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INT Tables of Contents: 0507-107-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-415-115-215-315-4

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'13: Human-Computer Interaction-2 2013

Fullname:INTERACT 2013: 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II
Editors:Paula Kotzé; Gary Marsden; Gitte Lindgaard; Janet Wesson; Marco Winckler
Location:Cape Town, South Africa
Dates:2013-Sep-02 to 2013-Sep-06
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8118
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-40480-1 hcibib: INT13-2; ISBN: 978-3-642-40479-5 (print), 978-3-642-40480-1 (online)
Papers:55
Pages:791
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. INT 2013 Volume 2
    1. E-Input/Output Devices (e-Readers, Whiteboards)
    2. Facilitating Social Behaviour and Collaboration I
    3. Facilitating Social Behaviour and Collaboration II
    4. Gaze-Enabled Interaction Design
    5. Gesture and Tactile User Interfaces
    6. Gesture-Based User Interface Design and Interaction I
    7. Gesture-Based User Interface Design and Interaction II
    8. Health/Medical Devices
    9. Humans and Robots
    10. Human-Work Interaction Design
    11. Interface Layout and Data Entry
    12. Learning and Knowledge-Sharing
    13. Learning Tools, Learning Contexts
    14. Managing the UX
    15. Mobile Interaction Design
    16. Mobile Phone Applications

INT 2013 Volume 2

E-Input/Output Devices (e-Readers, Whiteboards)

Leisure-Based Reading and the Place of E-Books in Everyday Life BIBAKFull-Text 1-18
  Annika Hupfeld; Abigail Sellen; Kenton O'Hara; Tom Rodden
With the proliferation of digital reading technologies and their underlying ecosystem, practices of reading are currently undergoing significant changes. Despite the currency of the topic, we find there is little empirical research on how people incorporate digital reading technologies into their existing leisure-based reading practices. In this paper, we explore the place of e-reading for pleasure in daily life, and how it is co-evolving with practices surrounding printed books. We present a diary study with 16 readers tracking their behaviors and motivations surrounding e-book use. Our findings are relevant to designers of digital reading technologies in highlighting the values guiding people's choices and behaviors concerning e-book use.
Keywords: leisure e-reading; e-books; e-readers; tablets; smartphones; books; diary study
Reading together as a Leisure Activity: Implications for E-reading BIBAKFull-Text 19-36
  Michael Massimi; Rachelle Campigotto; Abbas Attarwala; Ronald M. Baecker
Reading from devices such as Kindles, Nooks, and tablets ("e-readers") is an increasingly common practice. A primary reason users purchase e-readers is to read for pleasure, as opposed to reading for work or school purposes. With paper, people sometimes read together from a single book (e.g., reading a bedtime story with a child) -- a practice we call partnered reading. This practice, and the goals of e-reading for pleasure more generally, remain underexplored in the HCI literature. This paper contributes findings from a deployment study wherein participants used an e-reader application to read with a partner. These findings (a) provide descriptive accounts of how people use e-readers to read together, and (b) identify opportunities to improve the design of e-readers to support partnered e-reading for pleasure.
Keywords: E-reading; partnered reading; collaborative reading; pleasure; entertainment; leisure; iPad; ALLT
The Mysterious Whiteboard BIBAKFull-Text 37-54
  Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose; Olav W. Bertelsen
This paper raises the question of why electronic whiteboards are not ubiquitous. The paper provides a design-oriented analysis of traditional as well as electronic whiteboards in the context of collaborative and individual activities. We offer a novel perspective on whiteboards for collaborative activity based on a survey of the electronic whiteboard literature, a series of interviews with users of traditional whiteboards, and concepts rooted in Activity Theory. We identify a number of characteristics of the non-electronic whiteboard that are important to understand and preserve in the design of electronic whiteboard systems. Most importantly, we argue that the strength of non-electronic whiteboards is a combination of their simplicity and stability as well as a discontinuity between material on and outside of the whiteboard. We argue that the non-electronic whiteboard has uses and properties, which will require an electronic substitute to differ fundamentally in design compared to our traditional personal computing devices as well as most designs seen today. We present a set of themes for design of future electronic whiteboard systems that emphasize limitations as a main design principle. We conclude with three principles for design: The idea of installation rather than application; the principle of supplementing rather than replacing; and finally the principle of embracing and enhancing discontinuities.
Keywords: Electronic whiteboards; non-personal computing; activity theory; discontinuities; collaboration; science

Facilitating Social Behaviour and Collaboration I

A Tabletop System Using Infrared Image Recognition for Multi-user Identification BIBAKFull-Text 55-62
  Shota Suto; Susumu Shibusawa
Many tabletop systems have been developed to facilitate face-to-face collaboration and work at small meetings. These systems often require users to attach sensors to their bodies to identify their positions, but attaching a sensor to one's body can be bothersome and annoying, and user position and posture may be restricted depending on where the sensor is attached. We have proposed a technique for estimating user position in a tabletop system by image recognition and implemented a tabletop system having a user position identification function incorporating the proposed technique. This technique first obtains touch points and hand-area information from touch operations performed by the user, and establishes an association between the touch points and hand from those positional relationships. Since the direction in which a hand is extended can be derived from that hand's touch information, the position of the user of the touch points belonging to that hand can be estimated. As part of this study, we also implemented a photo-object manipulation application, which has a function for orienting a photo object to face the user based on the results of the above user-position estimation technique. We performed an experiment to evaluate the position identification rate, and found that the proposed technique could identify user position with high accuracy.
Keywords: Tabletop system; Image recognition; FTIR; Multi-touch; User position identification; Area extraction
Performing Online and Offline: How DJs Use Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 63-80
  Mayur Karnik; Ian Oakley; Valentina Nisi
Music and online Social Network Sites (SNS) are closely intertwined in popular culture, but we know relatively little about how performers use and take advantage of such social systems. This paper investigates this space by exploring how professional DJs leverage SNS in their work. It adopts a long term mixed-methods ethnographic approach encompassing semi-structured interviews, supported by studio visits and participant observations. Results revealed that DJs used SNS for connecting to their audiences; promoting their work; receiving peer feedback; discovering content and keeping abreast of their field; and organizing and coordinating events. We further interpret our findings in the context of issues DJs highlighted about their professional practice and technology, and our observations; and draw out design implications for future music orientated systems and services.
Keywords: Ethnography; DJs; social networks; participant observations
Tension Space Analysis: Exploring Community Requirements for Networked Urban Screens BIBAKFull-Text 81-98
  Steve North; Holger Schnädelbach; Ava Fatah gen Schieck; Wallis Motta; Lei Ye; Moritz Behrens; Efstathia Kostopoulou
This paper draws on the design process, implementation and early evaluation results of an urban screens network to highlight the tensions that emerge at the boundary between the technical and social aspects of design. While public interactive screens in urban spaces are widely researched, the newly emerging networks of such screens present fresh challenges. Researchers wishing to be led by a diverse user community may find that the priorities of some users, directly oppose the wishes of others. Previous literature suggests such tensions can be handled by 'goal balancing', where all requirements are reduced down to one set of essential, implementable attributes. Contrasting this, this paper's contribution is 'Tension Space Analysis', which broadens and extends existing work on Design Tensions. It includes new domains, new representational methods and offers a view on how to best reflect conflicting community requirements in some aspects or features of the design.
Keywords: 'tension space analysis'; 'human factors'; 'design tensions'; 'design space'; 'urban screens'; 'networked urban screens'

Facilitating Social Behaviour and Collaboration II

BinCam: Designing for Engagement with Facebook for Behavior Change BIBAKFull-Text 99-115
  Rob Comber; Anja Thieme; Ashur Rafiev; Nick Taylor; Nicole Krämer; Patrick Olivier
In this paper we continue work to investigate how we can engage young adults in behaviors of recycling and the prevention of food waste through social media and persuasive and ubiquitous computing systems. Our previous work with BinCam, a two-part design combining a system for the collection of waste-related behaviors with a Facebook application, suggested that although this ubiquitous system could raise awareness of recycling behavior, engagement with social media remained low. In this paper we reconsider our design in terms of engagement, examining both the theoretical and practical ways in which engagement can be designed for. This paper presents findings from a new user study exploring the re-design of the social media interface following this analysis. By incorporating elements of gamification, social support and improved data visualization, we contribute insights on the relative potential of these techniques to engage individuals across the lifespan of a system's deployment.
Keywords: Engagement; Facebook; Sustainability; Recycling; Gamification; Social influence; Persuasive technology
OpinionBlocks: A Crowd-Powered, Self-improving Interactive Visual Analytic System for Understanding Opinion Text BIBAKFull-Text 116-134
  Mengdie Hu; Huahai Yang; Michelle X. Zhou; Liang Gou; Yunyao Li; Eben Haber
Millions of people rely on online opinions to make their decisions. To better help people glean insights from massive amounts of opinions, we present the design, implementation, and evaluation of OpinionBlocks, a novel interactive visual text analytic system. Our system offers two unique features. First, it automatically creates a fine-grained, aspect-based visual summary of opinions, which provides users with insights at multiple levels. Second, it solicits and supports user interactions to rectify text-analytic errors, which helps improve the overall system quality. Through two crowd-sourced studies on Amazon Mechanical Turk involving 101 users, OpinionBlocks demonstrates its effectiveness in helping users perform real-world opinion analysis tasks. Moreover, our studies show that the crowd is willing to correct analytic errors, and the corrections help improve user task completion time significantly.
Keywords: Text analytics; text visualization; self-improving; crowd-sourcing
PolemicTweet: Video Annotation and Analysis through Tagged Tweets BIBAKFull-Text 135-152
  Samuel Huron; Petra Isenberg; Jean Daniel Fekete
We present PolemicTweet a system with an encompassing, economic, and engaging approach to video tagging and analysis. Annotating and tagging videos manually is a boring and time-consuming process. Yet, in the last couple of years the audiences of events -- such as academic conferences -- have begun to produce unexploited metadata in the form of micropost activities. With PolemicTweet we explore the use of tagged microposts for both video annotation and browsing aid. PolemicTweet is a system 1) to crowd source conference video tagging with structured sentiment metadata, 2) to engage audiences in a tagging process, and 3) to visualize these annotations for browsing and analyzing a video. We describe the system and its components as well as the results from a one-year live deployment in 27 different events.
Keywords: Backchannel; Video annotation; Crowdsourcing; Video analysis; Live tagging

Gaze-Enabled Interaction Design

Eyes Only: Navigating Hypertext with Gaze BIBAKFull-Text 153-169
  Abdul Moiz Penkar; Christof Lutteroth; Gerald Weber
Eye gaze tracking is an obvious candidate for a future input device, perhaps even for everyday computing. The hard problems with gaze-controlled interfaces are inaccuracy and inadvertent clicking. We attempt to mitigate these problems in the context of a gaze-controlled web browser. Four click alternatives (Dwell, Single Confirm, Multiple Confirm and Radial Confirm) were implemented along with a fifth mouse-controlled version for comparison. Two alternatives make use of additional buttons that confirm a selection made previously by dwell, hence improving accuracy. Our results indicate that the Multiple Confirm alternative performed best among the gaze-based alternatives; it makes use of multiple confirmation buttons when letting the user choose between different options. When compared to the mouse, the clicking times were worse but the accuracy was indistinguishable. User feedback also indicates that, although mouse was considered best, Multiple Confirm was not perceived as slow and generated excitement. This indicates that the Multiple Confirm click alternative has potential as an interaction method for gaze interfaces.
Keywords: Eye gaze tracking; dwell; navigation
Eye Pull, Eye Push: Moving Objects between Large Screens and Personal Devices with Gaze and Touch BIBAKFull-Text 170-186
  Jayson Turner; Jason Alexander; Andreas Bulling; Dominik Schmidt; Hans Gellersen
Previous work has validated the eyes and mobile input as a viable approach for pointing at, and selecting out of reach objects. This work presents Eye Pull, Eye Push, a novel interaction concept for content transfer between public and personal devices using gaze and touch. We present three techniques that enable this interaction: Eye Cut & Paste, Eye Drag & Drop, and Eye Summon & Cast. We outline and discuss several scenarios in which these techniques can be used. In a user study we found that participants responded well to the visual feedback provided by Eye Drag & Drop during object movement. In contrast, we found that although Eye Summon & Cast significantly improved performance, participants had difficulty coordinating their hands and eyes during interaction.
Keywords: Eye-Based Interaction; Mobile; Cross-Device; Content Transfer; Interaction Techniques
Tools for a Gaze-Controlled Drawing Application -- Comparing Gaze Gestures against Dwell Buttons BIBAKFull-Text 187-201
  Henna Heikkilä
We designed and implemented a gaze-controlled drawing application that utilizes modifiable and movable shapes. Moving and resizing tools were implemented with gaze gestures. Our gaze gestures are simple one-segment gestures that end outside the screen. Also, we use the closure of the eyes to stop actions in the drawing application. We carried out an experiment to compare gaze gestures with a dwell-based implementation of the tools. Results showed that, in terms of performance, gaze gestures were an equally good input method as dwell buttons. Furthermore, more than 40% of the participants gave better ratings for gaze gestures than for the dwell-based implementation, and under 20% preferred dwell over gestures. Our study shows that gaze gestures can be a feasible alternative for dwell-based interaction when they are designed properly and implemented in the appropriate application area.
Keywords: gaze interaction; eye tracking; drawing with gaze; gaze gestures

Gesture and Tactile User Interfaces

Designing Gesture-Based Control for Factory Automation BIBAKFull-Text 202-209
  Tomi Heimonen; Jaakko Hakulinen; Markku Turunen; Jussi P. P. Jokinen; Tuuli Keskinen; Roope Raisamo
We report the development and evaluation of a gesture-based interaction prototype for controlling the loading station of a factory automation system. In this context, gesture-based interaction has the potential to free users from the tedious physical controls but it must also account for safety considerations and users' perceptions. We evaluated the gesture interaction concept in the field to understand its applicability to industrial settings. Our findings suggest that gesture-based interaction is an emotional, physically charged experience that has the potential to enhance the work process. Participants' feedback also highlighted challenges related to the reliability of gesture recognition technology in the workplace, the perceived professionalism of gesture-based interaction, and the role of physical feedback in promoting feeling of control. Our results inform the development of gesture-based interaction for similar contexts.
Keywords: Gesture-based interaction; emotions; user experience; field study
Metamodels Infrastructure and Heuristics for Metamodel-Driven Multi-touch Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 210-227
  Víctor López-Jaquero; Elena Navarro; Francisco Montero; Pascual González
Novice users usually find it hard to manipulate models by using traditional Model-Driven Development techniques, because of the gap between the modeling tools and these users' mental models. In this context, multi-touch interfaces emerge as an alternative to make it easier for novice users to interact with the models by using natural gestures and taking advantage from the popularity that touch-based devices have achieved. In this paper, a metamodel infrastructure and a set of heuristics are presented to automatically generate multi-touch visual editors for manipulating models. The editor generated is driven by a metamodel that also prevents the user from creating not valid models. These heuristics have been validated while developing an environment for novice users, such as psychologists or physiotherapists, for the treatment of people with Acquired Brain Injury.
Keywords: model-driven development; multi-touch interaction; heuristics; Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)
TactiPEd: Easy Prototyping of Tactile Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 228-245
  Sabrina Panëels; Margarita Anastassova; Lucie Brunet
We present the design and evaluation of a tactile editor, TactiPEd for the rapid and easy prototyping of vibrotactile patterns. It is based on the graphical metaphor of the shape of the device, which is used for the tuning of the main tactile characteristics, including amplitude, frequency and duration of tactile sequences. The editor includes file systems functionalities using the XML format along with playing and recording functionalities. The editor was thoroughly evaluated: a usability evaluation was conducted with 9 participants, the designed metaphor-based patterns were analyzed for insights on cross-device design and finally the editor was tested with several devices. TactiPEd was successfully and easily used with little training and enabled users to design patterns in little time. The resulting patterns shared common characteristics across the devices for a given metaphor.
Keywords: tactile feedback; tactile pattern authoring; vibrotactile pattern

Gesture-Based User Interface Design and Interaction I

Towards Many Gestures to One Command: A User Study for Tabletops BIBAKFull-Text 246-263
  Yosra Rekik; Laurent Grisoni; Nicolas Roussel
Multi-touch gestures are often thought by application designers for a one-to-one mapping between gestures and commands, which does not take into account the high variability of user gestures for actions in the physical world; it can also be a limitation that leads to very simplistic interaction choices. Our motivation is to make a step toward many-to-one mappings between user gestures and commands, by understanding user gestures variability for multi-touch systems; for doing so, we set up a user study in which we target symbolic gestures on tabletops. From a first phase study we provide qualitative analysis of user gesture variability; we derive this analysis into a taxonomy of user gestures, that is discussed and compared to other existing taxonomies. We introduce the notion of atomic movement; such elementary atomic movements may be combined throughout time (either sequentially or in parallel), to structure user gesture. A second phase study is then performed with specific class of gesture-drawn symbols; from this phase, and according to the provided taxonomy, we evaluate user gesture variability with a fine grain quantitative analysis. Our findings indicate that users equally use one or two hands, also that more than half of gestures are achieved using parallel or sequential combination of atomic movements. We also show how user gestures distribute over different movement categories, and correlate to the number of fingers and hands engaged in interaction. Finally, we discuss implications of this work to interaction design, practical consequences on gesture recognition, and potential applications.
Keywords: Tabletop; multi-touch gesture; gesture recognition; interaction design
User-Defined Body Gestures for an Interactive Storytelling Scenario BIBAKFull-Text 264-281
  Felix Kistler; Elisabeth André
For improving full body interaction in an interactive storytelling scenario, we conducted a study to get a user-defined gesture set. 22 users performed 251 gestures while running through the story script with real interaction disabled, but with hints of what set of actions was currently requested by the application. We describe our interaction design process, starting with the conduction of the study, continuing with the analysis of the recorded data including the creation of gesture taxonomy and the selection of gesture candidates, and ending with the integration of the gestures in our application.
Keywords: User Defined Gestures; Kinect; Full Body Tracking; Depth Sensor; Interaction; Interactive Storytelling
User-Defined Gestures for Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 282-299
  Thammathip Piumsomboon; Adrian Clark; Mark Billinghurst; Andy Cockburn
Recently there has been an increase in research towards using hand gestures for interaction in the field of Augmented Reality (AR). These works have primarily focused on researcher designed gestures, while little is known about user preference and behavior for gestures in AR. In this paper, we present our guessability study for hand gestures in AR in which 800 gestures were elicited for 40 selected tasks from 20 participants. Using the agreement found among gestures, a user-defined gesture set was created to guide designers to achieve consistent user-centered gestures in AR. Wobbrock's surface taxonomy has been extended to cover dimensionalities in AR and with it, characteristics of collected gestures have been derived. Common motifs which arose from the empirical findings were applied to obtain a better understanding of users' thought and behavior. This work aims to lead to consistent user-centered designed gestures in AR.
Keywords: Augmented reality; gestures; guessability

Gesture-Based User Interface Design and Interaction II

Gesture-Based Interaction in Domotic Environments: State of the Art and HCI Framework Inspired by the Diversity BIBAKFull-Text 300-317
  Ana Carla de Carvalho Correia; Leonardo Cunha de Miranda; Heiko Hornung
Applications for the control and automation of residential environments (domotics) are an emerging area of study within Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). One of the related challenges is to design gestural interaction with these applications. This paper explores socio-technical aspects of gestural interaction in intelligent domotic environments. An analysis of literature in the area revealed that some HCI-related aspects are treated in a restricted manner that neglects socio-technical dimensions. We propose a framework for discussing related challenges in an integrated manner, considering the dimensions people, gestural mode of interaction, and domotics. Some of these challenges are addressed by literature outside the area of domotics. Many open research questions remain, e.g. how to design gestural vocabularies that minimize ambiguity and consider cultural and social aspects. The proposed framework might contribute to answering these questions thus to designing meaningful interaction that is intuitive and easy to learn.
Keywords: Gesture-Based Interaction; Home Automation; Smart Home; Domotics; Socio-Technical Framework
Thumbs Up: 3D Gesture Input on Mobile Phones Using the Front Facing Camera BIBAKFull-Text 318-336
  Paul Schmieder; John Hosking; Andrew Luxton-Reilly; Beryl Plimmer
We use the front facing camera in a smart phone to capture gesture input. Thumb gestures performed above the camera are recognized and used to invoke commands. In contrast to other input modalities the camera requires no device movements and no valuable screen space is used. To be viable, this type of interaction requires gestures which are comfortable and memorable for the user and real-time accurate recognition of those gestures. Given the performance constraints of phones and their cameras we needed to determine whether accurate and reliable recognition is possible and identify types of gestures that are recognizable and user appropriate. As a proof of concept, we conducted a user study testing three gestures for performance and user satisfaction. The results demonstrate that the 3D gestural input is successful and we provide detailed insights into successful recognition strategies for this novel interaction modality.
Keywords: Motion gestures; mobile interaction; image recognition
User and System Cross-Learning of Gesture Commands on Pen-Based Devices BIBAKFull-Text 337-355
  PeiYu Li; Manuel Bouillon; Eric Anquetil; Grégoire Richard
This paper presents a new design and evaluation of customizable gesture commands on pen-based devices. Our objective is to help users during the definition of gestures by detecting confusion among gestures. We also help the memorization gestures with the guide of a new type of menu "Customizable Gesture Menus". These menus are associated with an evolving gesture recognition engine that learns incrementally, starting from few data samples. Our research focuses on making user and recognition system learn at the same time, hence the term "cross-learning". Three experimentations are presented in details in this paper to support these ideas.
Keywords: Handwritten gesture recognition; Marking Menus; Customizable gesture interfaces

Health/Medical Devices

Adoption and Appropriation: A Design Process from HCI Research at a Brazilian Neurological Hospital BIBAKFull-Text 356-363
  Junia Anacleto; Sidney Fels
Through our research on natural ICT solutions for integration into a non-ICT based workflow at a Brazilian chronic care hospital, we created a new design process and two additional HCI design criteria for maintaining natural work processes using information and communication technologies (ICT). For our HCI design we propose two design pathways: 1. iterating on adoption of designed technologies and 2. iterating on appropriation of these technologies. The degree of appropriation provides an indicator of how natural a design is since it allows for users' inventiveness to uncover latent affordances for use in new contexts. Thus, the use of an interface along with whether its potential is realized in new, user-oriented contexts, are critical elements for designing natural interfaces. We report our insights gained through observations and user-centered design for health professionals at a non-ICT based, large chronic-care hospital to support this perspective.
Keywords: human computer interaction; appropriation; adoption; design process; user centered design; health care; mental illness; non-disruptive workflow
Chronicles: Supporting Conversational Narrative in Alternative and Augmentative Communication BIBAKFull-Text 364-371
  Annalu Waller; Rachel Menzies; Daniel Herron; Suzanne Prior; Rolf Black; Thilo Kroll
Individuals share experiences and build relationships through the medium of narrative. Lifelong personal narratives play a key role in developing social identity. Individuals with little or no functional speech due to severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI) find it difficult to share personal narrative as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems do not support interactive story telling. As a result, people with congenital SSPI who use AAC may not have learned the linguistic skills involved in sharing narratives. The Chronicles software was developed to support the sharing of personal narrative. Conversational analysis of a conversation using Chronicles illustrates how the system can support more natural conversations when using AAC.
Keywords: Augmentative and Alternative Communication; Personal narrative; Social identity; Accessibility; Assistive technology; Disability
Development of Novel eHealth Services for Citizen Use -- Current System Engineering vs. Best Practice in HCI BIBAKFull-Text 372-379
  Isabella Scandurra; Jesper Holgersson; Thomas Lind; Gunilla Myreteg
Many new public eHealth Services are now being developed. Often a conventional customer-vendor process is used, where the customer is a public authority, e.g. a county council, and the vendor a commercial actor, e.g. an IT development company. In this case study the engineering process regards a novel eHealth service aiming to provide patients with online access to their electronic health record. A complicating factor in conventional customer-vendor processes for public e-services is that "the future user could be anyone". In the light of best practice in Human-Computer Interaction, this study examines the joint effort of the customer and vendor when developing novel services for citizen use. The results include delimiting factors, recommendations for public authority customers and proposed new actions for the research agenda.
Keywords: user participation; public e-health services; e-government; electronic health records; system development methods; collaborative design; Scrum
Increasing Accuracy by Decreasing Presentation Quality in Transcription Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 380-394
  Frank Soboczenski; Paul Cairns; Anna L. Cox
Many tasks with interfaces require entering data accurately, for example, entering patient data in an electronic records system or programming infusion pumps. However, human error is inevitable. Paradoxically, results from cognitive psychology suggest that representing information in a poorer quality format increases the likelihood of memorising the information accurately. This is explained by the dual system account of cognition where slower, more effortful but more accurate thinking is invoked via the poorer quality representation. We present two studies where we transfer these results to the domain of data-entry and show that poorer quality format of to-be-copied information leads to increased accuracy in transcription tasks. Moreover, this is not a consequence of the typical speed-accuracy tradeoffs. The results of our novel approach have implications for the design of data-entry tasks in domains such as healthcare.
Keywords: Human error; cognition; data-entry; presentation quality; numberentry; infusion pump; perception; safety-critical systems
You Can't Touch This: Potential Perils of Patient Interaction with Clinical Medical Devices BIBAKFull-Text 395-402
  Paul Noble; Ann Blandford
Clinical medical devices are designed with the explicit assumption that trained medical team members will operate them in appropriate hospital environments. As technological complexity increases, along with the possibility to create specific ward configurations, the potential for unusual interaction combinations poses challenges for safety and training. Resilience engineering proposes that a system should cope with disturbances and unexpected conditions. Consequently, an important consideration for design is to examine medical device interactions that can be considered 'non-routine'. In recognition of the localised nature of clinical practice, and in order to investigate the broad range and type of non-routine occurrences, a novel interview approach was adopted involving medical researchers and practitioners. Examples of non-routine interaction were obtained across a diverse range of localities. Covert patient interactions and dangerous configuration combinations were identified which adversely affected treatment. Drawing on these concerns the potential role of patient involvement in bolstering system resilience is discussed.
Keywords: Medical Devices; Safety; Resilience Engineering; Customisation

Humans and Robots

A Dog Tail for Utility Robots: Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement BIBAKFull-Text 403-419
  Ashish Singh; James E. Young
We present a dog-tail interface for utility robots, as a means of communicating high-level robotic state through affect. This interface leverages people's general knowledge of dogs and their tails (e.g., wagging means happy) to communicate robotic state in an easy to understand way. In this paper, we present the details of our tail construction, and the results of a study which explored a base case of people's reactions to the tail: how various parameters of tail movements and configuration influence perception of the robot's zoomorphized affective state. Our study indicated that people were able to interpret a range of affective states from various tail configurations and gestures, and in summary, we present a set of guidelines for mapping tail parameters to intended perceived affective robotic state.
Keywords: human-robot interaction; animal-inspired interfaces; affective computing
Pebbles: User-Configurable Device Network for Robot Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 420-436
  Kentaro Ishii; Haipeng Mi; Lei Ma; Natsuda Laokulrat; Masahiko Inami; Takeo Igarashi
This study proposes devices suitable for use by non-experts to design robot navigation routes. The user places landmarks, called pebbles, on the floor to tell navigation routes to a robot. Using infrared communication, the pebbles automatically generate navigation routes. The system is designed such that non-expert users can understand the system status to configure the user's target environment without expert assistance. During deployment, the system provides LED and voice feedback. The user can confirm that the devices are appropriately placed for the construction of a desired navigation network. In addition, because there is a device at each destination, our method can name locations by associating a device ID with a particular name. A user study showed that non-expert users were able to understand device usage and construct robot navigation routes.
Keywords: Robot Navigation; Tangible User Interface; Navigation Landmark; Non-Expert User
Robots for Real: Developing a Participatory Design Framework for Implementing Educational Robots in Real-World Learning Environments BIBAKFull-Text 437-444
  Lykke Brogaard Bertel; Dorte Malig Rasmussen; Ellen Christiansen
As educational service robots become increasingly accessible, the demand for methodologies that generate knowledge on r-learning applicable to real world learning environments equally increases. This paper proposes a participatory design framework for involving users in the development of robot-supported didactic designs and discusses its applicability to existing educational contexts on the basis of a case study on the implementation and use of the therapeutic robot seal Paro at a school for children with an autism diagnosis.
Keywords: Participatory design; Human-Robot Interaction; Education

Human-Work Interaction Design

Computer-Supported Work in Partially Distributed and Co-located Teams: The Influence of Mood Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 445-460
  Andreas Sonderegger; Denis Lalanne; Luisa Bergholz; Fabien Ringeval; Juergen Sauer
This article examines the influence of mood feedback on different outcomes of teamwork in two different collaborative work environments. Employing a 2 x 2 between-subjects design, mood feedback (present vs. not present) and communication mode (face-to-face vs. video conferencing) were manipulated experimentally. We used a newly developed collaborative communication environment, called EmotiBoard, which is a large vertical interactive screen, with which team members can interact in a face-to-face discussion or as a spatially distributed team. To support teamwork, this tool provides visual feedback of each team member's emotional state. Thirty-five teams comprising 3 persons each (with a confederate in each team) completed three different tasks, measuring mood, performance, subjective workload, and team satisfaction. Results indicated that the evaluation of the other team members' emotional state was more accurate when the mood feedback was presented. In addition, mood feedback influenced team performance positively in the video conference condition and negatively in the face-to-face condition. Furthermore, participants in the video conference condition were more satisfied after task completion than participants in the face-to-face condition. Findings indicate that the mood feedback tool is helpful for teams to gain a more accurate understanding of team members' emotional states in different work situations.
Keywords: virtual teamwork; videoconference; face-to-face; mood; computer-supported cooperative work
Do Usability Professionals Think about User Experience in the Same Way as Users and Developers Do? BIBAKFull-Text 461-478
  Torkil Clemmensen; Morten Hertzum; Jiaoyan Yang; Yanan Chen
In this paper, we study how usability professionals' thinking about system use relates to that of system developers and end users. We conducted 72 repertory-grid interviews to capture how usability professionals, developers, and users describe their system use. The participants in each stakeholder group were from China, Denmark, and India. Our results indicate that usability professionals focus on emotion-related aspects of system use, while users focus more on context in terms of utility and degree of usage. There are no interactions between stakeholder group and nationality, although both stakeholder group and nationality independently influence how participants think about usability and user experience. We recommend that to understand users' concerns, researchers should study context more.
Keywords: Usability professionals; UX professionals; user experience; stakeholder differences; cultural differences
Here or There? How Configuration of Transnational Teams Impacts Social Capital BIBAKFull-Text 479-496
  Julia Katherine Haines; Judith S. Olson; Gary M. Olson
The many challenges of distributed communication and the many challenges of intercultural collaboration have been researched and discussed at length in the literature. What is lacking is a combined approach that looks at both issues of distance and diversity in collaboration. We conducted research in a large, multinational technology company to better understand team configurational factors in transnational work. In this case study, we found that the development of social capital is impacted by whether a person is in their home context or transplanted and their expectations based on that context. This has implications for the development of intellectual capital in the team. We highlight factors in the creation of social capital as well as some mechanisms that may mitigate cultural difference. In addition to bringing into focus the challenges that arise in various configurations, this study contributes to the transnational literature by highlighting the importance of local context in diverse collaborations.
Keywords: Transnational collaboration; team configuration; social capital

Interface Layout and Data Entry

A Comparison of List vs. Hierarchical UIs on Mobile Phones for Non-literate Users BIBAKFull-Text 497-504
  Indrani Medhi; Kentaro Toyama; Anirudha Joshi; Uday Athavankar; Edward Cutrell
Previous research has shown that low-literate users have difficulty using hierarchical information architectures and that a list design showing all items at once on a PC screen works best for search tasks. However, the limited screen space on phones makes it impossible to show more than a few items at once on a single screen. Does a hierarchical UI work better on a phone? In this study, we compared the performance of non-literate users from Bangalore, India, on a search task using a hierarchical UI (four levels deep) and a multi-page list that had forty items across seven pages of a touch-screen phone. Our results show that participants using the multi-page list perform better both in terms of time taken and percent correct even when the list UI design requires them to browse through multiple pages of items on the phone.
Keywords: Non-literate users; list design; hierarchy; mobile phone
A User Study with GUIs Tailored for Smartphones BIBAKFull-Text 505-512
  David Raneburger; David Alonso-Ríos; Roman Popp; Hermann Kaindl; Jürgen Falb
Web-based graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are mostly not tailored for small devices with touchscreens, such as smartphones. There is little scientific evidence on the conditions where additional taps for navigation are better or scrolling. Therefore, we conducted a user study in which we evaluated different ways of tailoring a GUI for a smartphone. Each participant performed the same task with two different layouts of the same GUI. We collected quantitative data through measuring task completion time and error rates, as well as qualitative data through subjective questionnaires. The main result is that minimizing the number of taps is important on a smartphone. Users performed significantly better when they could scroll (vertically), instead of tapping on widget elements (tabs). This preference was also reflected in their subjective opinions.
Keywords: Usability; device-tailored GUI; small touchscreen; user study
Evaluating Direct Manipulation Operations for Constraint-Based Layout BIBAKFull-Text 513-529
  Clemens Zeidler; Christof Lutteroth; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger; Gerald Weber
Layout managers are used to control the placement of widgets in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Constraint-based layout managers are more powerful than other ones. However, they are also more complex and their layouts are prone to problems that usually require direct editing of constraints. Today, designers commonly use GUI builders to specify GUIs. The complexities of traditional approaches to constraint-based layouts pose challenges for GUI builders.
   We evaluate a novel GUI builder, the Auckland Layout Editor (ALE), which addresses these challenges by enabling GUI designers to specify constraint-based layouts via direct manipulation using simple, mouse-based operations. These operations hide the complexity of the constraint-based layout model, while giving designers access to its benefits.
   In a user evaluation we compared ALE with two other mainstream layout builders, a grid-based and a constraint-based one. The time taken to create realistic sample layouts with our builder was significantly shorter, and most participants preferred ALE's approach. The evaluation demonstrates that good usability for authoring constraint-based layouts is possible.
Keywords: GUI builder; layout editing; layout manager; constraint-based layout; layout preview; evaluation
KLM Form Analyzer: Automated Evaluation of Web Form Filling Tasks Using Human Performance Models BIBAKFull-Text 530-537
  Christos Katsanos; Nikos Karousos; Nikolaos Tselios; Michalis Xenos; Nikolaos Avouris
Filling forms is a common and frequent task in web interaction. Therefore, designing web forms that enhance users' efficiency is an important task. This paper presents a tool entitled KLM Form Analyzer (KLM-FA) that enables effortless predictions of execution times of web form filling tasks. To this end, the tool employs established models of human performance, namely the Keystroke Level Model and optionally the Fitts' law. KLM-FA can support various evaluation scenarios, both in a formative and summative context, and according to different interaction strategies or modeled users' characteristics. A study investigated the accuracy of KLM-FA predictions by comparing them to participants' execution times for six form filling tasks in popular social networking websites. The tool produced highly accurate predictions (89.1% agreement with user data) in an efficient manner.
Keywords: Web form design; task efficiency; user performance time; automated tool; human performance models
The Evolution of Number Entry: A Case Study of the Telephone BIBAKFull-Text 538-545
  Parisa Eslambolchilar; Julie Webster; Gerrit Niezen
This paper details a user study to investigate serial digit entry on analogue and digital input platforms and the errors associated with them. We look specifically at the case of entering eleven-digit telephone numbers without a decimal point. The telephone is used as a platform for comparison, due to its clear evolution from a rotary dial to a pushbutton keypad and more recently, touch-based input. Thirty participants took part in a user study, which concluded that the touch interface was four times less accurate than the pushbutton and rotary dial interfaces. The latter two interfaces performed with similar accuracy; however, users were more than three times faster on the pushbutton keypad and recognized almost twice as many errors on the rotary dial. We have extended previous error taxonomies to include some errors relevant to sequences of numbers and built upon task-based guidelines found in the literature to suggest context-based design considerations.
Keywords: Number Entry; Interaction Design; Usability; Telephone Interfaces

Learning and Knowledge-Sharing

Informing the Design of an Authoring Tool for Developing Social Stories BIBAKFull-Text 546-553
  Aurora Constantin; Helen Pain; Annalu Waller
This paper describes the design of an authoring tool, ISISS (Improving Social Interaction through Social Stories), for supporting practitioners using social stories to enhance social interaction in children with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). The goals of the research are: 1) to determine practitioners' current procedures when working with social stories; 2) to discover how technology can better support such practitioners in the development and use of social stories that focus on improving children's social communication skills. An exploratory study was conducted with experienced practitioners, resulting in a number of design principles. Two low-functioning prototypes were developed, and explored in a second study. Further work is discussed.
Keywords: Paper-based Interfaces; Design; Autism; ASC; Educational Tool; Assistive Technology for Children with ASC; Authoring Tool
Introducing New Perspectives in the Use of Social Technologies in Learning: Social Constructionism BIBAKFull-Text 554-570
  Antigoni Parmaxi; Panayiotis Zaphiris; Eleni Michailidou; Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous; Andri Ioannou
This paper reports on a qualitative study of the use of social technologies, explored in the context of an intensive 650-hour Greek language course. Qualitative content analysis of instructors' field notes, students' and instructors' reflections, interviews and a focus group was employed aiming at identifying the use of social technologies as a platform for constructing an online artifact. To triangulate the findings, the study also collected data by observing students' activity with social technologies. A code scheme was developed which manifests the use of social technologies as a social constructionism platform identifying its major dimensions: exploration of ideas, construction of online artifact and evaluation of the constructed artifact. Actions within each dimension that indicate the manifestation of social constructionism are identified and discussed. This study revealed results in favor of the use of social technologies as social constructing platforms suggesting a new framework for their use.
Keywords: social technologies; web 2.0 technologies; social constructionism; online artifact
Usability Specialists as Boundary Spanners -- An Appraisal of Usability Specialists' Work in Multiparty Distributed Open Source Software Development Effort BIBAKFull-Text 571-588
  Netta Iivari
This study examines the work of usability specialists in a multiparty research project producing an open source learning application for children, with children. Children as a user group has been acknowledged decades ago and methods for involving them have been devised, but there is a lack of research examining what happens to children's input in practice, when integrated with actual development. The paper contrasts the empirical findings with the existing research on the usability specialists' roles and with the knowledge management literature on boundary spanning, which argues that for successful knowledge sharing and arriving at shared understandings there needs to emerge boundary spanners and boundary objects and a new joint field of practice within which the experts involved can collaborate. This paper argues for the boundary spanner position to be acquired by usability specialists. Instances of successful boundary spanning are described and conditions for successful boundary spanning are discussed.
Keywords: Usability specialist; boundary spanning; boundary object; children
Vimprint: Exploring Alternative Learning through Low-End Mobiles BIBAKFull-Text 589-596
  Sheetal K. Agarwal; Jyoti Grover; Anupam Jain; Arun Kumar
The Internet today provides a plethora of applications to assist anyone wanting to learn a new subject, language or a concept. Resources available include dictionaries, translation engines, downloadable e-books, tutorials, online courses etc. The rapid proliferation of smart phones has further provided richer visual applications that assist the user in learning on the go. However, all these applications are dependent upon the availability of Internet and/or an expensive computing device such as a smartphone or a computer. This puts them out of reach for a large section of society that consists of underprivileged people (economically or literacy-wise) and who probably need such tools the most. Also, many learning applications are pull-based and depend on the user's motivation to keep coming back for more. We present Vimprint - a system that offers an alternative mode of learning through telephony voice applications over any touchtone phone with a push-based interaction module. We present its design in the context of vocabulary building. Application of Vimprint system in the field is a work-in-progress and we present the results of a preliminary study conducted to assess its effectiveness.
Keywords: Social Computing; Developing regions; Voice Applications; Education; Diversity; Inclusiveness

Learning Tools, Learning Contexts

Improving Evaluation Honesty and User Experience in E-learning by Increasing Evaluation Cost and Social Presence BIBAKFull-Text 597-615
  Juha Leino; Tomi Heimonen
While various recommender approaches are increasingly considered in e-learning, lack of studies of actual use is hindering the development. For several years, we have used non-algorithmic recommender features on an undergraduate course website to help students find pertinent study materials. As students earn credit from adding and evaluating materials, some have chosen to evaluate materials dishonesty, i.e. without actually reading them. To improve honesty, in 2012 we coupled 5-star ratings with commenting (previously uncoupled) to increase the cost and complexity of evaluating and gave students individual presence with nicknames (previously anonymous) to increase social presence and enable reputation formation. Our results show that high enough cost of evaluating together with high enough social presence can lead to complete honesty in evaluations and enhance both user experience and student involvement. In effect, designing such e-learning systems includes not only designing the features but also their use, as the two are intertwined.
Keywords: e-learning; recommenders; ratings; social presence; honesty; design
Interacting with Augmented Reality: How Does Location-Based AR Enhance Learning? BIBAKFull-Text 616-623
  Ruobing Li; Bo Zhang; S. Shyam Sundar; Henry Been-Lirn Duh
Augmented Reality (AR) can provide additional information about mediated events, but can it enhance our learning and comprehension? We performed a user study of a location-based AR application in order to answer this question. A 2-condition (AR modality vs. non-AR digital book modality) between-subjects experiment with 36 dyads of secondary school students in Singapore was conducted to examine how the use of AR modality in an educational context impacts students' learning performance. Data from the experiment showed that location-based AR improved students' learning performance by catching their attention and enhancing their ability to elaboratively process the information they encountered. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Location-based AR; modality; learning; transportation
The ReflecTable: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice in Design Education BIBAKFull-Text 624-641
  Jonathan Hook; Thomas Hjermitslev; Ole Sejer Iversen; Patrick Olivier
The ReflecTable is a digital learning environment that explores how design games and video-led reflection might be combined to bridge the gap between the theoretical and practical components of design education. The concept seeks to leverage the qualities of exploratory design games and video to inspire design students to critically reflect upon the relationship between their evolving design practices and the theories and techniques they are taught in lectures, by allowing them to capture, review and reflect upon short videos of a design game. In this paper, we present the ReflecTable design and nine studies conducted during the course of its development. The studies suggest that the ReflecTable has the potential to support design students in understanding how theoretical concepts and methods relate to different design situations and their own evolving design practices.
Keywords: Design; design games; video-led reflection; education; reflection; reflective practicum; off-loop reflection; learning-by-doing

Managing the UX

Evaluating User Experience for Interactive Television: Towards the Development of a Domain-Specific User Experience Questionnaire BIBAKFull-Text 642-659
  Regina Bernhaupt; Michael Pirker
This paper presents a questionnaire-based approach to evaluate the user experience (UX) while interacting with interactive Television (iTV) systems. Current contributions in the field of UX propose generic methods applicable to various application domains, whereas our contribution is dedicated to the specific domain of interactive TV systems. Based on a classification of UX dimensions from a literature review, the first version of the questionnaire is focusing on the dimension's aesthetics, emotion, stimulation and identification. A validation study with 106 participants was performed to assess the relations between the evaluated UX dimensions, as well as their fit to the underlying theoretical assumptions. Results showed that the UX dimensions aesthetics, emotion and stimulation are important for the domain of iTV, while identification was not confirmed. The study revealed significant correlations between the type of IPTV system used and the emotional and stimulation dimension. Additionally, a significant effect of the TV reception mode and the type of IPTV box owned on the emotion towards the system was observed. Beyond the contribution of the questionnaire that is directly applicable for any iTV system, the findings described in the paper demonstrate the need for user experience evaluation methods targeted at specific domains: the validation of the questionnaire shows that identification is not a central dimension of user experience when interacting with interactive TV.
Keywords: interactive TV; iTV; user experience; UX; questionnaire; Internet Protocol Television; IPTV; emotion; stimulation; identification
Managing User Experience -- Managing Change BIBAKFull-Text 660-677
  Job Mashapa; Edna Chelule; Darelle Van Greunen; Alida Veldsman
Interactive products with innovative user interfaces are being designed while the user interfaces of existing products are being improved. The changes in user interfaces are being prompted by the need to design products that are useful, usable and appealing for an enchanting user experience to the people using the products. It is harmoniously agreed within the user experience domain that a change in the user interface of a product consequently affects the user experience of the people who use the product. Furthermore, user experience practitioners and academics acknowledge that user experience evolves over time. Paradoxically, there is lack of strategies for managing user experience as it evolves, or when a new user interface is introduced. Change in user experience is a process that needs to be managed for a positive user experience to be attained. Literature is awash with models aimed at guiding and managing change implementation. On the contrary, most of the change management models are aimed at managing change in organizations while neglecting managing the user experience of the people to which change is introduced. At the time of writing this paper, no evidence was found of an existing model aimed at managing user experience, both in theory and practice. Following the aforementioned premise, the purpose of this paper is to propose theoretical requirements for managing user experience of the people using interactive products. The paper commences with a conceptual background synthesis of related domain components required for managing user experience. Thereafter, the requirements for managing user experience are determined. After-which the requirements are presented in a User Experience Management Requirements (UXMR) framework. The paper culminates with proposed future work.
Keywords: User Experience; Usability; User Centred Design; Change Management; Requirements
What Do You See in the Cloud? Understanding the Cloud-Based User Experience through Practices BIBAKFull-Text 678-695
  John C. Tang; Jed R. Brubaker; Catherine C. Marshall
End users have begun to incorporate cloud-based services into their collaborative practices. What spurs and constrains this adoption? Are the cloud services understood adequately and used effectively? How might we intervene to promote a better connection between user practices and cloud services? In this study, we focus on collaborative practices that surround the adoption, use, and understanding of two popular, but sometimes contrasting, cloud services for creating and sharing content: Dropbox and Google Docs. We conducted 22 in-depth interviews with people who used these services, including collaborators who used the services together, and people who had migrated from Google Docs to Google Drive. We found that users thought of the cloud in terms of the practices it helped them accomplish. Their understanding of the cloud was often shaped by the particular file storage and sharing technologies the cloud was replacing (remediation). Furthermore, collaborating with others through the cloud sometimes revealed different assumptions about how the cloud worked, leading users to develop socially negotiated practices around their use of the cloud. We use this analysis to identify some specific opportunities for designers to help users build more accurate conceptual models of the cloud and use its capabilities more fully: (1) when users are adopting the cloud to enact a practice; (2) when users are replacing an existing technology with the cloud; and (3) when users are encountering others' practices through collaboration.
Keywords: File synchronization; file sharing; online editors; collaboration; cloud user experience

Mobile Interaction Design

Awareness, Transience and Temporality: Design Opportunities from Rah Island BIBAKFull-Text 696-713
  Pedro Ferreira; Pedro Sanches; Alexandra Weilenmann
This paper deals with the implications of the socialness of private communication. Drawing upon ethnographic observations of first time mobile phone users in Rah, an island in Vanuatu, we revisit the debate on how the mobile phone reconfigures private and personal communication. Our observations show how the advent of the mobile phone disrupts and challenges existing practices around how private communication is managed on the island. These observations are used to open up a design space where we explore the socialness of personal, private communication. Drawing on the analysis, we discuss three directions for future thinking of mobile interaction design: (1) designing for spatial awareness; (2) designing for transience and (3) designing with temporality. We expand on these to discuss the notion of digital patina, which we argue, is an exciting topic to explore for the design of personal, social communication.
Keywords: Privacy; personal communication; social communication; transience; temporality; translucence; awareness; design
Comparison of Phone-Based Distal Pointing Techniques for Point-Select Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 714-721
  Mohit Jain; Andy Cockburn; Sriganesh Madhvanath
Many different mobile phone-based distal pointing techniques have been proposed and evaluated. Interaction with distant large-screen displays, including interactive TV, requires active pointing and selection of target items. In this paper, we empirically compare four different phone-based distal pointing techniques for point-select tasks. Results show that participants prefer a discrete pointing technique using the phone's touchscreen as a touchpad. This method also achieved the highest accuracy among the techniques studied, with comparable speed. We discuss the implications of our findings for distal interaction.
Keywords: Interactive TV; iTV; Phone; Distal Pointing; Evaluation
Extending Mobile Interfaces with External Screens BIBAKFull-Text 722-729
  Julian Seifert; Dennis Schneider; Enrico Rukzio
Mobile phones allow for the use of all kinds of applications, and their mobile applications often provide similar functionalities as desktop applications. However, they are constrained by the limited screen size of the mobile device. Accordingly, designs of mobile user interfaces require optimization for small screens. As a consequence, users are provided with less context and often have to switch views or resize content such as maps or pictures. We present Mobies, a novel approach for extending mobile user interfaces by using external screens (e.g., the mobile phone and a large screen). Users can utilize more space and can thus overview a larger information context. We present a novel interaction and application concept and describe how user interfaces can be spanned across displays. Further, we contribute an original approach for using Near Field Communication to detect the devices' spatial relation. We report on a user study which compared Mobies with standard mobile settings. Results from the system usability scale show that interaction with Mobies is subjectively more usable. Furthermore, it provides higher perceived information clarity and supports faster sharing of information to others.
Keywords: Mobile phones; distributed user interfaces; interaction

Mobile Phone Applications

Communicating in a Ubicomp World: Interaction Rules for Guiding Design of Mobile Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 730-747
  S. Shyam Sundar; Xue Dou; Sangmee Lee
As computing resources become accessible anytime anywhere, rules of interaction and engagement between humans are changing. For example, response-time expectations have dramatically decreased in recent years because of the assumption that recipients are constantly checking e-mail and text messages on their mobile devices. Likewise, expectations of context-awareness have become an important part of interactions. For example, the tag-line "Sent from my iPhone" is a means of conveying the context (mobile) of the message sender, which also serves to explain -- or offer an excuse for -- the brevity of the response. In this manner, there are several design strategies that are needed for managing expectations, as new rules of interaction emerge due to the ubiquity of our access to computing resources. This paper presents a list of 12 such interaction rules based on theory and research in interpersonal communication and psychology. These rules provide design ideas for mobile ubicomp interfaces.
Keywords: Mobile HCI; Ubiquitous Computing; Interpersonal Communication; User Psychology
Flow Specification Patterns of End-User Programmers: Lessons Learnt from a Health Mobile Application Authoring Environment Design BIBAKFull-Text 748-755
  Filipe Fernandes; Luís Duarte; Luís Carriço
This paper discusses a set of interaction patterns encountered during the development of an authoring tool for mobile therapeutic applications. Unlike static paper artefacts, mobile applications can be enriched via the inclusion of complex behaviors. Typical examples include the definition of simple sequential interaction among all screens or the involvement of basic rules and triggers. As part of an ongoing project in which we are designing an authoring environment for mobile applications in clinical interventions, we studied how clinicians with no programming background were able to intertwine different screens from an application according to different rules. We were especially interested in comparing the approaches adopted using a low-fidelity prototype and using a high-fidelity version of the authoring tool. Results show that, despite a few technology induced strategies, users tend to mimic their actions using the paper based prototype in the corresponding hi-fi version.
Keywords: Authoring Tool; Non-Expert Programming; Participatory Design
MoCoShoP: Supporting Mobile and Collaborative Shopping and Planning of Interiors BIBAKFull-Text 756-763
  Julian Seifert; Dennis Schneider; Enrico Rukzio
We present MoCoShoP, a system that supports the collaborative process of shopping and planning furniture and interior items. The system consists of a mobile application running on the users' mobile phones and an interactive surface application deployed on shared planning desks in the furniture retail store environment. Users belonging together share a virtual shopping cart. By scanning labels attached to furniture items with their phones that are of interest, users can inspect item details (e.g., dimensions, available colors) with the mobile application and add items to their shopping cart. The shared planning desk allows users to collaboratively review collected items and create possible arrangements of items on a floor plan. Finally, users can store furniture arrangements for later inspection. In this work, we contribute the design and a prototype implementation of MoCoShoP. Results of a first evaluation indicate that users appreciate how they can collect and share data during the process of shopping and how it supports collaborative planning.
Keywords: Mobile phones; interactive surface; collaboration; shopping assistant; collaborative planning
Usability and Utility Needs of Mobile Applications for Business Management among MSEs: A Case of Myshop in Uganda BIBAKFull-Text 764-773
  Rehema Baguma; Marko Myllyluoma; Nancy Mwakaba; Bridget Nakajubi
This paper discusses the usability needs of mobile applications for basic business management for Micro and Small Scale Enterprises (MSEs) in developing countries. This is based on results from a user study carried out in Uganda on 30 MSEs. The study was carried out on MyShop, an easy to use mobile business management application for cash transactions and book keeping designed for micro-entrepreneurs. The study investigated learning to use MyShop, the support MyShop gives to the user and its usefulness, and value addition to users. The study also covered the pleasure and stimulation MyShop gives to users. Results from the study show that MSE owners/shopkeepers would like an application that is easy to use such as have an intuitive navigation and a simple and clear language. They would also like an application that supports their unique context like multiple people operating a shop, selling goods on credit, ownership of multiple businesses, use of low end phones and regular load shedding. In terms of value addition, MSEs would like the application to assist them in managing the daily operations and developing the business in the long term such as marketing, time saving and control over business.
Keywords: Usability; mobile applications; utility; MSEs; MyShop; business management
Using Video Prototypes for Evaluating Design Concepts with Users: A Comparison to Usability Testing BIBAKFull-Text 774-781
  Matthijs Zwinderman; Rinze Leenheer; Azadeh Shirzad; Nikolay Chupriyanov; Glenn Veugen; Biyong Zhang; Panos Markopoulos
We present an exploratory study that compared user feedback obtained from evaluating a mobile application versus a reverse engineered video prototype of this same application. The comparison included qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Questionnaire responses regarding user acceptance (UTAUT [8]) and the overall user experience (AttrakDiff [4]) showed no differences. Qualitative analysis of the comments by potential users yielded similar results. Some differences regarding comments pertaining to the fit of the application to its context of use and appreciation of hedonic qualities, warrant investigation in future research. Usability tests seem better suited to identify issues referring to the functionality and data accessed. Overall the results confirm the validity and usefulness of video prototyping, and can help us develop a better understanding of its strengths and weaknesses.
Keywords: Video prototyping; comparative usability study; experiment; user centered design methodology