other UEM studies. We assess these results in terms of the limitations of problem count as a measure of UEM effectiveness. We also discuss the likely trade-offs between field studies and laboratory testing.
The acceptance of a computerised decision-support system in primary care: A preliminary investigation BIBAFull-Text 321-326
  Paul Van Schaik; Darren Flynn; Anna Van Wersch; Andrew Douglass; Paul Cann
Within the framework of technology acceptance modelling (Davis 1993), this study investigated the acceptance of a computerised decision-support system in primary care. Thirty general practitioners (GP) completed a questionnaire that detailed potential advantages of the system. A majority (70%) of GPs intended to use the system with a 2-min increase in consultation times (for proportion of GPs intending to use, CI0.95=[0.54;0.85]) and eight advantages of the system were predictors of intention to use (RL2=0.51, p<0.05). However, a majority (77%) did not intend to use the system with a 5-min increase in consultation time (CI0.95=[0.12;0.42]). Furthermore, a majority of 90% preferred the system to be used by non-physicians (CI0.95=[0.78;0.98]). These results confirm relationships between acceptance factors in a new domain, but most importantly they indicate the need to consider the balance of perceived advantages, or benefits, and disadvantages, or costs, of a new system in technology acceptance modelling. Implications for the design of a prototype system and further research are discussed.
Are electronic medical records associated with improved perceptions of the quality of medical records, working conditions, or quality of working life? BIBAFull-Text 327-335
  Ben-Tzion Karsh; John W. Beasley; Mary Ellen Hagenauer
The purposes of this study were to determine if users of electronic medical records (EMRs) perceived their medical records to be of higher quality than users of paper records and to examine the relationship between EMR use and perceptions of working conditions, quality of worklife and quality of care among family physicians. To do so, a cross-sectional survey of family physicians (n?=?1482) was conducted. Survey items included measurement of use of an EMR, perceptions of medical records, working conditions, job satisfaction, and quality of care. One hundred and forty-three physicians (23%) reported using EMRs. Physicians who used EMRs were significantly more satisfied with the quality of their medical records. EMR use was not related to other outcomes. While EMR users value their record systems higher than non-users value the traditional system, EMR systems do not appear to directly impact the other variables. Indirect relationships are suspected and should be tested.
Architectural criteria for website evaluation-conceptual framework and empirical validation BIBAFull-Text 337-357
  Seoyoung Hong; Jinwoo Kim
With the rapid development of the Internet, many types of websites have been developed. This variety of websites makes it necessary to adopt systemized evaluation criteria with a strong theoretical basis. This study proposes a set of evaluation criteria derived from an architectural perspective which has been used for over a 1000 years in the evaluation of buildings. The six evaluation criteria are internal reliability and external security for structural robustness, useful content and usable navigation for functional utility, and system interface and communication interface for aesthetic appeal. The impacts of the six criteria on user satisfaction and loyalty have been investigated through a large-scale survey. The study results indicate that the six criteria have different impacts on user satisfaction for different types of websites, which can be classified along two dimensions: users' goals and users' activity levels.
Predicting electronic service continuance with a decomposed theory of planned behaviour BIBAFull-Text 359-373
  Meng-Hsiang Hsu; Chao-Min Chiu
Previous research suggests that an eventual information technology (IT) success depends on both its initial adoption (acceptance) and subsequent continued usage (continuance). Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been successfully used to predict users' acceptance of IT. Yet, this theory has not been applied to the context of continuance of IT. This paper examines post-adoption cognitive beliefs and factors influencing one's intention to continue using (continuance) electronic services (e-services). Decomposed theory of planned behaviour (DTPB) is adapted from social psychology and integrated with theoretical and empirical findings from prior information systems (IS) usage research to theorize a model of e-service continuance. Specifically, the research model decomposes the perceived behavioural control components of TPB into Internet self-efficacy and perceived controllability, the subjective norm component into social influences and interpersonal influence, and the attitude component into perceived usefulness, perceived playfulness, and perceived risk. Nine research hypotheses derived from this model are empirically validated using a field survey of Web-based tax filing service users. The results suggest that users' continuance intention is determined by Internet self-efficacy and satisfaction. Satisfaction, in turn, is jointly determined by interpersonal influence, perceived usefulness, and perceived playfulness.
Book Review BIBFull-Text 375-376

BIT 2004 Volume 23 Issue 6

How physical text layout affects reading from screen BIBAFull-Text 377-393
  Mary C. Dyson
The primary objective of this paper is to critically evaluate empirical research on some variables relating to the configuration of text on screen to consolidate our current knowledge in these areas. The text layout variables are line length, columns, window size and interlinear spacing, with an emphasis on line length due to the larger number of studies related to this variable. Methodological issues arising from individual studies and from comparisons among studies are identified. A synthesis of results is offered which provides alternative interpretations of some findings and identifies the number of characters per line as the critical variable in looking at line length. Further studies are needed to explore the interactions between characters per line and eye movements, scrolling movements, reading patterns and familiarity with formats.
Computer self-efficacy in an ongoing use context BIBAFull-Text 395-412
  Xiaodong Deng; William J. Doll; Dothang Truong
The objective of this study is to examine whether computer self-efficacy continues to influence the use of information technology in an ongoing use context where experienced personnel use computers to do complex and dynamic knowledge work. Hypotheses are proposed concerning the determinants and consequences of computer self-efficacy. Using a survey of 153 engineers engaged in computer intensive design work, a preliminary test of the hypotheses is conducted using structural equation modelling (LISREL). The results suggest that the impact of self-efficacy on the effectiveness of ongoing computer use may be indirect, mediated by intrinsic motivation. The results also suggest that, in the ongoing use context, user autonomy, learning capabilities, and collegial support are determinants of computer self-efficacy. The conclusion is that computer self-efficacy continues to play an important role among ongoing users. Its influence is not limited to the early stages of user interaction with technology (i.e., adoption or training).
Internet privacy concerns and their antecedents-measurement validity and a regression model BIBAFull-Text 413-422
  Tamara Dinev; Paul Hart
This research focuses on the development and validation of an instrument to measure the privacy concerns of individuals who use the Internet and two antecedents, perceived vulnerability and perceived ability to control information. The results of exploratory factor analysis support the validity of the measures developed. In addition, the regression analysis results of a model including the three constructs provide strong support for the relationship between perceived vulnerability and privacy concerns, but only moderate support for the relationship between perceived ability to control information and privacy concerns. The latter unexpected results suggest that the relationship among the hypothesized antecedents and privacy concerns may be one that is more complex than is captured in the hypothesized model, in light of the strong theoretical justification for the role of information control in the extant literature on information privacy.
Using Hollywood one-liners to illustrate the communication process: an interactive approach BIBAFull-Text 423-426
  Steve Dunphy
The need to improve students' communication skills seems to be well documented. The question remains: what is an effective pedagogy for presenting a communication exercise? Lectures over textual material seem to result in 'eyes glazing over' in the typical, undergraduate course devoted to MIS principles. An exercise is proposed within that is experiential and that uses Hollywood one-liners that have proven themselves to be among the most famous lines ever uttered in Hollywood history. The proposed exercise uses these Hollywood utterances as a vehicle to illustrate the textual material. As such the author has found that it creates an exercise that is didactic, memorable and fun.
The speed of mouse-click as a measure of anxiety during human-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 427-433
  M. Macaulay
The monitoring of the human-computer interaction process is one of the essential aspects in the evaluation and enhancement of both task and affective outcome of human-computer interaction. However, although objective measures exist for task outcome, most affective measures are subjective. This study represented an investigation into the speed of mouse-click as a possible measure in human-computer interaction, and was based principally on the suggestions that a relationship exists between stress and motor activities involved in the operation of the fingers. Two groups of 30 subjects were exposed to different sets of human-computer interaction conditions, and the speed of mouse-click and state anxiety were examined. No correlation was found between the speed of mouse-click and state anxiety. However, a significant difference was found in the speed of mouse-click between the groups and the different human-computer interaction situations. The implication of these findings and the possible advantages of using the computer mouse to collect data relating to the computer user's covert state during human-computer interaction are discussed.
Using 3D sound as a navigational aid in virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 435-446
  Ryan Gunther; Rick Kazman; Carolyn MacGregor
As current virtual environments are less visually rich than real-world environments, careful consideration must be given to their design to ameliorate the lack of visual cues. One important design criterion in this respect is to make certain that adequate navigational cues are incorporated into complex virtual worlds. In this paper we show that adding 3D spatialized sound to a virtual environment can help people navigate through it. We conducted an experiment to determine if the incorporation of 3D sound (a) helps people find specific locations in the environment, and (b) influences the extent to which people acquire spatial knowledge about their environment. Our results show that the addition of 3D sound did reduce time taken to locate objects in a complex environment. However, the addition of sound did not increase the amount of spatial knowledge users were able to acquire. In fact, the addition of 3D auditory sound cues appears to suppress the development of overall spatial knowledge of the virtual environment.
Book Review BIBFull-Text 447