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INT Tables of Contents: 07-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-415-115-215-315-4

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'13: Human-Computer Interaction-4 2013

Fullname:INTERACT 2013: 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV
Editors:Paula Kotzé; Gary Marsden; Gitte Lindgaard; Janet Wesson; Marco Winckler
Location:Cape Town, South Africa
Dates:2013-Sep-02 to 2013-Sep-06
Volume:4
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8120
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-40498-6 hcibib: INT13-4; ISBN: 978-3-642-40497-9 (print), 978-3-642-40498-6 (online)
Papers:71
Pages:795
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. INT 2013 Volume 4
    1. Supporting Physical Activity
    2. Supporting Shared Activities
    3. Sustainability
    4. Tabletop Computing
    5. Text Comprehensibility
    6. Tracking Eyes and Head
    7. Usability Evaluation and Technology Acceptance
    8. User Preferences and Behaviour
    9. User Requirements Capture and Analysis
    10. UX in Work/Educational Contexts
    11. Voice/Sound-Based Computing
    12. Interactive Posters
    13. Industry Tracks

INT 2013 Volume 4

Supporting Physical Activity

The Development and Evaluation of an Interactive System for Age Related Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation in the Home BIBAKFull-Text 1-18
  Mobolaji Ayoade; Stephen Uzor; Lynne Baillie
This paper describes a series of user studies carried out to investigate the usability, significance, and acceptance of two visualization tools designed to improve the quality of, and adherence to home-based exercise programmes for musculoskeletal rehabilitation. The core functionality of these visualization tools enabled the users to observe the optimal way to perform their exercises via a mannequin, and receive feedback on their own movements through the use of body worn sensors. Before full deployment in the home, two user studies were carried out in the laboratory, and then two in the home with seniors who had recently undergone musculoskeletal rehabilitation using a standard care paper based booklet in the home. Our key findings suggest that by using the visualization tools the participants were able to overcome the major limitations of standard care; and that these tools were considered by the users to be useful in encouraging participation in home exercise.
Keywords: Home rehabilitation; inertial motion sensors; older adults; visualizations and musculoskeletal conditions
Walking in the Wild -- Using an Always-On Smartphone Application to Increase Physical Activity BIBAKFull-Text 19-36
  Tim Harries; Parisa Eslambolchilar; Chris Stride; Ruth Rettie; Simon Walton
This multidisciplinary paper reports on a large-scale field trial, designed and implemented by a group of social scientists, computer scientists and statisticians, of a new smartphone-based app for the promotion of walking in everyday life. The app, bActive, is designed for a more diverse range of users than the typical active-lifestyle app, since it requires neither additional equipment nor a great deal of commitment to exercise. As a result, it can raise awareness of walking and promote walking amongst those with only a casual or hesitant engagement with the topic. The 6-week randomised controlled trial with 22-40 year-old male participants (N=152) indicates that bActive prompted users to increase the amount of walking they did by encouraging them to value and increase walking that is incidental to normal everyday activities. Longitudinal data analysis showed that use of the app increased walking by an average of 64% but did not find any evidence to suggest that the inclusion of comparative social feedback improves the impact of such apps on male participants.
Keywords: walking; feedback; norms; app; active-lifestyle; social sharing

Supporting Shared Activities

F-Formations in Cooking Together: A Digital Ethnography Using YouTube BIBAKFull-Text 37-54
  Jeni Paay; Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael B. Skov; Kenton O'Hara
Cooking together is an important part of our lives. We cook with others not only to create a meal, but also to enhance our relationships. But how does this role of communal cooking translate into modern society where families and friends are increasingly separated physically and connected primarily online? Motivated by this question we have embraced research into the design of future networked cooking spaces. The first step has been to understand how people use physical space while cooking together. Through a digital ethnography on YouTube videos, we have analyzed the spatial configurations of people, food and technology based on Kendon's notions of spacing and orientation. Our main contribution is the identification of known F-formations as well as new formations taking place during social cooking. Based on this we suggest that given the presence of formations in the kitchen different from those found during activities that are mainly conversational, simply installing traditional video-conferencing systems in people's kitchens will not suffice in facilitating the interactions taking place there. Instead, designers need to rethink the positioning and use of cameras and displays.
Keywords: Cooking; F-formation; proxemics; digital ethnography; YouTube
Practices Surrounding Event Photos BIBAKFull-Text 55-72
  Dhaval Vyas; Anton Nijholt; Gerrit van der Veer
Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop in-depth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called 'event photos'- photos about and taken during different social events such as weddings picnics, and music concert visits among others. We studied people's practices related to event photos through in-depth interviews, guided home visits and naturalistic observations. Our results show four major themes describing practices surrounding event photos: 1) representing events, 2) significant moments, 3) situated activities through photos, and 4) collectivism and roles of participants.
Keywords: Photo-sharing; HCI; Design; Ethnography
Sharing Experiences over Video: Watching Video Programs together at a Distance BIBAKFull-Text 73-90
  Anna Macaranas; Gina Venolia; Kori Inkpen; John Tang
While video communication is becoming quite popular among remote friends and family, recent usage practices have been extending beyond just talking heads to remotely sharing an experience by doing an activity together. However, current video chat tools are aimed at sharing talking heads and need to be reconsidered to support remotely sharing activities. We explore a specific remote shared activity -- watching video programs -- through a three-phase study. We surveyed people's interest in watching video together, studied how people currently watch together in their homes, and compared different conditions for watching together in the lab. Our work explored people's current and desired practices, interactions, and technical implementations. We present our findings in themes that provide insights for designing systems that better support using video-mediated communication to share watching videos together over distance. We found that remotely watching video programs together while connected by video-mediated communication is engaging, fun, and fosters social bonds between the participants, and that these results are stronger with increased fidelity of the communication media.
Keywords: Shared experiences; proxy; telepresence; teleconferencing; video conferencing; video-mediated communication; home

Sustainability

Exploring Reactions to Widespread Energy Monitoring BIBAKFull-Text 91-108
  James A. Colley; Benjamin Bedwell; Andy Crabtree; Tom Rodden
This paper explores the measurement, apportionment and representation of widespread energy monitoring. We explicate the accountability to users of the data collected by this type of monitoring when it is presented to them as a single daylong picture. We developed a technology probe that combines energy measurement from the home, workplace and the journeys that connect these spaces. Through deployment of this probe with five users for one month we find that measurement need not be seamless for it to be accountable; that apportionment is key to making consumption for communal spaces accountable and that people can readily make useful inferences about their energy consumption from daylong pictures formed from widespread monitoring. Finally, we present four issues raised by the probe -- the nature of real world monitoring, the dynamic and social nature of apportionment, disclosure of energy data and alignment of incentives with consumption -- that need to be addressed in future research.
Keywords: Distributed energy monitoring; measurement; apportionment; representation; technology probe
HCI for City Farms: Design Challenges and Opportunities BIBAKFull-Text 109-116
  Peter Lyle; Jaz Hee-jeong Choi; Marcus Foth
Urban agriculture plays an important role in many facets of food security, health and sustainability. The city farm is one such manifestation of urban agriculture: it functions as a location centric social hub that supplies food, education, and opportunities for strengthening the diverse sociocultural fabrics of the local community. This paper presents the case of Northey Street City Farm in Brisbane, Australia as an opportunity space for design. The paper identifies four areas that present key challenges and opportunities for HCI design that support social sustainability of the city farm: A preference for face-to-face contact leads to inconsistencies in shared knowledge; a dependence on volunteers and very limited resources necessitates easily accessible interventions; other local urban agricultural activity needing greater visibility; and the vulnerability of the physical location to natural phenomenon, in this instance flooding, present a design challenge and a need to consider disaster management.
Keywords: Urban Agriculture; City Farm; Design; Sustainability; Urban Informatics
Towards Engaged Consumption: New Sources of Inspiration for Eco-feedback Design BIBAKFull-Text 117-124
  Stephen Snow; Margot Brereton
Eco-feedback interventions are capable of producing reductions in household energy consumption. Yet less is known about exactly how this reduction is achieved, how to maximise user engagement, or how to effectively translate engagement into energy saving. This paper discusses design opportunities for eco-feedback systems through observations of domestic energy use in both Western and rural developing world contexts. Drawing on case studies from these two contexts including 21 empirical interviews, we present an alternative framework for human-resource interaction, highlighting design opportunities for a transition towards more engaged and sustainable energy consumption among users.
Keywords: Eco-feedback; resource use; electricity; engaged consumption
Sustainability at Home: An Exploratory Study on Monitoring Needs and Energy Management Actions of Solar Power Producers BIBAKFull-Text 125-132
  Dounia Lahoual; Myriam Fréjus
This exploratory study focused on the energy consumption practices of customer-producers (prosumers) in relation to their needs in monitoring energy production. Our analysis of both production monitoring activities and domestic activities in real situations revealed the motivations of these producers and demonstrated that the actions of energy management were not dependent on the status of customer-producer. The actions of energy management arose from individual and collective constructions, as well as the appropriation of electrical appliances and attractive pricing offers. These results suggest that the issue of offering incentives for energy management would benefit from greater attention to questions of appropriation, pricing, and technical devices.
Keywords: Sustainability; energy management; photovoltaic production; domestic activity; prosumers; consumption/production feedback
WattsBurning on My Mailbox: A Tangible Art Inspired Eco-feedback Visualization for Sharing Energy Consumption BIBAKFull-Text 133-140
  Filipe Quintal; Mary Barreto; Nuno Nunes; Valentina Nisi; Lucas Pereira
This paper describes a novel art-inspired tangible eco-feedback system. The concept emerged from a workshop with researchers, designers and artists looking at innovative ways to provide more effective eco-feedback that engages users emotionally. The tangible aspect of the system is composed of a set of magnets that users can stick on their physical mailbox outside of their apartment building according to their average energy consumption. The magnets are a total of seven pieces, one for each day of the week. Each piece has a variation of three colors, from green (low consumption) to burning red (high consumption). The magnets are to be displayed in a sequence that represents a typical panorama of local nature. In this paper we report the design and the study we conducted to gauge preliminary results on the system usage and potential. Interviews with participants revealed that none of them felt uncomfortable having their consumption displayed outside. When children were involved in the process they "took control" of the task and pressured their families to perform better.
Keywords: Sustainability; Aesthetics; Art driven Eco-feedback; User Interfaces; Prototyping

Tabletop Computing

Dynamic Spatial Positioning: Physical Collaboration around Interactive Table by Children in India BIBAKFull-Text 141-158
  Izdihar Jamil; Kenton O'Hara; Mark Perry; Abhijit Karnik; Mark T. Marshall; Swathi Jha; Sanjay Gupta; Sriram Subramanian
We present a study of how children demonstrate physicality during collaboration around interactive tables at school. Our results show that children tend to dynamically position themselves around the tabletop area to effect particular social outcomes. These movements around the tabletop allow them to enact coordination strategies in their social interactions with each other to manage their learning and task-based activities. Our analysis indicates the importance of understanding physical strategies and behaviours when designing and deploying interactive tables in classrooms. We discuss how the design of tabletops in school can embrace the extensibility of this technology, providing access for children to shape their own collaboration strategies during learning.
Keywords: Interaction techniques; tabletop; spatial formation; dynamic spatial position; collaborative learning; children and India
Dynamic Tangible User Interface Palettes BIBAKFull-Text 159-176
  Martin Spindler; Victor Cheung; Raimund Dachselt
Graphics editors often suffer from a large number of tool palettes that compete with valuable document space. To address this problem and to bring back physical affordances similar to a painter's palette, we propose to augment a digital tabletop with spatially tracked handheld displays. These displays are dynamically updated depending on their spatial location. We introduce the concept of spatial Work Zones that take up distinct 3D regions above the table surface and serve as physical containers for digital content that is organized as stacks of horizontal layers. Spatial Work Zones are represented either by physical objects or on-screen on the tabletop. Associated layers can be explored fluently by entering a spatial Work Zone with a handheld display. This provides quick access and seamless changes between tools and parts of the document that are instantly functional, i.e., ready to be used by a digital pen. We discuss several use cases illustrating our techniques and setting them into context with previous systems. Early user feedback indicates that combining dynamic GUI functionality with the physicality of spatially tracked handheld displays is promising and can be generalized beyond graphics editing.
Keywords: Tangible user interface palettes; spatial Work Zones; tabletop displays; dynamic pen heads; spatial management
TIDE: Lightweight Device Composition for Enhancing Tabletop Environments with Smartphone Applications BIBAKFull-Text 177-194
  Léo Sicard; Aurélien Tabard; Juan David Hincapié-Ramos; Jakob E. Bardram
Interactive surfaces like tabletop computers provide large touch-enabled displays, support novel forms of interaction and collaboration, and extend computation to new environments. However, being a novel platform, the existing application pool is limited and applications existing for other platforms have to be re-developed. At the same time, smartphones are pervasive computers that users carry around and with a large pool of applications. This paper presents TIDE, a lightweight device composition middleware to bring existing smartphone applications onto the tabletop. Through TIDE, applications running on the smartphone are displayed on the tabletop computer, and users can interact with them through the tabletop's interactive surface. TIDE contributes to the areas of device composition and tabletops by providing an OS-level middleware that is transparent to the smartphone applications, maintaining privacy by limiting content transfer between devices, and enhancing the usefulness of tabletops with already existing smartphone applications and software developers. We present the design and implementation of TIDE, the study of different interaction techniques to manipulate TIDE's interactive content, and an analysis of different research directions. Initial user feedback shows that TIDE is easy to use, learnable, and convenient for collaborative activities and private environments.
Keywords: Distributed User Interfaces; Multiple Display Environments; Tabletops; Smartphones; Device Composition

Text Comprehensibility

Evaluating the Effect of Phrase Set in Hindi Text Entry BIBAKFull-Text 195-202
  Mohit Jain; Khushboo Tekchandani; Khai N. Truong
Recently, many different Indic text entry mechanisms have been proposed and evaluated. Whereas the use of a common phrase set across text-entry research may help to produce generalizable results across studies, previous Indic Text entry evaluations have used a variety of different text entry phrases. In this paper, we develop and evaluate three different types of Hindi phrase sets that have been previously used in the literature -- Hindi films, a grade VII textbook and a translated version of MacKenzie and Soukoreff's phrases -- to study effects of their characteristics on performance. No statistical difference was found in novice user performance due to the different phrase sets. However, based on participant feedback, we report that consideration should be taken with regards to phrase length, frequency, understandability, and memorability in the design and selection of text-entry phrases.
Keywords: Hindi; Text Input; Phrase Set
Frequent Words Improve Readability and Short Words Improve Understandability for People with Dyslexia BIBAKFull-Text 203-219
  Luz Rello; Ricardo Baeza-Yates; Laura Dempere-Marco; Horacio Saggion
Around 10% of the population has dyslexia, a reading disability that negatively affects a person's ability to read and comprehend texts. Previous work has studied how to optimize the text layout, but adapting the text content has not received that much attention. In this paper, we present an eye-tracking study that investigates if people with dyslexia would benefit from content simplification. In an experiment with 46 people, 23 with dyslexia and 23 as a control group, we compare texts where words were substituted by shorter/longer and more/less frequent synonyms. Using more frequent words caused the participants with dyslexia to read significantly faster, while the use of shorter words caused them to understand the text better. Amongst the control group, no significant effects were found. These results provide evidence that people with dyslexia may benefit from interactive tools that perform lexical simplification.
Keywords: Textual accessibility; dyslexia; eye-tracking; lexical simplification; readability; understandability; word frequency; word length
TicQR: Flexible, Lightweight Linking of Paper and Digital Content Using Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 220-228
  Jennifer Pearson; Simon Robinson; George Buchanan; Matt Jones
In this paper we introduce TicQR -- a photo-based checkbox-enabled interface which bridges the physical and digital document domains, allowing automatic download or processing of useful data from paper documents. There is a long demonstrated need for people to be able to connect between printed material and digital information and services. By using a combination of image recognition and QR codes we are able to detect user marks on paper documents via a single photograph taken with a standard smart phone. This information can then be used to access the equivalent digital content, save contacts or URLs, or even order goods directly from local retailers.
Keywords: Paper documents; tick boxes; QR Codes

Tracking Eyes and Head

One Half or 50%? An Eye-Tracking Study of Number Representation Readability BIBAKFull-Text 229-245
  Luz Rello; Susana Bautista; Ricardo Baeza-Yates; Pablo Gervás; Raquel Hervás; Horacio Saggion
Are numbers expressed as digits easier to read and understand than written with letters? What about fractions and percentages? Exact or rounded values? We present an eye-tracking study that attempts to answer these questions for Spanish, using fixation and reading time to measure readability as well as comprehension questions to score understandability. We find that digits are faster to read but do not help comprehension. Fractions help understandability while percentages help readability. No significant results were found concerning the influence of rounding. Our experiments were performed by 72 persons, half of them with dyslexia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that addresses the cognitive load of number representation in any language, even more for people with dyslexia.
Keywords: textual accessibility; dyslexia; user testing; eye-tracking; readability; comprehension; number representation
Studying a Head Tracking Technique for First-Person-Shooter Games in a Home Setting BIBAKFull-Text 246-263
  Torben Sko; Henry Gardner; Michael Martin
This paper examines webcam-enabled head tracking for games in a home setting. A new head interaction technique was developed based upon prior laboratory-based research, with a focus on making it robust to the variable conditions of a home setting. Our technique was integrated into a test-bed game and 550 hours of gameplay data was collected from 2500 users, many of whom also provided formal feedback. The head tracking performed creditably and players reported that the experience was more immersive. Head tracking failed to enhance competitive playing performance, perhaps owing to familiarization effects. Nevertheless, the data revealed evidence of learning amongst users, suggesting that performance would improve with continued use. Key lessons that emerged in the home setting in contrast to the earlier laboratory study were a demonstrated need for clear guidance and feedback during system set-up, and greater caution regarding its deployment, having discovered a small population of users who became nauseous.
Keywords: head tracking; gestural interaction; online studies; games
Tracking Eyes in Service Prototyping BIBAKFull-Text 264-271
  Monchu Chen; Veraneka Lim
A mobile eye tracker was used to collect viewing behavior in a mixed reality immersive Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) environment to evaluate a design concept of a tourist information office. The synthetic office consists of physical artifacts and virtual contents projected onto three walls of a room-sized cube. A Think Aloud study was conducted with both a goal-oriented condition and a free-browsing condition while subjects wearing the eye-tracker. Multiple Augmented Reality markers were used to reconstruct gaze positions in the coordinate system of the real environment. Gaze points were later aggregated to create heat maps, which were used as textures for a computer 3D model replication of the synthetic tourist office. The interactive visualization of the 3D heat map showcases different viewing patterns for different conditions. The insights suggest the combination of eye-tracking and mixed reality environment to be a valuable tool for prototyping service design of similar kinds.
Keywords: Eye-Tracking; Service Design; Experience Prototyping; Heat Map

Usability Evaluation and Technology Acceptance

Did We Miss Something? Correspondence Analysis of Usability Data BIBAKFull-Text 272-279
  Stanislaw Zabramski; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
We have applied a multivariate exploratory technique called Correspondence Analysis (CA) to create and analyze a model of the dataset of experiment results. The dataset originates from a comparative usability study of tracing with the use of mouse, pen, and touch input and contains both categorical and continuous data -- i.e. results of questionnaires and task measurements. CA allowed to visually and numerically assess the main variables in the dataset and how they interact with each other. In our study, pen input had the best measured performance and was preferred by the users. Touch input was the least accurate of all input methods tested but it was preferred by users over mouse especially in the conditions lacking of visual feedback of drawing. CA helped to detect that secondary effect even though it cannot be explained by the performance results alone. The importance of the influence of user's previous experience is also noted. We conclude that CA helped to identify all major phenomena known from previous studies but also was sensitive to minor and secondary effects, what makes it a well suited method to quickly evaluate usability data.
Keywords: shape; freehand; tracing; drawing; mouse; pen; stylus; touch; evaluation; comparison; error; measurement; subjective
Social Overlays: Collectively Making Websites More Usable BIBAKFull-Text 280-297
  Tao Dong; Mark S. Ackerman; Mark W. Newman; Gaurav Paruthi
Many small organizations lack the expertise and resources to conduct usability evaluations of their websites. Social Overlays, presented here, is a new system that allows a community of users to collectively improve their website.
   Social Overlays enables end-users to identify and repair common user interface problems through creating "overlays" on web pages as part of their regular use, thereby improving usability while reducing the need for professional services. In short, Social Overlays harnesses the diversity of experience and ideas within a community to "crowd source" usability.
   To evaluate Social Overlays, we examined whether a group of community members without any usability training could use Social Overlays to identify and repair UI problems on their medium-sized community's website. We found that they could. Community users were able to uncover a large number of UI problems and formulate reasonable solutions to the problems they identified. In addition, we compared Social Overlays to two standard ways of assessing website usability: expert inspection and usability testing. We found that Social Overlays users identified more problems, and their reported problems differed in useful ways from those found by the experts and the usability testing team.
Keywords: Usability; community; peer production; social computing
Usability Evaluation in a Digitally Emerging Country: A Survey Study BIBAKFull-Text 298-305
  Fulvio Lizano; Maria Marta Sandoval; Anders Bruun; Jan Stage
Several emerging countries experience increasing software development activities. With the purpose of provide useful feedback on possible courses of action for increasing application of usability evaluation in such countries, this paper explores the status of usability evaluation in a digitally emerging country. Our aim is to identifying common characteristics or behavioral patterns that could be compared with digitally advanced countries. We used an online survey answered by 26 software development organizations, which gave a snapshot of the application of usability evaluation in these organizations. We found many similarities with advanced countries, several completely new obstacles more connected with software development matters and a relatively positive improvement in the lack of "usability culture". These findings suggest good conditions to improve conduction of usability evaluations in digitally emerging countries.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; advantages; obstacles; digitally emerging countries
Understanding Diversity -- The Impact of Personality on Technology Acceptance BIBAKFull-Text 306-313
  Kay Behrenbruch; Matthias Söllner; Jan Marco Leimeister; Ludger Schmidt
Technology is becoming increasingly automated, aiming to ease the life of its users. However, besides the advantages of this trend, users are also faced with increasing risks, e.g., regarding their privacy. Examples are seamless online payments that come with the requirement to provide sensitive, e.g., credit card information, or social networks trying to elicit private information for its users. Research on technology acceptance identified two important factors for the individual decision to accept such kinds of risk: trust and personality traits. In this paper we present a model that integrates research findings for personality traits and for trust in the context of technology acceptance. We show that specific personality traits have a distinct direct or moderating effect. We, e.g., found that two personality traits moderate the relationship between perceived ease of use and intention to use. This moderation could explain the inconsistent findings on this relationship in prior research.
Keywords: Technology acceptance; personality traits; trust

User Preferences and Behaviour

A Vocabulary to Access Users' Cultural Perspectives in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 314-322
  Catia Maria Dias Ferreira; Luciana Cardoso de Castro Salgado; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza
This paper presents research carried out to explore the implications of giving users a specific vocabulary to express their perceptions and opinions about opportunities to make contact with cultural diversity in human-computer interaction. This two-step study is part of a broader research project that aims at investigating users' perceptions and reactions when interacting with cross-cultural systems. Our current findings point at the expressive power of the proposed vocabulary and the promising outcomes of using it in the interaction design cycle of cross-cultural systems.
Keywords: Cross-cultural evaluation; Culture; Cultural Viewpoint Metaphors
Characteristics of Elderly User Behavior on Mobile Multi-touch Devices BIBAKFull-Text 323-341
  Susumu Harada; Daisuke Sato; Hironobu Takagi; Chieko Asakawa
Smartphones and tablet devices have been rapidly proliferating, and multi-touch interaction, powerful processors and rich array of sensors make these devices an attractive service platform for older users. While there is an increasing number of work investigating the issues that elderly users experience through their interaction with mobile devices, most have focused either on evaluation of low-level interaction characteristics or on qualitative survey. Therefore, we conducted a user study with 21 elderly participants to analyze the needs and issues faced by this user group under naturalistic usage scenarios. Specifically, we interviewed each participant about their experiences, had them perform various practical tasks using our custom testing application, and analyzed the operation logs using our custom visualizations. Based on our results, we summarize the types of issues observed, present design considerations for the applications studied, and future research directions.
Keywords: Mobile; Multi-touch; Smartphones; Tablet; Aging; Elderly
From Persona to Techsona BIBAKFull-Text 342-349
  Susanne Bødker; Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose
In this paper we introduce the notion of techsona, as a possible counterpart design instrument to personas. We use a case study to illustrate a design process where techsonas help pinpoint technological ideas and alternatives and analyze these systematically. While a persona captures "imagine a user...", a scenario "imagine a situation..." the techsona gives the missing piece of "imagine a technology..." We show how a recently developed activity theoretical model can serve both as a framing for techsonas and as an analytical interface between personas and techsonas. The paper discusses the potentials and problems of the techsona and concludes that the techsona truly helps with a missing piece in persona and scenario-based design.
Keywords: Persona; Techsona; Activity Theory
Going Global with Personas BIBAKFull-Text 350-357
  Lene Nielsen; Kira Storgaard Nielsen; Jan Stage; Jane Billestrup
The persona method is widely used and commonly described both in scientific literature and in case-based blogs. Most often the descriptions point to a local context with local user groups and it is difficult to find writings on use of the method in an international context and in globally distributed teams. This paper reports from a qualitative study conducted in 2012/13 within 13 Danish companies and points to how design teams apply several different strategies when end-users are distributed worldwide. Moreover it shows how the designers value the strength of the method to provide common grounds for the team, especially for team distributed across countries.
Keywords: personas; scenarios; cross culture; international; design
On Users' Preference on Localized vs. Latin-Based CAPTCHA Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 358-365
  Christos Fidas; Artemios G. Voyiatzis
A Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is a widely used security mechanism for constructing a high-confidence proof that the entity interacting with a remote service is actually a human being. Stimulated by the facts that: a) nowadays CAPTCHA challenges are solely based on the Latin alphabet, b) currently Internet population consists in its majority of non-native-English speakers and c) numerous web sites consist of exclusively localized content, we conducted an empirical study aiming to examine the effect of various factors on users' preference in solving localized vs. Latin-based text CAPTCHA challenges. The study embraced a between-subject design using a self-developed localized CAPTCHA mechanism, capable of producing text challenges based on the participants' native alphabet. A total of 384 non-native English speakers participated in the frame of the reported study which followed an ecological valid experimental design. Analysis of interaction results provides interesting insights which can be taken into consideration for designing more usable CAPTCHA mechanisms.
Keywords: CAPTCHA; Usability; Security; Native Language (non-Latin) systems; localized CAPTCHA

User Requirements Capture and Analysis

Designing for the Functionality South African Internet Banking Websites Should Provide to Address the Needs of Generation-Y Users BIBAKFull-Text 366-383
  Sebabatso Mtimkulu; Judy van Biljon; Tobias van Dyk
Despite the widespread adoption of Internet banking there are no validated guidelines on the functionality the younger, techno-savvy Generation-Y customer segment (18-35 year age bracket) expect from Internet banking websites. This research investigated the functionality the Generation-Y customer segment require from South-African Internet banking websites. The User Centred Design (UCD) philosophy with a mixed method research design was utilised. Generation-Y technological characteristics and preferences abstracted from the literature were aligned with functionality trends of future Internet banking websites to formulate an initial list of Generation-Y aligned Internet banking functionality guidelines. These were evaluated during interviews with representative Generation-Y customers and also used in the heuristic evaluation of the Internet banking platforms of five South African banks. The findings were integrated towards synthesizing functionality guidelines. A visual representation of these functionality guidelines was constructed as a wireframe prototype for evaluation by Generation-Y users. The main contribution of the study is the validated list of Internet banking functionality guidelines for Generation-Y banking customers.
Keywords: Functionality; Internet banking; Generation-Y; User Experience
"Nobody Other Than Me Knows What I Want": Customizing a Sports Watch BIBAKFull-Text 384-402
  Piia Nurkka
In order for companies to effectively use customization as a design strategy, there should be understanding on what users would like to customize and why. This study explores the use of customization features of sports watch in order to assess the extent of customization, and to identify reasons for customization in this context. Survey data from 100 users of a sports watch were analyzed to understand how they use the different customization features: general preferences, functionality and appearance. The findings show that although the users vary in the use of customization, they state similar reasons for customization: control, ease-of-use, increased effectiveness, and better fit to personal preferences. The motivation to customize in this context is for the most part related to autonomy: to the sense of control the user has by having the tool to adapt the product according to own preferences, wants and needs.
Keywords: customization; sports watch; satisfaction; user experience
Online Requirements and Portal Design for Female University Science and Technology Students in Kenya BIBAKFull-Text 403-410
  Stephen Kimani; Eunice Njeri; John Njue
In science and technology (S&T) career progression, women drop out at virtually every step until extremely few are found in positions of influence and recognition. Although this is a global problem, it is even more critical in Africa. The number of female university S&T students in Africa has remained low for the past about three decades. There is thus a dire need to encourage/support such students especially in African countries, including Kenya. Online portals have the potential to motivate/support Kenyan female university S&T students. It is however critical to understand the characteristics and requirements of these students. While there exists literature on the differences between online female users and male users, women in S&T in African countries (including Kenya) face rather unique challenges. This paper reports a study that indicates the characteristics and online requirements of Kenyan female university S&T students, and then describes a corresponding online portal design.
Keywords: Online user requirements; user interface design; online portals; science and technology; female students

UX in Work/Educational Contexts

Finger on the Pulse: The Value of the Activity Stream in the Enterprise BIBAKFull-Text 411-428
  Ido Guy; Tal Steier; Maya Barnea; Inbal Ronen; Tal Daniel
The activity stream, which syndicates user activities across social media, has been gaining popularity on the web. With social media infiltrating the enterprise and higher portions of the workforce becoming accustomed to consuming information through activity streams, it also has the potential to play a key role in shaping the workplace. This work provides a first comprehensive study of an enterprise activity stream. We analyze different characteristics of the stream, its usage through a faceted search-based application, and the way users search it compared to traditional enterprise search. We also discuss various use cases of the stream, both from an individual employee's perspective and from an organizational perspective, exposing the potential value and role of the activity stream in the enterprise of the future.
Keywords: Activity streams; collaboration; cscw; enterprise; enterprise search; real-time search; social analytics; social business; social media; social search; social software; social streams; web 2.0
Relationship-Based Business Process Crowdsourcing? BIBAKFull-Text 429-446
  Jacki O'Neill; David Martin
New technologies do not always benefit the worker, especially when harnessed by organisations seeking ever cheaper labour. Crowdsourcing is a technology-enabled way of working which offers the potential to bring work to far flung communities. However, it is something of a double-edged sword and there are many socio-technical and ethical challenges. In the micro-task market crowdsourcing platforms tend to be designed largely for the advantage of the organisation requesting work, rather than the worker. This paper contributes to research calling to redress this balance [2, 6]. It describes the findings of an ethnographic study of an outsourced business process -- healthcare form digitization -- as performed by workers in-office (India) and @Home (USA). It reveals the complexities of the relationships between worker and organisation and argues that designing some aspects of these relationships into crowdsourcing platforms and applications is as beneficial for the organisation as it is for the worker.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing; ethnography; business process outsourcing; relationship-based crowdsourcing
User Experience and Learning Experience in Online HCI Courses BIBAKFull-Text 447-454
  Saila Ovaska
Several Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have become available also in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), in addition to other fields of study. How do they operate, and what do they teach? We compare two HCI MOOCs with a locally composed small scale online HCI course that was built and launched in 2012, and discuss issues in pedagogy, user experience and learner experience in online HCI education.
Keywords: HCI Education; online education; MOOC; User Experience

Voice/Sound-Based Computing

Audvert: Using Spatial Audio to Gain a Sense of Place BIBAKFull-Text 455-462
  Liam Betsworth; Nitendra Rajput; Saurabh Srivastava; Matt Jones
We introduce Audvert -- a system that facilitates serendipitous discovery and navigation through spatial audio; used to navigate and discover points of interest in large, unfamiliar indoor environments. Our main aim was to create a lightweight spatial audio display that can convey a sense of a place without complex point and select interactions. We conducted a preliminary study comparing two audio types to see which best suited sound localization and a study of Audvert used in a real world scenario. Our findings suggest that long continuous audio performs better than short intermittent audio for sound localisation. We also discover a change in behaviour when using the system, with a large percentage of users wanting to visit newly discovered shops after using the system. We discuss the findings and draw research conclusions.
Keywords: Non-visual Navigation; Wayfinding; Auditory Display
Rhythms of the Domestic Soundscape: Ethnomethodological Soundwalks for Phatic Technology Design BIBAKFull-Text 463-470
  Hanif Baharin; Sean Rintel; Stephen Viller
The importance of the domestic soundscape as a context for technological interventions has received little attention in HCI research. In this paper, we discuss how an ethnomethodological soundwalk method facilitated design principles for a phatic technology probe for seniors living alone. Taking soundscape concepts as a starting point, we suggest that the soundwalk works much like a breaching experiment, changing the participant's role in engaging with their soundscape from reactive automatic agent to proactive reflective agent. This enables participants to reveal their own systematic orderliness when accounting for everyday sounds. We find that sounds are accounted for in terms of people placed in narratives. As such, we argue that phatic technologies use new sounds and rhythms to augment the domestic soundscape to take advantage of people's abilities to create social narratives from limited cues.
Keywords: Domestic soundscape; soundscape study; ethnomethodology; breaching experiment
"Roger that!" -- The Value of Adding Social Feedback in Audio-Mediated Communications BIBAKFull-Text 471-488
  Rahul Rajan; Joey Hsiao; Deven Lahoti; Ted Selker
Losing track of who is in a conversation, and what is being said, is always a problem especially on audio-only conference calls. This paper investigates how domain-independent social feedback can support such interactions, and improve communication, through the use of audio cues. In particular, we show how an agent can improve people's ability to accurately identify and distinguish between speakers, reassure users about the presence of other collaborators on the line, and announce events like entry & exit with minimum impact on users cognitive ability.
Keywords: Audio-mediated; Conference calls; Considerate; Social feedback
Supporting Voice Content Sharing among Underprivileged People in Urban India BIBAKFull-Text 489-506
  Christian Remy; Sheetal K. Agarwal; Arun Kumar; Saurabh Srivastava
Recent advances in voice-based telecom information systems enable underprivileged and low-literacy users to access and offer online services without expensive devices or specialized technical knowledge. We propose SRLs (speech resource locators), a mechanism that facilitates the creation, access, and sharing of online voice content. To test the interaction with SRLs, we developed a proof-of-concept application that allows for simple sharing of voice content. We subsequently created a smartphone application for the same service that provided a graphical user interface to the online voice application. Our findings show that literate underprivileged people were able to share online voice content on feature phones and smart phones whereas in low-literacy people were unable to access shared content over feature phones but able to do so on smart phones. We conclude by highlighting opportunities and challenges for the design of voice-based applications that support information sharing.
Keywords: HCI4D; Information Sharing; ICTD; User-Centered Design; Interactive Voice Systems; Smartphones; India

Interactive Posters

Adding Vibrotactile Feedback to Large Interactive Surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 507-514
  Julian Seifert; Markus Packeiser; Enrico Rukzio
Interactive surfaces and multi-touch tables are increasingly available outside academic contexts, and are entering, for instance, work or educational contexts. A large variety of applications exists for a multitude of tasks. For interacting with these applications, existing interaction concepts are often directly mapped to the multi-touch surface, which is often limited by physical constraints. For instance, to enter text on an interactive surface, most often a virtual keyboard is used. However, users cannot feel when, for instance, they have accidentally pressed two keys at the same time. Research on mobile devices has identified vibrotactile feedback as an effective means to support users when interacting with touch screens. In this work, we present results of an experiment in which we investigated whether typical tasks (e.g., typing text, drag-and-drop of items) on interactive multi-touch surfaces can be supported by providing vibrotactile feedback directly on the surface. We compared direct feedback with distal feedback provided on the user's body, as well as their combination. Surprisingly, our results show that all compared variants of vibrotactile feedback had no significant positive effect on the task performance. Yet participants rated tactile feedback significantly higher regarding interaction support and subjective speed compared to no provided feedback.
Keywords: Interactive surfaces; vibrotactile feedback; touch-based interaction; multi touch
Analysis and Visualization of Interactions with Mobile Web Applications BIBAKFull-Text 515-522
  Paolo Burzacca; Fabio Paternò
We present a novel solution for intelligent analysis and visualization of user interactions with Web applications through mobile devices in order to help identify usability issues. The proposed tool is also able to support comparison of optimal use with actual user interactions. We also report on an example application of our tool to the evaluation of a real mobile Web site.
Keywords: Tools for Remote Evaluation; Web Applications; Mobile HCI
Beats Down: Using Heart Rate for Game Interaction in Mobile Settings BIBAKFull-Text 523-530
  Claudia Stockhausen; Justine Smyzek; Detlef Krömker
Mobile devices allow integration of different sensors, offering new possibilities for interaction. Integrating heart rate into a mobile game offers several possibilities for enhancing gameplay. In our work we implemented a game prototype on a mobile device with different game modes. Increasing and decreasing heart rate is used for game interaction. The mobile scenario allows involving the environment to influence the heart rate. We conducted a first user experience study for evaluation of the integrated interaction methods in mobile scenarios and conclude with our future work.
Keywords: Physiological Interaction; Mobile Games; Game Interaction
Cultural Congruence and Rating Scale Biases in Homepages BIBAKFull-Text 531-538
  Gitte Lindgaard; Cathy Dudek; Gerry Chan
We reanalyzed data from three studies to explore first-impression cultural congruency effects and potential rating scale biases among Canadian and Taiwanese/Chinese participants judging visual appeal of homepages. The objective was to identify variables likely to affect such judgments for future studies in a new research program. Some support was found for both issues and pointers for refinements of future studies were identified.
Keywords: visual appeal; cultural congruence; first impression
Diverse Ecologies -- Interdisciplinary Development for Cultural Education BIBAKFull-Text 539-546
  Michael Heidt; Kalja Kanellopoulos; Linda Pfeiffer; Paul Rosenthal
We present a case study outlining development efforts towards an interface ecology to be deployed in museums. We argue that the problem at hand calls for a highly interdisciplinary design process. Furthermore, system design in the domain of cultural education poses a unique set of challenges. At the same time few existing design methodologies are suitable for addressing this special environment of system design. We outline a set of tentative methodological elements aimed at informing adequate interdisciplinary development processes. The discussion is embedded into a critique of existing methodologies while being orientated towards inviting critique itself. The guiding insight steering our methodological developments is that fundamental differences between project participants and other stakeholders should be construed as assets. Rather than trying to integrate them or covering them up, the dynamic friction between differing viewpoints can be rendered productive by means of poietic practices.
Keywords: interdisciplinarity; museum informatics; design for cultural experience
Evaluation of PhonAge: An Adapted Smartphone Interface for Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 547-554
  Farah Arab; Yasir Malik; Bessam Abdulrazak
Smartphones can play a significant role in maintaining decent Quality of Life for elderly people. Key factor to Smartphones usage success among elderly people depends on the accessibility of phone interface. In this paper, we present preliminary evaluation results of our PhonAge, an accessible and adaptable interface for Smartphones that is customized to the elderly profile. The results of the evaluation show adequacy of the interface to elderly needs. The evaluation feedbacks also helped in improving PhonAge interface design.
Keywords: Smartphone; Mobile Phone Interface; Accessibility; Evaluation; Aging
Experimentally Manipulating Positive User Experience Based on the Fulfilment of User Needs BIBAKFull-Text 555-562
  Andreas Sonnleitner; Marvin Pawlowski; Timm Kässer; Matthias Peissner
In this work, we prepared three variations of a prototype to experimentally manipulate parameters helping to improve User Experience (UX) of technological products. Based on a model considering the fulfilment of user needs (Fig. 1), two variations of a neutrally designed tool were developed to address two selected needs (popularity, competition) by slightly changing functionalities or design elements. The manipulation of UX is validated with real-time and retrospective subjective evaluation of UX, and objective data of user behaviour. Participants rated significantly higher positive UX and showed more active behaviour for designs of the prototype addressing the user needs competition and popularity compared to the neutral design. These findings show the importance of considering elements of UX in the early development process of technological products.
Keywords: User Experience; UX; User Needs; User-Driven Innovation
Floffy: Designing an Outdoor Robot for Children BIBAKFull-Text 563-570
  Omar Mubin; Luke Vink; Pieter Oosterwijk; Abdullah Al Mahmud; Suleman Shahid
In our research we utilized the domain of entertainment robotics to educate children on the principles of environmental awareness by playful means outdoors. Our research revolved around the iterative design of Floffy: the environmental robot, which was essentially a playful toy robot that would respond positively to interaction that was beneficial for the environment and the child's own well being and negatively to interaction or behaviour that was detrimental to the surroundings. We conducted an explorative, informal evaluation of Floffy with two small groups of children and they rated their experience with it positively. Our results show that there is potential in utilizing entertainment robots to educate children on serious and critical issues such as saving our environment and being sustainable.
Keywords: Child-robot interaction; Arduino; Environment
Human-Spreadsheet Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 571-578
  Andrea Kohlhase
Spreadsheets have become very popular tools for analyzing and visualizing data from business and science. To better understand human-spreadsheet interaction, we explore readers' information models, but in contrast to most studies we focus on spreadsheet readers rather than spreadsheet authors. We conducted a study using the repertory grid technique and analyzed the result with the help of a Generalized Procrustes Analysis yielding a deeper understanding of human's information model of spreadsheets. Based on this we envision new human-spreadsheet interactions to increase the readibility and thus, usability of spreadsheets.
Keywords: Spreadsheets; repertory grid; information model of spreadsheets; human-spreadsheet interaction; information objects
Improving Students Learning Programming Skills with ProGames -- Programming through Games System BIBAKFull-Text 579-586
  Raquel Hijón-Neira; Ángel Velázquez-Iturbide; Celeste Pizarro-Romero; Luís Carriço
We present a system for learning programming skills, ProGames, through a leveled set of visually-attractive and interactive programming exercises in Greenfoot, categorized by students likes to offer them solutions to problems they really enjoy or like most. The system has been evaluated during the course 2012-13 in 3 Computer Science Degrees and our results show very positive acceptance by the students.
Keywords: Programming teaching; Interactions Analysis; e-Learning; Moodle; Greenfoot; Visualization
Long-Term Experiences with an Iterative Design of a QR-Code-Based Payment System for Beverages BIBAKFull-Text 587-594
  Max-Emanuel Maurer; Alexander De Luca; Alina Hang; Doris Hausen; Fabian Hennecke; Sebastian Loehmann; Henri Palleis; Hendrik Richter; Simon Stusak; Aurélien Tabard; Sarah Tausch; Emanuel von Zezschwitz; Franziska Schwamb; Heinrich Hussmann; Andreas Butz
We report on the design and long-term use of a digital tracking system for the consumption and payment tracing of beverages, called "Barkeeper". It is based on tags wearing QR-codes and its design was not primarily guided by efficiency, but rather everyday use during the last three years in our lab. In this trusted environment, we collected extensive usage data, making this a serious long-term field deployment of UbiComp technology. We present the system, its iterative design evolution, the users' views on it and insights gained by daily usage. We argue that QR-code interaction, when implemented in a very pragmatic way, can be not only a cheap but also a very powerful interaction technique. Based on our experience we propose a set of general rules, which make QR-code-based interaction practical and often superior to other interaction techniques.
Keywords: visual markers; QR-codes; ubicomp; payment system
Moment Machine: Opportunities and Challenges of Posting Situated Snapshots onto Networked Public Displays BIBAKFull-Text 595-602
  Nemanja Memarovic; Ava Fatah gen Schieck; Efstathia Kostopoulou; Moritz Behrens; Martin Traunmueller
Large public displays are becoming a ubiquitous resource in the urban environment. Interconnected over the Internet these hitherto isolated "ad displays" could become a novel and powerful communication medium -- networked public displays. One example for such a novel type of communication is their use as community tools. Scattered across the urban landscape and equipped with additional sensors, such as cameras, they provide the opportunity for local community members to take images of themselves and leave their "mark" in the setting, e.g., on their way to school, work, or meeting with friends. In order to understand the potential of posting situated snapshots on networked public displays in the context of place-based communities we designed and developed the Moment Machine -- a networked public display application that allows one-click photo capture. In this paper we report on identified opportunities and challenges emerging from 6 user trials in the wild at 2 locations.
Keywords: networked public displays; urban screens; situated snapshots; community interaction; public space; urban computing; urban informatics
Overview Scrollbar: A Scrollbar Showing an Entire Document as an Overview BIBAKFull-Text 603-610
  Ko Mizoguchi; Daisuke Sakamoto; Takeo Igarashi
A scrollbar is the most basic function of a graphical user interface. It is usually displayed on one side of an application window when a displayed document is larger than the window. However, the scrollbar is mostly presented as a simple bar without much information, and there is still plenty of room for improvement. In this paper, we propose an overview scrollbar that displays an overview of the entire document on it and implemented four types of overview scrollbars that use different compression methods to render the overviews. We conducted a user study to investigate how people use these scrollbars and measured the performance of them. Our results suggest that overview scrollbars are more usable than is a traditional scrollbar when people search targets that are recognizable in overview.
Keywords: user interface; scrollbar; document navigation
Participatory Design for Cultural Representation: A Cultural Transparency Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 611-618
  Amalia G. Sabiescu; Nemanja Memarovic
Participatory design approaches are being increasingly employed for designing digital artefacts and information systems with and for local communities. These cases require a reconceptualization of PD processes to account for widened knowledge gaps between designers and community members, and new patterns of community-defined design goals. In this paper we provide a perspective on the design process that will help designers to better plan their involvement in participatory projects with local communities. Our analytical stance resides on an interpretation of Étienne Wenger's theory of cultural transparency. Participatory design is analysed as an iterative process of decoding and encoding that involves users/local people and designers having as outcome understanding (through decoding) and representations (through encoding). Cultural transparency, achieved when the two agents advanced sufficient understanding on the other's practices, is the landmark for effective design. The paper argues for the importance of working towards attainment of cultural transparency in community-based projects, in particular when the goal is to create culturally representative artefacts. Examples of activities and suggestions for advancing cultural transparency in these contexts are provided.
Keywords: participatory design; cultural transparency; cross-cultural design; local communities; cultural representation
Reducing Driver Task Load and Promoting Sociability through an Affective Intelligent Driving Agent (AIDA) BIBAKFull-Text 619-626
  Kenton Williams; Cynthia Breazeal
This work outlines the development of an Affective Intelligent Driving Agent (AIDA), a social robot that sits in a vehicle's dashboard and behaves as a friendly assistant. This highly expressive robot uses an Android smartphone as its face, which serves as the main computational unit for the system. AIDA determines what information may be relevant to the driver, delivers it at the most appropriate time, and resolves which expressions should be used when doing so. An evaluation was performed in which participants completed mock driving tasks with the aid of 1) a smartphone with apps, 2) AIDA as a static, expressive agent, or 3) AIDA as a mobile robot. Results showed that the AIDA robot helped reduce user task load and promoted more sociability with users better than the smartphone or AIDA as a static agent.
Keywords: Affective HCI; Human-robot interaction; Novel user interfaces and interaction techniques
Semantic Modelling in Support of Adaptive Multimodal Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 627-634
  Elena Tsiporkova; Anna Hristoskova; Tom Tourwé; Tom Stevens
The design of multimodal interfaces requires intelligent data interpretation in order to guarantee seamless adaptation to the user's needs and context. HMI (human-machine interaction) design accommodates varying forms of interaction patterns, depending on what is most appropriate for a particular user at a particular time. These design patterns are a powerful means of documenting reusable design know-how. The semantic modelling framework in this paper captures the available domain knowledge in the field of multimodal interface design and supports adaptive HMIs. A collection of multimodal design patterns is constructed from a diversity of real-world applications and organized into a meaningful repository. This enables a uniform and unambiguous description easing their identification, comprehensibility and applicability.
Keywords: Human-machine interface; Multimodal Design Patterns; Adaptive Interfaces; Pro-active Interaction; Data Modelling; Context-awareness
Supporting Improved Maternity Care by Midwives: Design Opportunities and Lessons Learned BIBAKFull-Text 635-642
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; David V. Keyson
In this paper we describe a study about the role of Information Technology (IT) on the quality of maternity care in the midwifery centres in the Netherlands. We conducted an interview study with midwives in the Netherlands. The objective was to understand the current situation, challenges and design opportunities that could help to provided improved healthcare. The results of the interview study show that the current prenatal care system suffer from some challenges such as proper IT support, lack of IT training for the midwives, lack of integrity between different software systems used in the midwifery centres and hospitals and attitude of the pregnant mothers. Based on our findings we provide some recommendations and design implications to support improved care provided by the midwives.
Keywords: Prenatal care; midwives; Information Technology (IT); maternal health; Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)
Technology Enhanced PBL in HCI Education: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 643-650
  Christina Vasiliou; Andri Ioannou; Panayiotis Zaphiris
Problem Based Learning (PBL) is an instructional method in which the base for learning is a real-world problem. A typical PBL setting is comprised of students working together on an authentic problem, using simple tools such as whiteboards and stationery. Online tools and multimedia technologies have also been used to support PBL activities. There is however no empirical work on the blended use of both physical and digital tools. This paper presents a case study in which we employed PBL pedagogy for the teaching of a post-graduate course in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The activities were situated in a multimodal information space, rich in digital and physical elements including personal computers, projectors with downwards projection, tablets, iPods, digital pen readers, stationery and a Facebook group for each team. We administrated questionnaires assessing students' motivational beliefs and overall satisfaction with the learning experience. Our results show that students' overall satisfaction was highly rated, while the information space contributed to students' engagement and collaboration.
Keywords: Problem based learning; HCI education; Multi-modal interfaces
The 'Relay Ideation' Technique: Moving from Problem Understanding to Problem Solving in the Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 651-658
  Karin Slegers; Pieter Duysburgh; An Jacobs
When describing the design process in product innovation, many authors identify phases that can be described as 'problem analysis' and 'generating ideas'. Several techniques are available to support design teams in each of these phases, but it remains a challenge to move from understanding a problem to coming up with ideas for concepts that might solve the problem. In addition, some of these techniques have counterproductive social side effects, which in fact may impede creativity in a design team. In this paper we describe a new technique for product idea generation called the 'relay ideation' technique. This technique was developed to help design teams move from understanding a problem to thinking creatively and concretely about the problem in order to generate concepts for innovative products or services. The technique is illustrated with a case study about IT applications for hearing-impaired children.
Keywords: Ideation; techniques; conceptualization; design team
The Effect of Stress on Cognitive Load Measurement BIBAKFull-Text 659-666
  Dan Conway; Ian Dick; Zhidong Li; Yang Wang; Fang Chen
Human physiological signals have been widely used to non-invasively measure cognitive load (CL) during task execution. A major challenge for CL detection is the presence of stress, which may affect physiological measurements in ways that confound reliable detection of CL. In this experiment we investigated the effect of stress on cognitive load measurement using galvanic skin response (GSR) as a physiological index of CL. The experiment utilized feelings of lack of control, task failure and social-evaluation to induce stress. Mean GSR values were shown to be significantly different between CL levels in the 'no-stress' condition, but not when including the 'stress' condition. On the other hand, features extracted from GSR signals based on peak detection exhibited consistent behaviour under both conditions, demonstrating the usefulness of the features as cognitive load index even when a person's stress level is fluctuating.
Keywords: Cognitive load; galvanic skin response (GSR); stress
The PEW Framework for Worth Mapping BIBAKFull-Text 667-674
  Fatoumata Camara; Gaëlle Calvary; Rachel Demumieux
In Human Computer Interaction, it is more and more clear that usability is not enough. In order to take into account the other criteria that may be relevant for design, G. Cockton introduced the notion of "worth" and the Worth Centered Design (WCD) framework for its operationalization. The WCD framework structures the development process and provides designers with a set of tools, including Worth Maps (WMs).
   Worth maps connect systems attributes to human ones, and as such represent a promising tool. However, they remain understudied and under-experimented.
   This paper presents the results of our experience with WMs. More precisely, it proposes the PEW (Perceived and Expected Worth) framework for worth mapping, reports findings from a study conducted with 5 experts regarding many aspects of WMs, and discusses future directions for research.
Keywords: Interactive systems design; worth; Worth Maps (WMs)
The Profile of Law Clerks Using Judiciary Informatics in Turkey BIBAKFull-Text 675-680
  Zerrin Sungur; Özlem Alpu; Özlem Oktal; Berna Yazici
The automation of judicial services got it's start in 1998 in Turkey. In order to increase performance and productivity of these services many regulations have been made in parallel with the innovations and improvements realized in the sector of information technologies. There are many internal users using the judiciary informatics such as chief judges, judges, attorneys general, solicitors, prison officers and law clerks. The aim of this study is to analyze the profile of the law clerks using judiciary informatics in Turkey and evaluate their uses of judiciary informatics in terms of the dimensions of performance and effort expectancy, attitude toward using technology, security and risk and anxiety. Web based questionnaire, which was prepared as a five-point Likert type scale including 4898 law clerks, was analyzed through factor analysis. The empirical research was carried out between July and August 2012 in Turkey.
Keywords: law clerks; e-government; judiciary informatics; Turkey
Towards a Communication System for People with Athetoid Cerebral Palsy BIBAKFull-Text 681-688
  Yohan Guerrier; Christophe Kolski; Franck Poirier
Communication is an important act in the development and empowerment of human beings. Through language, humans communicate their needs, desires, moods... Unfortunately, many physical and mental disabilities deprive some people of such communication means. Nowadays various Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) systems exist in order to help people with disabilities. Virtual keyboards are the most common AAC systems for physical disabilities. Concerning mental disability, there are tools based on pictograms. This paper is divided into two parts. First, we put forward a critical review of various AAC systems with a focus on users with athetoid cerebral palsy. Second, the paper presents work in progress concerning a communication system for such users.
Keywords: Communication; mobility; cerebral palsy (CP); slurred speech; communication aid; COMMOB
Towards Supporting the Existing Workplace Practices of a Community of Brazilian Healthcare Professionals BIBAKFull-Text 689-696
  Roberto Calderon; Sidney Fels; Junia Anacleto
With the increasing affordability of computers, displays and telecommunications, the scenario of introducing digital Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into communities with little or no previous exposure to computing has become common place. Understanding how ICT affects the functioning of such communities is important for determining design and introduction strategies that can minimize the disruption of well established practices in said scenarios. We designed and introduced a ticketing system within a community of Brazilian healthcare professionals that have little or no previous exposure to computing. Visualizing individual people led to tasks directed towards particular individuals. Visualizing people interactions promoted open-ended and communal tasks. We observed that professionals circumvented the original design of the system to introduce unimplemented functionalities and support their well-established social-based information management practices.
Keywords: Visualization; Situated Displays; Healthcare; Collaboration; Social Capital
Traveller: An Interactive Cultural Training System Controlled by User-Defined Body Gestures BIBAKFull-Text 697-704
  Felix Kistler; Elisabeth André; Samuel Mascarenhas; André Silva; Ana Paiva; Nick Degens; Gert Jan Hofstede; Eva Krumhuber; Arvid Kappas; Ruth Aylett
In this paper, we describe a cultural training system based on an interactive storytelling approach and a culturally-adaptive agent architecture, for which a user-defined gesture set was created. 251 full body gestures by 22 users were analyzed to find intuitive gestures for the in-game actions in our system. After the analysis we integrated the gestures in our application using our framework for full body gesture recognition. We further integrated a second interaction type which applies a graphical interface controlled with freehand swiping gestures.
Keywords: User Defined Gestures; Kinect; Full Body Tracking; Depth Sensor; Interaction; Interactive Storytelling; Cultural Training
Usability Guidelines for Mobile Devices: Length of Hyperlinks BIBAKFull-Text 705-712
  Eva Garcia-Lopez; Antonio Garcia-Cabot; Luis de-Marcos; Jose-Ramon Hilera
The use of mobile devices is increasing in recent years, and their characteristics are different from those of computers (keyboard and screen size, interaction method, etc.), so it is important to specifically study the usability of these devices. This paper presents an experiment carried out with users to find the correct length (from the point of view of usability) of hyperlinks in mobile devices. A real mobile device has been used for the experiment, as well as more than 20 users. The experiment compared three different lengths of hyperlinks and it concluded that users prefer hyperlinks as short as possible and they are identified better when the text is not justified.
Keywords: Hyperlinks; usability; guidelines; mobile devices
User-Centered Design between Cultures: Designing for and with Immigrants BIBAKFull-Text 713-720
  Jan Bobeth; Stephanie Schreitter; Susanne Schmehl; Stephanie Deutsch; Manfred Tscheligi
Immigrants represent a substantial part of European society. After emigration, they can suffer from fundamental changes in their socio-economic environment. Therefore, supportive ICT services (e.g. for language learning or job search) have high potential to ease inclusion, especially for newly arrived immigrants with low education. Within an international research project we involve Turkish and Arabic immigrants in a user-centered design (UCD) process with the goal to develop supportive ICT services for smartphones. In this paper, we present our methodological experiences and discuss benefits and drawbacks of methods. Based thereupon, we formulate concrete implications for successful UCD with immigrants, e.g. collaborating with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) or benefiting from reflections of long term-immigrants.
Keywords: User-Centered Design; Immigrants; Diversity; Method
Using Graphical Representations to Support the Calculation of Infusion Parameters BIBAKFull-Text 721-728
  Sandy J. J. Gould; Anna L. Cox; Duncan P. Brumby
A variety of medical procedures require arithmetic calculations to be performed. These calculations can be complex and induce errors that can have serious consequences on the ward. In this paper, we consider whether a graphical representation might make these calculations easier. The results of a laboratory experiment are reported in which participants were asked to solve a number of infusion parameter problems that were represented either graphically or textually. Results show that participants were faster but no more accurate in solving graphical problems than they were textual problems. We discuss the need for situated work to be conducted that builds on these initial findings to determine whether the advantages of graphical representations transfer to actual workplace settings.
Keywords: Graphical reasoning; infusion pumps; re-representation; calculation
Visual Conversational Interfaces to Empower Low-Literacy Users BIBAKFull-Text 729-736
  Sheetal K. Agarwal; Jyoti Grover; Arun Kumar; Monia Puri; Meghna Singh; Christian Remy
Mobile phones have come a long way from being plain voice calling devices to becoming multipurpose handy tools powered by ever increasing new applications available on-the-go. For many, the mobile phone of today has become the essential device one does not leave home without. However, for a large percentage of human population mobile phone apps are not of much use as they are not literate or IT savvy enough to be able to benefit from them. Recent advances in voice-based telecom information systems enable underprivileged and low-literacy users to access and offer online services without requiring expensive devices or specialized technical knowledge. However, voice applications are limited in their capability due to their time consuming nature. In this paper, we demonstrate an interaction modality that combines the power of voice communication with graphical interfaces in smartphones to break the barrier of illiteracy.
Keywords: Diversity; HCI4D; Information Sharing; ICTD; User-Centered Design; Interactive Voice Systems; Smartphones; India
Visual Indication while Sharing Items from a Private 3D Portal Room UI to Public Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 737-744
  Minna Pakanen; Leena Arhippainen; Jukka H. Vatjus-Anttila; Olli-Pekka Pakanen
In this paper, we describe the user experience evaluation results of a 3D Portal Room UI for sharing 3D objects from private space to remote public virtual environments. The user evaluation with 30 participants was conducted with a functional prototype and additional high quality images that were printed on paper sheets. The evaluation indicated that participants liked this way of sharing objects and found it also useful. However, it also raised some privacy concerns, especially if the target virtual environment was perceived as public. Evaluation elicited that the visual indication while sharing objects is important; therefore, designers of 3D virtual environments should prefer a distinguishable glow around the shared object and portal.
Keywords: Portals; 3D user interface; virtual environment; user interaction; visual indication; user experience
Web Design for Science Museum towards Engaging User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 745-754
  Mohd Syaheezam Asyraq Yamin; Eswati Azni Jaafar
Nowadays, exhibition experience is no longer defined by physical visits. Increasing a person's knowledge about a subject tends to increase their interest in it, thus improve attendance and support for the exhibition. This research analyses and conduct comparison studies regarding website elements featured in 30 science museums around the world. Consequently, this produces an overview of one effective model for Website design; a user-centered process that includes techniques for need assessment, methodology, goal/task analysis, user interface design, and finally pre/post prototyping.
Keywords: User Experience; Usability; Web Design; Science Museum

Industry Tracks

Lessons Learned from Designing Non-traditional Interfaces for Educational Applications in South Africa BIBAKFull-Text 755-763
  Michael Wolf
As a specialised design consultancy for interactive learning environments and tools, Formula D interactive has gained valuable project experience in designing nontraditional interfaces for digital educational content and tools in the culturally diverse context of South Africa. The aim of this paper is to share the company's experience in the field using prominent examples of their recent work, related research and user testing in order to discuss the merit of large-scale interactive surfaces, gesture-based and tangible interfaces in culturally diverse contexts. The company's work includes interactive displays for science centres and museums as well as digital learning tools for classroom environments.
Keywords: Non-traditional interfaces; interaction design; tangible interaction; gesture-based interaction; Locomotion interfaces; interactive surfaces; multitouch; interactive learning environments; HCI examples
The Bigger Picture: The Use of Mobile Photos in Shopping BIBAKFull-Text 764-771
  Maryam Tohidi; Andrew Warr
Mobile phones are becoming, if not already, an integral part of our lives. They have a wide range of applications, such as communication, gaming and commerce. Shopping in particular is a rapidly growing domain. Today, shoppers use their phones to make more informed shopping decisions by researching products and merchants, save money using price comparison, mobile coupons and daily deal apps, even purchase products directly on a mobile device. While mobile commerce and shopping apps are in the spotlight, one area that has received little attention is the role of the native capabilities of a mobile phone, such as the mobile camera, in the shopping process. This paper demonstrates the key role mobile photos play in the shopping process, documenting use cases, practices and pain points, and informing opportunity areas for mobile shopping applications and services.
Keywords: Mobile; Phones; Cameras; Shopping; Photos