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INT Tables of Contents: 9095979901030507-107-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-415-115-2

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'09: Human-Computer Interaction 2009-08-24

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERACT'09: IFIP TC13 12th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II
Note:Research and Practice
Editors:Tom Gross; Jan Gulliksen; Paula Kotzé; Lars Oestreicher; Philippe Palanque; Raquel Oliveira Prates; Marco Winckler
Location:Uppsala, Sweden
Dates:2009-Aug-24 to 2009-Aug-28
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 5728
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-03657-6 (Print) 978-3-642-03658-3 (Online); hcibib: INT09-2
Papers:148
Pages:984
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. INT 2009-08-24 Volume 2
    1. Multimodal Interfaces 1
    2. Multimodal Interfaces 2
    3. Multimodal Interfaces 3
    4. Multi-user Interaction and Cooperation 1
    5. Multi-user Interaction and Cooperation 2
    6. Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 1
    7. Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 2
    8. Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 3
    9. Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 4
    10. Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 5
    11. Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 6
    12. Social Media/Social Networks
    13. Tangible User Interfaces and Robotics
    14. Tools for Design, Modelling and Evaluation 1
    15. Tools for Design, Modelling and Evaluation 2
    16. Usability Evaluation Methods
    17. User Experience 1
    18. User Experience 2
    19. User Interfaces for Safety Critical Systems and Health Care 1
    20. User Interfaces for Safety Critical Systems and Health Care 2
    21. User Interfaces for Web Applications and E-commerce
    22. Visualisation Techniques
    23. Demonstrations
    24. Doctoral Consortium
    25. Interactive Posters
    26. Panels
    27. Special Interest Groups
    28. Tutorials
    29. Workshops

INT 2009-08-24 Volume 2

Multimodal Interfaces 1

Ambiguous Keyboards and Scanning: The Relevance of the Cell Selection Phase BIBAKFull-Text 1-4
  Julio Miró-Borrás; Pablo Bernabeu-Soler; Raul Llinares; Jorge Igual
This paper focuses on the relevance of the cell selection phase in the overall performance of a text entry system based on scanning and with an ambiguous keyboard. Most of the layouts are designed trying only to minimize the ambiguity of the keyboard, and taking into consideration only the disambiguation process when entering text. Nevertheless, the number of scan cycles necessary for selecting the cells has great importance in the overall performance. As we show, the performance depends on the number of cells and the linguistic model used in the cell selection phase.
Keywords: Text Entry; Scanning; Ambiguous Keyboards; Disambiguation
Force Feedback Magnitude Effects on User's Performance during Target Acquisition: A Pilot Study BIBAKFull-Text 5-8
  Lode Vanacken; Joan De Boeck; Karin Coninx
Only a few guidelines exist for defining the force properties in a haptic interface; as a consequence, they are mostly determined in an ad-hoc manner. We investigate how the user's performance changes during target acquisition when increasing force amplitudes are applied. Using a simple multidirectional point-select task, forces with variable amplitudes are applied to the user while traversing from one target to the other. We find that the user's performance suddenly degrades significantly, rather than decreasing progressively. This finding may be important for defining guidelines which forces may and may not be applied to a user in order to allow the haptic feedback to improve, rather than deteriorate the user's performance.
Keywords: Force Feedback; Target Acquisition
Gaze-Assisted Pointing for Wall-Sized Displays BIBAKFull-Text 9-12
  Hans-Joachim Bieg; Lewis L. Chuang; Harald Reiterer
Previous studies have argued for the use of gaze-assisted pointing techniques (MAGIC) in improving human-computer interaction. Here, we present experimental findings that were drawn from human performance of two tasks on a wall-sized display. Our results show that a crude adoption of MAGIC across a range of complex tasks does not increase pointing performance. More importantly, a detailed analysis of user behavior revealed several issues that were previously ignored (such as, interference of corrective saccades, increased decision time due to variability of precision, errors due to eye-hand asynchrony, and interference with search behavior) which should influence the development of gaze-assisted technology.
Keywords: Eye-Tracking; Eye-Hand Coordination; Multimodal
Hand Pointing Accuracy for Vision-Based Interactive Systems BIBAKFull-Text 13-16
  Kelvin Cheng; Masahiro Takatsuka
Vision-based hand pointing interactive systems always assume implicitly that users' physical pointing accuracy is perfect. However, this may not be the case. We investigated the accuracy provided by users in three pointing strategies. Result showed that pointing inaccuracy can be as high as 239mm at 3 metres away and suggest that the line-up method provides the best accuracy overall.
Keywords: Hand Pointing; Pointing Accuracy; Computer Vision
Pen-Based Video Annotations: A Proposal and a Prototype for Tablet PCs BIBAKFull-Text 17-20
  Diogo Cabral; Nuno Correia
Pen computing or pen-based technology can be considered one of the most natural and intuitive computer input interface for humans. The combination of digital video and pen-based technology can support a new approach for electronic paper by associating handwritten notes and drawings with video segments. This paper presents a proposal for pen-based video annotations and a prototype for Tablet PCs, implementing this concept, particularly dynamic pen-based video annotations combined with real-time video tracking.
Keywords: Annotations; Video Annotations; Pen-based Annotations; Pen-based video Annotations; Tablet PCs
Human Perception of Near-Duplicate Videos BIBAKFull-Text 21-24
  Rodrigo de Oliveira; Mauro Cherubini; Nuria Oliver
Popular content in video sharing websites (e.g., YouTube) contains many duplicates. Most scholars define near-duplicate video clips (NDVC) as identical videos with variations on non-semantic features (e.g., image/audio quality), while a few others also include semantic features (different videos of similar content). However, it is unclear what exact features contribute to human perception of similar videos. In this paper, we present the results of a user study conducted with 217 users of video sharing websites. Findings confirm the relevance of both classes of features, but the exact role played by semantics on each instance of NDVC is still an open question. In most cases, participants had a preference for one video when compared to its NDVC and they were more tolerant to changes in the audio than in the video channel.
Keywords: NDVC; near-duplicate; similarity; user study; YouTube

Multimodal Interfaces 2

PressureMove: Pressure Input with Mouse Movement BIBAKFull-Text 25-39
  Kang Shi; Sriram Subramanian; Pourang Irani
We present PressureMove a pressure based interaction technique that enables simultaneous control of pressure input and mouse movement. Simultaneous control of pressure and mouse movement can support tasks that require control of multiple parameters, like rotation and translation of an object, or pan-and-zoom. We implemented four variations of PressureMove techniques for a 2D position and orientation matching task where pressure manipulations mapped to object orientation and mouse movement to object translation. The Naive technique mapped raw pressure-sensor values to the object rotation; the Rate-based technique mapped discrete pressure values to speed of rotation and Hierarchical and Hybrid techniques that use a two-step approach to control orientation using pressure. In user study that compared the four techniques with the default mouse-only technique we found that Rate-based PressureMove was the fastest technique with the least number of crossings and as preferred as the default mouse in terms of user-preference. We discuss the implications of our user study and present several design guidelines.
Keywords: Pressure-input; integrality of input dimensions; pressure and movement alternative interaction techniques
Bimanual Interaction with Interscopic Multi-Touch Surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 40-53
  Johannes Schöning; Frank Steinicke; Antonio Krüger; Klaus Hinrichs; Dimitar Valkov
Multi-touch interaction has received considerable attention in the last few years, in particular for natural two-dimensional (2D) interaction. However, many application areas deal with three-dimensional (3D) data and require intuitive 3D interaction techniques therefore. Indeed, virtual reality (VR) systems provide sophisticated 3D user interface, but then lack efficient 2D interaction, and are therefore rarely adopted by ordinary users or even by experts. Since multi-touch interfaces represent a good trade-off between intuitive, constrained interaction on a touch surface providing tangible feedback, and unrestricted natural interaction without any instrumentation, they have the potential to form the foundation of the next generation user interface for 2D as well as 3D interaction. In particular, stereoscopic display of 3D data provides an additional depth cue, but until now the challenges and limitations for multi-touch interaction in this context have not been considered. In this paper we present new multi-touch paradigms and interactions that combine both traditional 2D interaction and novel 3D interaction on a touch surface to form a new class of multi-touch systems, which we refer to as interscopic multi-touch surfaces (iMUTS). We discuss iMUTS-based user interfaces that support interaction with 2D content displayed in monoscopic mode and 3D content usually displayed stereoscopically. In order to underline the potential of the proposed iMUTS setup, we have developed and evaluated two example interaction metaphors for different domains. First, we present intuitive navigation techniques for virtual 3D city models, and then we describe a natural metaphor for deforming volumetric datasets in a medical context.
Keywords: Multi-touch Interaction; Interscopic Interaction; 3D User Interfaces
Multimodal Media Center Interface Based on Speech, Gestures and Haptic Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 54-57
  Markku Turunen; Jaakko Hakulinen; Juho Hella; Juha-Pekka Rajaniemi; Aleksi Melto; Erno Mäkinen; Jussi Rantala; Tomi Heimonen; Tuuli Laivo; Hannu Soronen; Mervi Hansen; Pellervo Valkama; Toni Miettinen; Roope Raisamo
We present a multimodal media center interface based on speech input, gestures, and haptic feedback (hapticons). In addition, the application includes a zoomable context + focus GUI in tight combination with speech output. The resulting interface is designed for and evaluated with different user groups, including visually and physically impaired users. Finally, we present the key results from its user evaluation and public pilot studies.
Keywords: Speech; haptics; gestures; multimodal interaction; media center
Comparing Gestures and Traditional Interaction Modalities on Large Displays BIBAKFull-Text 58-61
  António Neto; Carlos Duarte
Interfaces based on gesture recognition offer a simple and intuitive alternative to the use of traditional menus, keyboard and mouse. In this paper we explore the field of gestural interaction on large screen displays, presenting the results of a study where users employ gestures to perform common actions in various applications suited for large displays. Results show the actions for which gestural interaction is a best asset compared to traditional interaction.
Keywords: Gestures; Large Displays; Touch Screens; User-centered Study

Multimodal Interfaces 3

Bodily Explorations in Space: Social Experience of a Multimodal Art Installation BIBAKFull-Text 62-75
  Giulio Jacucci; Anna Spagnolli; Alessandro Chalambalakis; Ann Morrison; Lassi A. Liikkanen; Stefano Roveda; Massimo Bertoncini
We contribute with an extensive field study of a public interactive art installation that applies multimodal interface technologies. The installation is part of a Theater production on Galileo Galilei and includes: projected galaxies that are generated and move according to motion of visitors changing colour depending on their voices; projected stars that configure themselves around shadows of visitors. In the study we employ emotion scales (PANAS), qualitative analysis of questionnaire answers and video-recordings. PANAS rates indicate dominantly positive feelings, further described in the subjective verbalizations as gravitating around interest, ludic pleasure and transport. Through the video analysis, we identified three phases in the interaction with the artwork (circumspection, testing, play) and two pervasive features of these phases (experience sharing and imitation), which were also found in the verbalizations. Both video and verbalisations suggest that visitor's experience and ludic pleasure are rooted in the embodied, performative interaction with the installation, and is negotiated with the other visitors.
Keywords: User studies; Art & entertainment; Multimodal interfaces; emotions
Advanced Maintenance Simulation by Means of Hand-Based Haptic Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 76-88
  Michele Nappi; Luca Paolino; Stefano Ricciardi; Monica Sebillo; Giuliana Vitiello
Aerospace industry has been involved in virtual simulation for design and testing since the birth of virtual reality. Today this industry is showing a growing interest in the development of haptic-based maintenance training applications, which represent the most advanced way to simulate maintenance and repair tasks within a virtual environment by means of a visual-haptic approach. The goal is to allow the trainee to experiment the service procedures not only as a workflow reproduced at a visual level but also in terms of the kinaesthetic feedback involved with the manipulation of tools and components. This study, conducted in collaboration with aerospace industry specialists, is aimed to the development of an immersive virtual capable of immerging the trainees into a virtual environment where mechanics and technicians can perform maintenance simulation or training tasks by directly manipulating 3D virtual models of aircraft parts while perceiving force feedback through the haptic interface. The proposed system is based on ViRstperson, a virtual reality engine under development at the Italian Center for Aerospace Research (CIRA) to support engineering and technical activities such as design-time maintenance procedure validation, and maintenance training. This engine has been extended to support haptic-based interaction, enabling a more complete level of interaction, also in terms of impedance control, and thus fostering the development of haptic knowledge in the user. The user's "sense of touch" within the immersive virtual environment is simulated through an Immersion CyberForce® hand-based force-feedback device. Preliminary testing of the proposed system seems encouraging.
Keywords: Haptics; Virtual Reality; Multimodal Interfaces
Multimodal Interaction within Ambient Environments: An Exploratory Study BIBAKFull-Text 89-92
  Yacine Bellik; Issam Rebaï; Edyta Machrouh; Yasmin Barzaj; Christophe Jacquet; Gaëtan Pruvost; Jean-Paul Sansonnet
Inputs and outputs are not two independent phenomena in multimodal systems. This paper examines the relationship that exists between them. We present the results of a Wizard of Oz experiment which shows that output modalities used by the system have an influence on the users' input modalities for a large category of users. The experiment took place in a smart room. This kind of environment does not require any particular knowledge about computers and their use and thus allowed us to study the behavior of ordinary people including subjects who are not familiar with computers. The experiment also shows that speech is a favorite modality within smart room environments for a large part of users. We think that the results presented in this paper will be useful for the design of intelligent multimodal systems.
Keywords: Multimodal; Interaction; Wizard of Oz; Modality; Ambient Environment; Ordinary People
Multimodal Interaction: Intuitive, Robust, and Preferred? BIBAKFull-Text 93-96
  Anja Naumann; Ina Wechsung; Jörn Hurtienne
We investigated if and under which conditions multimodal interfaces (touch, speech, motion control) fulfil the expectation of being superior to unimodal interfaces. The results show that the possibility of multimodal interaction with a handheld mobile device turned out to be more intuitive, more robust, and more preferred than the interaction with the individual modalities speech and motion control. However, it was not clearly superior to touch.
Keywords: multimodal interfaces; intuitive use; usability

Multi-user Interaction and Cooperation 1

Sharing Map Annotations in Small Groups: X Marks the Spot BIBAKFull-Text 97-110
  Ben Congleton; Jacqueline Cerretani; Mark W. Newman; Mark S. Ackerman
Advances in location-sensing technology, coupled with an increasingly pervasive wireless Internet, have made it possible (and increasingly easy) to access and share information with context of one's geospatial location. We conducted a four-phase study, with 27 students, to explore the practices surrounding the creation, interpretation and sharing of map annotations in specific social contexts. We found that annotation authors consider multiple factors when deciding how to annotate maps, including the perceived utility to the audience and how their contributions will reflect on the image they project to others. Consumers of annotations value the novelty of information, but must be convinced of the author's credibility. In this paper we describe our study, present the results, and discuss implications for the design of software for sharing map annotations.
Keywords: Map Annotation; Social Media; Sharing; Location Based Computing; HCI; Requirements Analysis
Effect of Peripheral Communication Pace on Attention Allocation in a Dual-Task Situation BIBAKFull-Text 111-124
  Sofiane Gueddana; Nicolas Roussel
Peripheral displays allow continuous awareness of information while performing other activities. Monitoring such a display while performing a central task has a cognitive cost that depends on its perceptual salience and the distraction it causes, i.e. the amount of attention it attracts away from the user's primary action. This paper considers the particular case of peripheral displays for interpersonal communication. It reports on an experiment that studied the effect of peripheral communication pace on subjects' allocation of attention in a dual-task situation: a snapshot-based peripheral monitoring task where participants need to assess the presence of a remote person, and a central text-correcting task against the clock. Our results show that the addition of the peripheral task caused a drop in the success rate of the central task. As the pace of snapshots increased, success rate decreased on the peripheral task while on the central one, success rate remained the same but failures to reply in time occurred more frequently. These results suggest that the increase in pace of snapshots caused participants to change their strategy for the central task and allocate more attention to the peripheral one, not enough to maintain peripheral performance but also not to the point where it would affect central performance. Overall, our work suggests that peripheral communication pace subtly influences attention allocation in dual-task situations. We conclude by discussing how control over information pace could help users of communication systems to adjust their local distraction as well as the attention they draw from remote users.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; peripheral communication; attention allocation
Is the Writing on the Wall for Tabletops? BIBAKFull-Text 125-137
  Nadia Pantidi; Yvonne Rogers; Hugh Robinson
We describe an ethnographic study that explores how low tech and new tech surfaces support participation and collaboration during a workshop breakout session. The low tech surfaces were post-it notes and large sheets of paper. The new tech surfaces were writeable walls and a multi-touch tabletop. Four groups used the different surfaces during three phases: i) brief presentation of position papers and discussion of themes, ii) the creation of a group presentation and iii) a report back session. Participation and collaboration varied depending on the physical, technological and social factors at play when using the different surfaces. We discuss why this is the case, noting how new shareable surfaces may need to be constrained to invite participation in ways that are simply taken for granted because of their familiarity when using low tech materials.
Keywords: Collaboration; equitable participation; interactive tabletops; workshops
Investigating the Effect of Hyperlink Information Scent on Users' Interaction with a Web Site BIBAKFull-Text 138-142
  Nikolaos K. Tselios; Christos Katsanos; Nikolaos M. Avouris
In the study presented in this paper we investigate how variations of information scent of hyperlinks of a webpage influence users' behavior in terms of attention-focusing, confidence, effectiveness and efficiency, while exploring a website. In the reported study, 19 participants completed eight different tasks associated with eight simplified websites. Analysis of the results showed that even small differences in the target-link's information scent can substantially affect users' performance, distribution of attention and confidence. The study contributes to the related literature by quantifying the impact of even small differences in the target-link's scent on users' success ratio, time for first click, confidence and distribution of attention. In addition, a scent threshold value was identified, below which all the measured variables were substantially affected, and thus the link could be characterized as of "weak scent".
Keywords: Information scent; eye tracking study; Latent Semantic Analysis

Multi-user Interaction and Cooperation 2

Interpersonal Privacy Management in Distributed Collaboration: Situational Characteristics and Interpretive Influences BIBAKFull-Text 143-156
  Sameer Patil; Alfred Kobsa; Ajita John; Lynne Shapiro Brotman; Dorée D. Seligmann
To understand how collaborators reconcile the often conflicting needs of awareness and privacy, we studied a large software development project in a multinational corporation involving individuals at sites in the U.S. and India. We present a theoretical framework describing privacy management practices and their determinants that emerged from field visits, interviews, and questionnaire responses. The framework identifies five relevant situational characteristics: issue(s) under consideration, physical place(s) involved in interaction(s), temporal aspects, affordances and limitations presented by technology, and nature of relationships among parties. Each actor, in turn, interprets the situation based on several simultaneous influences: self, team, work site, organization, and cultural environment. This interpretation guides privacy management action(s). Past actions form a feedback loop refining and/or reinforcing the interpretive influences. The framework suggests that effective support for privacy management will require that designers follow a socio-technical approach incorporating a wider scope of situational and interpretive differences.
Keywords: Privacy; Awareness; Distributed collaboration; Privacy management
Assessing the "Quality of Collaboration" in Technology-Mediated Design Situations with Several Dimensions BIBAKFull-Text 157-160
  Jean-Marie Burkhardt; Françoise Détienne; Anne-Marie Hébert; Laurence Perron
Our objective is to measure and compare the quality of collaboration in technology-mediated design activities. Our position is to consider collaboration as multidimensional. We present a method to assess quality of collaboration composed of seven dimensions concerning communication processes such as grounding, coordination processes, task-related processes, symmetry of individual contributions as well as motivational processes.
Keywords: multi-user interaction /cooperation; collaboration; design; methodology; cognitive ergonomics; CSCL
A Multi-touch Tool for Co-creation BIBAKFull-Text 161-164
  Geke D. S. Ludden; Tom Broens
Multi-touch technology provides an attractive way for knowledge workers to collaborate. Co-creation is an important collaboration process in which collecting resources, creating results and distributing these results is essential. We propose a wall-based multi-touch system (called CoCreate) in which these steps are made easy due to the notion of connected private spaces and a shared co-create space. We present our ongoing work, expert evaluation of interaction scenarios and future plans.
Keywords: multi-touch; wall; interaction scenario; CoCreate
GColl: A Flexible Videoconferencing Environment for Group-to-Group Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 165-168
  Petr Slovák; Pavel Troubil; Petr Holub
In this paper, we present GColl, a group-to-group videoconferencing environment concept, which aims to provide a natural communication channel even for ad-hoc groups or other teams that require frequent changes in the number of participants or videoconferencing locations. GColl supports mutual gaze as well as partial gaze awareness for all participants while still retaining very modest technical requirements: a camera and an echo-canceling microphone at each site; and a notebook with two USB cameras for each user. A working prototype is available for download.
Keywords: Videoconferencing; CMC; Gaze Awareness; Mutual Gaze; Partial Gaze Awareness; Mixed Presence; Presence Disparity
Space as a Resource in Creative Design Practices BIBAKFull-Text 169-172
  Dhaval Vyas; Gerrit C. van der Veer; Dirk Heylen; Anton Nijholt
Based on longitudinal ethnographic fieldwork in two industrial design departments and two design companies, we explore the role of spatial arrangements for supporting creative design practices within different design studios. From our results, we show that designers explicitly make use of the physical space for 1) communicating and inspiring design ideas, 2) exploring design solutions and 3) managing design projects. We believe that these design practices could bring insightful implications for developing ubiquitous technologies to support the design profession.
Keywords: Workspace; design practice; ethnography; creativity

Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 1

five: Enhancing 3D Wall Displays with a 2D High-Resolution Overlay BIBAKFull-Text 173-186
  Daniel Steffen; Achim Ebert; Matthias Deller; Peter Dannenmann
Projection-based stereoscopic wall displays allow users to immerse themselves into virtual scenes, such as architecture simulations or games. However, the usually low resolution (dpi) of such displays and slight alignment offsets between the two projectors result in a loss of detail and bad readability of textual information.
   We propose addressing the problem by overlaying a third projector, so that its image is visible to both eyes. We eliminate offset artifacts by extracting 2D contents from the scene and rendering it using this dedicated "2D projector". In addition, we locally increase resolution by focusing the 2D projector onto a smaller region. This allows us to reduce the size of overlaid 2D annotations, thereby reducing interference with the 3D scene. In our paper, we describe the design of our display system called five. Following, we present two detailed user studies that compare five with an overview-and-detail and a pan-and-zoom interface.
Keywords: Focus-plus-context screens; stereoscopy; peripheral vision; experimental evaluation
Improving Window Switching Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 187-200
  Susanne Tak; Andy Cockburn; Keith Humm; David Ahlström; Carl Gutwin; Joey Scarr
Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but current switching mechanisms make it difficult to find items. We carried out a longitudinal study that recorded actual window switching behaviour. We found that window revisitation is very common, and that people spend most time working with a small set of windows and applications. We identify two design principles from these observations. First, spatial constancy in the layout of items in a switching interface can aid memorability and support revisitation. Second, gradually adjusting the size of application and window zones in a switcher can improve visibility and targeting for frequently-used items. We carried out two studies to confirm the value of these design ideas. The first showed that spatially stable layouts are significantly faster than the commonly-used recency layout. The second showed that gradual adjustments to accommodate new applications and windows do not reduce performance.
Keywords: window switching; revisitation patterns; spatial constancy
The Panopticon and the Performance Arena: HCI Reaches within BIBAKFull-Text 201-204
  Ann Light; Peter C. Wright
The impact of new technologies is hard to predict. We suggest the value of theories of performativity in understanding dynamics around the convergence of biomedical and information technology. Drawing on the ideas of Butler and Foucault, we discuss a new, internal, context for HCI and raise potentially disturbing issues with monitoring health. We argue that by adopting explicitly social framings we can see beyond the idea of medical interventions to tools for wellbeing and recognize more of the implications of looking within.
Keywords: performativity; bodies; embodiment; biomedical; convergence

Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 2

Exploring the Use of Discrete Gestures for Authentication BIBAKFull-Text 205-213
  Ming Ki Chong; Gary Marsden
Research in user authentication has been a growing field in HCI. Previous studies have shown that peoples' graphical memory can be used to increase password memorability. On the other hand, with the increasing number of devices with built-in motion sensors, kinesthetic memory (or muscle memory) can also be exploited for authentication. This paper presents a novel knowledge-based authentication scheme, called gesture password, which uses discrete gestures as password elements. The research presents a study of multiple password retention using PINs and gesture passwords. The study reports that although participants could use kinesthetic memory to remember gesture passwords, retention of PINs is far superior to retention of gesture passwords.
Keywords: User authentication; gesture passwords; discrete gestures
AirMouse: Finger Gesture for 2D and 3D Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 214-227
  Michael Ortega; Laurence Nigay
This paper presents AirMouse, a new interaction technique based on finger gestures above the laptop's keyboard. At a reasonably low cost, the technique can replace the traditional methods for pointing in two or three dimensions. Moreover, the device-switching time is reduced and no additional surface than the one for the laptop is needed. In a 2D pointing evaluation, a vision-based implementation of the technique is compared with commonly used devices. The same implementation is also compared with the two most commonly used 3D pointing devices. The two user experiments show the benefits of the polyvalent technique: it is easy to learn, intuitive and efficient by providing good performance. In particular, our conducted experiment shows that performance with AirMouse is promising in comparison with a touchpad and with dedicated 3D pointing devices. It shows that AirMouse offers better performance as compared to FlowMouse, a previous solution using fingers above the keyboard.
Keywords: AirMouse; interaction; 2D/3D pointing; computer vision; Fitts' law
Follow My Finger Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 228-231
  Rami Ajaj; Frédéric Vernier; Christian Jacquemin
This paper presents a novel interaction technique called Follow my Finger (FmF) for navigation in 3D virtual environments using a 2D interactive view on a table-top device. FmF consists in moving a camera icon that represents the 2D subjective position and orientation of a viewpoint in the 3D world. Planar, tactile, and direct manipulation of the camera icon facilitates navigation in the 3D environment. From the user's perspective the camera icon follows her/his finger trajectory to interactively modify the horizontal location, inclination, and orientation of the 3D point of view.
Keywords: Table-top; navigation; interaction technique; 3D environments
DGTS: Integrated Typing and Pointing BIBAKFull-Text 232-235
  Iman Habib; Niklas Berggren; Erik Rehn; Gustav Josefsson; Andreas Kunz; Morten Fjeld
Capacitive sensing is used in many different fields of application. It has been implemented in such devices as mobile phones and remote controls. However, up until now the physical sensing area has remained limited despite the widespread use of larger input devices such as keyboards. We present DGTS, which seamlessly integrates keyboard typing and cursor pointing. This input device offers multi-finger operation for scrolling and other specialized input commands. The objective of this work is to replace computer mice and touchpads by integrating capacitive sensing into a layer within the keyboard thereby reducing the space required for pointing devices. This paper gives the technical background, shows our contribution, and concludes with initial tests.
Keywords: Capacitive sensing; touchpad; multi pointer; typing; pointing

Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 3

Understanding Multi-touch Manipulation for Surface Computing BIBAKFull-Text 236-249
  Chris North; Tim Dwyer; Bongshin Lee; Danyel Fisher; Petra Isenberg; George G. Robertson; Kori Inkpen
Two-handed, multi-touch surface computing provides a scope for interactions that are closer analogues to physical interactions than classical windowed interfaces. The design of natural and intuitive gestures is a difficult problem as we do not know how users will approach a new multi-touch interface and which gestures they will attempt to use. In this paper we study whether familiarity with other environments influences how users approach interaction with a multi-touch surface computer as well as how efficiently those users complete a simple task. Inspired by the need for object manipulation in information visualization applications, we asked users to carry out an object sorting task on a physical table, on a tabletop display, and on a desktop computer with a mouse. To compare users' gestures we produced a vocabulary of manipulation techniques that users apply in the physical world and we compare this vocabulary to the set of gestures that users attempted on the surface without training. We find that users who start with the physical model finish the task faster when they move over to using the surface than users who start with the mouse.
Keywords: Surface; Multi-touch; Gestures; Tabletop
How Not to Become a Buffoon in Front of a Shop Window: A Solution Allowing Natural Head Movement for Interaction with a Public Display BIBAKFull-Text 250-263
  Omar Mubin; Tatiana Lashina; Evert van Loenen
The user interaction solution described in this paper was developed in the context of an Intelligent Shop Window (ISW) with an aim to offer a user the interaction solution where system response would be triggered by naturally gazing at products. We have analyzed a possibility to realize such a user interaction solution using gaze tracking and concluded that remote calibration free eye tracking is still a subject of academic research, but that head tracking could be used instead. We argue that conventional use of head tracking requires conscious intentional head movements and thus does not fit into the context of applications such as the ISW. We further describe our experiment aimed to explore how head movements relate to eye movements when looking at objects in a shop window context. We show large variability in head movement and that per individual the gaze-head data could well be approximated with a straight line. Based on these results we propose a new solution that enables natural gaze interaction by means of head tracking.
Keywords: Gaze Interaction; Head Tracking; Augmented Reality Systems
Chucking: A One-Handed Document Sharing Technique BIBAKFull-Text 264-278
  Nabeel Hassan; Md. Mahfuzur Rahman; Pourang Irani; Peter Graham
Usage patterns of private mobile devices are constantly evolving. For example, researchers have recently found that mobile users prefer using their devices with only one hand. Furthermore, current hardware in these devices reduces the need for a stylus and instead relies on finger input. However, current interactive techniques, such as those used for sharing documents between private and public devices have not taken advantage of these recent developments. For example a popular technique, Flick for sharing documents between devices relies on pen and stylus use and has not been adapted to support one-handed interaction. In this paper, we present Chucking, a gesture-based technique for sharing documents between private mobile devices and public displays. Chucking is based on the natural human gesture used for throwing or passing objects. We present the various design parameters that make Chucking an effective document sharing technique. In a document positioning task, we evaluated Chucking against Flicking. Our results show that under certain contexts users were more accurate and effective with Chucking. Participants also preferred Chucking as it maps closely the type of interaction one naturally performs to share objects. We also introduce extensions to Chucking, such as Chuck-Back, Chuck-and-Rotate, and Chuck-and-Place that constitute a suite of techniques that facilitate a large range of document sharing interactions between private mobile devices and public displays.
Keywords: Chucking; Flicking; public-to-private document sharing; multi-document environments (MDEs)
This Just In! Your Life in the Newspaper BIBAKFull-Text 279-292
  Bruno Antunes; Tiago João Vieira Guerreiro; Daniel Gonçalves
It is not uncommon for computer users to work on several things at once. However, to the computer, all documents, emails and applications are considered equal, regardless of why they were created or used. Little support is provided when trying to recall important information about a particular project or subject at a later time. What is more, there is no effective way to help users review their past activities to identify when a particular subject was of importance, what were their concerns at a given moment in the past, or simply review their activities during a period of time at a glance. In this paper we describe PersonalNews, a system in which users are presented with a personal newspaper, in which the news articles describe the subjects they were concerned with in a given period of time. Those articles are automatically generated from the users' documents, grouped according to their subject and analyzed for relevant passages describing them. We show that PersonalNews is able to recognize the subjects and projects the users were involved in, and even help them recall some they had forgotten about. Also, it can be used effectively to help retrieve documents on particular subjects.
Keywords: Personal Information Management; Personal Document Retrieval; Newspaper Metaphor; Information Visualization

Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 4

Instruction, Feedback and Biometrics: The User Interface for Fingerprint Authentication Systems BIBAKFull-Text 293-305
  Chris Riley; Graham Johnson; Heather McCracken; Ahmed Al-Saffar
Biometric authentication is the process of establishing an individual's identity through measurable characteristics of their behaviour, anatomy or physiology. Biometric technologies, such as fingerprint systems, are increasingly being used in a diverse range of contexts from immigration control, to banking and personal computing. As is often the case with emerging technologies, the usability aspects of system design have received less attention than technical aspects. Fingerprint systems pose a number of challenges for users and past research has identified issues with correct finger placement, system feedback and instruction. This paper describes the development of an interface for fingerprint systems using an iterative, participative design approach. During this process, several different methods for the presentation of instruction and feedback were identified. The different types of instruction and feedback were tested in a study involving 82 participants. The results showed that feedback had a statistically significant effect on overall system performance, but instruction did not. The design recommendations emerging from this study, and the use of participatory design in this context, are discussed.
Keywords: Biometrics; Fingerprint; Instruction; Feedback
Measurement of Olfactory Characteristics for Two Kinds of Scent in a Single Breath BIBAKFull-Text 306-318
  Kaori Ohtsu; Junta Sato; Yuichi Bannai; Ken-ichi Okada
This study describes a presentation technique of scent designed for users to recognize multiple scents during a very short time period. We measured the olfactory characteristics of subjects when two kinds of scents were presented in a single breath. We defined and measured the minimum ejection interval in which subjects could discriminate the two individually emitted pulses of scent, which we term "separable detection threshold", and the minimum ejection interval in which they could specify both kinds of scents, "separable recognition threshold". Further, "response time" and "duration of scent perception" were measured. As a result, we found the duration of scent perception and the separable recognition threshold were positively correlated. Knowledge of this olfactory characteristic brings us closer to being able to provide a greater sense of realism in multimedia environments, by describing more than one object by scent at the same time as the objects are seen on screen.
Keywords: Olfactory Information; Olfactory Display; Pulse Ejection; Olfactory Characteristics
Keyboard before Head Tracking Depresses User Success in Remote Camera Control BIBAKFull-Text 319-331
  Dingyun Zhu; Tom Gedeon; Ken Taylor
In remote mining, operators of complex machinery have more tasks or devices to control than they have hands. For example, operating a rock breaker requires two handed joystick control to position and fire the jackhammer, leaving the camera control to either automatic control or require the operator to switch between controls. We modelled such a teleoperated setting by performing experiments using a simple physical game analogue, being a half size table soccer game with two handles. The complex camera angles of the mining application were modelled by obscuring the direct view of the play area and the use of a Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) camera. The camera control was via either a keyboard or via head tracking using two different sets of head gestures called "head motion" and "head flicking" for turning camera motion on/off. Our results show that the head motion control was able to provide a comparable performance to using a keyboard, while head flicking was significantly worse. In addition, the sequence of use of the three control methods is highly significant. It appears that use of the keyboard first depresses successful use of the head tracking methods, with significantly better results when one of the head tracking methods was used first. Analysis of the qualitative survey data collected supports that the worst (by performance) method was disliked by participants. Surprisingly, use of that worst method as the first control method significantly enhanced performance using the other two control methods.
Keywords: Head Tracking; Remote Camera Control; Human Computer Interaction; Teleoperation; Usability Evaluation
QualiTrack: Highspeed TUI Tracking for Tabletop Applications BIBAKFull-Text 332-335
  Ramon Hofer; Thomas Nescher; Andreas M. Kunz
In this paper, we present a new technology to track multiple active Tangible User Interfaces (TUI) on a projection table. We use a commercial high speed infrared tracking camera with modified firmware. With a special tracking method, we reach update rates of up to 250 Hz with low latencies. At this tracking rate, we are able to track the position, state and the orientation of more than 10 active TUIs on the table. For this, we use specified bit codes which are transmitted by the devices. We developed dedicated hardware (SyncUnit) and software to keep the devices and the high speed camera synchronized. The system of camera, SyncUnit, and devices is fully hardware controlled and delivers event coded tracking data for further usage in interactive applications.
Keywords: Single Display Groupware; Tangible User Interfaces; CSCW; Tracking; high speed; low latency
Augmenting Surface Interaction through Context-Sensitive Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 336-339
  Alex Olwal
We discuss the benefits of using a mobile device to expand and improve the interactions on a large touch-sensitive surface. The mobile device's denser arrangement of pixels and touch-sensor elements, and its rich set of mechanical on-board input controls, can be leveraged for increased expressiveness, visual feedback and more precise direct-manipulation. We also show how these devices can support unique input from multiple simultaneous users in collaborative scenarios. Handheld mobile devices and large interactive surfaces can be mutually beneficial in numerous ways, while their complementary nature allows them to preserve the behavior of the original user interface.
Keywords: Touch; mobile; interaction techniques; interactive surface

Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 5

Designing Novel Image Search Interfaces by Understanding Unique Characteristics and Usage BIBAKFull-Text 340-353
  Paul André; Edward Cutrell; Desney S. Tan; Greg Smith
In most major search engines, the interface for image search is the same as traditional Web search: a keyword query followed by a paginated, ranked list of results. Although many image search innovations have appeared in both the literature and on the Web, few have seen widespread use in practice. In this work, we explore the differences between image and general Web search to better support users' needs. First, we describe some unique characteristics of image search derived through informal interviews with researchers, designers, and managers responsible for building and deploying a major Web search engine. Then, we present results from a large scale analysis of image and Web search logs showing the differences in user behaviour. Grounded in these observations, we present design recommendations for an image search engine supportive of the unique experience of image search. We iterate on a number of designs, and describe a functional prototype that we built.
Keywords: image search; log analysis; design
Crossmedia Systems Constructed around Human Activities: A Field Study and Implications for Design BIBAKFull-Text 354-367
  Katarina Segerståhl
Many interactive systems today span across a range of interoperable IT artifacts, forming crossmedia systems. They aim at providing pervasive and synergistic support for human activities. This paper reports a three-month-long qualitative field study exploring the use of a crossmedia fitness system to support physical training. The main concern is how the system -- through the configuration of its components -- supports the primary activity. Users' primary motivation, elaborateness of their activities, internalization or externalization of their actions and their perceived threshold toward using distinct IT artifacts determined the utilization of the system and each of its components. Compositional aspects of the system, such as its hierarchical structure, distribution of functionality and functional modularity influenced its ability to support different ways of training. The article contributes by shedding light on aspects that influence the synergistic use of IT artifacts and by proposing implications for designing crossmedia systems.
Keywords: Pervasive computing; crossmedia systems; interaction design; human activity; case study
Query Suggestion for On-Device Troubleshooting BIBAFull-Text 368-371
  Frédéric Roulland; Stefania Castellani; Ye Deng; Antonietta Grasso; Jacki O'Neill
This paper describes a novel query suggestion tool we have designed and implemented to help users of office printing devices better formulate their queries, while searching a troubleshooting knowledge base provided as a service on the device itself. The paper traces the main motivations of the design of the query suggestion tool and outlines its technical details with an emphasis on its combination of features in relation to prior work.

Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques 6

Acquisition of Animated and Pop-Up Targets BIBAKFull-Text 372-385
  Guillaume Faure; Olivier Chapuis; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
Pop-up targets, such as the items of popup menus, and animated targets, such as the moving windows in Mac OS X Exposé, are common in current desktop environments. This paper describes an initial study of pointing on pop-up and animated targets. Since we are interested in expert performance, we study the situation where the user has previous knowledge of the (final) position of the target. We investigate the effect of the DELAY factor, i.e. the delay before the target pops up (for pop-up targets) or the duration of the animation (for animated targets). We find little difference between the two techniques in terms of pointing performance (time and error), however a kinematic analysis reveals differences in the nature of the pointing movement. We also find that movement time increases with DELAY, but the degradation is smaller when the target is farther away than when it is closer. Indeed, larger distances require a longer movement time therefore the target reaches its destination while the participant is still moving the pointer, providing more opportunity to correct the movement than with short distances. Finally we take into account these results to propose an extension to Fitts' Law that better predicts movement time for these tasks.
Keywords: Pop-up targets; Animated targets; Movement analysis; Fitts'
An Optical Pen Tracking System as Alternative Pointing Device BIBAKFull-Text 386-399
  Ingmar Seeliger; Ulrich Schwanecke; Peter Barth
A webcam together with a pen can replace a mouse as pointing device for many common user interaction tasks. We have implemented an image-processing component integrated in a tool that acts as mouse alternative. The image-processing component tracks the head of a pen based on shape and colour information retrieved in a quick, integrated initial pen-calibration phase using Hough transform triggered by a motion detection cycle. The tracked 2D position of the pen-head seen by the webcam is used to smoothly position the mouse cursor. Combined with auto-clicking we can replace mouse-based user interaction. The system tolerates changing lighting conditions, does not need time-consuming camera calibration and works with off-the-shelf webcams. First user experiences show that this technology can partially replace mouse interaction for Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) patients as well as completely replace mouse interaction within dedicated environments such as presentation booths or simple games.
Keywords: Image processing; human computer interaction; mouse alternative; Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)
Did "Minority Report" Get It Wrong? Superiority of the Mouse over 3D Input Devices in a 3D Placement Task BIBAKFull-Text 400-414
  François Bérard; Jessica Ip; Mitchel Benovoy; Dalia El-Shimy; Jeffrey R. Blum; Jeremy R. Cooperstock
Numerous devices have been invented with three or more degrees of freedom (DoF) to compensate for the assumed limitations of the 2 DoF mouse in the execution of 3D tasks. Nevertheless, the mouse remains the dominant input device in desktop 3D applications, which leads us to pose the following question: is the dominance of the mouse due simply to its widespread availability and long-term user habituation, or is the mouse, in fact, more suitable than dedicated 3D input devices to an important subset of 3D tasks? In the two studies reported in this paper, we measured performance efficiency of a group of subjects in accomplishing a 3D placement task and also observed physiological indicators through biosignal measurements. Subjects used both a standard 2D mouse and three other 3 DoF input devices. Much to our surprise, the standard 2D mouse outperformed the 3D input devices in both studies.
Keywords: 3D placement; input device; stress
The MAGIC Touch: Combining MAGIC-Pointing with a Touch-Sensitive Mouse BIBAKFull-Text 415-428
  Heiko Drewes; Albrecht Schmidt
In this paper, we show how to use the combination of eye-gaze and a touch-sensitive mouse to ease pointing tasks in graphical user interfaces. A touch of the mouse positions the mouse pointer at the current gaze position of the user. Thus, the pointer is always at the position where the user expects it on the screen. This approach changes the user experience in tasks that include frequent switching between keyboard and mouse input (e.g. working with spreadsheets). In a user study, we compared the touch-sensitive mouse with a traditional mouse and observed speed improvements for pointing tasks on complex backgrounds. For pointing task on plain backgrounds, performances with both devices were similar, but users perceived the gaze-sensitive interaction of the touch-sensitive mouse as being faster and more convenient. Our results show that using a touch-sensitive mouse that positions the pointer on the user's gaze position reduces the need for mouse movements in pointing tasks enormously.
Keywords: Eye-tracking; eye-gaze pointing; touch-sensitive mouse; MAGIC pointing

Social Media/Social Networks

Honeycomb: Visual Analysis of Large Scale Social Networks BIBAFull-Text 429-442
  Frank van Ham; Hans-Jörg Schulz; Joan Morris DiMicco
The rise in the use of social network sites allows us to collect large amounts of user reported data on social structures and analysis of this data could provide useful insights for many of the social sciences. This analysis is typically the domain of Social Network Analysis, and visualization of these structures often proves invaluable in understanding them. However, currently available visual analysis tools are not very well suited to handle the massive scale of this network data, and often resolve to displaying small ego networks or heavily abstracted networks. In this paper, we present Honeycomb, a visualization tool that is able to deal with much larger scale data (with millions of connections), which we illustrate by using a large scale corporate social networking site as an example. Additionally, we introduce a new probability based network metric to guide users to potentially interesting or anomalous patterns and discuss lessons learned during design and implementation.
Simulating Social Networks of Online Communities: Simulation as a Method for Sociability Design BIBAKFull-Text 443-456
  Chee Siang Ang; Panayiotis Zaphiris
We propose the use of social simulations to study and support the design of online communities. In this paper, we developed an Agent-Based Model (ABM) to simulate and study the formation of social networks in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG) guild community. We first analyzed the activities and the social network (who-interacts-with-whom) of an existing guild community to identify its interaction patterns and characteristics. Then, based on the empirical results, we derived and formalized the interaction rules, which were implemented in our simulation. Using the simulation, we reproduced the observed social network of the guild community as a means of validation. The simulation was then used to examine how various parameters of the community (e.g. the level of activity, the number of neighbors of each agent, etc) could potentially influence the characteristic of the social networks.
Keywords: Agent-based model; online community; simulation; sociability; social network
Designing Interaction for Local Communications: An Urban Screen Study BIBAKFull-Text 457-460
  Fiona Redhead; Margot Brereton
This paper discusses the ongoing design and use of a digital community noticeboard situated in a suburban hub. The design intention is to engage residents, collect and display local information and communications, and spark discussion. A key contribution is an understanding of Situated Display navigation that aids retrieval from a long-term collection created by and for suburban community, and engaging qualities of this collection.
Keywords: Situated Display; Internet Technologies; Interaction; Urban Screen
WidSets: A Usability Study of Widget Sharing BIBAKFull-Text 461-464
  Kristiina Karvonen; Theofanis Kilinkaridis; Olli Immonen
In this paper, we describe a study conducted to better understand and improve the usability of the reputation elements on an online widget sharing site called WidSets. With a series of interviews and an online questionnaire with users of WidSets, we seek to understand the motivations and instigators of the actual usage, the level of understanding, and acceptance of current reputation elements. We analyse the impact of these factors on WidSets users' willingness to download and use the publicly available widgets. The outcomes show the visual elements of the user interface to predominate as the source for information for the decision to trust and download. However, the accuracy of the interpretation of these elements remains ambiguous. There also seems to be little awareness of the underlying security issues related to possible malicious widgets and developers.
Keywords: Widget; reputation; usability; user study; questionnaire; trust

Tangible User Interfaces and Robotics

A Model for Steering with Haptic-Force Guidance BIBAKFull-Text 465-478
  Xing-Dong Yang; Pourang Irani; Pierre Boulanger; Walter F. Bischof
Trajectory-based tasks are common in many applications and have been widely studied. Recently, researchers have shown that even very simple tasks, such as selecting items from cascading menus, can benefit from haptic-force guidance. Haptic guidance is also of significant value in many applications such as medical training, handwriting learning, and in applications requiring precise manipulations. There are, however, only very few guiding principles for selecting parameters that are best suited for proper force guiding. In this paper, we present a model, derived from the steering law that relates movement time to the essential components of a tunneling task in the presence of haptic-force guidance. Results of an experiment show that our model is highly accurate for predicting performance times in force-enhanced tunneling tasks.
Keywords: Haptic guidance; steering task; Steering law; Fitts' law
Designing Laser Gesture Interface for Robot Control BIBAKFull-Text 479-492
  Kentaro Ishii; Shengdong Zhao; Masahiko Inami; Takeo Igarashi; Michita Imai
A laser pointer can be a powerful tool for robot control. However, in the past, their use in the field of robotics has been limited to simple target designation, without exploring their potential as versatile input devices. This paper proposes to create a laser pointer-based user interface for giving various instructions to a robot by applying stroke gesture recognition to the laser's trajectory. Through this interface, the user can draw stroke gestures using a laser pointer to specify target objects and commands for the robot to execute accordingly. This system, which includes lasso and dwelling gestures for object selection, stroke gestures for robot operation, and push-button commands for movement cancellation, has been refined from its prototype form through several user-study evaluations. Our results suggest that laser pointers can be effective not only for target designation but also for specifying command and target location for a robot to perform.
Keywords: laser pointer; stroke gesture; human-robot interaction; user interface
A Haptic-Enhanced System for Molecular Sensing BIBAFull-Text 493-496
  Sara Comai; Davide Mazza
The science of haptics has received an enormous attention in the last decade. One of the major application trends of haptics technology is data visualization and training. In this paper, we present a haptically-enhanced system for manipulation and tactile exploration of molecules. The geometrical models of molecules is extracted either from theoretical or empirical data using file formats widely adopted in chemical and biological fields. The addition of information computed with computational chemistry tools, allows users to feel the interaction forces between an explored molecule and a charge associated to the haptic device, and to visualize a huge amount of numerical data in a more comprehensible way. The developed tool can be used either for teaching or research purposes due to its high reliance on both theoretical and experimental data.

Tools for Design, Modelling and Evaluation 1

Designing with Only Four People in Mind? -- A Case Study of Using Personas to Redesign a Work-Integrated Learning Support System BIBAKFull-Text 497-509
  Amir Dotan; Neil A. M. Maiden; Valentina Lichtner; Lola Germanovich
In this paper we describe and reflect on the use of personas to redesign the 3rd prototype of APOSDLE -- a system to support informal learning and knowledge transfer in the workplace. Based on the results of a formative evaluation of the 2nd prototype we used personas to explore how users' goals, behaviour and preferences could be communicated to project members during a two-day design workshop, in order to ensure useful and usable design solutions. We actively involved stakeholders representing the target market throughout the process as they helped to create, validate and interpret the four personas we used. By doing so we aimed to address methodological weaknesses and practical limitations of using personas, primarily those relating to the validity of the personas used and the way they are interpreted. We reflected on how effective the personas were by referring to data generated during the workshop and discussion transcripts. As reported by others, and as we have experienced ourselves, using personas can be quite challenging as rich narrative descriptions are expected to produce insight and design solutions. In light of this challenge, we contribute a case study illustrating how personas were implemented in a real world situation to engage project members with user information and drive the design process. We specifically discussed the strengths and weaknesses of actively involving stakeholders in creating and using personas.
Keywords: Personas; User-Centred Design; Work-Integrated Systems; Interaction Design; Usability
Play-Personas: Behaviours and Belief Systems in User-Centred Game Design BIBAKFull-Text 510-523
  Alessandro Canossa; Anders Drachen
Game designers attempt to ignite affective, emotional responses from players via engineering game designs to incite definite user experiences. Theories of emotion state that definite emotional responses are individual, and caused by the individual interaction sequence or history. Engendering desired emotions in the audience of traditional audiovisual media is a considerable challenge; however it is potentially even more difficult to achieve the same goal for the audience of interactive entertainment, because a substantial degree of control rests in the hand of the end user rather than the designer. This paper presents a possible solution to the challenge of integrating the user in the design of interactive entertainment such as computer games by employing the "persona" framework introduced by Alan Cooper. This approach is already in use in interaction design. The method can be improved by complementing the traditional narrative description of personas with quantitative, data-oriented models of predicted patterns of user behaviour for a specific computer game Additionally, persona constructs can be applied both as design-oriented metaphors during the development of games, and as analytical lenses to existing games, e.g. for evaluation of patterns of player behaviour.
Keywords: Play persona; emotion; game design; user centered design; user experience design
Developing and Validating Personas in e-Commerce: A Heuristic Approach BIBAFull-Text 524-527
  Volker Thoma; Bryn Williams
A multi-method persona development process in a large e-commerce business is described. Personas are fictional representations of customers that describe typical user attributes to facilitate a user-centered approach in interaction design. In the current project persona attributes were derived from various data sources, such as stakeholder interviews, user tests and interviews, data mining, customer surveys, and ethnographic (direct observation, diary studies) research. The heuristic approach of using these data sources conjointly allowed for an early validation of relevant persona dimensions.

Tools for Design, Modelling and Evaluation 2

Picking Up Artifacts: Storyboarding as a Gateway to Reuse BIBAKFull-Text 528-541
  Shahtab Wahid; Stacy M. Branham; Lauren Cairco; D. Scott McCrickard; Steve Harrison
Storyboarding offers designers the opportunity to illustrate a visual narrative of use. Because designers often refer to past ideas, we argue storyboards can be constructed by reusing shared artifacts. We present a study in which we explore how designers reuse artifacts consisting of images and rationale during storyboard construction. We find images can aid in accessing rationale and that connections among features aid in deciding what to reuse, creating new artifacts, and constructing. Based on requirements derived from our findings, we present a storyboarding tool, PIC-UP, to facilitate artifact sharing and reuse and evaluate its use in an exploratory study. We conclude with remarks on facilitating reuse and future work.
Keywords: design reuse; storyboarding; claims
Are User Interface Pattern Languages Usable? A Report from the Trenches BIBAKFull-Text 542-545
  Regina Bernhaupt; Marco Winckler; Florence Pontico
Patterns languages pattern languages for interaction design have been an active research field in the area of Human-Computer Interaction. However, only few researchers have explored the impact of pattern languages in real application domains. This work reports a field study on acceptance and adoption of pattern languages by development teams in industry. Our results show that pattern languages should take into account the idiosyncrasies of the application domain and results show that pattern languages can be a great leverage to improve usability culture in industry.
Keywords: pattern languages; field usability study; acceptance
Get Your Requirements Straight: Storyboarding Revisited BIBAFull-Text 546-549
  Mieke Haesen; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx
Current user-centred software engineering (UCSE) approaches provide many techniques to combine know-how available in multidisciplinary teams. Although the involvement of various disciplines is beneficial for the user experience of the future application, the transition from a user needs analysis to a structured interaction analysis and UI design is not always straightforward. We propose storyboards, enriched by metadata, to specify functional and non-functional requirements. Accompanying tool support should facilitate the creation and use of storyboards. We used a meta-storyboard for the verification of storyboarding approaches.

Usability Evaluation Methods

Hello World! -- Experiencing Usability Methods without Usability Expertise BIBAKFull-Text 550-565
  Elina Eriksson; Åsa Cajander; Jan Gulliksen
How do you do usability work when no usability expertise is available? What happens in an organization when system developers, with no previous HCI knowledge, after a 3-day course, start applying usability methods, and particularly field studies? In order to answer these questions qualitative data were gathered through participatory observations, a feed back survey, field study documentation and interviews from 47 system developers from a public authority. Our results suggest that field studies enhance the developer's understanding of the user perspective, and provide a more holistic overview of the use situation, but that some developers were unable to interpret their observations and see solutions to the users' problems. The field study method was very much appreciated and has now become standard operating procedure within the organization. However, although field studies may be useful, it does not replace the need for usability professionals, as their knowledge is essential for more complex observations, analysis and for keeping the focus on usability.
Keywords: Field studies; ethnography; usability; user centered systems design; case study; public authority; sense making
Supporting Worth Mapping with Sentence Completion BIBAKFull-Text 566-581
  Gilbert Cockton; Sari Kujala; Piia Nurkka; Taneli Hölttä
Expectations for design and evaluation approaches are set by the development practices within which they are used. Worth-Centred Development (WCD) seeks to both shape and fit such practices. We report a study that combined two WCD approaches. Sentence completion gathered credible quantitative data on user values, which were used to identify relevant values and aversions of two player groups for an on-line gambling site. These values provided human value elements for a complementary WCD approach of worth mapping. Initial worth maps were extended in three workshops, which focused on outcomes and user experiences that could be better addressed in the current product and associated marketing materials. We describe how worth maps were prepared for, and presented in, workshops, and how product owners and associated business roles evaluated the combination of WCD approaches. Based on our experiences, we offer practical advice on this combinination.
Keywords: User Values; Sentence Completion; Worth-Centred Development (WCD); Worth Mapping; Monetary Gaming
What Is an Activity? Appropriating an Activity-Centric System BIBAKFull-Text 582-595
  Svetlana Yarosh; Tara Matthews; Thomas P. Moran; Barton A. Smith
Activity-Centric Computing (ACC) systems seek to address the fragmentation of office work across tools and documents by allowing users to organize work around the computational construct of an Activity. Defining and structuring appropriate Activities within a system poses a challenge for users that must be overcome in order to benefit from ACC support. We know little about how knowledge workers appropriate the Activity construct. To address this, we studied users' appropriation of a production-quality ACC system, Lotus Activities, for everyday work by employees in a large corporation. We contribute to a better understanding of how users articulate their individual and collaborative work in the system by providing empirical evidence of their patterns of appropriation. We conclude by discussing how our findings can inform the design of other ACC systems for the workplace.
Keywords: Activity-Centric Computing; Appropriation; Office & Workplace
Sharing Usability Problem Sets within and between Groups BIBAKFull-Text 596-599
  Gudmundur Freyr Jonasson; Ebba Thora Hvannberg
Merging similar usability problems is often a time consuming step in the process of usability evaluation. We have developed a tool which can aid with merging duplicate problem descriptions. The tool enables evaluators to define constructs which describe a usability problem and store them in a database. The evaluator can search for existing constructs, problem descriptions and problem sets using the query language XQuery. The XQuery search function also enables the evaluator to compare usability problems. The tool is designed to be flexible and the exchange of data between evaluators is simple exploiting the compatibility of XML (Extensible Markup Language) and a well defined data structure. We have performed an analysis on a problem set to check for the comparison quality of the merging function in the tool. This has allowed us to suggest further ways to compare usability problems.
Keywords: Usability; problem; construct definition; merging; exchange; relevance
Obstacles to Option Setting: Initial Results with a Heuristic Walkthrough Method BIBAFull-Text 600-603
  Silvia Gabrielli; Anthony Jameson
This short paper is the first step in a line of research that aims to deepen understanding of the difficulties that users often have with option setting interfaces: those parts of a system that allow the user to set parameters that influence the system's behavior and appearance. On the basis of a theoretical distinction of three things that users may fail to understand about a given option, we introduce a simple variant of the heuristic walkthrough method that helps evaluators to uncover likely obstacles. We give a quantitative and qualitative overview of the obstacles found through the application of this heuristic walkthrough to parts of four popular applications.

User Experience 1

Dimensions of Context Affecting User Experience in Mobile Work BIBAKFull-Text 604-617
  Heli Wigelius; Heli Väätäjä
Understanding the contextual factors affecting user experience is essential in designing and evaluating mobile systems for mobile work. The aim of this paper is to explore these contextual factors through three case studies: of safety observation at construction sites, passenger transportation with taxis, and mobile news journalism. For each case study we describe the nature of the mobile work and present our findings on the contextual factors that were found to affect the user experience. Based on the results, we present and discuss five dimensions of mobile work context affecting user experience: 1) social, 2) spatial, 3) temporal, 4) infrastructural, and 5) task context. Compared to earlier frameworks of context for mobile work, the social context as well as the infrastructural context was emphasized in our findings. The presented framework elaborates the dimensions of context affecting user experience of mobile systems and services in mobile work in particular. The framework is also applicable for mobile consumer systems and services.
Keywords: context; mobile work; user experience; mobile systems
When Joy Matters: The Importance of Hedonic Stimulation in Collocated Collaboration with Large-Displays BIBAKFull-Text 618-629
  Jasminko Novak; Susanne Schmidt
Hedonic aspects are increasingly considered as an important factor in user acceptance of information systems, especially for activities with high self-fulfilling value for the users. In this paper we report on the results of an experiment investigating the hedonic qualities of an interactive large-display workspace for collocated collaboration in sales-oriented travel advisory. The results show a higher hedonic stimulation quality of a touch-based large-display travel advisory workspace than that of a traditional workspace with catalogues. Together with the feedback of both customers and travel agents this suggests the adequacy of using touch-based large-displays with visual workspaces for supporting the hedonic stimulation of user experience in collocated collaboration settings. The relation of high perception of hedonic quality to positive emotional attitudes towards the use of a large-display workspace indicates that even in utilitarian activities (e.g. reaching sales goals for travel agents) hedonic aspects can play an important role. This calls for reconsidering the traditional divide of hedonic vs. utilitarian systems in current literature, to a more balanced view towards systems which provide both utilitarian and hedonic sources of value to the user.
Keywords: Collaboration; large displays; hedonic information systems; user experience
The 'Joy-of-Use'-Button: Recording Pleasant Moments While Using a PC BIBAKFull-Text 630-633
  Robert Schleicher; Sandra Trösterer
This paper describes the conceptualization and implementation of a free software tool to record positive moments while using a PC. The application runs in the background and is only visible as an icon in the system tray. Once called, the user is prompted to quantify the Joy-of-Use experience with a five-point rating which is saved together with a screenshot of the currently active window. The user can also mark areas in the screenshot that were relevant to the positive experience. In the advanced mode, the event can additionally be characterized by selecting typical aspects of such moments that were determined empirically, or by giving an own description in a free text field. A running version for Microsoft Windows XP and its source code are available online for other researchers and practitioners who wish to collect their own data on Joy-of-Use.
Keywords: emotion; fun; usability evaluation tool; Microsoft Windows XP
Introducing a Pairwise Comparison Scale for UX Evaluations with Preschoolers BIBAKFull-Text 634-637
  Bieke Zaman
This paper describes the development and validation of a pairwise comparison scale for user experience (UX) evaluations with preschoolers. More particularly, the dimensionality, reliability and validity of the scale are discussed. The results of three experiments among almost 170 preschoolers show that user experience cannot be measured quantitatively as a multi-dimensional construct. In contrast, preschoolers' UX should be measured directly as a one-dimensional higher order construct. This one-dimensional scale encompassing five general items proved to be internally consistent and valid providing evidence of a solid theory-based instrument to measure UX with preschoolers.
Keywords: UX evaluation; pairwise comparison scale; preschoolers

User Experience 2

The Effect of Brand on the Evaluation of Websites BIBAFull-Text 638-651
  Antonella De Angeli; Jan Hartmann; Alistair G. Sutcliffe
The effect of brand on consumer attitudes towards real and virtual goods is largely documented in consumer psychology and marketing. There is an obvious link between the design of a website and its brand. Yet, this effect has attracted little attention from the HCI community. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that brand attitude influences the evaluation of websites. The effect was reliable across different measures: people holding better attitudes were more positive in the evaluation of aesthetics, pleasure and usability. A sample of students (N=145) with a background in HCI was tested, suggesting that brand may influence the output of expert evaluators. The study provides support to the proposition of UX as a contextual-dependent response to the interaction with computing systems and has important implications for the design and evaluation of websites which are discussed in the conclusion.
Does Branding Need Web Usability? A Value-Oriented Empirical Study BIBAKFull-Text 652-665
  Davide Bolchini; Franca Garzotto; Fabio Sorce
Does usability of a web-based communication artifact affect brand, i.e., the set of beliefs, emotions, attitudes, or qualities that people mentally associate to the entity behind that artifact? Intuitively, the answer is "yes": usability is a fundamental aspect of the quality of the experience with a website, and a "good" experience with a "product" or its reifications tends to translate into "good" brand perception. To date, however, the existence of a connection between web usability and brand perception is shown through anecdotic arguments, and is not supported by published systematic research. This paper discusses a study that empirically investigates this correlation in a more rigorous, analytical, and replicable way. Our main contribution is twofold: on the one hand, we provide empirical evidence to the heuristic principle that web usability influences branding, and we do that through four between subjects controlled experiments that involved 120 subjects. On the other hand, we inform the study with a systematic value-oriented approach to the user experience, and thus provide a conceptual framework that can be reused in other experimental settings, either for replicating our study, or for designing similar studies focusing on the correlation of web branding vs. design factors other than usability.
Keywords: brand; usability; value-centered approach; web application; communication goal; empirical study; inspection
What Needs Tell Us about User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 666-669
  Annika Wiklund-Engblom; Marc Hassenzahl; Anette Bengs; Susanne Sperring
The present study explores the sources and consequences of fulfilling six fundamental human needs, namely Autonomy, Relatedness, Competence, Stimulation, Influence, and Security, through using interactive products and media. Each need refers to a distinct set of issues, such as according product attributes (e.g., "flexibility") and experiential consequences (e.g., "freedom of choice"). Besides the need-specific content, which helps to characterize and differentiate user experiences, the study reveals the close relation between needs and according product attributes as their mirror images.
Keywords: User Experience; Fundamental Needs; Technology and Media Interaction

User Interfaces for Safety Critical Systems and Health Care 1

From Paper to PDA: Design and Evaluation of a Clinical Ward Instruction on a Mobile Device BIBAKFull-Text 670-683
  Anne Marie Kanstrup; Jan Stage
Mobile devices with small screens and minimal facilities for interaction are increasingly being used in complex human activities for accessing and processing information, while the user is moving. This paper presents a case study of the design and evaluation of a mobile system, which involved transformation of complex text and tables to digital format on a PDA. The application domain was an emergency medical ward, and the user group was junior registrars. We designed a PDA-based system for accessing information, focusing on the ward instruction, implemented a prototype and evaluated it for usability and utility. The evaluation results indicate significant problems in the interaction with the system as well as the extent to which the system is useful for junior registrars in their daily work.
Keywords: Interaction design; mobile system; usability evaluation; interpretive evaluation; case study
Designing User Interfaces for Smart-Applications for Operating Rooms and Intensive Care Units BIBAKFull-Text 684-695
  Martin Christof Kindsmüller; Maral Haar; Hannes Schulz; Michael Herczeg
Today's physicians and nurses working in operating rooms and intensive care units have to deal with an ever increasing amount of data. More and more medical devices are delivering information, which has to be perceived and interpreted in regard to patient status and the necessity to adjust therapy. The combination of high information load and insufficient usability creates a severe challenge for the health personnel with respect to proper monitoring of these devices respective to acknowledging alarms and timely reaction to critical incidents. Smart Applications are a new kind of decision support systems that incorporate medical expertise in order to help health personnel in regard to diagnosis and therapy. By means of a User Centered Design process of two Smart Applications (anaesthesia monitor display, diagnosis display), we illustrate which approach should be followed and which processes and methods have been successfully applied in fostering the design of usable medical devices.
Keywords: Smart-Applications; Safety Critical Systems; Healthcare; User Interface; OR; ICU
Interactive Therapeutic Multi-sensory Environment for Cerebral Palsy People BIBAKFull-Text 696-699
  Cesar Mauri; Agusti Solanas; Toni Granollers; Joan Bagés; Mabel García
The Interactive Therapeutic Sensory Environment (ITSE) research project offers new opportunities on stimulation, interaction and interactive creation for people with moderate and severe mental and physical disabilities. Mainly based on computer vision techniques, the ITSE project allows the gathering of users' gestures and their transformation into images, sounds and vibrations. Currently, in the APPC, we are working in a prototype that is capable of generating sounds based on the users' motion and to process digitally the vocal sounds of the users. Tests with impaired users show that ITSE promotes participation, engagement and play. In this paper, we briefly describe the ITSE system, the experimental methodology, the preliminary results and some future goals.
Keywords: Cerebral Palsy; Elderly; Disabled People; Artificial Vision
Designing Systems for Health Promotion and Autonomy in Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 700-703
  Helena Lindgren; Ingeborg Nilsson
The inclusion and autonomy of older people in the society where large parts of the life is organized with computer and Internet use as means is addressed in an ongoing project in the rehabilitation and health domains. Part from investigating the potentials of using ICT for rehabilitation of older people with limited or no computer skills, the aim for the project is to develop methods and tools for the purpose, and also for the interaction design domain where systems are developed for older people. The resulting methods are used for informing the design of the system in an iterative process.
Keywords: Interaction design; activity theory; health care; evaluation

User Interfaces for Safety Critical Systems and Health Care 2

CLINICAL SURFACES -- Activity-Based Computing for Distributed Multi-Display Environments in Hospitals BIBAFull-Text 704-717
  Jakob E. Bardram; Jonathan Bunde-Pedersen; Afsaneh Doryab; Steffen Sørensen
A multi-display environment (MDE) is made up of co-located and networked personal and public devices that form an integrated workspace enabling co-located group work. Traditionally, MDEs have, however, mainly been designed to support a single "smart room", and have had little sense of the tasks and activities that the MDE is being used for. This paper presents a novel approach to support activity-based computing in distributed MDEs, where displays are physically distributed across a large building. CLINICAL SURFACES was designed for clinical work in hospitals, and enables context-sensitive retrieval and browsing of patient data on public displays. We present the design and implementation of CLINICAL SURFACES, and report from an evaluation of the system at a large hospital. The evaluation shows that using distributed public displays to support activity-based computing inside a hospital is very useful for clinical work, and that the apparent contradiction between maintaining privacy of medical data in a public display environment can be mitigated by the use of CLINICAL SURFACES.
Designing a Safer Interactive Healthcare System -- The Impact of Authentic User Participation BIBAKFull-Text 718-730
  Kathryn L. Went; Peter Gregor; Ian W. Ricketts
Information technology has been widely promoted in the healthcare sector to improve current practice and patient safety. However, end users are seldom involved extensively in the design and development of healthcare systems, with lip service often paid to the idea of true user involvement. In this case study the impact of sustained authentic user participation was explored using an interdisciplinary team, consisting of experts both in interaction and healthcare design and consultant anaesthetists, nurses, and pharmacists, to create an electronic prescribing and administration system. This paper details the interface that was created and provides examples of the way in which the design evolved in response to the sustained authentic user participation methods. The working prototype both reduced the opportunity for user error and was preferred by its users to the existing manual system.
Keywords: Healthcare; user engagement; participatory design
A Novel Approach for Creating Activity-Aware Applications in a Hospital Environment BIBAFull-Text 731-744
  Jakob E. Bardram
Context-aware and activity-aware computing has been proposed as a way to adapt the computer to the user's ongoing activity. However, deductively moving from physical context -- like location -- to establishing human activity has proved difficult. This paper proposes a novel approach to activity-aware computing. Instead of inferring activities, this approach enables the user to explicitly model their activity, and then use sensor-based events to create, manage, and use these computational activities adjusted to a specific context. This approach was crafted through a user-centered design process in collaboration with a hospital department. We propose three strategies for activity-awareness: context-based activity matching, context-based activity creation, and context-based activity adaptation. We present the implementation of these strategies and present an experimental evaluation of them. The experiments demonstrate that rather than considering context as information, context can be a relational property that links 'real-world activities' with their 'computational activities'.
Investigating CAPTCHAs Based on Visual Phenomena BIBAKFull-Text 745-748
  Anja B. Naumann; Thomas Franke; Christian Bauckhage
We propose and evaluate several novel types of CAPTCHAs (test to tell computers and humans apart) that exploit characteristics of the human visual system. Perceptions caused by the effect of lightness constancy or grouping phenomena due to transparent motion are hard to emulate on computers and may thus provide novel authentication mechanisms.
Keywords: CAPTCHA; visual phenomena; optical illusions

User Interfaces for Web Applications and E-commerce

Reflection of a Year Long Model-Driven Business and UI Modeling Development Project BIBAKFull-Text 749-762
  Noi Sukaviriya; Senthil Mani; Vibha Sinha
Model-driven software development enables users to specify an application at a high level -- a level that better matches problem domain. It also promises the users with better analysis and automation. Our work embarks on two collaborating domains -- business process and human interactions -- to build an application. Business modeling expresses business operations and flows then creates business flow implementation. Human interaction modeling expresses a UI design, its relationship with business data, logic, and flow, and can generate working UI. This double modeling approach automates the production of a working system with UI and business logic connected. This paper discusses the human aspects of this modeling approach after a year long of building a procurement outsourcing contract application using the approach -- the result of which was deployed in December 2008. The paper discusses in multiple areas the happy endings and some heartache. We end with insights on how a model-driven approach could do better for humans in the process.
Keywords: Business process model; model-driven user interface; UI design; solution design
Designing Tools for Supporting User Decision-Making in e-Commerce BIBAKFull-Text 763-776
  Alistair G. Sutcliffe; Faisal Al-Qaed
The paper describes a set of tools designed to support a variety of user decision-making strategies. The tools are complemented by an online advisor so they can be adapted to different domains and users can be guided to adopt appropriate tools for different choices in e-commerce, e.g. purchasing high-value products, exploring product fit to users' needs, or selecting products which satisfy requirements. The tools range from simple recommenders to decision support by interactive querying and comparison matrices. They were evaluated in a scenario-based experiment which varied the users' task and motivation, with and without an advisor agent. The results show the tools and advisor were effective in supporting users and agreed with the predictions of ADM (adaptive decision making) theory, on which the design of the tools was based.
Keywords: Decision support; e-commerce; recommenders; advisor agents
Designing for Culturally Contextualized Learning Activity Planning: Matching Learning Theories and Practice BIBAKFull-Text 777-790
  Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti de Carvalho; Júnia Coutinho Anacleto Silva; Vânia Paula de Almeida Néris
Helping teachers in their activities has been an issue more and more explored in Computer Science. However, in order to support teachers effectively, it is necessary to understand their needs and to design tools that they can easily manage. One of those needs is undoubtedly to put in practice pedagogical principles. This paper presents the design of PACO-T, a tool for helping teachers in planning learning activities (LAs) supported by common sense knowledge, based on PACO, a seven-step textual framework for planning pedagogically suitable LAs. The design was based on the results of a case study carried out to investigate how teachers can plan LAs following PACO steps, using common sense knowledge from a common sense knowledge base collaboratively built through the web. Moreover, the interface design was ruled by a Web Design Pattern Language, attempting to improve the usability of the tool. PACO-T aims to help teachers to put in practice the recommendation for contextualizing LAs to the target group, found in several learning theories.
Keywords: e-learning; learning activity; contextualization; common sense knowledge; computer tool; design; Web Design Pattern; pedagogical issues

Visualisation Techniques

WIPDash: Work Item and People Dashboard for Software Development Teams BIBAKFull-Text 791-804
  Mikkel R. Jakobsen; Roland Fernandez; Mary Czerwinski; Kori Inkpen; Olga A. Kulyk; George G. Robertson
We present WIPDash, a visualization for software development teams designed to increase group awareness of work items and code base activity. WIPDash was iteratively designed by working with two development teams, using interviews, observations, and focus groups, as well as sketches of the prototype. Based on those observations and feedback, we prototyped WIPDash and deployed it with two software teams for a one week field study. We summarize the lessons learned, and include suggestions for a future version.
Keywords: Information visualization; software development; large display; cooperative work; CSCW; situational awareness; field study
CGD -- A New Algorithm to Optimize Space Occupation in Ellimaps BIBAKFull-Text 805-818
  Benoît Otjacques; Maël Cornil; Monique Noirhomme-Fraiture; Fernand Feltz
How to visualize datasets hierarchically structured is a basic issue in information visualization. Compared to the common diagrams based on the nodes-links paradigm (e.g. trees), the enclosure-based methods have shown high potential to represent simultaneously the structure of the hierarchy and the weight of nodes. In addition, these methods often support scalability up to sizes where trees become very complicated to understand. Several approaches belong to this class of visualization methods such as treemaps, ellimaps, circular treemaps or Voronoi treemaps. This paper focuses on the specific case of ellimaps in which the nodes are represented by ellipses nested one into each other. A controlled experiment has previously shown that the initial version of the ellimaps was efficient to support the perception of the dataset structure and was reasonably acceptable for the perception of the node weights. However it suffers from a major drawback in terms of display space occupation. We have tackled this issue and the paper proposes a new algorithm to draw ellimaps. It is based on successive distortions and relocations of the ellipses in order to occupy a larger proportion of the display space than the initial algorithm. A Monte-Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the filling ratio of the display space in this new approach. The results show a significant improvement of this factor.
Keywords: Information Visualization; Ellimaps; Hierarchies Visualization
Visual Search Strategies of Tag Clouds -- Results from an Eyetracking Study BIBAKFull-Text 819-831
  Johann Schrammel; Stephanie Deutsch; Manfred Tscheligi
Tag clouds have become a frequently used interaction technique in the web in the past couple of years. Research has shown the influence of variables such as tag size and location on the perception of tag clouds. However, several questions remain unclear. First, little is know on how tag clouds are perceived visually and which search strategies users apply when looking for tags in a tag cloud. Second, there are variables, especially tag location, were prior work comes to conflicting results. Third, several approaches to present tag clouds with the tags semantically clustered have been proposed recently. However, it remains unclear which effects these new approaches have on the perception of tag clouds. In this paper we report the results of an extensive study on the perception of tag clouds using eye tracking technology that allows answering these questions.
Keywords: Tag clouds; eye tracking; folksonomy; clustering; semantic grouping; visualization
Interactive and Lightweight Mechanisms to Coordinate Interpersonal Privacy in Mediated Communication BIBAKFull-Text 832-833
  Natalia A. Romero; Laurens Boer; Panos Markopoulos
In this paper we describe three mechanisms that enable people to coordinate their interaction needs with others in their social network. The proposed designs are based on the Privacy Grounding Model [4] that argues the need for lightweight and interactive coordination mechanisms to support the dynamic and dialectic nature of interpersonal privacy coordination.
Keywords: Interpersonal Privacy; Common Ground; Coordination; Computer Mediated Communication; Social Communication

Demonstrations

Liberating Expression: A Freehand Approach to Business Process Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 834-835
  Nicolas Mangano; Noi Sukaviriya
Tools that support business process modeling are designed for experienced users to draw a process with precision and professional appearance. These tools are not conducive to sketching quick business design ideas. This demo proposal presents Inkus, a non-intrusive business process sketching tool which allows freehand sketches of process ideas and slowly brings the users to the required common business vocabulary. Our goal is to help unleash creativity in business designers and enrich the design process with values beyond drawing.
Keywords: Sketching; business process modeling; use case modeling; low-fidelity UI; creativity support
Multimodal Interaction with Speech, Gestures and Haptic Feedback in a Media Center Application BIBAKFull-Text 836-837
  Markku Turunen; Jaakko Hakulinen; Juho Hella; Juha-Pekka Rajaniemi; Aleksi Melto; Erno Mäkinen; Jussi Rantala; Tomi Heimonen; Tuuli Laivo; Hannu Soronen; Mervi Hansen; Pellervo Valkama; Toni Miettinen; Roope Raisamo
We demonstrate interaction with a multimodal media center application. Mobile phone-based interface includes speech and gesture input and haptic feedback. The setup resembles our long-term public pilot study, where a living room environment containing the application was constructed inside a local media museum allowing visitors to freely test the system.
Keywords: Speech; haptics; gestures; multimodal interaction; media center
Social Circles: A 3D User Interface for Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 838-839
  Diego Rodrigues; Ian Oakley
Online social network services are increasingly popular web applications which display large amounts of rich multimedia content: contacts, status updates, photos and event information. Arguing that this quantity of information overwhelms conventional user interfaces, this paper presents Social Circles, a rich interactive visualization designed to support real world users of social network services in everyday tasks such as keeping up with friends and organizing their network. It achieves this by using 3D UIs, fluid animations and a spatial metaphor to enable direct manipulation of a social network.
Keywords: Socialnetwork; visualization; direct manipulation; 3D UI; animation
Socio-Technical Evaluation Matrix (STEM): A Collaborative Tool to Support and Facilitate Discussion on Socio-Technical Issues of a Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 840-841
  Souleymane Boundaouda Camara; José L. Abdelnour-Nocera
STEM is an interactive web application designed to support and facilitate socio-technical discussions in a collaborative environment. This interactive demo shows how STEM aims to encompass issues with collaborative tools such as organisation of discussion threads by relevancy, interdependency and iteration of previous discussions.
Keywords: Collaborative work tool; socio-technical evaluation; dependability
Take Three Snapshots -- A Tool for Fast Freehand Acquisition of 3D Objects BIBAKFull-Text 842-843
  Gabriele Peters; Klaus Häming
We introduce a tool which allows an untrained user to take three images of an object freehand with a simple consumer camera. From these images a 3d model of the visible parts of the object is reconstructed within seconds and visualized realistically. From a research point of view we propose solutions for three weaknesses of the state-of-the-art reconstruction pipeline. These contributions allow for a more robust and a considerably faster reconstruction process than before, which can be used, e.g., to create new types of interfaces or to assist in creating virtual environments.
Keywords: Object Acquisition; Object Reconstruction; User Interfaces; Interaction Techniques; Visualisation Techniques; Usability

Doctoral Consortium

Blended Interaction Design: A Spatial Workspace Supporting HCI and Design Practice BIBAKFull-Text 844-847
  Florian Geyer
This research investigates novel methods and techniques along with tool support that result from a conceptual blend of human-computer interaction with design practice. Using blending theory with material anchors as a theoretical framework, we frame both input spaces and explore emerging structures within technical, cognitive, and social aspects. Based on our results, we will describe a framework of the emerging structures and will design and evaluate tool support within a spatial, studio-like workspace to support collaborative creativity in interaction design.
Keywords: interaction design; design research; conceptual blending; blending theory; design tools; creativity support
Designing an Artificial Robotic Interaction Language BIBAKFull-Text 848-851
  Omar Mubin; Christoph Bartneck; Loe M. G. Feijs
The project described hereunder focuses on the design and implementation of a "Artificial Robotic Interaction Language", where the research goal is to find a balance between the effort necessary from the user to learn a new language and the resulting benefit of optimized automatic speech recognition for a robot or a machine.
Keywords: Artificial Languages; Speech Interaction; Automatic Speech Recognition
Designing Mobile Service Experiences, the Role of Emotional Dimension BIBAKFull-Text 852-855
  Teresa Sarmento
This research project aims to improve the methods for translating emotional factors experienced by users into characteristics of the mobile service interfaces.
Keywords: service design; user experience; mobile interfaces; new services; service experience prototyping
Development of a Method for Evaluating the Usability of In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVISs) BIBAKFull-Text 856-859
  Catherine Harvey
This project involves the development of a model-based method for the evaluation of design concepts for In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVISs). The evaluation method is aimed specifically at assessing the usability of the Human Machine Interface (HMI) associated with these systems. It is aimed at the very early stages of design and is intended to provide designers with a quick and easy method of evaluating HMI concepts. The evaluation method will be validated and refined using the results from user trials conducted in a driving simulator and on-road, in an instrumented vehicle.
Keywords: Driving; Usability; Ergonomics; Interface; Evaluation; Design
Evaluating Human Computer Interaction through Self-rated Emotion BIBAFull-Text 860-863
  Danielle M. Lottridge
This thesis investigates the tools, psychometric characteristics, physiological relationships, and overall benefits and limits of continuous self-rated emotion as a measure of conscious affective experience.
Human-Computer Interaction Techniques in Firefighting BIBAFull-Text 864-867
  Sebastian Denef
This thesis investigates the design of human computer interaction techniques for ubiquitous computing solutions in firefighting.
Retrieval of User Interface Templates Based on Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 868-871
  Jordan Janeiro; Thomas Springer; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa; Alexander Schill
Using template structures is an interesting approach to develop user interfaces. A designer can predefine such structures, following best user interface practices, to be constantly reused. However, it may be a problem to navigate through a repository of templates to find a suitable one for a certain application. Therefore, we propose a retrieval mechanism for templates based on its supported tasks.
Keywords: user interface; template; information retrieval; natural language; task terminology; search engine
Supporting Aphasics for Capturing, Organizing and Sharing Personal Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 872-875
  Abdullah Al Mahmud
When a person, due to brain injury or another disease, suffers in his or her ability to speak, it becomes inherently cumbersome to share needs, emotions, and experiences through personal stories and social interaction. This paper describes the aim and progress of the author's dissertation, which focuses on designing a support system to share daily experiences for people suffering from expressive aphasia.
Keywords: Aphasia; Sharing experiences; Contextual interview
The Role of Personal and Shared Displays in Scripted Collaborative Learning BIBAKFull-Text 876-879
  Sara Streng
Applying technologies in collaborative learning is an important but difficult task. In this work I will investigate ways of supporting "scripted" collaborative learning with technologies. "Scripted" means that the learning phases, activities and tasks are predefined by educationalists to provide some form of guidance. In particular, I focus on the role of personal and shared displays in different learning phases. Furthermore, I examine how user interfaces can be designed in a way that guides the learner's activities. The proposed contribution is a set of guidelines as well as a software framework that support the creation of scripted collaborative learning applications.
Keywords: Collaborative Learning; CSCL Scripts; Shareable User Interfaces
Towards a Flexible User Simulation for Evaluating Spoken Dialogue Systems BIBAKFull-Text 880-883
  Dmitry Butenkov
The main aim of research is to introduce a new data-driven user simulation approach for the quality and usability evaluation for spoken dialogue systems.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Human Factors; Statistical User Simulation; Usability Evaluation; Spoken Dialogue Systems; Experimental Design
User Aware Technology: From Inter-human Awareness to Technology-User Awareness BIBAFull-Text 884-887
  Ditte Hvas Mortensen
The present project explores how the development of user-aware technology may be supported by applying knowledge from research in psychology on nonverbal aspects of human activity in context.
User eXperience: Tools for Developers BIBAKFull-Text 888-891
  Anssi Jääskeläinen
This dissertation aims to narrow the user experience gap between the design and test phases in software development by offering UX tools for the developers.
Keywords: User experience; UX; software development; query tool; database

Interactive Posters

A Dynamic Environment for Video Surveillance BIBAKFull-Text 892-895
  Paolo Bottoni; Maria De Marsico; Stefano Levialdi; Giovanni Ottieri; Mario Pierro; Daniela Quaresima
Video surveillance systems must support multiple streaming and prompt alert notification. We propose a two-tiered environment: a supervisor defines presentation layouts and model interface reactions to alerts; a surveillant watches synchronized videos, adapts layouts, and is notified with alerts.
Keywords: Video surveillance; Interface reconfiguration; Synchronization
An Integrated Approach for Creating Service-Based Interactive Applications BIBAKFull-Text 896-899
  Marius Feldmann; Jordan Janeiro; Tobias Nestler; Gerald Hübsch; Uwe Jugel; André Preußner; Alexander Schill
While the implementation of business logic and business processes based on service-oriented architectures is well-understood and covered by existing development approaches, integrated concepts that empower users to exploit the Internet of Services to create complex interactive applications are missing. In this paper, we present an integrated approach that fills this gap. Our approach builds upon service annotations that add meta-information related to user interface generation, service dependencies, and service composition to existing service descriptions. Services can be composed visually to complex interactive applications based on these annotations without the need to write any code. The application code is generated completely from the service composition description. Our approach is able to support heterogeneous target environments ranging from client/server architectures to mobile platforms.
Keywords: services; composition; annotations; interactive applications; MDA
Implicit Interaction: A Modality for Ambient Exercise Monitoring BIBAKFull-Text 900-903
  Jin Wan; Michael J. O'Grady; Gregory M. P. O'Hare
Ambient Exercise refers to the implicit exercise that people undertake in the course of their everyday duties -- a simple example being climbing stairs. Increasing awareness of the potential health benefits of such activities may well contribute to an increase in a person's well-being. Initially, it is necessary to monitor and quantify such exercise so that personalized fitness plans may be constructed. In this paper, the implicit interaction modality is harnessed to enable the capturing of ambient exercise activity thereby facilitating its subsequent quantification and interpretation. The novelty of the solution proposed lies in its ubiquity and transparency.
Keywords: Ambient exercise; Implicit interaction; Pervasive health
Interacting with Casework Documents Using Timelines BIBAKFull-Text 904-907
  Morten Bohøj; Niels Olof Bouvin
We present a way of creating an overview of administrative procedures using timelines. Our design also provides for manipulation of the information given on the timeline through interacting directly with the timeline. As an example application, a prototype supporting administrative procedures surrounding parental leave in Denmark, has been developed and evaluated.
Keywords: Timeline; visualization; manipulation; casework
Measuring Emotional Wellbeing with a Non-intrusive Bed Sensor BIBAKFull-Text 908-911
  Gert van der Vloed; Jelle Berentsen
We examine the possibility of using non-intrusive bed sensor measures to ascertain the emotional wellness of an individual. To this end we did a convergent validation study to determine whether heart rate and respiration measures provided by the bed sensor correlate with self reports through questionnaires. The results show that negative affect and worry tension positively correlate with nocturnal respiration.
Keywords: Emotions; Emotional Wellbeing; Physiological Measures
Using a Dynamic Model to Simulate the Heuristic Evaluation of Usability BIBAKFull-Text 912-915
  Nuria Hurtado; Mercedes Ruiz; Jesús Torres
Among usability inspection methods, heuristic evaluation, or expert evaluation, is considered the most used and well-known usability evaluation method. The number of evaluators and their expertise are essential aspects that affect the quality of the evaluation, the cost that its application generates, and the time that it is necessary to spend. This paper presents a dynamic simulation model to analyze how different configurations of evaluator team have an effect upon the results of the heuristic evaluation method. One of the main advantages of using a dynamic simulation model is the possibility of trying out different decisions before carrying them out, and change them during the simulation of the evaluation process.
Keywords: Usability; usability evaluation; heuristic evaluation; dynamic simulation modeling
Using Avatars for Improving Speaker Identification in Captioning BIBAKFull-Text 916-919
  Quoc V. Vy; Deborah I. Fels
Captioning is the main method for accessing television and film content by people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. One major difficulty consistently identified by the community is that of knowing who is speaking particularly for an off screen narrator. A captioning system was created using a participatory design method to improve speaker identification. The final prototype contained avatars and a coloured border for identifying specific speakers. Evaluation results were very positive; however participants also wanted to customize various components such as caption and avatar location.
Keywords: inclusive design; speaker identification; avatars; captioning

Panels

Biometrics in Practice: What Does HCI Have to Say? BIBAKFull-Text 920-921
  Lynne M. Coventry; Graham I. Johnson; Tom McEwan; Chris Riley
This panel discusses biometric technologies from different perspectives in HCI in order to arrive at a coherent response that the community can give in this area. The challenges of doing this will also be of interest in terms of HCI's general influence on topical issues.
Keywords: Biometrics; public influence of HCI
Demarcating User eXperience BIBAFull-Text 922-923
  Virpi Roto
This panel discusses the scoping of user experience as a research field. User experience is a crossing point of several disciplines, each of which tends to define user experience from their own perspective. The distinguished panelists from academia and industry represent the different perspectives to user experience: Traditional human-computer interaction, Psychology, Cognitive psychology, and Design. The goal of the panel is to get one step closer to a shared understanding of the concept of user experience.
Mobility, Emotion, and Universality in Future Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 924-925
  Mark H. Chignell; Naotsune Hosono; Deborah Fels; Danielle M. Lottridge; John A. Waterworth
The Graphical user interface has traditionally supported personal productivity, efficiency, and usability. With computer supported cooperative work, the focus has been on typical people, doing typical work in a highly rational model of interaction. Recent trends towards mobility, and emotional and universal design are extending the user interface paradigm beyond the routine. As computing moves into the hand and away from the desktop, there is a greater need for dealing with emotions and distractions. Busy and distracted people represent a new kind of disability, but one that will be increasingly prevalent. In this panel we examine the current state of the art, and prospects for future collaboration in non-normative computing requirements. This panel draws together researchers who are studying the problems of mobility, emotion and universality. The goal of the panel is to discuss how progress in these areas will change the nature of future collaboration.
Keywords: Future Interfaces; Mobile Computing; Perceptual Interfaces; Emotional Design; University Interfaces; Cross-Cultural Interfaces

Special Interest Groups

Designing Interaction for Next Generation Personal Computing BIBAFull-Text 926-927
  Giorgio De Michelis; Marco Loregian; Claudio Moderini; Patrizia Marti; Cesare Colombo; Liam J. Bannon; Cristiano Storni; Marco Susani
Over two decades of research in the field of Interaction Design and Computer Supported Cooperative Work convinced us that the current design of workstations no longer fits users' needs. It is time to design new personal computers based on metaphors alternative to the desktop one. With this SIG, we are seeking to involve international HCI professionals into the challenges of designing products that are radically new and tackling the many different issues of modern knowledge workers. We would like to engage a wider cross-section of the community: our focus will be on issues of development and participation and the impact of different values in our work.
Postgraduate Studies in the Field of HCI BIBAKFull-Text 928-929
  Teija Vainio; Veikko Surakka; Roope Raisamo; Kari-Jouko Räihä; Poika Isokoski; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Sari Kujala
In September of 2007, the Tampere Unit for Computer Human Interaction (TAUCHI) at the University of Tampere and The Unit of Human-Centered Technology (IHTE) at the Tampere University of Technology initiated a joint effort to increase collaboration in the field of human-technology interaction (HTI). One of the main aims was to develop higher quality education for university students and to carry out joint internationally recognized HTI research. Both research units have their own master and postgraduate students while the focus of education is at IHTE on usability and human-centered design of interactive products and services whereas TAUCHI focuses on human-technology interaction developing it by harmonizing the potential of technology with human abilities, needs, and limitations. Based on our joint analysis we know now that together TAUCHI and IHTE are offering an internationally competitive master's program consisting of more than 40 basic, intermediate and advanced level courses. Although both units are partners in the national Graduate School in User-Centered Information Technology (UCIT) led by TAUCHI we have recognized a clear need for developing and systematizing our doctoral education.
Keywords: Education; HCI; postgraduate studies

Tutorials

Advanced Perceptual User Interfaces: Applications for Disabled and Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 930-931
  Francisco J. Perales López
The research of new human-computer interfaces has become a growing field in computer science, which aims to attain the development of more natural, intuitive, unobtrusive and efficient interfaces. This objective has come up with the concept of Perceptual User Interfaces (PUIs) that are turning out to be very popular as they seek to make the user interface more natural and compelling by taking advantage of the ways in which people naturally interact with each other and with the world. PUIs can use speech and sound recognition and generation, computer vision, graphical animation and visualization, language understanding, touch-based sensing and feedback (haptics), learning, user modeling and dialog management.
Keywords: human-computer interfaces; computer vision techniques; natural interaction; perceptual user interfaces
Combining Requirements and Interaction Design through Usage Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 932-933
  Hermann Kaindl
When the requirements and the interaction design of a system are separated, they will most likely not fit together, and the resulting system will be less than optimal. Even if all the real needs are covered in the requirements and also implemented, errors may be induced by human-computer interaction through a bad interaction design and its resulting user interface. Such a system may even not be used at all. Alternatively, a great user interface of a system with features that are not required will not be very useful as well.
   Therefore, we argue for combined requirements engineering and interaction design, primarily based on usage scenarios. However, scenario-based approaches vary especially with regard to their use, e.g., employing abstract use cases or integrating scenarios with functions and goals in a systematic design process. So, the key issue to be addressed is how to combine different approaches, e.g., in scenario-based development, so that the interaction design as well as the development of the user interface and of the software internally result in an overall useful and useable system. In particular, scenarios are very helpful for purposes of usability as well.
Keywords: Interaction design; usage scenarios; requirements engineering; user interfaces; usability
Design Patterns for User Interfaces on Mobile Equipment BIBAFull-Text 934-935
  Erik G. Nilsson
The objective of this tutorial is to enhance the participants' skills in designing user interfaces for mobile equipment, including adaptive and context sensitive user interfaces and multimodal interaction. Through a combination of lectures and practical exercises, a collection of patterns addressing issues regarding designing user interfaces on mobile devices is presented. The patterns address typical challenges and opportunities when designing user interfaces that are to run on PDAs and SmartPhones -- both challenges connected to characteristics of the equipment and connected to tasks to which designing suitable user interfaces is challenging. The tutorial is intended for user interface designer, systems developers, and project leaders that work with or plan to work on development of applications on mobile devices. The tutorial requires basic knowledge of user interface design in general, and basic understanding of challenges connected to designing user interfaces on mobile devices.
Eye Tracking in Human-Computer Interaction and Usability Research BIBAKFull-Text 936-937
  Tommy Strandvall
The objective of the tutorial is to give an overview on how eye tracking is currently used and how it can be used as a method in human computer interaction research and especially in usability research. An eye tracking system records how the eyes move while a subject is completing a task for example on a web site. By analyzing these eye movements we are able to gain an objective insight into the behavior of that person.
Keywords: eye tracking; eye movements; usability; human-computer interaction; method; methodology
HCI in the Era of Ambient Media -- And beyond 2009 INTERACT Tutorial BIBAKFull-Text 938-939
  Artur Lugmayr
According to McLuhan, "the medium is the message" -- but what means interaction and what is the medium in the age of ubiquitous and pervasive computation -- when the medium is 'in' daily objects? Ambient media are media that are embedded throughout our natural environment -- location based services, context awareness, emotional responsive interfaces, touch and gesture based interfaces, haptics and biometrics, sensor perception, mobile devices, and smart data mining are the technological enabler for smart media environments. The latest trends from emotional computation, affective computation, and tangible media lay the foundations for this new and exciting form of media existing far beyond screen concepts and mouse based interaction metaphors. The tutorial trains participants in the basic technologies as tools for the design of new interactive 'ambient' environments. It presents case studies and latest research results in the field of ambient media, ranging from ambient assisting living, user experience design, user contributed content, and mobile services. After the tutorial the participants should understand the principles of ambient media with its underlying concepts and methods, especially emphasizing human-computer-interaction. As roundup, the tutorial presents a more visionary viewpoint to the future of media technology: the use of biological metaphors for interactive environments (biomedia).
Keywords: ubiquitous computation; ambient media; pervasive computation
Introduction to Social Network Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 940-941
  Panayiotis Zaphiris; Chee Siang Ang
Social Network analysis focuses on patterns of relations between and among people, organizations, states, etc. It aims to describe networks of relations as fully as possible, identify prominent patterns in such networks, trace the flow of information through them, and discover what effects these relations and networks have on people and organizations. Social network analysis offers a very promising potential for analyzing human-human interactions in online communities (discussion boards, newsgroups, virtual organizations). This Tutorial provides an overview of this analytic technique and demonstrates how it can be used in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research and practice, focusing especially on Computer Mediated Communication (CMC). This topic acquires particular importance these days, with the increasing popularity of social networking websites (e.g., youtube, myspace, MMORPGs etc.) and the research interest in studying them.
Keywords: Social Network Analysis; Social Computing; Computer Mediated Communication
Key Issues in Planning and Making Sense of International Field Research BIBAKFull-Text 942-943
  Susan M. Dray; David A. Siegel
More and more companies are doing international research as they design products and services for people around the world. These studies are particularly complex and challenging however, and there are, to date, relatively few resources to guide the people doing them. This tutorial uses scenarios and discussion to help practitioners learn how to approach, plan, manage, and interpret international field studies.
Keywords: Fieldwork; ethnography; user research; international research; user experience
Measuring the Subjective User eXperience BIBAFull-Text 944-945
  Maurits Kaptein
Measuring the subjective user experience is a challenging task. In this tutorial we will demonstrate how psychological constructs can be divided in separate variables, each measured by its individual questionnaire items. The tutorial will address the analysis of the questionnaire data to estimate its validity and reliability. Analysis will be demonstrated using SPSS.
Methods and Tools for Ethical Usability BIBAKFull-Text 946-947
  Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos; Agata Kostrzewa; Mikael Laaksoharju
The objectives of the tutorial are to provide knowledge of basic ethical, psychological and organizational theories that are relevant to consider ethical aspects during design and use of IT systems; knowledge and skills about handling and solving ethical problems in connection with design and use of IT-systems; and skills in using questionnaires, surveys, interviews and the like in connection with software development and IT-use. It contains lectures, workshop and exercises; use of special tools to identify and consider IT ethical issues during planning, construction, installation and use of IT systems; and group exercises where the participants train their ethical skills on IT ethical conflicts and problems. Intended participants are system developers, purchasers, usability experts, academics, HCI teachers.
Keywords: Ethics; Usability; Tools; Methods; Skills
Model a Discourse and Transform It to Your User Interface BIBAKFull-Text 948-949
  Hermann Kaindl
Every interactive system needs a user interface, today possibly even several ones adapted for different devices (PCs, PDAs, mobile phones). Developing a user interface is difficult and takes a lot of effort, since it normally requires design and implementation. This is also expensive, and even more so for several user interfaces for different devices.
   This tutorial shows how human-computer interaction can be based on discourse modeling, even without employing speech or natural language. Our discourse models are derived from results of Human Communication theories, Cognitive Science and Sociology. Such discourse models can specify an interaction design. This tutorial also demonstrates how such an interaction design can be used for model-driven generation of user interfaces and linking them to the application logic and the domain of discourse.
Keywords: Discourse modeling; model-driven user interface generation
Understanding Users in Context: An In-Depth Introduction to Fieldwork for User Centered Design BIBAKFull-Text 950-951
  Susan M. Dray; David A. Siegel
There is increased awareness of the need for design to be driven by deep understanding of users, their activity patterns, processes, needs and external influences -- understanding that can only be gained by studying user behavior in the user's context. This requires understanding of how to plan and carry out observational studies of users, which is a new skill for many. In addition, fieldwork is bigger than any one methodology. Therefore, in this tutorial, we will take a fresh and deeper look at fundamental principles, teach a range of techniques, and examine important issues on which methods differ.
Keywords: Fieldwork; ethnography; user research; contextual inquiry; artifact walkthrough; naturalistic usability evaluation

Workshops

2nd Workshop on Design for Social Interaction through Physical Play BIBAKFull-Text 952-953
  Tilde Bekker; Janienke Sturm; Emilia I. Barakova
We aim to stimulate social interaction by designing and creating interactive objects for physical play for diverse user groups, such as children, elderly or people with special needs. With this workshop we aim to bring researchers and practitioners together to share and explore issues and opportunities for technology-enhanced physical play for stimulating face-to-face social interaction (as opposed to virtual interaction through a computer). The focus of this workshop is on sharing theories that are valuable for the design and research of products and applications in this field.
Keywords: Social interaction; play; interactive technologies; theory
4th Workshop on Software and Usability Engineering Cross-Pollination: Usability Evaluation of Advanced Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 954-956
  Regina Bernhaupt; Peter Forbrig; Jan Gulliksen; Janet Wesson
The usability evaluation of advanced interfaces such as intelligent, adaptive and context-aware interfaces presents several challenges. These interfaces need to be evaluated over an extended time period and used in their actual context of use, rather than in a laboratory setting. Usability evaluation methods for traditional interactive systems have been extensively researched and are well understood. These methods include heuristic evaluation, usability testing and field studies. The goal of this workshop is to bring together people who are engaged in the design and evaluation of advanced interfaces across different disciplines. The objective is to exchange ideas and techniques relevant to the usability evaluation of advanced interfaces and to establish guidelines for the evaluation of such interfaces that cross-pollinate the different disciplines.
Keywords: Usability Evaluation; Advanced Interfaces; Guidelines
Culture and Technologies for Social Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 957-958
  Qinying Liao; Susan R. Fussell; Sheetal K. Agarwal; Arun Kumar; Amit Anil Nanavati; Nitendra Rajput; Yingxin Pan
While social activities and user requirements clearly vary across cultures, we are far from having a systematic understanding of culture's role in the design, development and use of social technologies. This workshop will bring together a mix of HCI researchers and practitioners, social scientists and psychologists who are interested in areas of social technologies and culture, in order to (a) examine the design and use of technologies for social interaction in different cultures to date; (b) explore various viewpoints on the key issues for future research; (c) outline various approaches and identify some basic guidelines for understanding cultural impacts in building social technologies as well as user interfaces and (d) foster new collaborations in the community.
Keywords: Culture; social interaction; social networking sites; online community; social technology; social software
Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services (DEGAS'2009) BIBAFull-Text 959-960
  Marco Winckler; Monique Noirhomme-Fraiture; Dominique L. Scapin; Gaëlle Calvary; Audrey Serna
The main goal of this workshop is to bring researchers and practitioners together to explore the issues and challenges related to the development of usable and accessible user interfaces for e-Government applications using innovative Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This workshop is the second in a series of workshops organized at IFIP TC 13 Interact conference focused on User Interfaces for e-Government applications. The present edition addresses the emergence of ubiquitous platforms and the multiple access points to e-Government applications. In particular, we are concerned by case studies, theories, applications, and design and evaluation methods for ubiquitous e-Government applications that are committed with the universal access for citizens. DEGAS 2009 is officially supported by the IFIP WG 13.3 on HCI and disability and the IFIP WG 13.2 on Methodologies for User-Centered Systems Design.
Designing for Naturally Engaging Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 961-962
  David Browning; Marlyn van Erp; Mads Bødker; Nicola J. Bidwell; Truna Aka J. Turner
This full day workshop explores how insights from artefacts, created during data collecting and analysis, are translated into prototypes. It is particularly concerned with getting closer to people's experience of shaping a design space. The workshop draws inspiration from data-products resulting from interactions in natural, unbuilt places with the intention of supporting both those with work integrating understandings of such experiences into design and those interested in the way material provokes ideas and inspiration for design.
Keywords: Interaction Design; Place; Representation
Ethics, Roles and Relationships in Interaction Design in Developing Regions BIBAKFull-Text 963-964
  Anxo Cereijo Roibás; Andy Dearden; Susan M. Dray; Phil Gray; John C. Thomas; Niall Winters
A workshop to explore ethical and organisational issues associated with interaction design efforts conducted in developing regions of the world. The workshop will discuss the challenges of conducting this type of work in a way that can bring sustainable benefits to people living in developing regions.
Keywords: International development; ethics; capacity-building; cross-cultural design
Human Aspects of Visualization BIBAFull-Text 965-966
  Achim Ebert; Alan J. Dix; Nahum D. Gershon; Margit Pohl
The quantity of data available in our modern information society is ever-growing. It is becoming unfeasible for any one person to oversee, much less understand the overwhelming amount of unstructured, multidimensional information he or she is confronted with every day. The human visual system, the "mind's eye", relies in large part on the eye and on the processing and the interpretation of the information processed by the brain. Visualization utilizes both.
Innovation for an Inclusive Future BIBAFull-Text 967-968
  Mark Springett; Mark Rice; Alex Carmichael; Richard N. Griffiths
This workshop will focus on setting the agenda for research, practice and policy in support of inclusive design for third generation computer-based products. The next generation of technology represents an unprecedented opportunity to improve the quality of life for groups of users who have previously faced exclusion, such as those with impairments and older citizens. At the same time it risks creating a greater digital divide and further exclusion. How we approach design for this new generation will determine whether or not the third wave will provide positive advances towards an inclusive digital world. We therefore need to put forward both a rationale for inclusive design and provide pointers towards technical development and design practice in support of inclusion. It is our belief that there is not only a strong moral case for design for inclusion but also significant commercial incentive, which may be key to persuading influential players to focus on inclusion. Therefore one of our key objectives is to describe and promote the advantages of designing 'in from the edges' of the user population rather than designing for a notional 'average' user.
Interplay between Usability Evaluation and Software Development (I-USED 2009) BIBAKFull-Text 969-970
  Silvia Abrahão; Kasper Hornbæk; Effie Lai-Chong Law; Jan Stage
This workshop is aimed at bringing together researchers and practitioners from the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) fields to determine the state-of-the-art in the interplay between usability evaluation and software development and to generate ideas for new and improved relations between these activities. The aim is to base the determination of the current state on empirical studies. Presentations of new ideas on how to improve the interplay between HCI & SE to the design of usable software systems should also be based on empirical studies.
Keywords: software development; user interface development; usability assessment; usability evaluation methods; empirical studies
New Challenges for Participation in Participatory Design in Family, Clinical and Other Asymmetrical, Non-work Settings BIBAKFull-Text 971-972
  Olav W. Bertelsen; Per-Olof Hedvall
Participatory design (PD) has taken as its ideal that designers and users should engage in an equal language game. When we apply PD in contexts where some of the users involved are weak, ill, or have impairments, this assumed equality can no longer be an ideal. The workshop explores new ideals for participatory design in non-work settings with highly heterogeneous user constellations.
Keywords: Participatory Design; Non-Work Setting; Asymmetry; Heterogeneity
New Sociotechnical Insights in Interaction Design BIBAFull-Text 973-974
  José L. Abdelnour-Nocera; Anders I. Mørch
New challenges are facing interaction design. On one hand because of advances in technology -- pervasive, ubiquitous, multimodal and adaptive computing -- are changing the nature of interaction. On the other, web 2.0, massive multiplayer games and collaboration software extends the boundaries of HCI to deal with interaction in settings of remote communication and collaboration. The aim of this workshop is to provide a forum for HCI practitioners and researchers interested in knowledge from the social sciences to discuss how sociotechnical insights can be used to inform interaction design, and more generally how social science methods and theories can help to enrich the conceptual framework of systems development and participatory design. Position papers submissions are invited to address key aspects of current research and practical case studies.
Team Meetings within Clinical Domains -- Exploring the Use of Routines and Technical Support for Communication BIBAFull-Text 975-976
  Kristina Groth; Ann Lantz; Eva-Lotta Sallnäs; Oscar Frykholm; Anders Green
Today, it is common that a team of clinicians, from different disciplines, instead of one single doctor, care for a patient. This is especially true when it concerns more complicated diseases in highly specialised health care. Going from one doctor to a team of doctors raises new dimensions/problems/issues when deciding about the diagnosis and how to treat the patient. Instead of one person deciding, based on the information given from others, a group of people need to agree on a decision. How do the participants during such decision meetings argue for their experience and skill? What kind of technologies are available and how do they support the communication in the meeting? Måseide (2006), for example, focuses on how different forms of evidence influence and regulate the judgements and decisions of medical practitioners during such meetings. Groth et al. (2008), for example, focuses on the technology used during such meetings, with a focus on audio, video, and images.
Touch Affordances BIBAKFull-Text 977-978
  Karin Slegers; Dries De Roeck; Timo Arnall
The workshop "Touch Affordances" addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.
Keywords: Affordances; HCI; intuitive design; NFC; RFID; (multi)touch interface; touch experience; ubiquitous interface
Towards a Manifesto for Living Lab Co-creation BIBAKFull-Text 979-980
  Asbjørn Følstad; Petter Bae Brandtzæg; Jan Gulliksen; Mikael Börjeson; Pirjo Näkki
There is a growing interest in Living Labs for innovation and development in the field of information and communication technology. In particular there seem to be a tendency that current Living Labs aim to involve users for co-creative purposes. However, the current literature on Living Lab co-creation is severely limited. Therefore an Interact workshop is arranged as a first step towards a manifesto for Living Lab co-creation.
Keywords: Living Labs; co-creation; workshop
User Experience Evaluation Methods in Product Development (UXEM'09) BIBAKFull-Text 981-982
  Virpi Roto; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Effie Law; Arnold P. O. S. Vermeeren
High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of product development in mature consumer markets [1]. Although the term UX originated from industry and is a widely used term also in academia, the tools for managing UX in product development are still inadequate. A prerequisite for designing delightful UX in an industrial setting is to understand both the requirements tied to the pragmatic level of functionality and interaction and the requirements pertaining to the hedonic level of personal human needs, which motivate product use [2]. Understanding these requirements helps managers set UX targets for product development. The next phase in a good user-centered design process is to iteratively design and evaluate prototypes [3]. Evaluation is critical for systematically improving UX. In many approaches to UX, evaluation basically needs to be postponed until the product is fully or at least almost fully functional. However, in an industrial setting, it is very expensive to find the UX failures only at this phase of product development. Thus, product development managers and developers have a strong need to conduct UX evaluation as early as possible, well before all the parts affecting the holistic experience are available. Different types of products require evaluation on different granularity and maturity levels of a prototype. For example, due to its multi-user characteristic, a community service or an enterprise resource planning system requires a broader scope of UX evaluation than a microwave oven or a word processor that is meant for a single user at a time. Before systematic UX evaluation can be taken into practice, practical, lightweight UX evaluation methods suitable for different types of products and different phases of product readiness are needed. A considerable amount of UX research is still about the conceptual frameworks and models for user experience [4]. Besides, applying existing usability evaluation methods (UEMs) without adaptation to evaluate UX may lead to some scoping issues. Consequently, there is a strong need to put UX evaluation from research into practice.
Keywords: User experience; Evaluation methods; User-centered design; Product development
Virtual Teams and Human Work Interaction Design -- Learning to Work in and Designing for Virtual Teams BIBAFull-Text 983-984
  Rikke Orngreen; Torkil Clemmensen; Annelise Mark Pejtersen
The boundaries and work processes for how virtual teams interact are undergoing changes, from a tool and stand-alone application orientation, to the use of multiple generic platforms chosen and redesigned to the specific context. These are often at the same time designed both by professional software developers and the individual members of the virtual teams, rather than determined on a single organizational level. There may be no impact of the technology per se on individuals, groups or organizations, as the technology for virtual teams rather enhance situation ambiguity and disrupt existing task-artifact cycles. This ambiguous situation calls for new methods for empirical work analysis and interaction design that can help us understand how organizations, teams and individuals learn to organize, design and work in virtual teams in various networked contexts.