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INT Tables of Contents: 95979901030507-107-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-415-115-215-3

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'11: Human-Computer Interaction 2011-09-05

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERACT'11: IFIP TC13 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part I
Note:Building Bridges
Editors:Pedro Campos; Nicholas Graham; Joaquim Jorge; Nuno Nunes; Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler
Location:Lisbon, Portugal
Dates:2011-Sep-05 to 2011-Sep-09
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 6946
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-23773-7 (Print) 978-3-642-23774-4 (Online); hcibib: INT11-1
Papers:50
Pages:660
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. INT 2011-09-05 Volume 1
    1. Keynote Speakers
    2. Accessibility I
    3. Accessibility II
    4. Affective HCI
    5. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work I
    6. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work II
    7. Evaluation I
    8. Evaluation II
    9. Finding and Retrieving
    10. Fun / Aesthetic Design I
    11. Fun / Aesthetic Design II
    12. Gestures
    13. HCI in the Classroom

INT 2011-09-05 Volume 1

Keynote Speakers

Natural User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1
  António Câmara
Recent developments in user-input technologies are changing the way we interact with digital screens. The mouse and the keyboard are being replaced by touch and motion based interfaces, increasingly known as Natural User Interfaces (NUI). YDreams has developed YVision, a platform that enables the development of natural user interfaces. YVision has a modular architecture matching YDreams technologies with the best of open source third party libraries. Our technologies emphasize the creation of smart interfaces using autonomous agents that go beyond the traditional reactive systems. Yvision also includes computer vision algorithms for motion detection and the application of 3D depth sensing in rendering engines. NUI applications involve: data acquisition using various sensors that detect the user's motion and gestures; interpretation of sensor data; and presentation, the end visualization layer. YVision includes augmented reality capabilities as a visualization component, where images are captured from the real world and enhanced in real-time with contextual information. Natural user interface applications, developed for both 2D and 3D depth sensing, will be presented for illustrative purposes. Applications include projects developed for clients such as Orange, Coca-Cola, Santander and Nike. Ongoing research projects focusing on digital signage and serious games will be also discussed.
The Future of Distributed Groups and Their Use of Social Media BIBAFull-Text 2
  Mary Czerwinski
Distributed team field research has shown that shared group awareness, coordination and informal communication are the most common ways for teams to inform each other of progress. In addition, we have observed that poorly documented, informal communication causes a fragmented workday due to frequent interruptions and knowledge loss due to the passage of time and team attrition. Because informal communication has both advantages and disadvantages for information sharing, it merits deeper study to allow any proposed solution to preserve the good while reducing the bad. Over the past several years, we have conducted a series of studies at Microsoft Corporation and beyond to document the nature of group conversations and communications. Based on surveys, lab studies, field studies and interviews, we have begun to develop a suite of tools that allow groups, both co-located and distributed, to stay more aware of their colleagues' actions, get on board to a new team more efficiently, and engage with each other at the most optimal times. Examples of many of these tools will be discussed, as will our progress in transitioning these ideas into real products.
Opportunities for Proxemic Interactions in Ubicomp (Keynote) BIBAKFull-Text 3-10
  Saul Greenberg
In this keynote presentation, I describe and illustrate proxemic interactions as realized in several projects in my laboratory. My goal is to advocate proxemics as a more natural way of mediating inter-entity interactions in ubiquitous computing environments, while still cautioning about the many pitfalls around its use.
Keywords: Proxemic interactions; ubiquitous computing; interaction techniques; ubicomp ecologies

Accessibility I

Voice Games: Investigation Into the Use of Non-speech Voice Input for Making Computer Games More Accessible BIBAKFull-Text 11-29
  Susumu Harada; Jacob O. Wobbrock; James A. Landay
We conducted a quantitative experiment to determine the performance characteristics of non-speech vocalization for discrete input generation in comparison to existing speech and keyboard input methods. The results from the study validated our hypothesis that non-speech voice input can offer significantly faster discrete input compared to a speech-based input method by as much as 50%. Based on this and other promising results from the study, we built a prototype system called the Voice Game Controller that augments traditional speech-based input methods with non-speech voice input methods to make computer games originally designed for the keyboard and mouse playable using voice only. Our preliminary evaluation of the prototype indicates that the Voice Game Controller greatly expands the scope of computer games that can be played hands-free using just voice, to include games that were difficult or impractical to play using previous speech-based methods.
Keywords: Computer games; accessible games; speech recognition; non-speech vocalization
GraVVITAS: Generic Multi-touch Presentation of Accessible Graphics BIBAKFull-Text 30-48
  Cagatay Goncu; Kim Marriott
Access to graphics and other two dimensional information is still severely limited for people who are blind. We present a new multimodal computer tool, GraVVITAS, for presenting accessible graphics. It uses a multi-touch display for tracking the position of the user's fingers augmented with haptic feedback for the fingers provided by small vibrating motors, and audio feedback for navigation and to provide non-geometric information about graphic elements. We believe GraVVITAS is the first practical, generic, low cost approach to providing refreshable accessible graphics. We have used a participatory design process with blind participants and a final evaluation of the tool shows that they can use it to understand a variety of graphics -- tables, line graphs, and floorplans.
Keywords: graphics; accessibility; multi-touch; audio; speech; haptic
Designing a Playful Communication Support Tool for Persons with Aphasia BIBAKFull-Text 49-56
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; Idowu I. B. I. Ayoola; Jean-Bernard Martens
Many studies have investigated ways to leverage communication with people with aphasia. Here, a new concept is developed for people with non-severe aphasia in a way that accesses the emotional and unaware layer of a conversation and then communicates certain information to the partner hence; introducing new dynamics and structure to a conversation. We present the concept with detailed design and expert evaluation results.
Keywords: Aphasia; Accessibility; Storytelling; Contextual interview; Assistive technology
How to Make Numerical Information Accessible: Experimental Identification of Simplification Strategies BIBAKFull-Text 57-64
  Susana Bautista; Raquel Hervás; Pablo Gervás; Richard Power; Sandra Williams
Public information services and documents should be accessible to the widest possible readership. Information in newspapers often takes the form of numerical expressions which pose comprehension problems for people with limited education. A first possible approach to solve this important social problem is making numerical information accessible by rewriting difficult numerical expressions in a simpler way. To obtain guidelines for performing this task automatically, we have carried out a survey in which experts in numeracy were asked to simplify a range of proportion expressions, with three readerships in mind: (a) people who did not understand percentages; (b) people who did not understand decimals; (c) more generally, people with poor numeracy. Responses were consistent with our intuitions about how common values are considered simpler and how the value of the original expression influences the chosen simplification.
Keywords: numerical information; simplification strategies

Accessibility II

Blind People and Mobile Keypads: Accounting for Individual Differences BIBAKFull-Text 65-82
  Tiago João Vieira Guerreiro; João Oliveira; João Benedito; Hugo Nicolau; Joaquim A. Jorge; Daniel Gonçalves
No two persons are alike. We usually ignore this diversity as we have the capability to adapt and, without noticing, become experts in interfaces that were probably misadjusted to begin with. This adaptation is not always at the user's reach. One neglected group is the blind. Age of blindness onset, age, cognitive, and sensory abilities are some characteristics that diverge between users. Regardless, all are presented with the same methods ignoring their capabilities and needs. Interaction with mobile devices is highly visually demanding which widens the gap between blind people. Herein, we present studies performed with 13 blind people consisting on key acquisition tasks with 10 mobile devices. Results show that different capability levels have significant impact on user performance and that this impact is related with the device and its demands. It is paramount to understand mobile interaction demands and relate them with the users' capabilities, towards inclusive design.
Keywords: Individual Differences; Mobile Accessibility; Blind; Mobile Device; User Assessments
Elderly User Evaluation of Mobile Touchscreen Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 83-99
  Masatomo Kobayashi; Atsushi Hiyama; Takahiro Miura; Chieko Asakawa; Michitaka Hirose; Tohru Ifukube
Smartphones with touchscreen-based interfaces are increasingly used by non-technical groups including the elderly. However, application developers have little understanding of how senior users interact with their products and of how to design senior-friendly interfaces. As an initial study to assess standard mobile touchscreen interfaces for the elderly, we conducted performance measurements and observational evaluations of 20 elderly participants. The tasks included performing basic gestures such as taps, drags, and pinching motions and using basic interactive components such as software keyboards and photo viewers. We found that mobile touchscreens were generally easy for the elderly to use and a week's experience generally improved their proficiency. However, careful observations identified several typical problems that should be addressed in future interfaces. We discuss the implications of our experiments, seeking to provide informal guidelines for application developers to design better interfaces for elderly people.
Keywords: Mobile; Smartphones; Touchscreens; Gestures; Aging; Elderly; Senior Citizens; User Evaluation
BrailleType: Unleashing Braille over Touch Screen Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 100-107
  João Oliveira; Tiago João Vieira Guerreiro; Hugo Nicolau; Joaquim A. Jorge; Daniel Gonçalves
The emergence of touch screen devices poses a new set of challenges regarding text-entry. These are more obvious when considering blind people, as touch screens lack the tactile feedback they are used to when interacting with devices. The available solutions to enable non-visual text-entry resort to a wide set of targets, complex interaction techniques or unfamiliar layouts. We propose BrailleType, a text-entry method based on the Braille alphabet. BrailleType avoids multi-touch gestures in favor of a more simple single-finger interaction, featuring few and large targets. We performed a user study with fifteen blind subjects, to assess this method's performance against Apple's VoiceOver approach. BrailleType although slower, was significantly easier and less error prone. Results suggest that the target users would have a smoother adaptation to BrailleType than to other more complex methods.
Keywords: Blind; Braille; Mobile Devices; Text-Entry; Touch screens
Potential Pricing Discrimination Due to Inaccessible Web Sites BIBAKFull-Text 108-114
  Jonathan Lazar; Brian Wentz; Matthew Bogdan; Edrick Clowney; Matthew Davis; Joseph Guiffo; Danial Gunnarsson; Dustin Hanks; John Harris; Behnjay Holt; Mark Kitchin; Mark Motayne; Roslin Nzokou; Leela Sedaghat; Kathryn Stern
Although tools and design guidelines exist to make web sites accessible, a majority of web sites continue to be inaccessible. When a web site offers special prices that are available only on the web site (not the physical store), and the web site itself is inaccessible, this can lead to discriminatory pricing, where people with disabilities could end up paying higher prices than people without disabilities who can access the web site and take advantage of the online-only prices. This research examined whether 10 of the top e-commerce web sites which offer online-only price specials are accessible. The results revealed that there were multiple categories of accessibility violations found on all of the evaluated web sites.
Keywords: discrimination; web accessibility; disabilities; e-commerce

Affective HCI

Measuring Immersion and Affect in a Brain-Computer Interface Game BIBAKFull-Text 115-128
  Gido Hakvoort; Hayrettin Gürkök; Danny Plass-Oude Bos; Michel Obbink; Mannes Poel
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have widely been used in medical applications, to facilitate making selections. However, whether they are suitable for recreational applications is unclear as they have rarely been evaluated for user experience. As the scope of the BCI applications is expanding from medical to recreational use, the expectations of BCIs are also changing. Although the performance of BCIs is still important, finding suitable BCI modalities and investigating their influence on user experience demand more and more attention. In this study a BCI selection method and a comparable non-BCI selection method were integrated into a computer game to evaluate user experience in terms of immersion and affect. An experiment with seventeen participants showed that the BCI selection method was more immersive and positively affective than the non-BCI selection method. Participants also seemed to be more indulgent towards the BCI selection method.
Keywords: Brain-computer interfaces; affective computing; immersion; games
Understanding Goal Setting Behavior in the Context of Energy Consumption Reduction BIBAKFull-Text 129-143
  Michelle Scott; Mary Barreto; Filipe Quintal; Ian Oakley
Home energy use represents a significant proportion of total consumption. A growing research area is considering how to help everyday users consume less. However, simply determining how to best reduce consumption remains a challenging task for many users. Based on goal setting theory, this paper presents two lab studies (based on the presentation of detailed scenarios and the solicitation of goal selections for the individuals depicted) in order to better understand how users make such decisions. It reveals a preference for goals that are perceived to be easy and specific, rather than those known to be effective (e.g. those that reduce energy consumption) or generic. Goal setting theory suggests that easy goals lead to low levels of commitment and motivation, suggesting such choices may be doubly ineffective. Ultimately, this paper contributes to a better understanding of users' goal selections and argues this is a prerequisite to effectively supporting users in reducing resource consumption.
Keywords: Sustainability; Goal-Setting; Motivation; Energy Consumption
Designing a Context-Aware Architecture for Emotionally Engaging Mobile Storytelling BIBAKFull-Text 144-151
  Fabio Pittarello
This work illustrates the design of a context-aware software architecture supporting the narration of interactive stories for mobile users. The peculiarity of this work is the use of an extended set of context dimensions, including the surrounding environment and the user social network, for enhancing the engagement and the emotional impact on the users experiencing the story.
Keywords: context-awareness; emotionally engaging interaction; mobile devices; social network; storytelling
Towards Emotional Interaction: Using Movies to Automatically Learn Users' Emotional States BIBAKFull-Text 152-161
  Eva Oliveira; Mitchel Benovoy; Nuno Ribeiro; Teresa Chambel
The HCI community is actively seeking novel methodologies to gain insight into the user's experience during interaction with both the application and the content. We propose an emotional recognition engine capable of automatically recognizing a set of human emotional states using psychophysiological measures of the autonomous nervous system, including galvanic skin response, respiration, and heart rate. A novel pattern recognition system, based on discriminant analysis and support vector machine classifiers is trained using movies' scenes selected to induce emotions ranging from the positive to the negative valence dimension, including happiness, anger, disgust, sadness, and fear. In this paper we introduce an emotion recognition system and evaluate its accuracy by presenting the results of an experiment conducted with three physiologic sensors.
Keywords: Affective computing; Emotion-aware systems; Human-centered design; Psychophysiological measures; Pattern-recognition; Discriminant analysis; Support vector machine classifiers; Movies classification and recommendation
Motion and Attention in a Kinetic Videoconferencing Proxy BIBAKFull-Text 162-180
  David Sirkin; Gina Venolia; John C. Tang; George G. Robertson; Taemie Kim; Kori Inkpen; Mara Sedlins; Bongshin Lee; Mike Sinclair
Compared to collocated interaction, videoconferencing disrupts the ability to use gaze and gestures to mediate interaction, direct reactions to specific people, and provide a sense of presence for the satellite (i.e., remote) participant. We developed a kinetic videoconferencing proxy with a swiveling display screen to indicate which direction that the satellite participant was looking. Our goal was to compare two alternative motion control conditions, in which the satellite participant directed the display screen's motion either explicitly (aiming the direction of the display with a mouse) or implicitly (with the screen following the satellite participant's head turns). We then explored the effectiveness of this prototype compared to a typical stationary video display in a lab study. We found that both motion conditions resulted in communication patterns that indicate higher engagement in conversation, more accurate responses to the satellite participant's deictic questions (i.e., "What do you think?"), and higher user rankings. We also discovered tradeoffs in attention and clarity between explicit versus implicit control, a tension in how motion toward one person can exclude other people, and ways that swiveling motion provides attention awareness, even without direct eye contact.
Keywords: Video-mediated communication; videoconferencing; gaze awareness; proxy; telepresence
Making Sense of Communication Associated with Artifacts during Early Design Activity BIBAKFull-Text 181-198
  Moushumi Sharmin; Brian P. Bailey
Communication associated with artifacts serves a critical role in the creation, refinement, and selection of conceptual ideas. Despite the close relationship between ideas and surrounding communication, effective integration of these two types of design materials are not well-supported by exiting design tools -- resulting in ad-hoc and ineffective strategies for managing communication during the design process. In this paper, we report the results of a contextual inquiry (N=15) aimed at understanding communication practices, its role in the design process, and strategies utilized by designers to manage and utilize communication outcomes in relation to artifacts. Our findings show that more than 50% of early design activity consists of three categories of communication (information seeking, brainstorming, and feedback) and communication practice varies as a function of expertise, organizational and social factors. Additionally, novice and freelance designers exhibit greater reliance on online forums to find suitable communication partners to generate and refine ideas whereas experts communicate with other experts or team members for information collection and sharing.
Keywords: Design; Artifacts; Communication; Ideation; User Study
Children's Interactions in an Asynchronous Video Mediated Communication Environment BIBAKFull-Text 199-206
  Michail N. Giannakos; Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Paul Johns; Kori Inkpen; Honglu Du
Video-mediated communication (VMC) has become a feasible way to connect people in remote places for work and play. Nevertheless, little research has been done with regard to children and VMC. In this paper, we explore the behavior of a group of children, who exchanged video messages in an informal context. In particular, we have analyzed 386 videos over a period of 11 weeks, which were exchanged by 30 students of 4th and 5th grade from USA and Greece. We found that the number of views and the duration of a video message significantly depend on the gender of the viewer and creator. Most notably, girls created more messages, but boys viewed their own messages more. Finally, there are video messages with numerous views, which indicates that some videos have content qualities beyond the communication message itself. Overall, the practical implications of these findings indicate that the developers of asynchronous VMC should consider functionalities for preserving some of the video messages.
Keywords: Asynchronous; Video-Mediated Communication; Children; Thread; Gender
Effects of Automated Transcription Delay on Non-native Speakers' Comprehension in Real-Time Computer-Mediated Communication BIBAKFull-Text 207-214
  Lin Yao; Yingxin Pan; Danning Jiang
Real-time transcription generated by automated speech recognition (ASR) technologies with a reasonably high accuracy has been demonstrated to be valuable in facilitating non-native speakers' comprehension in real-time communication. Besides errors, time delay often exists due to technical problems in automated transcription as well. This study focuses on how the time delay of transcription impacts non-native speakers' comprehension performance and user experience. The experiment design simulated a one-way computer-mediated communication scenario, where comprehension performance and user experiences in 3 transcription conditions (no transcript; perfect transcripts with a 2-second delay; and transcripts with a 10% word-error-rate and a 2-second delay) were compared. The results showed that the participants can benefit from the transcription with a 2-second time delay, as their comprehension performance in this condition was improved compared with the no-transcript condition. However, the transcription presented with delay was found to have negative effects on user experience. In the final part of the paper, implications for further system development and design are discussed.
Keywords: Real-time transcription; Delay; Comprehension performance; User experience

Computer-Supported Cooperative Work I

Redundancy and Collaboration in Wikibooks BIBAKFull-Text 215-232
  Ilaria Liccardi; Olivier Chapuis; Ching-man Au Yeung; Wendy E. Mackay
This paper investigates how Wikibooks authors collaborate to create high-quality books. We combined Information Retrieval and statistical techniques to examine the complete multi-year lifecycle of over 50 high-quality Wikibooks. We found that: 1. The presence of redundant material is negatively correlated with collaboration mechanisms; 2. For most books, over 50% of the content is written by a small core of authors; and 3. Use of collaborative tools (predicted pages and talk pages) is significantly correlated with patterns of redundancy. Non-redundant books are well-planned from the beginning and require fewer talk pages to reach high-quality status. Initially redundant books begin with high redundancy, which drops as soon as authors use coordination tools to restructure the content. Suddenly redundant books display sudden bursts of redundancy that must be resolved, requiring significantly more discussion to reach high-quality status. These findings suggest that providing core authors with effective tools for visualizing and removing redundant material may increase writing speed and improve the book's ultimate quality.
Keywords: Collaborative writing; text redundancy; coordination mechanisms
Towards Interoperability in Municipal Government: A Study of Information Sharing Practices BIBAKFull-Text 233-247
  Stacy F. Hobson; Rangachari Anand; Jeaha Yang; Juhnyoung Lee
Municipal governments rely heavily on the sharing of data between departments as a means to provide high-quality and timely service to its citizens. Common tasks such as parcel renovations require the involvement of multiple departments such as Building, Planning, Zoning, Assessment and Tax to achieve the ultimate goals. However, the software applications used to support the work of these departments are provided by independent software vendors and are not integrated with one another. Therefore, municipal employees rely heavily on manual methods for data sharing. We conducted a study of 12 municipal governments to understand their information sharing needs and practices. We focused on the interaction and information sharing within and between municipal departments. Our findings can be used to shape future research on e-government initiatives and interoperability of municipal applications.
Keywords: Information Sharing; Cooperative Work; Municipal Government; e-government
An Integrated Communication and Collaboration Platform for Distributed Scientific Workgroups BIBAKFull-Text 248-258
  Christian Müller-Tomfelde; Jane Li; Alex Hyatt
We present the design, technologies and user study of an advanced collaboration platform which integrates life-size video conferencing and group interactions on a large shared workspace. The platform has been developed to support the diagnostics and research scientists in an animal health laboratory to work collaboratively across a physical containment barrier. We present the design rationale for this enhanced shared workspace which allows the sharing of a range of data and synchronous interactions on computer applications in this complex work setting. This can not be simply supported by the "board-room" type of "telepresence" technology. We describe the technical solution which has focused on the ergonomic aspect and, importantly, the integration of communication and collaboration features in the shared workspace. The platform has been under routine use and a user study has shown that these design considerations are critical for supporting the distributed scientific collaborations and may be also applicable to other scientific domains.
Keywords: Human-Work Interaction Design; Interaction with Small or Large Displays; Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Computer-Supported Cooperative Work II

IdeaTracker: An Interactive Visualization Supporting Collaboration and Consensus Building in Online Interface Design Discussions BIBAKFull-Text 259-276
  Roshanak Zilouchian Moghaddam; Brian P. Bailey; Christina M. Poon
With the rapid growth of open source and other geographically distributed software projects, more interface design discussions are occurring online. Participation in such discussions typically occurs via issue management systems or similar interactive discussion forums. While such systems have a low learning curve, they do not support key elements of design discussion such as comparing alternatives, maintaining awareness of the arguments for and against the alternatives, or building consensus. To better understand these and other challenges, we conducted a study of online interface design discussion. The study consisted of analyzing a large corpus of online discussion content and conducting interviews with designer and developer participants. We discuss the findings of our study and use them to motivate the implementation of an interactive visualization tool -- IdeaTracker. The tool offers explicit support for tracking and comparing ideas and gaining an abstract summary of the overall discussion as well as specific alternatives. It also provides a voting system to support consensus building. The tool extracts and visualizes useful information from the discussions that would otherwise be hidden but without interfering with the current method of participation. Our tool is compatible with the issue management system of one open source project but can be extended for others. Initial user feedback is positive and confirms the need for an alternative visual representation of interface design discussions online.
Keywords: Design; open source software; user interface; visualization
What You See Is What You (Can) Get? Designing for Process Transparency in Financial Advisory Encounters BIBAKFull-Text 277-294
  Philipp Nussbaumer; Inu Matter
In this paper, we report on a study to establish process transparency in service encounters of financial advisors and their clients. To support their interaction, we implemented a cooperative software system for tabletops, building on transparency patterns suggested by the literature. In evaluations, however, we found that our design did not improve the perceived transparency and comprehensibility. Introducing the IT artifact into advisory failed to enhance the client's overall experience and even seemed to negatively influence the client's perception of the advisory process. Using the representational guidance of depicting the process and its activities as a navigable, interactive map made clients believe that interactions with their advisor were restricted to the system's functionality, thus expecting that what they see is all they can get.
Keywords: process transparency; collaboration; advisory; tabletops
A Framework for Supporting Joint Interpersonal Attention in Distributed Groups BIBAKFull-Text 295-312
  Jeremy P. Birnholtz; Johnathon Schultz; Matthew Lepage; Carl Gutwin
Informal interactions are a key element of workgroup communication, but have proven difficult to support in distributed groups. One reason for this is that existing systems have focused either on novel means for gathering information about the availability or activity of others, or on allowing people to display their activities to others. There has not been sufficient focus on the interplay between these activities. This interplay is important, however, because mutual awareness and attention are the mechanisms by which people negotiate the start of conversations. In this paper, we present the OpenMessenger Framework, a system and design framework rooted in the assumption that individual behaviors occur in anticipation of and/or in response to the behavior of others. We describe both the system architecture, and specific examples of the novel implementations it enables. These include techniques for coupling gathering behaviors with display behaviors, and for integrating these into user workspaces via peripheral displays and gaze tracking.
Keywords: Awareness; Attention; Interaction; CMC; CSCW

Evaluation I

Do Teams Achieve Usability Goals? Evaluating Goal Achievement with Usability Goals Setting Tool BIBAKFull-Text 313-330
  Anirudha Joshi; N. L. Sarda
Do teams achieve important usability goals most of the time? Further, is goal achievement uniform or are practitioners more mindful of some goals than others? This paper presents an empirical study on usability goal achievement in industry projects. We used Usability Goal setting Tool (UGT), a recommender system that helps teams set, prioritize, and evaluate usability goals. The practitioner creates profiles for the product and its users. Based on these inputs, UGT helps the practitioner break down high-level usability goals into more specific goal parameters and provides recommendations, examples, and guidelines to assign weights to these parameters. UGT suggests strategies to evaluate goal parameters after the design is ready and assign them scores. UGT was used to collect data from 65 projects in the Indian software industry in which participants assigned weights and scores to the goal parameters. The 30 goal parameters suggested by UGT were found to be internally reliable, and having acceptable granularity and coverage. It was observed that goal parameter weights and scores correlated, but only moderately. Another interesting observation was that more than a third of the important goal parameters did not score well. We identify eight goal parameters that are typically high-weighted but have poor weight-score correlations. We call these "latent but important" goal parameters. Design teams will do well to pay closer attention to these goal parameters during projects.
Keywords: Usability goals achievement; usability goal parameters; latent goals; design tools; methods
Supporting Window Switching with Spatially Consistent Thumbnail Zones: Design and Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 331-347
  Susanne Tak; Joey Scarr; Carl Gutwin; Andy Cockburn
Computer users switch between applications and windows all day, but finding the target window can be difficult, particularly when the total number of windows is high. We describe the design and evaluation of a new window switcher called SCOTZ (for Spatially Consistent Thumbnail Zones). SCOTZ is a window switching interface which shows all windows grouped by application and allocates more space to the most frequently revisited applications. The two key design principles of SCOTZ are (1) predictability of window locations, and (2) improved accessibility of recently and frequently used windows. We describe the design and features of SCOTZ, and present the findings from qualitative and empirical studies which demonstrate that SCOTZ yields performance and preference benefits over existing window switching tools.
Keywords: window switching; revisitation; spatial stability; predictability
Evaluating Commonsense Knowledge with a Computer Game BIBAFull-Text 348-355
  Juan Fernando Mancilla-Caceres; Eyal Amir
Collecting commonsense knowledge from freely available text can reduce the cost and effort of creating large knowledge bases. For the acquired knowledge to be useful, we must ensure that it is correct, and that it carries information about its relevance and about the context in which it can be considered commonsense. In this paper, we design, and evaluate an online game that classifies, using the input from players, text extracted from the web as either commonsense knowledge, domain-specific knowledge, or nonsense. A continuous scale is defined to classify the knowledge as nonsense or commonsense and it is later used during the evaluation of the data to identify which knowledge is reliable and which one needs further qualification. When comparing our results to other similar knowledge acquisition systems, our game performs better with respect to coverage, redundancy, and reliability of the commonsense acquired.
Remote Usability Testing Using Eyetracking BIBAKFull-Text 356-361
  Piotr Chynal; Jerzy M. Szymanski
In the paper we present a low cost method of using eyetracking to perform remote usability tests on users. Remote usability testing enables to test users in their natural environment. Eyetracking is one of the most popular techniques for usability testing in the laboratory environment. We decided to try to use this technique in remote tests. We used standard web camera with freeware software. Our experiment showed that such method is not perfect, but it could be a good addition to the standard remote tests, and a foundation for further development.
Keywords: Eyetracking; Usability; Remote Usability Testing; Human-Computer Interaction

Evaluation II

A Means-End Analysis of Consumers' Perceptions of Virtual World Affordances for E-commerce BIBAKFull-Text 362-379
  Minh Quang Tran; Shailey Minocha; Dave Roberts; Angus Laing; Darren Langdridge
Virtual worlds are three-dimensional (3D) persistent multi-user online environments where users interact through avatars. The affordances of virtual worlds can be useful for business-to-consumer e-commerce. Moreover, affordances of virtual worlds can complement affordances of websites to provide consumers with an enhanced e-commerce experience. We investigated which affordances of virtual worlds can enhance consumers' experiences on e-commerce websites. We conducted laddering interviews with 30 virtual world consumers to understand their perceptions of virtual world affordances. A means-end analysis was then applied to the interview data. The results suggest co-presence, product discovery, 3D product experience, greater interactivity with products and sociability are some of the key virtual world affordances for consumers. We discuss theoretical implications of the research using dimensions from the Technology Acceptance Model. We also discuss practical implications, such as how virtual world affordances can be incorporated into the design of e-commerce websites.
Keywords: Consumer experience; e-commerce; interaction design; laddering interviews; means-end analysis; qualitative research; user experience; virtual worlds
Improving Users' Consistency When Recalling Location Sharing Preferences BIBAKFull-Text 380-387
  Jayant Venkatanathan; Denzil Ferreira; Michael Benisch; Jialiu Lin; Evangelos Karapanos; Vassilis Kostakos; Norman M. Sadeh; Eran Toch
This paper presents a study of the effect of one instance of contextual cues, trajectory reminders, on the recollection of location sharing preferences elicited using a retrospective protocol. Trajectory reminders are user interface elements that indicate for a particular location of a person's trail across a city the locations visited before and after. The results of the study show that reminding users where they have been before and after a specific visited location can elicit more consistent responses in terms of stated location sharing preferences for that location visit. This paper argues that trajectory reminders are useful when collecting preference data with retrospective protocols because they can improve the quality of the collected data.
Keywords: Location sharing preferences; consistency; retrospective protocols
Navigation Time Variability: Measuring Menu Navigation Errors BIBAKFull-Text 388-395
  Krystian Samp; Stefan Decker
The subject of errors in menu studies is typically limited to reporting error rates (i.e., the number of clicks missing target items) or even completely neglected. This paper investigates menu navigation errors in more depth. We propose the Navigation Time Variability (NTV) measure to capture the total severity of navigation errors. The severity is understood as time needed to recover from the errors committed. We present a menu study demonstrating use and value of the new measure.
Keywords: Navigation Time Variability; errors; navigation; menus
Challenges in Designing Inter-usable Systems BIBAKFull-Text 396-403
  Ville Antila; Alfred Lui
Interactive systems are increasingly interconnected across different devices and platforms. The challenge for interaction designers is to meet the requirements of consistency and continuity across these platforms to ensure the inter-usability of the system. In this paper we investigate the current challenges the designers are facing in the emerging fields of interactive systems. Through semi-structured interviews of 17 professionals working on interaction design in different domains we probed into the current methodologies and the practical challenges in their daily tasks. The identified challenges include but are not limited to: the inefficiency of using low-fi prototypes in a lab environment to test inter-usability and the challenges of "seeing the big picture" when designing a part of an interconnected system.
Keywords: Interaction design; cross-platform systems; inter-usability
Directed Cultural Probes: Detecting Barriers in the Usage of Public Transportation BIBAKFull-Text 404-411
  Susanne Schmehl; Stephanie Deutsch; Johann Schrammel; Lucas Paletta; Manfred Tscheligi
In this paper we describe the application of a variation of cultural probing for identifying barriers in the use of public transportation for target groups with visual, cognitive or language-related handicaps. To be able to better focus on the targeted aspect -- the barriers -- we applied modifications to the traditional cultural probing approach: Users were encouraged to generate data related to the targeted aspect. We found that this approach can produce focused results that can be analysed fast and can help to overcome obstacles related to limitations in verbal skills or expressiveness of the user.
Keywords: User requirements; Cultural Probes; Directed Cultural Probes; elderly; immigrants; functional illiterates; public transportation

Finding and Retrieving

Image Retrieval with Semantic Sketches BIBAKFull-Text 412-425
  David Engel; Christian Herdtweck; Björn Browatzki; Cristóbal Curio
With increasingly large image databases, searching in them becomes an ever more difficult endeavor. Consequently, there is a need for advanced tools for image retrieval in a webscale context. Searching by tags becomes intractable in such scenarios as large numbers of images will correspond to queries such as "car and house and street". We present a novel approach that allows a user to search for images based on semantic sketches that describe the desired composition of the image. Our system operates on images with labels for a few high-level object categories, allowing us to search very fast with a minimal memory footprint. We employ a structure similar to random decision forests which avails a data-driven partitioning of the image space providing a search in logarithmic time with respect to the number of images. This makes our system applicable for large scale image search problems. We performed a user study that demonstrates the validity and usability of our approach.
Keywords: Content-Based Image Retrieval; Sketch Interface; Semantic Brushes; Real-Time Application; User-Study
Mixer: Mixed-Initiative Data Retrieval and Integration by Example BIBAKFull-Text 426-443
  Steven Gardiner; Anthony Tomasic; John Zimmerman; Rafae Aziz; Kathryn Rivard
Office administrators are frequently asked to create ad hoc reports based on web accessible data. The web contains the desired data but does not allow efficient access in the way the administrator needs, prompting a tedious and labor-intensive task of retrieving and integrating the required data. Mixer is a programming-by-demonstration (PBD) tool empowering administrators to construct ad hoc reports from diverse web sources without tedious piecemeal labor. Mixer's design builds on the exploration into end user conceptualization of data retrieval tasks from our previous Wizard-of-Oz study [39], and incorporates insights from mixed-initiative researchers into collaboration between end users and software agents. This paper justifies the design decisions that drive Mixer, focusing on general lessons for designers of programming-by-demonstration systems targeting nonprogrammers. We evaluate Mixer by performing a user study showing that administrators are able to accomplish programming tasks without needing to understand programming concepts for data retrieval and integration.
Keywords: programming by demonstration; end user programming; mixed initiative; data integration
Speaking to See: A Feasibility Study of Voice-Assisted Visual Search BIBAKFull-Text 444-451
  Victor Kaptelinin; Herje Wåhlen
The paper presents the concept, implementation, and a feasibility study of a user interface technique, named VAVS ("voice-assisted visual search"). VAVS employs user's voice input for assisting the user in searching for objects of interest in complex displays. User voice input is compared with attributes of visually presented objects and, if there is a match, the matching object is highlighted to help the user visually locate the object. The paper discusses differences between, on the one hand, VAVS and, on the other hand, voice commands and multimodal input techniques. An interactive prototype implementing the VAVS concept and employing a standard voice recognition program is described. The paper reports an empirical study, in which an object location task was carried out with and without VAVS. It was found that the VAVS condition was associated with higher performance and use satisfaction. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future work.
Keywords: Voice recognition; visual search; multimodal input; voice command

Fun / Aesthetic Design I

Analysing the Playground: Sensitizing Concepts to Inform Systems That Promote Playful Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 452-469
  Stefan Rennick Egglestone; Brendan Walker; Joe Marshall; Steve Benford; Derek McAuley
Playful interaction in an important topic in HCI research, and there is an ongoing debate about the fundamental principles that underpin playful systems. This paper makes a contribution to this debate by outlining a set of sensitizing concepts which have emerged from an analysis of interaction in the playground; these help explain its appeal to children, and have been selected for their potential to inspire the design of future playful systems. These concepts have emerged from the analysis of material collected during a structured workshop which was organized by the authors, and which was attended by a group of experts. They have also been applied to the design of Breathless, a playful interactive system which has recently been deployed by the authors, and which represents an unusual evolution of the playground swing. The paper concludes with a number of reflections inspired by Breathless. These have been structured through the use of the concepts as an analytical tool.
Keywords: Playground; playful interaction; sensitizing concepts
Comparative Feedback in the Street: Exposing Residential Energy Consumption on House Façades BIBAKFull-Text 470-488
  Andrew Vande Moere; Martin Tomitsch; Monika Hoinkis; Elmar Trefz; Silje Johansen; Allison Jones
This study investigates the impact of revealing the changes in daily residential energy consumption of individual households on their respective house façades. While energy feedback devices are now commercially available, still little is known about the potential of making such private information publicly available in order to encourage various forms of social involvement, such as peer pressure or healthy competition. This paper reports on the design rationale of a custom-made chalkboard that conveys different visualizations of household energy consumption, which were updated daily by hand. An in-situ, between-subject study was conducted during which the effects of such a public display were compared with two different control groups over a total period of 7 weeks. The competitive aspects of the public display led to more sustained behavior change and more effective energy conservation, as some graphical depictions such as a historical line graph raised awareness about consumption behavior, and the public character of the display prompted discussions in the wider community. The paper concludes with several considerations for the design of public displays, and of household energy consumption in particular.
Keywords: persuasive computing; public display; urban screen; visualization; sustainability; interaction design; urban computing
Are First Impressions about Websites Only Related to Visual Appeal? BIBAKFull-Text 489-496
  Eleftherios Papachristos; Nikolaos M. Avouris
This paper investigates whether immediate impression about websites influences only perceptions of attractiveness. The evaluative constructs of perceived usability, credibility and novelty were investigated alongside visual appeal in an experimental setting in which users evaluated 20 website screenshots in two phases. The websites were rated by the participants after viewing time of 500 ms in the first phase and with no time limit in the second. Within-website and within-rater consistency were examined in order to determine whether extremely short time period are enough to quickly form stable opinions about high level evaluative constructs besides visual appeal. We confirmed that quick and stable visual appeal judgments were made without the need of elaborate investigations and found evidence that this is also true for novelty. Usability and credibility judgments were found less consistent but nonetheless noteworthy.
Keywords: Webpage design; aesthetic evaluation; credibility; visual appeal; perceived usability
You Can Wear It, But Do They Want to Share It or Stare at It? BIBAKFull-Text 497-504
  Arto Puikkonen; Anu Lehtiö; Antti Virolainen
Wearable technologies are often used for supporting our daily lives instead of aiming to be entertaining. Yet it is in our daily lives that clothing is used to highlight our personas and engage others. In this paper, we describe what type of social acceptance issues might be worth to consider when it comes to entertaining and engaging wearable technology. Our user study with 10 participants was conducted by wearing a T-shirt that served as a display for an online game. The participants wore the T-shirt in their everyday surroundings. We gained a preliminary understanding on peoples' reactions and the suitability of this type of wearable technology for everyday usage. Our results indicate that established social boundaries for inappropriate attention influence the spectator experience with performative wearable technologies.
Keywords: Performative Wearable Devices; Social Interaction; Game Spectatorship

Fun / Aesthetic Design II

Design and Evaluation of Interaction Technology for Medical Team Meetings BIBAKFull-Text 505-522
  Alex Olwal; Oscar Frykholm; Kristina Groth; Jonas Moll
Multi-disciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) are essential in health-care, where medical specialists discuss diagnosis and treatment of patients. We introduce a prototype multi-display groupware system, intended to augment the discussions of medical imagery, through a range of input mechanisms, multi-user interfaces and interaction techniques on multi-touch devices and pen-based technologies. Observations of MDTMs, as well as interviews and observations of surgeons and radiologists, serve as a foundation for guidelines and a set of implemented techniques. We present a detailed analysis of a study where the techniques' potential was explored with radiologists and surgeons of different specialties and varying expertise. The results show that the implemented technologies have the potential to bring numerous benefits to the team meetings with minimal modification to the current workflow. We discuss how they can augment the expressiveness and communication between meeting participants, facilitate understanding for novices, and improve remote collaboration.
Keywords: Medical team meetings; collaboration; single-display groupware; multi-display groupware; multi-touch; pen; mobile
Note: Errata for this article: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-23774-4_51
How Technology Influences the Therapeutic Process: A Comparative Field Evaluation of Augmented Reality and In Vivo Exposure Therapy for Phobia of Small Animals BIBAKFull-Text 523-540
  Maja Wrzesien; Jean-Marie Burkhardt; Mariano Alcañiz Raya; Cristina Botella
In Vivo Exposure Therapy (IVET) has been a recommended protocol for the treatment of specific phobias. More recently, several studies have suggested that Augmented Reality Exposure Therapy (ARET) is a potentially effective technology in this field. The objective of this paper is to report the preliminary results of a comparative analysis of ARET and IVET applied to the treatment of phobia to small animals. To analyze participants' activity, we have adopted a multidisciplinary and mixed perspective based on clinical and user-centered approaches. This pilot results show that ARET and IVET are both clinically effective. Both therapies produce a significant reduction in the clinical outcome measures and allow the clients to interact with a real phobic stimulus after the therapeutic session. The results also show some main differences between technology-mediated therapy and traditional non-mediated therapy. We discuss these results in terms of future design and evaluation guidelines for Mental Health technologies.
Keywords: Mental health; augmented reality; field evaluation
You've Covered: Designing for In-shift Handoffs in Medical Practice BIBAKFull-Text 541-558
  Yunan Chen
Handoffs are moments of critical transition in which clinicians engage to maintain continuous coverage of patient care. This paper reports on an observational study of continuous coverage in an Emergency Department (ED), where three types of handoffs that occur during the same shift were identified: lunch breaks, ad hoc breaks and high workloads. The findings show these "in-shift handoffs" are managed not only through temporal linear coordination, but also through the local coordination among nurses working nearby. In-shift handoffs are crucial to maintaining continuous coverage in hospital settings. However, insufficient understanding of in-shift handoffs in Electronic Medical System (EMR) design may lead to a separation of information and responsibility, and an illusion of communication in patient care. The findings of this study call for attention to in-shift handoffs in future system design and for improving the traditional handoff process through the coordination of local awareness during ED work.
Keywords: In-shift Handoffs; Electronic Medical Record (EMR); Emergency Departments; Non-working Moments; Design

Gestures

A Taxonomy of Microinteractions: Defining Microgestures Based on Ergonomic and Scenario-Dependent Requirements BIBAKFull-Text 559-575
  Katrin Wolf; Anja Naumann; Michael Rohs; Jörg Müller
This paper explores how microgestures can allow us to execute a secondary task, for example controlling mobile applications, without interrupting the manual primary task, for instance, driving a car. In order to design microgestures iteratively, we interviewed sports- and physiotherapists while asking them to use task related props, such as a steering wheel, a cash card, and a pen for simulating driving a car, an ATM scenario, and a drawing task. The primary objective here is to define microgestures that are easily performable without interrupting or interfering the primary task. Using expert interviews, we developed a taxonomy that classifies these gestures according to their task context. We also assessed the ergonomic and attentional attributes that influence the feasibility and task suitability of microinteractions, and evaluated their level of resources required. Accordingly, we defined 21 microgestures that allow performing microinteractions within a manual, dual task context. Our taxonomy poses a basis for designing microinteraction techniques.
Keywords: gestures; microinteractions; dual-task; multitask; interruption
Unifying Events from Multiple Devices for Interpreting User Intentions through Natural Gestures BIBAKFull-Text 576-590
  Pablo Llinás; Manuel García-Herranz; Pablo A. Haya; Germán Montoro
As technology evolves (e.g. 3D cameras, accelerometers, multitouch surfaces, etc.) new gestural interaction methods are becoming part of the everyday use of computational devices. This trend forces practitioners to develop applications for each interaction method individually. This paper tackles the problem of interpreting gestures in a multiple ways of interaction scenario, by focusing on the abstract gesture rather than on the technology or technologies used to generate it. This article describes the Flash Library for Interpreting Natural Gestures (FLING), a framework for developing multi-gestural applications integrated and running in different gestural-platforms. By offering an architecture for the integration and unification of different types of interaction, FLING eases scalability while presenting an environment for rapid prototyping by novice multi-gestural programmers. Throughout the article we analyse the benefits of this approach, comparing it with state of the art technologies, describe the framework architecture, and present several examples of applications and experiences of use.
Keywords: FLING framework; Multi-touch interface; multiple input peripherals; application development
SimpleFlow: Enhancing Gestural Interaction with Gesture Prediction, Abbreviation and Autocompletion BIBAFull-Text 591-608
  Mike Bennett; Kevin McCarthy; Sile O'Modhrain; Barry Smyth
Gestural interfaces are now a familiar mode of user interaction and gestural input is an important part of the way that users can interact with such interfaces. However, entering gestures accurately and efficiently can be challenging. In this paper we present two styles of visual gesture autocompletion for 2D predictive gesture entry. Both styles enable users to abbreviate gestures. We experimentally evaluate and compare both styles of visual autocompletion against each other and against non-predictive gesture entry. The best performing visual autocompletion is referred to as SimpleFlow. Our findings establish that users of SimpleFlow take significant advantage of gesture autocompletion by entering partial gestures rather than whole gestures. Compared to non-predictive gesture entry, users enter partial gestures that are 41% shorter than the complete gestures, while simultaneously improving the accuracy (+13%, from 68% to 81%) and speed (+10%) of their gesture input. The results provide insights into why SimpleFlow leads to significantly enhanced performance, while showing how predictive gestures with simple visual autocompletion impacts upon the gesture abbreviation, accuracy, speed and cognitive load of 2D predictive gesture entry.

HCI in the Classroom

The Perception of Sound and Its Influence in the Classroom BIBAKFull-Text 609-626
  Sofia Reis; Nuno Correia
In this paper we describe a game to assess if the quantitative and graphical perception of sound by students can influence how they behave in the classroom. The game captures sound and shows the sound wave or the frequency spectrum, integrated with an animated character, to students in real time. The quieter the students are the higher the score. A survey was conducted to teachers from an elementary and secondary school to determine if they considered that noise, caused by the students, was a problem. Most of the teachers considered that students make too much noise. All the classes where the game was tested became quieter, thus showing that when these students perceived, in a quantitative way, how much their behavior was disruptive they were more inclined to be quiet or, at least, to reduce the amount of noise.
Keywords: game; persuasive technology; noise; classroom
Encouraging Initiative in the Classroom with Anonymous Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 627-642
  Tony Bergstrom; Andrew Harris; Karrie Karahalios
Inspiring and maintaining student participation in large classes can be a difficult task. Students benefit from an active experience as it helps them better understand the course material. However, it's easy to stay silent. Opportunities to participate in conversation allow students to question and learn. The Fragmented Social Mirror (FSM) provides students with the ability to anonymously initiate classroom dialog with the lecturer. The system encourages participation by enabling expressive anonymous feedback to reduce evaluation anxiety. The FSM further catalyzes participation by allowing for many simultaneous participants. In this paper, we introduce the FSM as a classroom device, discuss its design, and describe a pilot test of the interface. Initial results indicate a promising direction for future feedback systems.
Keywords: Social Mirrors; Classroom; Feedback; Anonymous
U-Note: Capture the Class and Access It Everywhere BIBAKFull-Text 643-660
  Sylvain Malacria; Thomas Pietrzak; Aurélien Tabard; Eric Lecolinet
We present U-Note, an augmented teaching and learning system leveraging the advantages of paper while letting teachers and pupils benefit from the richness that digital media can bring to a lecture. U-Note provides automatic linking between the notes of the pupils' notebooks and various events that occurred during the class (such as opening digital documents, changing slides, writing text on an interactive whiteboard...). Pupils can thus explore their notes in conjunction with the digital documents that were presented by the teacher during the lesson. Additionally, they can also listen to what the teacher was saying when a given note was written. Finally, they can add their own comments and documents to their notebooks to extend their lecture notes. We interviewed teachers and deployed questionnaires to identify both teachers and pupils' habits: most of the teachers use (or would like to use) digital documents in their lectures but have problems in sharing these resources with their pupils. The results of this study also show that paper remains the primary medium used for knowledge keeping, sharing and editing by the pupils. Based on these observations, we designed U-Note, which is built on three modules. U-Teach captures the context of the class: audio recordings, the whiteboard contents, together with the web pages, videos and slideshows displayed during the lesson. U-Study binds pupils' paper notes (taken with an Anoto digital pen) with the data coming from U-Teach and lets pupils access the class materials at home, through their notebooks. U-Move lets pupils browse lecture materials on their smartphone when they are not in front of a computer.
Keywords: Augmented classroom; digital pen; digital lecturing environment; capture and access; digital classroom