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INT Tables of Contents: 84879095979901030507-107-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-2

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005-09-12

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERACT'05: IFIP TC13 tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Note:Communicating Naturally through Computers
Editors:Maria Francesca Costabile; Fabio Paterno
Location:Rome, Italy
Dates:2005-Sep-12 to 2005-Sep-16
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Standard No:ISBN 3-540-28943-7; hcibib: INT05
Papers:126
Pages:1153
Links:Conference Website | Online Proceedings
  1. Keynote Speakers
  2. Long Papers: Haptic and Tangible Interfaces
  3. Long Papers: Novel User Interfaces
  4. Long Papers: Improving Search Techniques
  5. Long Papers: Model-Based Design
  6. Long Papers: Interacting with Mobile Devices
  7. Long Papers: Accessibility
  8. Long Papers: Intelligent Interfaces
  9. Long Papers: Large Displays
  10. Long Papers: Collaboration
  11. Long Papers: Usability Evaluation
  12. Long Papers: Children's Interfaces and Their Evaluation
  13. Long Papers: Usability of PDA
  14. Long Papers: Social Interaction
  15. Long Papers: Multimodal Interfaces
  16. Long Papers: Context of Use
  17. Long Papers: 3D and Virtual Environments
  18. Long Papers: Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)
  19. Long Papers: Understanding Users
  20. Long Papers: Interface Design
  21. Long Papers: Eye-Tracking
  22. Long Papers: Video Browsing
  23. Long Papers: User Studies
  24. Long Papers: Visualization Techniques
  25. Long Papers: Location and Context Awareness
  26. Short Papers: Information Visualization and User Studies
  27. Short Papers: Computer-Mediated Communication and Mobility
  28. Short Papers: Group Work and Tabletop Interaction
  29. Short Papers: 3D and Virtual Environments
  30. Short Papers: Adaptive and Adaptable Systems
  31. Short Papers: Grasping, Gazing, Gesturing
  32. Short Papers: Design and Models
  33. Short Papers: Mobile Devices
  34. Short Papers: Universal Access
  35. Short Papers: Tools
  36. Short Papers: Usability Evaluation and User Studies

Keynote Speakers

Sketching and Experience Design BIBAFull-Text 1
  W. Buxton
Among others, Hummels, Djajadiningrat and Overbeeke (Knowing, Doing and Feeling: Communication with your Digital Products. Interdisziplinares Kolleg Kognitions und Neurowissenschaften, Gunne am Mohnesee, March 2-9 2001, 289-308.), have expressed the notion that the real product of design is the resultant "context for experience" rather than the object or software that provokes that experience. This closely corresponds to what I refer to as a transition in focus from a materialistic to an experiential view of design. Paraphrasing what I have already said, is not the physical entity or what is in the box (the "material" product) that is the true outcome of the design process. Rather, it is the behavioural, experiential and emotional responses that come about as a result of its existence and use in the "wild".
   Designing for experience comes with a whole new level of complexity. This is especially true in this emerging world of information appliances, reactive environments and ubiquitous computing, where, along with those of their users, we have to factor in the convoluted behaviours of the products themselves. Doing this effectively requires both a different mind-set, as well as different techniques.
   This talk is motivated by a concern that, in general, our current training and work practices are not adequate to meet the demands of this level of design. This is true for those coming from a computer science background, since they do not have sufficient grounding in design, at least in the sense that would be recognized by an architect or industrial designer. Conversely, those from the design arts, while they have the design skills, do not generally have the technical skills to adequately address the design issues relating to the complex embedded behaviours of such devices and systems.
   Hence, in this talk, we discuss the design process itself, from the perspective of methods, organization, and composition. Fundamental to our approach is the notion that sketching is a fundamental component of design, and is especially critical at the early ideation phase. Yet, due to the temporal nature of what we are designing, conventional sketching is not - on its own - adequate. Hence, if we are to design experience or interaction, we need to adopt something that is to our process that is analogous to what traditional sketching is to the process of conventional industrial design.
   It is the motivation and exploration of such a sketching process that is the foundation of this presentation.
Intelligent Architecture: Embedding Spaces with a Mind for Augmented Interaction BIBAFull-Text 2-3
  F. Sparacino
Our society's modalities of communication are rapidly changing: we divide our activities between real and digital worlds and our daily lives are characterized by our constant access-to and processing-of a vast quantity and variety of information. These transformations of our lifestyle demand both a new architecture and interaction modalities that support the new as well as old ways of communicating and living.
   As a consequence of the prevalent role of information in today's society, architecture is presently at a turning point. Screens are everywhere, from the billboards which dot the contemporary urban cityscape, to the video walls which welcome us in the entry-halls of corporate headquarter buildings, to our desktop computer monitor at home, the PDA in our pocket, or the tiny private-eye screens of wearable computers. Wearable computers are starting to transform our technological landscape by reshaping the heavy, bulky desktop computer into a lightweight, portable device that's accessible to people at any time. Computation and sensing are moving from computers and devices into the environment itself. The space around us is instrumented with sensors and displays, and this tends to reflect a widespead need to blend together the information space with our physical space. "Augmented reality" and "mixed reality" are the terms most often used to refer to this type of media-enhanced interactive space. The combination of large public and miniature personal digital displays together with distributed computing and sensing intelligence offers unprecedented opportunities to merge the virtual and the real, the information landscape of the Internet with the urban landscape of the city, to transform digital animated media in public installations, in storytellers, also by means of personal wearable technology.
   To meet the challenges of the new information- and technology-inspired architecture we need to think of the architectural space not simply as a container but as a living body endowed with sensors, actuators, and a brain (a mind), a space capable of assisting people in the course of their activities within such spaces.
   On the basis of my work and research I will argue that intelligent architecture needs to be supported by three forms of intelligence: perceptual intelligence, which captures people's presence and movement in the space in a natural and non-encumbering way; interpretive intelligence, which "understands" people's actions and is capable of making informed guesses about their behavior; and narrative intelligence, which presents us with information, articulated stories, images, and animations, in the right place, at the right time, all tailored to our needs and preferences.
   This talk will describe and illustrate a series of models, technological platforms and installations the author developed originally at the MIT Media Lab (1994 to 2002) and later commercially for Sensing Places (2003 to 2005). They contribute to defining new trends in architecture that merge virtual and real spaces, and are currently in the process of reshaping the way we live and experience the museum, the home, the theater, and the modern city.
The Future of Web Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 4-5
  S. Pemberton
The Web took the world by storm, and as a result developed rapidly in many directions. However it still exhibits many aspects of its early development, such as its visual and computer-screen orientation. But the Web is still developing rapidly: there are now more browsers on mobile telephones than on desktops, and there is a vast diversity in types of devices, types and orientations of screens, and sizes (in number of pixels), and resolutions (in dpi) of screens.
   Dealing with this diversity is impossible to address just by keeping a list of all the possible devices, or even a list of the most-used ones, and producing different sites for them, since the complexity would be unmanageable, and because once sites started turning away browsers and devices they didn't know, the browser makers responded by disguising themselves to such sites as other browsers.
   On top of this diversity there is also the diversity required for accessibility. Although providing access for the visually impaired is an important reason for accessibility, we are all more or less visually impaired at one time or another. When displaying an application on a projector screen at a conference or meeting, the whole audience will typically be visually impaired in comparison to someone sitting behind a computer screen. The existence of separate socalled "Ten-foot Interfaces" (for people controlling their computers by remote control from an armchair ten feet away) demonstrates that the original applications are not designed for accessibility. Furthermore, Google (and all other search engines) is blind, and sees only what a blind user sees of a page; as the webmaster of a large bank has remarked, "we have noticed that improving accessibility increases our Google rating".
   The success of the Web has turned the browser into a central application area for the user, and you can spend most of your day working with applications in the browser, reading mail, shopping, searching your own diskdrive. The advent of applications such as Google Maps and GMail has focussed minds on delivering applications via the web, not least because it eliminates the problems involved with versioning: everyone always has the most recent version of your application. Since Web-based applications have benefits for both user and provider, we can only expect to see more of them in the future.
   But this approach comes at a cost. Google Maps is of the order of 200K of Javascript code. Such applications are only writable by programming experts, and producing an application is not possible by the sort of people who often produce web pages for their own use.
   The Web Interfaces landscape is in turmoil at the moment. Microsoft has announced a new markup language and vector graphics language for the next version of Windows; probably as a response Adobe has acquired Macromedia and therefore Flash; W3C have standards for applications in the form of XForms, XHTML and SVG and are working on "compound documents"; and other browser manufacturers are calling for their own version of HTML.
   What are we to make of these different approaches? Are they conflicting? Have any addressed authorability, device-independence, usability or accessibility? Is it even possible to make accessible applications? HTML made creating hypertext documents just about as easy as it could be; do any of the new approaches address this need for simplicity, or has power been irretrievably returned to the programmers?
   This talk discusses the requirements for Web Applications, and the underpinnings necessary to make Web Applications follow in the same spirit that engendered the Web in the first place.

Long Papers: Haptic and Tangible Interfaces

An Investigation into the Use of Tactons to Present Progress Information BIBAFull-Text 6-17
  S. Brewster; A. King
This paper presents an initial investigation into the use of Tactons, or tactile icons, to present progress information in desktop human-computer interfaces. Progress bars are very common in a wide range of interfaces but have problems. For example, they must compete for screen space and visual attention with other visual tasks such as document editing or web browsing. To address these problems we created a tactile progress indicator, encoding progress information into a series of vibrotactile cues. An experiment comparing the tactile progress indicator to a standard visual one showed a significant improvement in performance and an overall preference for the tactile display. These results suggest that a tactile display is a good way to present such information and this has many potential applications from computer desktops to mobile telephones.
Haptizing Wind on a Weather Map with Reactive Force and Vibration BIBAFull-Text 18-29
  M. Omata; M. Ishihara; M. G. Kwok; A. Imamiya
This paper describes a model for haptizing wind on a weather map. To design the model, we examined the human sensory scale to represent wind speed and direction with appropriate haptic stimuli, and examined parameters of the stimulus that allow a user to easily recognize changes in wind speed and direction. The results of these experiments show that vibration frequency can represent wind speed while a constant reactive force represents direction. The model solves a problem users of reactive force-only systems have difficulty identifying direction when the force is small due to light wind. Based on the model, we have developed a prototype weather information system with visual and haptic information.
Using ARToolKit Markers to Build Tangible Prototypes and Simulate Other Technologies BIBAFull-Text 30-42
  E. Hornecker; T. Psik
Quick prototyping of tangible user interfaces is currently hampered by availability of toolkits and the double challenge of tinkering with software and hardware. While software may be downloaded, hardware cannot. As a work-around for a class on experimental prototyping of tangible appliances we utilized the ARToolKit that tracks optical markers. By creatively adapting it, our students quickly developed working prototypes, simulating a range of devices and tracking technologies. Our approach enabled a focus on quick prototyping, idea testing and simulation of the interaction process. We explain our reasons for using the ARToolKit, summarize its advantages and disadvantages, present four students projects, and discuss our experiences and conclusions. In particular we found that visual tracking has the advantage not to limit or determine possible interaction styles and thus fosters designing richer interaction. We discuss this as a requirement for future tangible prototyping toolkits.
Augmented Reality Painting and Collage: Evaluating Tangible Interaction in a Field Study BIBAFull-Text 43-56
  G. Jacucci; A. Oulasvirta; A. Salovaara; T. Psik; I. Wagner
Tangible computing applications are rarely evaluated with field studies in real settings, which can contribute as formative studies to understand the challenges and benefits of tangible interfaces in real world practices. We present an AR environment for painting, with a physical brush, digital textures on physical models and creating dynamic stages for the model with spatial collages providing different backgrounds. We report on an evaluation of this AR environment in an architecture school, where 8 groups of students used it as a practical assignment. The evaluation demonstrated the benefits of specific features of the environment and of its tangible interfaces: immersiveness, public availability, supporting collaboration, flexibility, dynamicism and resulting rapidity in creating mixed media representations. Several challenges surfaced from the evaluation especially in connection to the distribution of the interface. The physical, spatial, and computational separation of interface components raised issues on accountability and ergonomics. We link our observations to design guidelines.

Long Papers: Novel User Interfaces

Hotaru: Intuitive Manipulation Techniques for Projected Displays of Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 57-68
  M. Sugimoto; K. Miyahara; H. Inoue; Y. Tsunesada
Mobile devices (cellular phone, PDA, etc.) have so far been personal tools. Due to their evolution to multi-functionality, however, the devices have begun to be used by multiple people in co-located situations. This paper discusses near future technologies: a mobile device with a projector and intuitive manipulation techniques by using a video camera mounted on the device. In today's technologies, it is difficult to realize a mobile device with a small and lightweight projector that still retains the feature of mobility. Therefore, we have developed a system to project displays of mobile devices on a table, a floor, or a wall, by tracking their three-dimensional positions and orientations and using an existing LCD projector. The proposed system called Hotaru (a firefly, in English) allows users to annotate/rotate a picture or a document in a mobile device by touching its projected display with their fingers. Users can intuitively transfer a file between multiple devices by making their projected displays overlapped. Informal evaluations of Hotaru indicated that the proposed manipulation techniques could effectively support multiple people in co-located situations in conducting their tasks.
DIZI: A Digital Ink Zooming Interface for Document Annotation BIBAFull-Text 69-79
  M. Agrawala; M. Shilman
Pen computing devices provide a natural interface for annotating documents with freeform digital ink. However, digital ink annotations are usually larger and sloppier than real ink annotations on paper. We present DIZI, a focus+context interface that zooms up a region of the underlying document for inking. Users write in the zoomed region at a comfortable size for the device. When the zoom region is shrunk back to normal page size, the digital ink shrinks to an appropriate size for the underlying document. The zoom region covers only a small portion of the screen so that users can always see the overall context of the underlying document. We describe several techniques for fluidly moving the zoom region to navigate the document. We show that DIZI allows users to create digital ink annotations that more closely mimic the look of real ink annotations on physical paper.
TractorBeam Selection Aids: Improving Target Acquisition for Pointing Input on Tabletop Displays BIBAFull-Text 80-93
  J. K. Parker; R. L. Mandryk; M. N. Nunes; K. M. Inkpen
This paper presents a comparison of several selection aids to improve pointing input on tabletop displays. Our previous research explored the TractorBeam -- a hybrid point-touch interaction technique for tabletop displays. We found that while pointing input was preferred (over touch) by users of tabletop displays, it was slower for small distant targets. Drawing from previous work on improving target acquisition for desktop displays, we developed and tested three selection aids to improve pointing selection of small distant targets on tabletop displays: expanding the cursor, expanding the target, and snapping to the target. Our experiments revealed that all three aids resulted in faster selection times than no selection aid at all, with snapping to the target being the fastest. Additionally, participants liked snapping to the target better than the other selection aids and found it to be the most effective for selecting targets.
Responsive Interaction Based on Sketch in Concept Styling BIBAFull-Text 94-105
  L. Han; G. Conti; R. De Amicis
In the CAS/CAD field, the increasing adoption of Spline-based free-form methods to generate surfaces, has introduced a higher degree of freedom into the design process. However, on the other hand, this evolution has made the process of creating and manipulating surfaces more complex. For this reason a much more intuitive and intelligent task-centered and user-centered interaction paradigm is required. This paper presents a responsive interaction technique which adopts a sketch-based interface capable of exploiting the stepwise refinement process typical of conceptual designing. Further it makes use of adaptive user modeling techniques by introducing an innovative adaptive decision-tree structure for top-down designing. We illustrate the implementation of the algorithm and we highlight its efficiency and feasibility for its adoption within Sketch-Based Modeling Systems (SBMS).

Long Papers: Improving Search Techniques

Natural Language Query vs. Keyword Search: Effects of Task Complexity on Search Performance, Participant Perceptions, and Preferences BIBAFull-Text 106-116
  Q. Wang; C. Nass; J. Hu
A 2x2 mixed design experiment (N=52) was conducted to examine the effects of search interface and task complexity on participants' information-seeking performance and affective experience. Keyword vs. natural language search was the within-participants factor; simple vs. complex tasks was the between-participants factor. There were cross-over interactions such that complex-task participants were more successful and thought the tasks were less difficult and reported more enjoyment and confidence when they used keyword search vs. natural language queries, while the opposite was found for simple-task participants. The findings suggest that natural language search is not the panacea for all information retrieval tasks: task complexity is a critical mediator. Implications for interface design and directions for future research are discussed.
"THAT's What I Was Looking for": Comparing User-Rated Relevance with Search Engine Rankings BIBAFull-Text 117-129
  S. Patil; S. R. Alpert; J. Karat; C. Wolf
We present a lightweight tool to compare the relevance ranking provided by a search engine to the relevance as actually judged by the user performing the query. Using the tool, we conducted a user study with two different versions of the search engine for a large corporate web site with more than 1.8 million pages, and with the popular search engine GoogleTM. Our tool provides an inexpensive and efficient way to do this comparison, and can be easily extended to any search engine that provides an API. Relevance feedback from actual users can be used to assess precision and recall of a search engine's retrieval algorithms and, perhaps more importantly, to tune its relevance ranking algorithms to better match user needs. We found the tool to be quite effective at comparing different versions of the same search engine, and for benchmarking by comparing against a standard.
Effects of Display Configurations on Document Triage BIBAFull-Text 130-143
  S. Bae; R. Badi; K. Meintanis; J. M. Moore; A. Zacchi; H. Hsieh; C. C. Marshall; F. M. Shipman
Document triage is the practice of quickly determining the merit and disposition of relevant documents. This practice involves selection of documents from a document overview and quick forms of reading: skimming, reading short portions of a longer document, and navigating through headings, indices, and tables of contents. Earlier studies of document triage practice showed considerable overhead related to window management during transitions between the document overview and reading interfaces. This study examines the impact of multiple display configurations on document triage practice. In particular, it compares (1) configurations with same and different size displays, and (2) configurations with and without user control over which activity is performed on which display. Results show a significant increase in the number of transitions between activities when a multi-display configuration is introduced although there is no significant difference between the different multiple display configurations. Additionally, user activity with a document was positively correlated with an overall assessment of document value.
Searching for Music: How Feedback and Input-Control Change the Way We Search BIBAFull-Text 144-157
  T. H. Andersen
The growing amount of digital music available at desktop computers and portable media players increases the need for interfaces that facilitate efficient music navigation. Search patterns are quantified and evaluated across types of feedback and input controllers in an experiment with 12 participants. The way music is searched and the subjective factors varied significantly across input device and type of audio feedback. However, no difference in task completion time was found for the evaluated interfaces. Based on the experiments, we propose several ways in which future designs may improve searching and browsing in recorded music.

Long Papers: Model-Based Design

Galactic Dimensions: A Unifying Workstyle Model for User-Centered Design BIBAFull-Text 158-169
  P. Campos; N. J. Nunes
This paper describes a new unifying workstyle model for the user-centered design process, comprised of eight dimensions that we claim as fundamental to supporting the UCD process. Our proposal is new because it is the first workstyle model tailored to UCD. We also show the usefulness of workstyle modeling when evaluating the stage/effort of a project at a given time. Our workstyle model was based on the identification of the main obstacles to UCD and SE integration, current research results and extensive observation of HCI students involved in UCD projects. Though simple, it models the designer's behavior and can be effectively and easily used to (a) choose adequate tool support for a given phase of a project and (b) drive the development of new UCD tools.
A Formal Description of Multimodal Interaction Techniques for Immersive Virtual Reality Applications BIBAFull-Text 170-183
  D. Navarre; P. Palanque; R. Bastide; A. Schyn; M. Winckler; L. P. Nedel; C. M. D. S. Freitas
Nowadays, designers of Virtual Reality (VR) applications are faced with the choice of a large number of different input and output devices leading to a growing number of interaction techniques. Usually VR interaction techniques are described informally, based on the actions users can perform within the VR environment. At implementation time, such informal descriptions (made at design time) yield to ambiguous interpretations by the developers. In addition, informal descriptions make it difficult to foresee the impact throughout the application of a modification of the interaction techniques. This paper discusses the advantages of using a formal description technique (called ICO) to model interaction techniques and dialogues for VR applications. This notation is presented via a case study featuring an immersive VR application. The case study is then used to show, through analysis of models, how the formal notation can help to ensure the usability, reliability and efficiency of virtual reality systems.
Analysing User Confusion in Context Aware Mobile Applications BIBAFull-Text 184-197
  K. Loer; M. D. Harrison
Mobility of ubiquitous systems offers the possibility of using the current context to infer information that might otherwise require user input. This can either make user interfaces more intuitive or cause subtle and confusing mode changes. We discuss the analysis of such systems that will allow the designer to predict potential pitfalls before the design is fielded. Whereas the current predominant approach to understanding mobile systems is to build and explore experimental prototypes, our exploration highlights the possibility that early models of an interactive system might be used to predict problems with embedding in context before costly mistakes have been made. Analysis based on model checking is used to contrast configuration and context issues in two interfaces to a process control system.
Attach Me, Detach Me, Assemble Me Like You Work BIBAFull-Text 198-212
  D. Grolaux; J. Vanderdonckt; P. Van Roy
Detachable user interfaces consist of graphical user interfaces whose parts or whole can be detached at run-time from their host, migrated onto another computing platform while carrying out the task, possibly adapted to the new platform and attached to the target platform in a peer-to-peer fashion. Detaching is the property of splitting a part of a UI for transferring it onto another platform. AttAaching is the reciprocal property: a part of an existing interface can be attached to the currently being used interface so as to recompose another one on-demand, according to user's needs, task requirements. Assembling interface parts by detaching and attaching allows dynamically composing, decomposing and re-composing new interfaces on demand. To support this interaction paradigm, a development infrastructure has been developed based on a series of primitives such as display, undisplay, copy, expose, return, transfer, delegate, and switch. We exemplify it with QTkDraw, a painting application with attaching and detaching based on the development infrastructure.

Long Papers: Interacting with Mobile Devices

Bringing Dynamic Queries to Mobile Devices: A Visual Preference-Based Search Tool for Tourist Decision Support BIBAFull-Text 213-226
  S. Burigat; L. Chittaro; L. De Marco
This paper discusses the design and development of a preference-based search tool (PBST) for tourists, operating on PDA devices. PBSTs are decision support systems that help users in finding the outcomes (e.g., multi-attribute products or services) that best satisfy their needs and preferences. Our tool is specifically aimed at filtering the amount of information about points of interest (POIs) in a geographic area, thus supporting users in the search of the most suitable solution to their needs (e.g., a hotel, a restaurant, a combination of POIs satisfying a set of constraints specified by the user). We focus on the design of an effective interface for the tool, by exploring the combination of dynamic queries to filter POIs on a map with a visualization of the degree of satisfaction of constraints set by the user. We also report the results of a usability test we carried out on the first prototype of the system.
Mobile Photo Browsing with Pipelines and Spatial Cues BIBAFull-Text 227-239
  T. Hakala; J. Lehikoinen; H. Korhonen; A. Ahtinen
Local memory in mobile devices increases rapidly. Simultaneously, new content creation devices, such as digital cameras, are embedded. As a consequence, the amount of locally stored content is bound to increase in huge numbers. In order to provide support for end-users in managing this ever-growing pile of content, new means of accessing, organizing, and enjoying the content are needed. We investigate techniques that may be used to display more information, especially visual content, on the mobile device screen at once, as well as accessing the content with ease. We focus on visual interaction, with a media manager as a target application. We present the design factors and a prototype application running on a mobile phone. We show that it is feasible to include spatial cues in the design of mobile user interfaces, and report an initial usability study with very encouraging results.
Visual Interface and Control Modality: An Experiment About Fast Photo Browsing on Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 240-252
  Q. Wang; S. Harada; T. Hsieh; A. Paepcke
We examined the strengths and weaknesses of three diverse scroll control modalities for photo browsing on personal digital assistants (PDAs). This exploration covered nine alternatives in a design space that consisted of three visual interfaces and three control modalities. The three interfaces were a traditional thumbnail layout, a layout that placed a single picture on the screen at a time, and a hybrid that placed one large photo in the center of the display, while also displaying a row of neighboring thumbnails at the top and bottom of the screen. In a user experiment we paired each of these interfaces with each of the following three scroll control modalities: a jog dial, a squeeze sensor, and an on-screen control that was activated by tapping with a stylus. We offer a simple model that classifies our experiment's interfaces by how much they provide visual context within the photo collection. The model also classifies the scroll modalities by how tightly they correlate scroll input actions to effects on the screen. Performance and attitudinal results from the user experiment are presented and discussed.

Long Papers: Accessibility

The Effect of Age and Font Size on Reading Text on Handheld Computers BIBAFull-Text 253-266
  I. Darroch; J. Goodman; S. Brewster; P. Gray
Though there have been many studies of computer based text reading, only a few have considered the small screens of handheld computers. This paper presents an investigation into the effect of varying font size between 2 and 16 point on reading text on a handheld computer. By using both older and younger participants the possible effects of age were examined. Reading speed and accuracy were measured and subjective views of participants recorded. Objective results showed that there was little difference in reading performance above 6 point, but subjective comments from participants showed a preference for sizes in the middle range. We therefore suggest, for reading tasks, that designers of interfaces for mobile computers provide fonts in the range of 8-12 point to maximize readability for the widest range of users.
Fat Finger Worries: How Older and Younger Users Physically Interact with PDAs BIBAFull-Text 267-280
  K. A. Siek; Y. Rogers; K. H. Connelly
There has been a steady growth in the global population of elderly people, challenging researchers in the HCI community to design technologies to help them remain independent and preserve their quality of life. One approach has been to create assistive technology solutions using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). However, some have questioned whether older people can use PDAs because of age related problems with dexterity, coordination, and vision. This paper presents an initial usability study that shows there are no major differences in performance between older and younger users when physically interacting with PDAs and completing conventional (e.g. pressing buttons, viewing icons, recording messages) and non-conventional tasks (e.g. scanning bar codes).
Flexible Reporting for Automated Usability and Accessibility Evaluation of Web Sites BIBAFull-Text 281-294
  A. Beirekdar; M. Keita; M. Noirhomme; F. Randolet; J. Vanderdonckt; C. Mariage
A system for automatically evaluating the usability and accessibility of web sites by checking their HTML code against guidelines has been developed. All usability and accessibility guidelines are formally expressed in a XML-compliant specification language called Guideline Definition Language (GDL) so as to separate the evaluation engine from the evaluation logics (the guidelines). This separation enables managing guidelines (i.e., create, retrieve, update, and delete) without affecting the code of the evaluation engine. The evaluation engine is coupled to a reporting system that automatically generates one or many evaluation reports in a flexible way: adaptation for screen reading or for a printed report, sorting by page, by object, by guideline, by priority, or by severity of the detected problems. This paper focuses on the reporting system.

Long Papers: Intelligent Interfaces

The Focus-Metaphor Approach: A Novel Concept for the Design of Adaptive and User-Centric Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 295-308
  S. Laqua; P. Brna
The Focus-Metaphor Approach is a novel concept for the design of adaptive and user-centric virtual environments which seeks to use a form of associativity to adapt the interface to the user whilst keeping one primary focus element and many secondary and peripheral focus elements. In this paper, the underlying theory is presented and differentiated from related research. The proposed solution has been implemented as a prototype and tested for usability issues using an online evaluation and in-laboratory eye-tracking to find some evidence that time spent off-communication is reduced. The results are reported briefly, implications considered and the areas for further work are pointed out.
Working Out a Common Task: Design and Evaluation of User-Intelligent System Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 309-322
  D. Petrelli; V. Lanfranchi; F. Ciravegna
This paper describes the design and user evaluation of an intelligent user interface intended to mediate between users and an Adaptive Information Extraction (AIE) system. The design goal was to support a synergistic and cooperative work. Laboratory tests showed the approach was efficient and effective; focus groups were run to assess its ease of use. Logs, user satisfaction questionnaires, and interviews were exploited to investigate the interaction experience. We found that user' attitude is mainly hierarchical with the user wishing to control and check the system's initiatives. However when confidence in the system capabilities rises, a more cooperative interaction is adopted.
Interactivity and Expectation: Eliciting Learning Oriented Behavior with Tutorial Dialogue Systems BIBAFull-Text 323-336
  C. P. Rose; C. Torrey
We investigate the reasons behind students' different responses to human versus machine tutors and explore possible solutions that will motivate students to offer more elaborated responses to computerized tutoring systems, and ultimately behave in a more "learning oriented" manner. We focus upon two sets of variables, one surrounding the students' perceptions of tutor qualities and the other surrounding the conversational dynamics of the dialogues themselves. We offer recommendations based on our empirical investigations.

Long Papers: Large Displays

Put Them Where? Towards Guidelines for Positioning Large Displays in Interactive Workspaces BIBAFull-Text 337-349
  R. E. Su; B. P. Bailey
Multiple large displays are being increasingly used in interactive workspaces to enhance individual and group work. However, little research has been conducted to determine whether various configurations of large displays impact users or their tasks differently. We show that such an impact exists, and take steps towards developing guidelines for how to effectively arrange large displays in interactive workspaces. For two large displays, we manipulated their physical separation, angle between them, and symmetry when facing each other and measured time on task, subjective workload, and satisfaction for application relocation tasks. From the results, we produced three useful guidelines: (i) displays can be separated on a horizontal plane up to a subtended visual angle of 45°, (ii) a display should not be placed behind a user, but if necessary, it should be offset relative to the user, and (iii) displays should be positioned at a 45° angle relative to each other rather than being orthogonal. As the use of large displays is increasing, these guidelines should have a broad, practical impact.
Analysis of User Behavior on High-Resolution Tiled Displays BIBAFull-Text 350-363
  R. Ball; C. North
The use of multiple monitors for personal desktop computing is becoming more prevalent as the price of display technology decreases. The use of two monitors for a single desktop has been shown to have performance improvement in several studies. However, few studies have been performed with more than three monitors. As a result, we report an observational analysis of the use of a large tiled display containing nine monitors (in a 3x3 matrix). The total resolution of the large display is 3840x3072, for a total of 11,796,480 pixels. Over the course of six months we observed the behavior and actions of five users who used the display extensively as a desktop. We relate our observations, provide feedback concerning common usage of how people do and do not use the display, provide common scenarios and results of interviews, and give a series of design recommendations and guidelines for future designers of applications for high-resolution, tiled displays.

Long Papers: Collaboration

Interaction and Co-located Collaboration in Large Projection-Based Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 364-376
  A. Simon; A. Dressler; H.-P. Kruger; S. Scholz; J. Wind
Conventional interaction in large screen projection-based display sys tems only allows a "master user" to have full control over the application. We have developed the VRGEO Demonstrator application based on an interaction paradigm that allows multiple users to share large projection-based environment displays for co-located collaboration. Following SDG systems we introduce a collaborative interface based on tracked PDAs and integrate common device metaphors into the interface to improve user's learning experience of the virtual environment system. The introduction of multiple workspaces in a virtual envi ronment allows users to spread out data for analysis making use of the large screen space more effectively. Two extended informal evaluation sessions with application domain experts and demonstrations of the system show that our collaborative interaction paradigm improves the learning experience and interac tivity of the virtual environment.
Using Real-Life Troubleshooting Interactions to Inform Self-assistance Design BIBAFull-Text 377-390
  J. O'Neill; A. Grasso; S. Castellani; P. Tolmie
Technical troubleshooting is a domain that has changed enormously in recent years. Instead of relying on visits from service personnel end users facing technical problems with machinery, for example computers and printers, can now seek assistance from systems that guide them toward an autonomous solution of the problem. Systems that can be offered to them are wide in their range, but typically fall either in the category of Expert Systems or searchable databases that can be queried with keyword searches. Both approaches present advantages and disadvantages in terms of flexibility to address different levels of user expertise and ease of maintenance. However, few studies explicitly address the issue of how best to design for a balance between guidance and user freedom in such systems. In the work reported here an office equipment manufacturer's call centre was studied in order to understand the mechanisms used when human agents guide users toward a resolution. The overall aim here is not to reproduce the agent behaviour in a system, but rather to identify which interactional building blocks such a system should have. These are assessed in relation to the existing online knowledge base resources offered by the same company in order to exemplify the kinds of issues designers need to attend to in this domain.

Long Papers: Usability Evaluation

Feedback from Usability Evaluation to User Interface Design: Are Usability Reports Any Good? BIBAFull-Text 391-404
  C. M. Nielsen; M. Overgaard; M. B. Pedersen; J. Stage
This paper reports from an exploratory study of means for providing feedback from a usability evaluation to the user interface designers. In this study, we conducted a usability evaluation of a mobile system that is used by craftsmen to register use of time and materials. The results of this evaluation were presented to the designers in different forms. First, the designers were presented with a traditional usability report. Second, we facilitated a dialogue where the results of the evaluation were discussed. During this process, we collected opinions from the designers on the main strengths and weaknesses of the system. The findings indicate that detailed descriptions of problems and log descriptions of the user's interaction with the system and of system interaction are useful for the designers when trying to understand the usability problems that the users have encountered.
Assessing Interaction Styles in Web User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 405-417
  A. Sutcliffe; A. De Angeli
An evaluation of two websites with the same content but different interface styles (traditional menu-based and interactive metaphors) is described. A formative usability evaluation was carried out with heuristic assessment of aesthetics followed by post-test memory. The subjects had more problems with the metaphor-based site, but rated it more favourably on the aesthetics heuristics. There was no difference in free memory recall between the sites. The implications for website design and evaluation are discussed.
Usability Specialists - 'Mommy Mob', 'Realistic Humanists' or 'Staid Researchers'? An Analysis of Usability Work in the Software Product Development BIBAFull-Text 418-430
  N. Iivari
Users should be involved in the interactive systems development. However, involving users is difficult and rare, especially in the product development context. Guidelines for the facilitation of user involvement have been produced. However, a critical review shows that the guidelines rely on naive notions of people and change in organizations. In this paper an interpretive research approach is utilized in the analysis user involvement in software development organizations operating in the product development context. User involvement is indirect in the organizations, and labelled as usability work. Usability specialists are conceptualized as a specific community of practice, usability work being their practice. Analysis reveals divergent ways usability work has been organized in the organizations, and divergent meanings attached to usability work. Both practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

Long Papers: Children's Interfaces and Their Evaluation

Exposing Middle School Girls to Programming via Creative Tools BIBAFull-Text 431-442
  G. Gweon; J. Ngai; J. Rangos
This paper explores design concepts and principles to engage middle school girls in learning preliminary programming concepts through different media and interaction techniques. Creating a greeting card and creating a personal avatar for an Instant Messenger (IM) were two approaches that were examined. Findings suggest that an IM avatar creation tool, with guiding principles including partial manipulation of code, immediate feedback, engaging content, reinforcement exercises, and transition from concrete to abstract examples, may interest girls to start learning programming concepts.
Exploring Verbalization and Collaboration of Constructive Interaction with Children BIBAFull-Text 443-456
  B. S. Als; J. J. Jensen; M. B. Skov
Constructive interaction provides natural thinking-aloud as test subjects collaborate in pairs to solve tasks. Since children may face difficulties in following instructions for a standard think-aloud test, constructive interaction has been suggested as evaluation method when usability testing with children. However, the relationship between think-aloud and constructive interaction is still poorly understood. We present an experiment that compares think-aloud and constructive interaction. The experiment involves 60 children with three setups where children apply think-aloud or constructive interaction in acquainted and non-acquainted pairs. Our results show that the pairing of children had impact on how the children collaborated in pairs and how they would afterward assess the testing sessions. In some cases, we found that acquainted dyads would perform well as they would more naturally interact and collaborate while in other cases they would have problems in controlling the evaluations.
A Structured Expert Evaluation Method for the Evaluation of Children's Computer Games BIBAFull-Text 457-469
  E. Baauw; M. M. Bekker; W. Barendregt
Inspection-based evaluation methods predicting usability problems can be applied for evaluating products without involving users. A new method (named SEEM), inspired by Norman's theory-of-action model [18] and Malone's concepts of fun [15], is described for predicting usability and fun problems in children's computer games. This paper describes a study to assess SEEM's quality. The results show that the experts in the study predicted about 76% of the problems found in a user test. The validity of SEEM is quite promising. Furthermore, the participating experts were able to apply the inspection-questions in an appropriate manner. Based on this first study ideas for improving the method are presented.

Long Papers: Usability of PDA

Usability Testing of Mobile Devices: A Comparison of Three Approaches BIBAFull-Text 470-481
  A. H. Betiol; W. de Abreu Cybis
This paper describes a study that compares the results of usability testing of mobile interfaces based on three different evaluation approaches: (i) using a computer-based mobile phone emulator inside the laboratory (ii) using a mobile phone inside the laboratory (iii) using a mobile phone linked to a wireless camera in the field. The results regarding user performance and usability problem identification showed the existence of more similarities than significant differences between the results of the three evaluation contexts. Moreover, in the simplest evaluation context of the emulator it was possible to identify a large percentage of the overall set of usability problems found.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of "Effective View Navigation" for Very Long Ordered Lists on Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 482-495
  L. Chittaro; L. De Marco
Searching for an item in a long ordered list is a frequent task when using any kind of computing device (from desktop PCs to mobile phones). This paper explores three different interfaces to support this task on the limited screen of mobile devices (e.g., PDAs, in-car systems, mobile phones). Two of the considered interfaces are based on the idea of tree-augmentation of a list proposed in Furnas' Effective View Navigation theory [6] and differ in their depth versus breadth ratio. The third interface adopts the traditional technique of list scrolling based on keyboard entry. We compare them in terms of search time, number of errors, and user's satisfaction. Results show that list scrolling based on keyboard entry outperforms both tree-augmented lists and that the broader tree-augmented list is better than the deeper one.

Long Papers: Social Interaction

Understanding Situated Social Interactions in Public Places BIBAFull-Text 496-509
  J. Paay; J. Kjeldskov
Designing context-aware mobile information systems for supporting sociality requires a solid understanding of the users' context, situated interactions, and the interplay between the two. Currently such understanding is lacking in the field of HCI research and is sought after by several authors. Addressing this gap we conducted a field study of small groups socialising in a public place. Based on a grounded analysis of our findings we present a conceptual framework of situated social interactions in public. Finally, we illustrate how this framework informed design of a mobile context-aware prototype.
Benefits of Social Intelligence in Home Dialogue Systems BIBAFull-Text 510-521
  P. Saini; B. de Ruyter; P. Markopoulos; A. van Breemen
This paper reports an exploration of the concept of social intelligence in the context of home dialogue systems for an Ambient Intelligence home. It reports a Wizard of Oz experiment involving a robotic interface capable of displaying several human social behaviors. Our results show that endowing a home dialogue system with some social intelligence can (a) create a positive bias in user's perception of technology in the environment, (b) increase user acceptance for the home dialogue system, and (c) trigger social behaviors of the user towards the home dialogue system.
Evolution of Norms in a Newly Forming Group BIBAFull-Text 522-535
  C. Danis; A. Lee
Norms are expected to make significant contributions towards enabling discourse in cyberspace among people of different backgrounds, just as they do in the physical world. Yet many distributed, electronically mediated groups fail to form norms successfully. Causes range from open discord to the more insidious lack of comfort people experience in groups that fail to openly address disagreements about what constitutes appropriate behavior in the online environment. We present a case study of the evolution of norms about what constitutes appropriate posts to an online discussion forum for a newly forming group. We trace the discussion sparked by a critical incident and show how a design of an online environment that promotes visibility of participants contributed towards overcoming the forces for dissolution and promoted progress towards coalescing as a group with a shared identity.

Long Papers: Multimodal Interfaces

A Comparison Between Spoken Queries and Menu-Based Interfaces for In-car Digital Music Selection BIBAFull-Text 536-549
  C. Forlines; B. Schmidt-Nielsen; B. Raj; K. Wittenburg; P. Wolf
Distracted driving is a significant issue for our society today, and yet information technologies, including growing digital music collections, continue to be introduced into the automobile. This paper describes work concerning methods designed to lessen cognitive load and distracting visual demands on drivers as they go about the task of searching for and listening to digital music. The existing commercial paradigms for retrieval -- graphical or spoken menu traversal, and text-based search -- are unsatisfactory when cognitive resources are limited and keyboards are unavailable. We have previously proposed to use error-tolerant spoken queries [26] combined with direct modalities such as buttons mounted on the steering wheel [7]. In this paper, we present in detail the results of an experiment designed to compare the industry standard approach of hierarchical graphical menus to our approach. We found our proposed interface to be more efficient and less distracting in a simulated driving task.
A Sketching Tool for Designing Anyuser, Anyplatform, Anywhere User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 550-564
  A. Coyette; J. Vanderdonckt
Sketching activities are widely adopted during early design phases of user interface development to convey informal specifications of the interface presentation and dialog. Designers or even end users can sketch some or all of the future interface they want. With the ever increasing availability of different computing platforms, a need arises to continuously support sketching across these platforms with their various programming languages, interface development environments and operating systems. To address needs along these dimensions, which pose new challenges to user interface sketching tools, Sketchi XML is a multi-platform multi-agent interactive application that enable designers and end users to sketch user interfaces with different levels of details and support for different contexts of use. The results of the sketching are then analyzed to produce interface specifications independently of any context, including user and platform. These specifications are exploited to progressively produce one or several interfaces, for one or many users, platforms, and environments.
FlowMouse: A Computer Vision-Based Pointing and Gesture Input Device BIBAFull-Text 565-578
  A. D. Wilson; E. Cutrell
We introduce FlowMouse, a computer vision-based pointing device and gesture input system. FlowMouse uses optical flow techniques to model the motion of the hand and a capacitive touch sensor to enable and disable interaction. By using optical flow rather than a more traditional tracking based method, FlowMouse is exceptionally robust, simple in design, and offers opportunities for fluid gesture-based interaction that go well beyond merely emulating pointing devices such as the mouse. We present a Fitts law study examining pointing performance, and discuss applications of the optical flow field for gesture input.

Long Papers: Context of Use

Context of Use Evaluation of Peripheral Displays (CUEPD) BIBAFull-Text 579-587
  N. S. Shami; G. Leshed; D. Klein
A gap exists between the growing prevalence of peripheral displays and appropriate methods for their evaluation. Mankoff et al. [11] present one attempt to bridge this gap by adapting Nielsen's Heuristic evaluation to the defining characteristics and goals of peripheral displays. In this paper, we present a complementary approach that depends on active user participation and emphasizes the experience of using peripheral displays. The Context of Use Evaluation of Peripheral Displays (CUEPD) captures context of use through individualized scenario building, enactment and reflection. We illustrate the CUEPD method in a study to evaluate two peripheral displays. The evaluation using CUEPD revealed important design recommendations, suggesting that the method may be an important advance in evaluation methods for peripheral displays.
Improving Cell Phone Awareness by Using Calendar Information BIBAFull-Text 588-600
  A. Khalil; K. H. Connelly
The many benefits that cell phones provide are at times overshadowed by the problems they create, as when one person's cell phone disrupts a group activity, such as a class, meeting or movie. Cell phone interruption is only highlighted by the ever increasing number of mobile devices we carry. Many tools and techniques have been proposed in order to minimize interruption caused by mobile devices. In the current study, we use calendar information to infer users' activity and to automatically configure cell phones accordingly. Our in-situ experiment uses PDAs that run a cell phone simulator to examine the feasibility and design factors of such a solution. Our results show that both structured activities and appropriate cell phone configuration can be predicted with high accuracy using the calendar information. The results also show consistent mapping of activities to configuration for each individual. However there was a poor consistency of mapping activity to configuration across different participants. We discuss the results in relation to inaccuracy, spontaneous activities, and user reactions.

Long Papers: 3D and Virtual Environments

Evaluation of 12-DOF Input Devices for Navigation and Manipulation in Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 601-614
  A. Huckauf; A. Speed; A. Kunert; J. Hochstrate; B. Frohlich
Navigation and manipulation in virtual environments may require up to six degrees of freedom each. Input devices with twelve or more degrees of freedom can avoid explicit changes between navigation and manipulation and may therefore perform well in certain situations. However, usability of already existing 12-DOF devices is still unclear. For evaluating such handheld devices, we developed an extended docking task based on docking tasks designed for examining the usability of 6-DOF devices. In addition to the usually investigated object manipulation, the task requires navigation. We compared docking performances of two 12-DOF devices, the CubicMouse and the YoYo. Additionally, performance with a newly developed 12-DOF input device, the SquareBone, was under study. The SquareBone, a variation of the YoYo idea combined with some potentially beneficial features of the CubicMouse, provides 2 * 6 elastic DOF which can be controlled simultaneously. The study revealed that the isotonic CubicMouse, although preferred by novice users, was outperformed by the elastic SquareBone and the YoYo. The new SquareBone was shown to bear the potential of becoming superior to the YoYo, possibly because it enables simultaneous control of the 2*6 DOF.
Integration of 3D Data and Text: The Effects of Text Positioning, Connectivity, and Visual Hints on Comprehension BIBAFull-Text 615-628
  H. Sonnet; S. Carpendale; T. Strothotte
3D computer graphic models hold much promise as illustrations that can be interactively explored. These 3D illustrations often need to be linked to labels, annotations and sometimes more lengthy textual explanations. Achieving effective integration of the 3D illustration and its textual information is a difficult task and has resulted in a variety of proposed approaches. However, the comparative effectiveness of these approaches has not been studied. To address this issue, we have conducted a study in which we have compared methods of associating text with its 3D model: attaching the text directly to the object, placing the text in the object's shadow, using symbols to make the correlation between the object and the text, and using a line to make the visual connection from the text to the object with and without additional hints in the shadow. During the first part we were interested in whether a graphical method can clarify the correlation between a part of the 3D model and its associated text. The second part focused on whether the text remains comprehensible during a scene exploration. Based on our results, we suggest design implications for developing interactive 3D illustrations.

Long Papers: Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)

The Effect of Operational Mechanisms on Creativity in Design BIBAFull-Text 629-642
  A. Warr; E. O'Neill
Creativity is frequently referred to as an important dynamic of design. However, over 50 years of empirical research has suggested that social influences have a detrimental effect on creativity in collaborating groups. The results of this research indicate that design teams may not be as creative as they could be, resulting in a negative impact on the design process. In this paper we build upon previous research to identify what effect operational mechanisms have on creativity, in order to determine how best to support the creative process in design.
The Necessity of a Meeting Recording and Playback System, and the Benefit of Topic-Level Annotations to Meeting Browsing BIBAFull-Text 643-656
  S. Banerjee; C. Rose; A. I. Rudnicky
Much work in the area of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) has targeted the problem of supporting meetings between collaborators who are non-collocated, enabling meetings to transcend boundaries of space. In this paper, we explore the beginnings of a proposed solution for allowing meetings to transcend time as well. The need for such a solution is motivated by a user survey in which busy professionals are questioned about meetings they have either missed or forgotten the important details about after the fact. Our proposed solution allows these professionals to transcend time in a sense by revisiting a recorded meeting that has been structured for quick retrieval of sought information. Such a solution supports complete recovery of prior discussions, allowing needed information to be retrieved quickly, and thus potentially facilitating the effective continuation of discussions from the past. We evaluate the proposed solution with a formal user study in which we measure the impact of the proposed structural annotations on retrieval of information. The results of the study show that participants took significantly less time to retrieve the answers when they had access to discourse structure based annotation than in a control condition in which they had access only to unannotated video recordings (p < 0.01, effect size 0.94 standard deviations).

Long Papers: Understanding Users

Key Issues in Interactive Problem Solving: An Empirical Investigation on Users Attitude BIBAFull-Text 657-670
  G. Cortellessa; V. Giuliani; M. Scopelliti; A. Cesta
This paper explores the interaction between human and artificial problem solvers when interacting with an Intelligent Scheduling System. An experimental study is presented aimed at investigating the users' attitude towards two alternative strategies for solving scheduling problems: automated and interactive. According to an automated strategy the responsibility of solving the problem is delegated to the artificial solver, while according to an interactive strategy human and automated solvers cooperate to achieve a problem solution.
   Previous observations of end-users' reactions to problem solving systems have shown that users are often skeptical toward artificial solver performance and prefer to keep the control of the problem solving process. The current study aims at understanding the role played by both the users' expertise and the difficulty of the problem in choosing one of the two strategies. Results show that user expertise and task difficulty interact in influencing this choice.
   A second aspect explored in the paper concerns the context in which the end-users rely on explanations to understand the solving process. Explanations are in fact expected to play an important role when artificial systems are used for cooperative and interactive problem solving. Results support the hypothesis that explanation services are more often called into play in case of problem solving failures.
   This research is partially supported by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research) under project RoboCare (A Multi-Agent System with Intelligent Fixed and Mobile Robotic Components).
Designing Natural Language and Structured Entry Methods for Privacy Policy Authoring BIBAFull-Text 671-684
  J. Karat; C.-M. Karat; C. Brodie; J. Feng
As information technology continues to spread, we believe that there will be an increasing awareness of a fundamental need to seriously consider privacy concerns, and that doing so will require an understanding of policies that govern information use accompanied by development of technologies that can implement such policies. The research reported here describes our efforts to design a system which facilitates effective privacy policy authoring, implementation, and compliance monitoring. We employed a variety of user-centered design methods with 109 target users across the four steps of the research reported here. This case study highlights our work to iteratively design and validate a prototype with target users, and presents a laboratory evaluation aimed at providing early support for specific design decisions to meet the needs of providing flexible privacy enabling technologies. This paper highlights our work to include natural language and structured entry methods for policy authoring.
Questionnaire-Based Research on Opinions of Visitors for Communication Robots at an Exhibition in Japan BIBAFull-Text 685-698
  T. Nomura; T. Tasaki; T. Kanda; M. Shiomi; H. Ishiguro; N. Hagita
This paper reports the results of questionnaire-based research conducted at an exhibition of interactive humanoid robots that was held at the Osaka Science Museum, Japan. The aim of this exhibition was to investigate the feasibility of communication robots connected to a ubiquitous sensor network, under the assumption that these robots will be practically used in daily life in the not-so-distant future. More than ninety thousand people visited the exhibition. A questionnaire was given to the visitors to explore their opinions of the robots. Statistical analysis was done on the data of 2,301 respondents. It was found that the visitors' opinions varied according to age; younger visitors did not necessarily like the robots more than elderly visitors; positive evaluation of the robots did not necessarily conflict with negative evaluations such as anxiety; there was no gender difference; and there was almost no correlation between opinions and the length of time spent near the robots.

Long Papers: Interface Design

A Toolset for Creating Iconic Interfaces for Interactive Workspaces BIBAFull-Text 699-712
  J. T. Biehl; B. P. Bailey
To work productively in an interactive workspace, users need effective interfaces for seamlessly sharing, annotating, and juxtaposing digital information across heterogeneous devices. In this paper, we present an interface toolset for constructing and using iconic interfaces for interactive workspaces. Using an iconic representation of the physical workspace, users can quickly and easily relocate applications and redirect input across devices. The toolset provides a graphical tool for rapidly constructing iconic representations for various workspaces, supports an existing interactive workspace infrastructure, and is engineered to be portable to others. A usability evaluation showed that the interaction design of the interfaces created with our toolset is effective for redirection and relocation tasks. Our results provide the first empirical baseline for comparing alternative interfaces for interactive workspaces. The use of our toolset facilitates more productive use of interactive workspaces for both individual and group work and is available for download today.
Designing Usable Interfaces with Cultural Dimensions BIBAFull-Text 713-726
  G. Ford; P. Kotze
There are as many arguments against as supporting the accommodation of culture into user interface design. One argument suggests that it is necessary to match the subjective cultural profile of the interface to the cultural profile of the users in order to enhance usability and performance. In contrast, we argue that the interface design characteristics required to design interfaces to accommodate one side of four of the five cultural dimensions proposed by Hofstede will result in an increase in usability for all users, irrespective of the users' cultural profile. Secondary data analysis of a prior experiment somewhat supported our argument, but we conclude that further research into the effects of Hofstede's cultural dimensions is required before our hypotheses can be accepted.
Use of Future-Oriented Information in User-Centered Product Concept Ideation BIBAFull-Text 727-740
  A. Salovaara; P. Mannonen
User-centered product concept design aims at creating concepts of new products. Its success is dependent on the design team's ability to use present-day information to come up with concepts concerning future products. This paper takes as its task to investigate and explore what underlies this use of future-oriented information and what challenges it poses at the creative stages of a design process. The proposed solution is based on an analytic division of available information into (1) trends such as company strategies, trends in the society and working life that denote changing conditions, and (2) stable context features that describe issues that are unlikely to change in the timeframe concerned. A small case study is presented that exemplifies how this analytic distinction can be put into use. More broadly, the paper encourages designers to think reflectively about the nature of information on which design decisions are based.

Long Papers: Eye-Tracking

Wide vs. Narrow Paragraphs: An Eye Tracking Analysis BIBAFull-Text 741-752
  D. Beymer; D. M. Russell; P. Z. Orton
How wide should paragraphs be formatted for optimal reader retention and ease of reading? While everyone is familiar with the narrow, multi-column formatting in newspapers and magazines, research on the issue is not consistent. Early work using printed media favored narrow formatting, while more recent work using computer monitors has favored wider formatting. In this paper, we approach this issue by using eye tracking analysis of users reading material on instructional web pages. In our experimental system, subjects read the material using an instrumented browser that records all HTML content and browser actions, and their eye gaze is recorded using a nonobtrusive, "remote" eye tracker. Comparing the wide and narrow formatting conditions, our analysis shows that for narrow formatting, subjects (a) read slightly faster, (b) have fewer regressions, (c) retain more information in a post-test of the material, but (d) tend to abandon the ends of longer paragraphs.
Combining Eye Tracking and Conventional Techniques for Indications of User-Adaptability BIBAFull-Text 753-766
  E. Tzanidou; M. Petre; S. Minocha; A. Grayson
We have captured and analysed users' eye movements by means of an eye-tracking device to re-visit existing web design guidelines. The study reported here examines how quickly users adapt to an unfamiliar design layout and, in particular, how quickly they adjust their expectations of where to look for a given target link during repeated exposures to a new layout. Eye movement-based metrics such as time to target fixation, location of first fixation and scan path (sequence of fixations) were applied to capture users' eye movements. These metrics were then applied to analyse the effects of repeated exposures and of design layouts of websites. More exposures led to decreased time to target fixation, indicating that user-adaptation occurred. The visual characteristics of the target link also influenced visual search behaviour. Qualitative complementary data such as the users' frequency and purpose of internet usage, users' expectations about the target link added value to the eye-movement data.
RealTourist - A Study of Augmenting Human-Human and Human-Computer Dialogue with Eye-Gaze Overlay BIBAFull-Text 767-780
  P. Qvarfordt; D. Beymer; S. Zhai
We developed and studied an experimental system, RealTourist, which lets a user to plan a conference trip with the help of a remote tourist consultant who could view the tourist's eye-gaze superimposed onto a shared map. Data collected from the experiment were analyzed in conjunction with literature review on speech and eye-gaze patterns. This inspective, exploratory research identified various functions of gaze-overlay on shared spatial material including: accurate and direct display of partner's eye-gaze, implicit deictic referencing, interest detection, common focus and topic switching, increased redundancy and ambiguity reduction, and an increase of assurance, confidence, and understanding. This study serves two purposes. The first is to identify patterns that can serve as a basis for designing multimodal human-computer dialogue systems with eye-gaze locus as a contributing channel. The second is to investigate how computer-mediated communication can be supported by the display of the partner's eye-gaze.

Long Papers: Video Browsing

A Synergistic Approach to Efficient Interactive Video Retrieval BIBAFull-Text 781-794
  A. Girgensohn; J. Adcock; M. Cooper; L. Wilcox
A video database can contain a large number of videos ranging from several minutes to several hours in length. Typically, it is not sufficient to search just for relevant videos, because the task still remains to find the relevant clip, typically less than one minute of length, within the video. This makes it impor tant to direct the users attention to the most promising material and to indicate what material they already investigated. Based on this premise, we created a video search system with a powerful and flexible user interface that incorporates dynamic visualizations of the underlying multimedia objects. The system employes an automatic story segmentation, combines text and visual search, and displays search results in ranked sets of story keyframe collages. By adapting the keyframe collages based on query relevance and indicating which portions of the video have already been explored, we enable users to quickly find relevant sec tions. We tested our system as part of the NIST TRECVID interactive search evaluation, and found that our user interface enabled users to find more relevant results within the allotted time than other systems employing more sophisticated analysis techniques but less helpful user interfaces.
The Landscape of Time-Based Visual Presentation Primitives for Richer Video Experience BIBAFull-Text 795-808
  Y. Yamamoto; K. Nakakoji; T. Akio
As technology advances, we have increasingly more opportunities to use video for our knowledge work, such as monitoring events, reflecting on physical performances, learning subject matter, or analyzing scientific experimental phenomena. Existing video-related software tools are either for as-is viewing or editing and do not support such knowledge-intensive processes. We argue for a variety of interactive presentation tools for richer video experiences in active watching. Based on the Time-based Visual Presentation (TbVP) framework, which separates presentation from content and views interaction methods as transformations between temporal and visual media data properties and user experience properties, this paper presents twenty-seven TbVP primitives and provides the landscape of rich interaction methods for videos. The primitives are illustrated with five scenarios that use videos for knowledge work.
Temporal Magic Lens: Combined Spatial and Temporal Query and Presentation BIBAFull-Text 809-822
  K. Ryall; Q. Li; A. Esenther
We introduce the concept of a Temporal Magic Lens, a novel interaction technique that supports querying and browsing for video data. Video data is available from an increasing number of sources, and yet analyzing and processing it is still often a manual, tedious task. A Temporal Magic Lens is an interactive tool that combines spatial and temporal components of video, creating a unified mechanism for analyzing video data; it can be used for viewing real-time video data, as well as for browsing and searching archival data. In this paper, we define the Temporal Magic Lens concept and identify its four key components. We present a sample implementation for each component, and then describe two usage scenarios for a prototype surveillance application.

Long Papers: User Studies

Logging Events Crossing Architectural Boundaries BIBAFull-Text 823-834
  G. S. Hartman; L. Bass
We describe an approach to study the long-term use of GUI applications that supplements a log of low-level events with additional data gathered at the applications' architectural boundaries. We implement a preliminary system based on this approach and apply it to two applications. For the second application, we compare the data collected with our technique to data collected with manual instrumentation. We demonstrate that our technique is easy to apply to new applications and captures information missed by manual instrumentation. This additional information is helpful in answering questions about the use of the application. However, our technique generates large logs and does not yet capture all of the information needed to study the use of applications. We conclude with proposals for rectifying these deficiencies in future systems.

Long Papers: Visualization Techniques

Representing Unevenly-Spaced Time Series Data for Visualization and Interactive Exploration BIBAFull-Text 835-846
  A. Aris; B. Shneiderman; C. Plaisant; G. Shmueli; W. Jank
Visualizing time series is useful to support discovery of relations and patterns in financial, genomic, medical and other applications. Often, measurements are equally spaced over time. We discuss the challenges of unevenly-spaced time series and present fourrepresentationmethods: sampled events, aggregated sampled events, event index and interleaved event index. We developed these methods while studying eBay auction data with TimeSearcher. We describe the advantages, disadvantages, choices for algorithms and parameters, and compare the different methods for different tasks. Interaction issues such as screen resolution, response time for dynamic queries, and learnability are governed by these decisions.
Multilevel Compound Tree - Construction Visualization and Interaction BIBAFull-Text 847-860
  F. Boutin; J. Thievre; M. Hascoet
Several hierarchical clustering techniques have been proposed to visualize large graphs, but fewer solutions suggest a focus based approach. We propose a multilevel clustering technique that produces in linear time a contextual clustered view depending on a user-focus. We get a tree of clusters where each cluster -- called meta-silhouette -- is itself hierarchically clustered into an inclusion tree of silhouettes. Resulting Multilevel Silhouette Tree (MuSi-Tree) has a specific structure called multilevel compound tree. This work builds upon previous work on a compound tree structure called MO-Tree. The work presented in this paper is a major improvement over previous work by (1) defining multilevel compound tree as a more generic structure, (2) proposing original space-filling visualization techniques to display it, (3) defining relevant interaction model based on both focus changes and graph filtering techniques and (4) reporting from case studies in various fields: co-citation graphs, related-document graphs and social graphs.
Visualizing Missing Data: Graph Interpretation User Study BIBAFull-Text 861-872
  C. Eaton; C. Plaisant; T. Drizd
Most visualization tools fail to provide support for missing data. In this paper, we identify sources of missing data and describe three levels of impact missing data can have on the visualization: perceivable, invisible or propagating. We then report on a user study with 30 participants that compared three design variants. A between-subject graph interpretation study provides strong evidence for the need of indicating the presence of missing information, and some direction for addressing the problem.
High-Level Visualization of Users' Navigation in Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 873-885
  L. Ieronutti; R. Ranon; L. Chittaro
This paper presents the current status of VU-Flow (Visualization of Users' Flow), a software tool that is able to automatically record usage data in Virtual Environments and provide a set of 2D and 3D visualizations that make it easy for an evaluator to visually detect peculiar users' behaviors and navigability problems. The paper focuses on novel functionalities we recently added to the tool. More specifically, the new version of VU-Flow includes: (i) the possibility of visualizing predominant flow directions for multiple users or multiple visiting sessions, (ii) a visualization aimed at highlighting traffic congestion problems in multi-user VEs, (iii) the possibility of visualizing a replay of users' visits together with audio and video recordings of actual users (e.g. gathered during lab experiments), and (iv) the ability to derive, for each user, a list of quantitative data characterizing her behavior in the VE.

Long Papers: Location and Context Awareness

How Do People's Concepts of Place Relate to Physical Locations? BIBAFull-Text 886-898
  C. Zhou; P. Ludford; D. Frankowski; L. Terveen
Advances in GPS and wireless networking technologies have enabled a new class of location-aware applications, including location tracking [10,2], location-enhanced messaging [3,9], location-based gaming(www.botfighters.com), and navigation aids for the visually impaired [12]. However, these applications typically represent places quite simply, as a geographical point or a point plus radius. We conducted an experiment that showed that this simple representation is not expressive enough to represent the full range of people's everyday places. We also present a set of more complicated physical shapes that our subjects found sufficient to cover their places. These results identify representational requirements for location-aware systems, have implications for systems that aim to acquire place representations, suggest enhanced applications, and open up interesting avenues for future research.
The Territory Is the Map: Exploring the Use of Landmarks in Situ to Inform Mobile Guide Design BIBAFull-Text 899-913
  N. J. Bidwell; J. Axup
People have difficulties interacting with external representations designed to guide navigating physical environments. We derive theory to inform design by probing users' experience and use of their "internal" representations in a temporally evolving wayfinding activity in situ. Interactions with environmental landmarks are explored by analyzing spatial concepts in SMSs used by a group collaborating to wayfind to an unfamiliar rendezvous. Results show differences between landmarks provoking actions and contributing to abstract concepts; and, effects of direct or induced perspective in situ. Design recommendations account for orientation dependence and use of ambiguity in user-world-representation mappings. These include tactics to enable users' to induce perspectives appropriately: with accuracy for recognising landmarks along routes and agility to situate landmark use in naturally evolving wayfinding goals.
Technology in Place: Dialogics of Technology, Place and Self BIBAFull-Text 914-926
  J. McCarthy; P. Wright
Ubiquitous and ambient computing -- computationally enhanced built environments and portable products that aim to make computing available anytime-anywhere -- has somewhat paradoxically put place at the heart of Interaction Design. In this paper, foundations are laid for a dialogical approach to place as an expression of the experienced relationship between people and space. Building on McCarthy and Wright's dialogical conceptualisation of technology as experience, place is described in terms of the plurality of histories, interactions and meanings that characterise people's different engagements with particular spaces. Implications of a dialogical approach to place are considered with respect to the further development within Interaction Design of concepts such as context, engagement, and interactivity.
Interaction and End-User Programming with a Context-Aware Mobile Application BIBAFull-Text 927-937
  J. Hakkila; P. Korpipaa; S. Ronkainen; U. Tuomela
In this paper we present the user interface design and evaluation of a tool for customizing mobile phone applications with context-aware features. The tool enables the user to program a set of context-action rules, defining the behavior of the device when a selected context is recognized and/or some other user-defined conditions are met. The tool user interface design is described starting from an early paper prototype and its evaluation, leading to a functional software implementation in a mobile phone. Finally, the usability evaluation of the functional prototype, and other relevant findings from the user test, are presented.

Short Papers: Information Visualization and User Studies

Large Visualizations for System Monitoring of Complex, Heterogeneous Systems BIBAFull-Text 938-941
  D. M. Russell; A. Dieberger; V. Bhagwan; D. Gruhl
As systems grow larger in size and complexity, it becomes increasingly difficult for administrators to maintain some shared sense of awareness of what's going on in the system. We implemented a large public display with appropriately designed visualizations that allow for rapid assessment and peripheral awareness of system health. By placing the visualizations on a large display in a shared, commonly used team location, system administrators can monitor behavior as they walk past. Such a display helps administrators identify emerging problems early on and be a focal point for discussions of the system. It allows them not only to share information with colleagues on an "as-noticed" basis, but also highlights interconnected problems that would not be otherwise evident. We found that this approach significantly reduces the workload of individual system administrators, changing the nature of their work by radically simplifying a complex task through social sharing of peripherally noticed state.
The Challenge of Visualizing Patient Histories on a Mobile Device BIBAFull-Text 942-945
  C. Ardito; P. Buono; M. F. Costabile
This paper presents a tool to display patient histories and to visually query patient data, stored in the hospital database, using a mobile device. Employing Information Visualization techniques, the developed tool is able to accommodate on the screen a good amount of information that physicians require in their analysis of the clinical cases. This work has been motivated by specific requests of physicians of a pediatric hospital treating children with neurological diseases.
Static Visualization of Temporal Eye-Tracking Data BIBAFull-Text 946-949
  K.-J. Raiha; A. Aula; P. Majaranta; H. Rantala; K. Koivunen
Existing static visualization techniques for eye-tracking data do not make it possible to easily compare temporal information, that is, gaze paths. We review existing techniques and then propose a new technique that treats time as the prime attribute to be visualized. We successfully used the new technique for analysing the visual scanning of web search results listings. Based on our experiences, the new visualization is a valuable tool when the temporal order of visiting Areas of Interest (AOI) is the main focus in the analysis, the AOIs have a natural linear order, there are many AOIs to produce interesting patterns, and the AOIs fill most of the coordinate space being studied.
Analytic Worksheets: A Framework to Support Human Analysis of Large Streaming Data Volumes BIBAFull-Text 950-953
  G. Crowder; S. Foster; D. M. Russell; M. Slaney; L. Yanguas
Worksheets are a new user-interface framework to support analysis of streaming data by combining streaming data queries with visualization objects in a composable document framework. A worksheet lets users work at human speeds with large quantities of streaming data by creating a persistent, literate, dynamic document that flows data into analysis patterns of filters and visual presentations. The worksheet provides basic support for analysis created, as well as buffering and managing streaming data as it continually arrives.
Hundreds of Folders or One Ugly Pile - Strategies for Information Search and Re-access BIBAFull-Text 954-957
  A. Aula; H. Siirtola
Previous research has identified information search and re-access strategies used by experienced web users, but not the popularity of these strategies. To fill this gap, we collected data from 236 experienced web users via a questionnaire. A cluster analysis of the data revealed three distinct user groups, each having different search and re-access strategies. The group of "professional searchers" was the only one to use Boolean operators in searching and most of the advanced strategies for information re-access. In contrast, the strategies of the other two groups were much simpler. These results show that the previous findings on advanced search and re-access strategies may describe the strategies of information professionals, but not those of other web users, regardless of their extensive experience.
Exploring Results Organisation for Image Searching BIBAFull-Text 958-961
  J. Urban; J. M. Jose
An explorative study of an image retrieval interface with respect to the support it offers the user to organise their search results is presented. The evaluation, involving design professionals performing practical and relevant tasks, shows that the proposed approach succeeds in encouraging the user to conceptualise their tasks better.

Short Papers: Computer-Mediated Communication and Mobility

The SenseMS: Enriching the SMS Experience for Teens by Non-verbal Means BIBAFull-Text 962-965
  A. K. Amin; B. Kersten; O. A. Kulyk; E. Pelgrim; J. Wang; P. Markopoulos
The paper presents a design exploration into emotional communication through mobile phones for teenagers. A participatory design approach was followed, that lead to the development of two potential enhancements to text messaging services that are feasible with today's mobile phones. These enhancements refer to using MMS technology for: identifying callers through personalized avatars which are also coupled with context related information for the caller and using semi-automated text enhancements. Preliminary evaluation results are encouraging regarding the value of the emotional and contextual cues that can be conveyed in this way.
TextTone: Expressing Emotion Through Text BIBAFull-Text 966-969
  A. Kalra; K. Karahalios
An increasingly large part of online communication is inherently social in nature. This social interaction is limited by the modalities of online communication, which do not convey tone or emotion well. Although some solutions have evolved or have been proposed, they are inherently ambiguous. We present a system, TextTone, for the explicit expression of emotion in online textual communication. TextTone incorporates reader-specific preferences for the visualization of tone and emotion. We describe social interaction and visualization scenarios that TextTone can be meaningfully used for and discuss an initial implementation. Finally, we present the results of a preliminary evaluation of this implementation of TextTone.
Lock-on-Chat: Boosting Anchored Conversation and Its Operation at a Technical Conference BIBAFull-Text 970-973
  T. Nishida; T. Igarashi
This paper introduces a text-based chat system designed to support conversations anchored to specific locations of shared images and reports our experience in operating it at a technical conference. Our system is unique in that it focuses on supporting communications scattered around among multiple images, while other systems for anchored conversations are designed for deeper discussions within a single document. Our system was used in a technical conference as a space for anchored conversations over presentation slides and we observed that audiences actively participated in discussions during the presentation. The detailed chat log was also useful for both audiences and presenters.
BROAFERENCE - A Next Generation Multimedia Terminal Providing Direct Feedback on Audience's Satisfaction Level BIBAFull-Text 974-977
  U. Kowalik; T. Aoki; H. Yasuda
In this paper we present BROAFERENCE, a test bed for studying future oriented multimedia services and applications in distributed environments. The BROAFERENCE system provides a method of direct feedback of audience satisfaction level by means of real-time smile-detection. We describe the realtime system components and we will show the result of our approach to record and transmit the data of smile intensity as a hint for "how much the audience enjoys" the TV program.
ChatAmp: Talking with Music and Text BIBAFull-Text 978-981
  M. I. Graham; K. Karahalios
Current systems for synchronous, text-based communication offer more varied interactions than e-mail, but cannot easily convey non-verbal or emotional information in an unobtrusive and intuitive manner. In this report we introduce ChatAmp, a new chat system which incorporates music as a central part of social interaction. Music is used in order to create an unobtrusive ambient soundscape that gives information about conversational activity and emotion using changes to instrument behavior. This soundscape acts as a peripheral channel to let a multitasking user monitor the conversation while focused else-where without being interrupted by jarring alert sounds. By combining this with non-sequential visualization which groups all of a user's activity in his area of the screen, ChatAmp provides "at-a-glance" information through both auditory and visual channels. Informal user tests support the effectiveness of integrating music and conversation in achieving the goals above and suggest directions for further research.
The Optimal Focus Position When Scrolling Using a Small Display BIBAFull-Text 982-985
  J. Whalley; A. Monk
When scrolling through a list on a small display, such as that on a cell phone, the "focus" is the currently highlighted item that would be selected were the user to stop scrolling and choose select. When scrolling through a list that is longer than the number of items that may be displayed simultaneously, the focus position becomes stationary and the items scroll under it. An experiment is reported which varies this stationary focus position in a five item display. It was either: the last item in window (end stop scheme), the next to last (view forward one item) or the centre (view forward two items). The centre position allowed significantly faster scrolling than the other two positions.

Short Papers: Group Work and Tabletop Interaction

Collaboration with DiamondTouch BIBAFull-Text 986-989
  S. G. Kobourov; K. Pavlou; J. Cappos; M. Stepp; M. Miles; A. Wixted
We study the performance of collaborative spatial/visual tasks under different input configurations. The configurations used are a traditional mouse-monitor, a shared-monitor with multiple-mice, and a multi-user input device (DiamondTouch). Our experiments indicate that there is a significant variation in performance for the different configurations with pairs of users, while there is no such variation with individual users. The traditional configuration is not well-suited for collaborative tasks, and even after augmenting it to a shared monitor with multiple-mice it is still significantly inferior to the multi-user input device.
Preference-Based Group Scheduling BIBAFull-Text 990-993
  J. Hu; M. Brzozowski
Traditional group scheduling applications often treat users' availability as binary: free or busy. This is an unrealistic representation because not all times are equally free or busy. The inflexibility makes it difficult to find times with which everyone is truly satisfied. We present an online group scheduling approach by which users indicate four-tier preferences for meeting times on a calendar, which dynamically adjusts to provide instant feedback and suggests optimal meeting times for all participants. Our prototype is geared toward college students and the scheduling is done through a democratic and open negotiation process where everyone's preference is heard. Students who evaluated the prototype thought that the scheduling process was more efficient than the widely-used e-mail scheduling among college students, which is largely based on binary availability.
Under My Finger: Human Factors in Pushing and Rotating Documents Across the Table BIBAFull-Text 994-997
  C. Forlines; C. Shen; F. Vernier; M. Wu
When passing a document to someone across a table, the person passing the document often rotates it to face the receiver. In this paper, we present the results of a user evaluation of three Push-and-Rotate schemes that offer different underlying control semantics for how an electronic document can automatically rotate as it is pushed across an interactive tabletop surface. The effects of document size are also discussed.
DocuBits and Containers: Providing e-Document Micro-mobility in a Walk-Up Interactive Tabletop Environment BIBAFull-Text 998-1001
  K. Everitt; C. Shen; K. Ryall; C. Forlines
A key challenge in supporting face-to-face collaborative work is edocument micro-mobility: supporting movement of digital content amongst shared display surfaces and personal devices at arbitrary levels of document granularity. Micro-mobility is a dexterity that physical paper artifacts afford - the ability to be handled with any position and placement, to be dismantled, cut and torn apart, marked up, reassembled and sorted. To support micromobility for electronic content and group work, we propose DocuBits and Containers. DocuBits offer the metaphor of a paper-cutter and a scanner for electronic documents. A portion of screen 'bits' from any application or any parts of visible display can be cut, grabbed, sent and launched onto a different display surface or device with minimal interaction - merely three mouse/stylus click-select. Once arrived on the target display surface, DocuBits can be arbitrarily positioned, re-oriented, marked up, and pulled into other documents, or again sent to other display surfaces. A Container is a composite draft of DocuBits and other documents, usually composed as the outcome of a collaborative meeting.
Transcription Table: Text Support During Meetings BIBAFull-Text 1002-1005
  J. van Gelder; I. van Peer; D. Aliakseyeu
In this paper we present the design of a tool that allows a hearing-impaired person to participate in a meeting. The tool combines speech recognition with a table top augmented reality system. One of the foremost requirements was that the tool should not stigmatize the hearing-impaired user. Therefore the tool supports features that are attractive to all participants in the meeting. The final prototype has the following features: it can convey (some of) the meeting content to the hearing-impaired person, it supports eye contact between participants, it allows an interaction with words and sentences, it provides a meeting history and instant minutes.
Common Ground to Analyse Privacy Coordination in Awareness Systems BIBAFull-Text 1006-1009
  N. A. Romero; P. Markopoulos
This paper discusses how Clark's theory of Common Ground can be applied to analyse how individuals connected by Awareness Systems conjointly meet and coordinate their privacy needs. Relevant aspects of Common Ground theory for the analysis of human communication behaviours are used in this study to understand privacy as a collaborative coordination process. The exposition illustrates how Awareness Systems are a mechanism for helping individuals to meet their privacy needs rather than as a privacy threat, as a first impression might suggest.

Short Papers: 3D and Virtual Environments

3D Syllabus: Interactive Visualization of Indexes to Multimedia Training Content BIBAFull-Text 1010-1013
  K. Song; S. Lertsithichai; P. Chiu
Indexes such as bookmarks and recommendations are helpful for accessing multimedia documents. This paper describes the 3D Syllabus system, which is designed to visualize indexes to multimedia training content along with the information structures. A double-sided landscape with balloons and cubes represents the personal and group indexes, respectively. The 2D ground plane organizes the indexes as a table and the third dimension of height indicates their importance scores. Additional visual properties of the balloons and cubes provide other information about the indexes and their content. Paths are represented by pipes connecting the balloons. A preliminary evaluation of the 3D Syllabus prototype suggests that it is more efficient than a typical training CD-ROM and is more enjoyable to use.
A Navigation and Examination Aid for 3D Virtual Buildings BIBAFull-Text 1014-1017
  L. Chittaro; V. K. Gatla; S. Venkataraman
In this paper, we present the Interactive 3D BreakAway Map (I3BAM), an extension of Worlds In Miniature (WIM) that works not only as a navigation aid for virtual buildings but also provides a means of examining any floor of a virtual building without having to navigate it.
Virtual Reflections and Virtual Shadows in Mixed Reality Environments BIBAFull-Text 1018-1021
  F. Steinicke; K. Hinrichs; T. Ropinski
In this paper we propose the concepts of virtual reflections, lights and shadows to enhance immersion in mixed reality (MR) environments, which focus on merging the real and the virtual world seamlessly. To improve immersion, we augment the virtual objects with real world information regarding the virtual reality (VR) system environment, e.g., CAVE, workbench etc. Real-world objects such as input devices or light sources as well as the position and posture of the user are used to simulate global illumination phenomena, e.g., users can see their own reflections and shadows on virtual objects. Besides the concepts and the implementation of this approach, we describe the system setup and an example application for this kind of advanced MR system environment.
Cooking with the Elements: Intuitive Immersive Interfaces for Augmented Reality Environments BIBAFull-Text 1022-1025
  L. Bonanni; C.-H. Lee; T. Selker
The glut of information produced by ubiquitous computing in augmented reality environments requires that the resulting information displays be tailored to the attention of users and mapped directly to the objects and surfaces of the space. This paper proposes a method for designing and implementing ambient information displays combining ambient displays and augmented reality to produce useful intuitive interfaces that are concretely mapped to architectural spaces for the purposes of expanding and enriching the quality and sensuality of user experience.

Short Papers: Adaptive and Adaptable Systems

Learners' Perceived Level of Difficulty of a Computer-Adaptive Test: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 1026-1029
  M. Lilley; T. Barker; C. Britton
A computer-adaptive test (CAT) is a software application that makes use of Item Response Theory (IRT) to create a test that is tailored to individual learners. The CAT prototype introduced here comprised a graphical user interface, a question database and an adaptive algorithm based on the Three-Parameter Logistic Model from IRT. A sample of 113 Computer Science undergraduate students participated in a session of assessment within the Human-Computer Interaction subject domain using our CAT prototype. At the end of the assessment session, participants were asked to rate the level of difficulty of the overall test from 1 (very easy) to 5 (very difficult). The perceived level of difficulty of the test and the CAT scores obtained by this group of learners were subjected to a Spearman's rank order correlation. Findings from this statistical analysis suggest that the CAT prototype was effective in tailoring the assessment to each individual learner's proficiency level.
How to Communicate Recommendations? Evaluation of an Adaptive Annotation Technique BIBAFull-Text 1030-1033
  F. Cena; C. Gena; S. Modeo
In this paper we present an evaluation of an adaptive annotation technique (the use of icons to help the user in the selection of the most relevant suggested item), using the Grounded Theory methodology. The goal of the evaluation was to find out the best icon in order to communicate the system recommendations in the most effective way.
Adaptive User Interfaces Development Platform BIBAFull-Text 1034-1037
  J.-H. Ye; J. Herbert
Most documents dynamically generated by a web server are in HTML format. However the use of dynamic HTML documents severely limits the amount of user interface (UI) validation that can be done. In order to generalize the abstract UI platform and strengthen the UI validation process, we developed a novel platform to support both UI adaptation and dynamic UI construction. It provides a generic architecture for runtime adaptive UI development based on various XML technologies. As well as making use of different built-in modules, one can extend the platform by adding new functionalities into it. The ease of use of the platform is illustrated using a case study of an on-line accommodation booking form based on the official web site of the English town of Windsor.
Adapting the ADS for High Volume Manufacturing BIBAFull-Text 1038-1041
  C. Upton; G. Doherty
Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is a methodology for analysing complex socio-technical systems. It aims to structure system information in a manner that is meaningful for human control and interaction. The Abstraction Decomposition Space (ADS) in an important tool used during the first phase of CWA to describe the work domain. In this paper we create an ADS for a Semiconductor Fabrication Plant. This is a High Volume Manufacturing environment and its complexity necessitates a number of adjustments to the original ADS technique. The physical decomposition of the system is de-emphasised and a number of alternative decomposition hierarchies are used instead. The analysis aims to produce artifacts that aid in the design of decision support systems. These artifacts not only help to assess the information needs of workers, but also structure the work domain in a manner that will inform display design.

Short Papers: Grasping, Gazing, Gesturing

Immersive Live Sports Experience with Vibrotactile Sensation BIBAFull-Text 1042-1045
  B.-C. Lee; J. Lee; J. Cha; C. Seo; J. Ryu
This paper presents a vibrotactile display system designed with an aim of providing immersive live sports experience. Preliminary user studies showed that with this display subjects were 35% more accurate in interpreting an ambiguous visual stimulus showing a ball either entering or narrowly missing a football net. About 80% of subjects could judge the correct ball paths in the presences of ambiguous visual stimuli. Without the tactile display, only 60% correct paths are judged from the visual display.
Smooth Haptic Interaction in Broadcasted Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 1046-1049
  J. Cha; B.-C. Lee; J.-P. Kim; S. Kim; J. Ryu
This paper presents smooth haptic interaction methods for an immersive and interactive broadcasting system combining haptics in augmented reality. When touching the broadcasted augmented virtual objects in the captured real scene, problems of force trembling and discontinuity occur due to static registration errors and slow marker pose update rate, respectively. In order to solve these problems, threshold and interpolation methods are proposed respectively. The resultant haptic interaction provides smoother continuous tremble-free force sensation.
A Laser Pointer/Laser Trails Tracking System for Visual Performance BIBAFull-Text 1050-1053
  K. Fukuchi
Visual performance with a large video projection screen is popular for various entertainment events such as DJ events. Some performers use computers to generate visuals, but using a keyboard or a mouse to control the visuals in front of a large screen is neither exciting nor intuitive for performers and audiences. We developed an interactive display system using camera-tracked laser pointers that enables performers to interact with the screen directly. The system can also detect shapes of the laser trails that enables the performer to move the laser pointers quickly. Most of existing systems employ color and pattern matching techniques that are not suitable for visual performance.
Effects of Display Layout on Gaze Activity During Visual Search BIBAFull-Text 1054-1057
  J. Simonin; S. Kieffer; N. Carbonell
We report an experimental study that aims at investigating the influence of spatial layout on visual search efficiency and comfort. 4 layouts were used for displaying 120 scenes comprising 30 realistic colour photos each: random, elliptic, radial and matrix-like. Scenes (30 per structure) were presented to 5 participants who had to select a pre-viewed photo in each scene using the mouse. Eye-tracking data indicate that elliptic layouts provided better visual comfort than any of the other layouts (shortest scan paths), and proved to be more efficient than matrix layouts (shorter search times). These results are statistically significant (paired t-tests).
Eye-Tracking Reveals the Personal Styles for Search Result Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 1058-1061
  A. Aula; P. Majaranta; K.-J. Raiha
We used eye-tracking to study 28 users when they evaluated result lists produced by web search engines. Based on their different evaluation styles, the users were divided into economic and exhaustive evaluators. Economic evaluators made their decision about the next action (e.g., query re-formulation, following a link) faster and based on less information than exhaustive evaluators. The economic evaluation style was especially beneficial when most of the results in the result page were relevant. In these tasks, the task times were significantly shorter for economic than for exhaustive evaluators. The results suggested that economic evaluators were more experienced with computers than exhaustive evaluators. Thus, the result evaluation style seems to evolve towards a more economic style as the users gain more experience.
Hotspot Components for Gesture-Based Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1062-1066
  A. Jaimes; J. Liu
We present a novel camera-based adaptable user interface system that uses hotspot components for 2D gesture-based interaction. A camera points to the desktop and the image captured by the camera appears on the user's screen. A hotspot area is activated when a user's hand passes through the rectangle that defines it. For example, a right_left hotspot activates when the user moves his hand from right to left, entering and exiting the rectangle. Our system is highly flexible because it allows the user to customize the interface as follows: (1) hotspot areas can be created anywhere within the camera-captured image; (2) new commands can be assigned to particular hotspots or composite hotspot sequences (e.g., right_left for previous webpage; up+right+down for webpage reload); (3) a physical workspace on the desktop can be defined by pointing the camera to any location; (4) different hotspot layouts for different applications can be created and saved. The system works with an inexpensive webcam in real time and uses machine learning to automatically detect skin areas for robust gesture recognition.

Short Papers: Design and Models

Development of Multi-modal Interfaces in Multi-device Environments BIBAFull-Text 1067-1070
  S. Berti; F. Paterno
Recent technological evolution has enabled environments accessible through a wide variety of interactive devices. Such devices can differ also in terms of interaction modality. In this paper we show how it is possible to generate multi-modal interfaces for different platforms starting with logical user interface descriptions. This approach simplifies the development of applications that can be accessed through a variety of interactive devices and modalities.
Analysing Trans-Modal Interface Migration BIBAFull-Text 1071-1074
  R. Bandelloni; S. Berti; F. Paterno
While new solutions for supporting migratory interfaces are emerging, there is still a lack of analysis of their impact on users. In this paper we discuss the design of a solution for trans-modal migratory interfaces in multi-device and results obtained testing it with users. We conducted a study aimed at evaluating the user impact of a migration service applied to platforms supporting different interaction modalities (graphic vs. vocal) in Web environments.
Inferring Relations Between Color and Emotional Dimensions of a Web Site Using Bayesian Networks BIBAFull-Text 1075-1078
  E. Papachristos; N. Tselios; N. Avouris
In this paper, a novel methodology for selecting appropriate color scheme for a web site is presented. The methodology uses a machine learning algorithm for generating a network that relates the color model of a web site with the emotional values that are attributed to it by its users. The approach involves an empirical study to collect data, used to train the algorithm. A preliminary case study has been conducted to validate the applicability of the methodology. Description of the framework and of a set of tools that were built to support the methodology is also included.
Abbrevicons: Efficient Feedback for Audio Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1079-1082
  M. Hockenberry; S. Cohen; Z. Ozer; T. Chen; T. Selker
Abbrevicons are a technique for encoding audio information efficiently while still providing the user with useful and appropriate feedback. Ideally, abbrevicons are targeted towards audio interfaces that are infrequently used and where the user doesn't have the opportunity to develop a strong model of the system or make sense of rich encoding schemes. Abbrevicons allow us to present natural language feedback that is identifiable and comprehensible, while taking significantly less time than traditional verbal feedback. Abbrevicons can decrease the speed of short descriptive feedback by up to 200% while still ensuring user comprehension. These techniques seek to provide richer user feedback in audio interfaces while still keeping in mind the need for efficient user interactions.
Icon Use by Different Language Groups: Changes in Icon Perception in Accordance with Cue Utility BIBAFull-Text 1083-1086
  S. McDougall; A. Forsythe; L. Stares
This study shows that both icon and function label characteristics combine subtly to affect the way that individuals perceive icons. Icon users unconsciously use the cues available to them: the extent to which these cues are utilised depends on the language background of the user. In order to optimise design we therefore need know more, not only about the effects of function label characteristics, but also about how they merge with icon and user characteristics to affect usability.
User Aspects of Explanation Aware CBR Systems BIBAFull-Text 1087-1090
  J. Cassens
This paper addresses the problem of embedding explanation-aware intelligent systems into a workplace environment. We outline an approach with three different perspectives, focusing on the work process as a whole as well as user interaction from an interface and a system view. The theoretical background consists of Actor Network Theory, Semiotics, and Activity Theory. We further propose to integrate this workplace analysis into a design process for knowledge-intensive and explanation-aware Case-Based Reasoning systems.

Short Papers: Mobile Devices

Mobile Reacher Interface for Intuitive Information Navigation BIBAFull-Text 1091-1095
  Y. Yoshida; K. Miyaoku; T. Satou; S. Higashino
We propose Mobile Reacher Interface (MoRIn) that is a new interface with a visual tag for a mobile device. MoRIn allows users to navigate sophisticated information structures by making natural hand gestures while holding a camera-equipped mobile terminal. The structure of an item of interest is acquired via a visual tag. The user can then navigate the structure as if he/she is handling physical objects. MoRIn greatly eases the user's cognitive loads. For instance, the user can alter the volume of an announcement by twisting terminal as if he/she were turning a dial. We describe MoRIn, some applications, and the results of a preliminary experiment.
Recognition Errors and Recognizing Errors - Children Writing on the Tablet PC BIBAFull-Text 1096-1099
  J. Read; E. Mazzone; M. Horton
The paper describes a research study to determine the usability of handwriting recognition technology on a tablet PC for free writing by children. Results demonstrate that recognition error rates vary according to the metrics used, and the authors discuss how some of the errors are created concluding that the error rates say very little about what was happening at the interface and that with research of this type (novel interfaces and young users) researchers need to be immersed in the context in order to produce useful results.

Short Papers: Universal Access

The Design of an Authoring Interface to Make eLearning Content Accessible BIBAFull-Text 1100-1103
  S. Gabrielli; V. Mirabella; M. Teso; T. Catarci
This paper presents the rationale and design process of an authoring interface that enables didactic experts to create or modify eLearning content to make it accessible by learners with special needs. The tool has been designed according to a methodological framework and a set of guidelines for eLearning accessibility previously developed by our group. A key aspect of our framework consists in helping authors to preserve the didactic quality of the eLearning experiences provided to disabled learners (in particular, visually impaired ones) beyond assuring their mere physical access to online materials. A user-centred design process has been adopted to develop a usable prototype of the authoring interface, named aLearning, that we describe below.
Reducing the Risk of Abandonment of Assistive Technologies for People with Autism BIBAFull-Text 1104-1107
  P. Francis; L. Firth; D. Mellor
This paper reports on an investigation that found that conventional techniques for including users in technology design are likely to fail if the user has autism. The heterogeneity of autistic symptomatology across cognitive, social, behavioural and communication domains suggests a 'single user' environment, while rendering typical design interaction techniques meaningless, making the need for assistive technologies great, and the risk of abandonment high. This complex problem of urgency and constraint was addressed through a Delphi study with a panel of psychologists critiquing design activities for people with autism. The major finding is that while each of the activities may work if modified, all require that the designer is well acquainted with autism in general and has a close working relationship based on trust with the individual user. If these requirements are met, there is no reason that the abandonment rate cannot be reduced.
From Extraneous Noise to Categorizable Signatures: Using Multi-scale Analyses to Assess Implicit Interaction Needs of Older Adults with Visual Impairments BIBAFull-Text 1108-1111
  K. P. Moloney; V. K. Leonard; B. Shi; J. A. Jacko; B. Vidakovic; F. Sainfort
The holistic understanding of human-computer interaction (HCI) is increasingly important, especially given the impending influx of older users who present dynamic needs that evolve with age. This study explores pupillary response behavior (PRB) during computer interaction to identify underlying differences between older adults of varying ocular profiles. PRB was measured from two groups of individuals diagnosed with Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and a visually healthy control group. Unconventional analytical techniques -- wavelet-based multifractal analyses -- were used to identify PRB anomalies resulting from the effects of aging and/or ocular pathology. A distribution of regularity indices was extracted from the data signals to reveal signatures of PRB change patterns. One characteristic of the multifractal spectrum, Left Slope (LS), fully distinguished the user groups, revealing trends of increasing PRB irregularity with increasing levels of ocular dysfunction.

Short Papers: Tools

Supporting Efficient and Reliable Content Analysis Using Automatic Text Processing Technology BIBAFull-Text 1112-1115
  G. Gweon; C. P. Rose; J. Wittwer; M. Nueckles
Text categorization technology can be used to streamline the process of content analysis of corpus data. However, while recent results for automatic corpus analysis show great promise, tools that are currently being used for HCI research and practice do not make use of it. Here, we empirically evaluate trade-offs between semi automatic and hand labeling of data in terms of speed, validity, and reliability of coding in order to assess the usefulness of incorporating this technology into HCI tools.
Multi-platform Online Game Design and Architecture BIBAFull-Text 1116-1119
  J. Han; I. Kang; C. Hyun; J.-S. Woo; Y.-I. Eom
Contemporary Multi-player online games (MOGs) support only a single game platform. Our research goal is to provide an MOG service to 'users from different platforms.' This paper presents the architecture of the world-wide first multi-platform online game, which consists of 3D game engines and a multi-platform game server. The experimental results through the prototype implementation show the feasibility of simultaneously supporting multiple game platforms.
Segment and Browse: A Strategy for Supporting Human Monitoring of Facial Expression Behaviour BIBAFull-Text 1120-1123
  M. J. Lyons; M. Funk; K. Kuwabara
We describe a system to ease long-term human monitoring of mood via facial expressions. Video images are processed in real-time to isolate the area of the face and record facial expressions. Optic flow is used to annotate motion of the face. A simple-to-use browser is used to navigate the facial expression record. A preliminary evaluation of both components is reported.
iDwidgets: Parameterizing Widgets by User Identity BIBAFull-Text 1124-1128
  K. Ryall; A. Esenther; K. Everitt; C. Forlines; M. R. Morris; C. Shen; S. Shipman; F. Vernier
We introduce the concept of identity-differentiating widgets (iDwidgets), widgets parameterized by the identity of their user. Although multi-user applications have become more common, most support only traditional "single-user" widgets. By adding user-identity information we allow interactions with today's widgets to be dynamically customized on a per-user basis in a group usage setting. The concept has inspired the design of new widgets as well. In this paper we describe example iDwidgets and define a conceptual framework based on what is being customized in the widget. iDwidgets can support novel interaction techniques in collaborative settings.

Short Papers: Usability Evaluation and User Studies

Rater Bias: The Influence of Hedonic Quality on Usability Questionnaires BIBAFull-Text 1129-1133
  S. Harbich; S. Auer
In this study of various evaluation-instruments, subjects fulfilled sev-eral tasks on two different operating systems and answered several question-naires, among them AttrakDiffTMand ISONORM 9241/10, and objective meas-ures were taken. A correlation between the "hedonic quality - identity"-scale of the AttrakDiff and the ISONORM 9241/10 was found. As the ISONORM 9241/10 measures usability as described in ISO 9241-10 and not hedonic quali-ty, the hedonic quality seems to have an influence on the tester ratings of usability. This is supported by the finding, that the hedonic quality does not correlate with the objective measures and therefore does not have any effective influence on the efficiency component of usability.
Towards the Maturation of IT Usability Evaluation (MAUSE) BIBAFull-Text 1134-1137
  E. L.-C. Law; E. T. Hvannberg; G. Cockton; P. Palanque; D. Scapin; M. Springett; C. Stary; J. Vanderdonckt
This article describes a new initiative MAUSE of which the ultimate goal is to bring more science to bear on usability evaluation methods. This overarching goal will be realized through scientific activities of four Working Groups (WGs) with each of them having specific objectives, rationales, tasks and expected outcomes. Outlook for MAUSE's development is described.
An X-Ray of the Brazilian e-Gov Web Sites BIBAFull-Text 1138-1141
  C. Maciel; J. L. T. Nogueira; A. C. B. Garcia
The digital inclusion promotes the reduction of social inequalities. Based on this principle, the Brazilian Government has been setting up an increasing number of Web access locations to render virtual support to its citizens. However, there are no guidelines for the construction and assessment of these electronic Government (e-Gov) sites. In this article we measure the web site quality in the e-Gov domain with the following proprieties: usability, accessibility, interoperability, security, privacy, information reliability, and service agility. We implemented our method, by using a checklist tool, in the evaluation of 127 Brazilian government sites (federal, state and municipal). Our method proved itself efficient in the diagnosis and identification of specific problems in the e-Gov site domain.
An Experiment to Measure the Usefulness of Patterns in the Interaction Design Process BIBAFull-Text 1142-1145
  N. L. O. Cowley; J. L. Wesson
Interaction design patterns have yet to prove themselves in interaction design in the way that design guidelines have. This paper describes an empirical study comparing the use of patterns and guidelines. The study involved a heuristic evaluation of a web site, the redesign of the web site, and the design of a new web site. Preliminary results suggesting that developers find patterns useful in the interaction design process are presented. Further analysis using heuristics to compare the quality of the designs produced using patterns and guidelines will provide an objective assessment of the usefulness of patterns.
Testing New Alarms for Medical Electrical Equipment BIBAFull-Text 1146-1149
  A. Wee; P. Sanderson
This paper reports the first of several tests of new auditory alarms originally proposed by Block et al. [1] and formalized in IEC 60601-1-8 for use in medical electrical equipment. We test whether participants who are supplied with the IEC-recommended mnemonics while learning label-alarm associations can more accurately identify the alarms after short periods of learning. Results for 18 participants strongly indicate that there is a mutual confusability between certain alarm pairs in both learning conditions, but that mnemonics may strengthen rather than diminish certain key confusions.
Relevance of Prior Experience in MHP Based Interactive TV Services BIBAFull-Text 1150-1153
  R. Bernhaupt; B. Ploderer; M. Tscheligi
Despite its rising success, interactive TV (iTV) has found very little attention in the field of HCI. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the usability of iTV services. It presents the results of a usability test and discusses the implications for further developments. The results show, that prior knowledge of Internet and mobile phones supports the usability of iTV services regarding navigation and text input, while the lack of it leads to great difficulties. Difficult tasks, such as writing a text message, had a success rate of only 20%, while guided tours proofed to be more usable with a success rate of 70%.