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INT Tables of Contents: 01030507-107-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-415-115-215-315-4

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'11: Human-Computer Interaction 2011-09-05

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERACT'11: IFIP TC13 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV
Note:Building Bridges
Editors:Pedro Campos; Nicholas Graham; Joaquim Jorge; Nuno Nunes; Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler
Location:Lisbon, Portugal
Dates:2011-Sep-05 to 2011-Sep-09
Volume:4
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 6949
Standard No:hcibib: INT11-4; ISBN: 978-3-642-23767-6 (Print) 978-3-642-23768-3 (Online)
Papers:145
Pages:747
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. INT 2011-09-05 Volume 4
    1. Usable Privacy and Security
    2. User Experience I
    3. User Experience II
    4. User Experience III
    5. User Modelling
    6. Visualization
    7. Web Interaction
    8. Demos
    9. Doctoral Consortium
    10. Industrial Papers
    11. Interactive Posters
    12. Organization Overviews
    13. Panels
    14. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)
    15. Tutorials
    16. Workshops

INT 2011-09-05 Volume 4

Usable Privacy and Security

A Field Study of User Behavior and Perceptions in Smartcard Authentication BIBAKFull-Text 1-17
  Celeste Lyn Paul; Emile L. Morse; Aiping Zhang; Yee-Yin Choong; Mary Frances Theofanos
A field study of 24 participants over 10 weeks explored user behavior and perceptions in a smartcard authentication system. Ethnographic methods used to collect data included diaries, surveys, interviews, and field observations. We observed a number of issues users experienced while they integrated smartcards into their work processes, including forgetting smartcards in readers, forgetting to use smartcards to authenticate, and difficulty understanding digital signatures and encryption. The greatest perceived benefit was the use of an easy-to-remember PIN in replacement of complicated passwords. The greatest perceived drawback was the lack of smartcard-supported applications. Overall, most participants had a positive experience using smartcards for authentication. Perceptions were influenced by personal benefits experienced by participants rather than an increase in security.
Keywords: Human factors; multi-factor authentication; security; smartcard
Improving Computer Security Dialogs BIBAKFull-Text 18-35
  Cristian Bravo-Lillo; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Julie S. Downs; Saranga Komanduri; Manya Sleeper
Security dialogs warn users about security threats on their computers; however, people often ignore these important communications. This paper explores the links between warning dialog design and user understanding of, motivation to respond to, and actual response to computer security warnings. We measured these variables through a 733-participant online study that tested a set of four existing computer security warnings and two redesigned versions of each across low- and high-risk conditions. In some cases our redesigned warnings significantly increased participants' understanding and motivation to take the safest action; however, we were not able to show that participants' responses were differentiated between low and high risk conditions. We also observed that motivation seemed to be a more important predictor of taking the safest action than understanding. However, other factors that may contribute to this behavior warrant further investigation.
Keywords: Security warning dialog; usable security
Usable Privacy and Security in Personal Health Records BIBAKFull-Text 36-43
  Inma Carrión; José Luis Fernández Alemán; José Ambrosio Toval Álvarez
PHRs (Personal Health Records) store individuals' personal health information. Access to this data is controlled by the patient, rather than by the health care provider. Companies such as Google and Microsoft are establishing a leadership position in this emerging market. In this context, the need for psychological acceptability in privacy and security protection mechanisms is essential. Any privacy and security mechanism must be acceptable from a usability perspective. This paper presents a study of the privacy policies of 22 free web-based PHRs. Security and privacy characteristics have been extracted according to the ISO/TS 13606-4 standard. In general, quite a good level was observed in the characteristics analyzed. Nevertheless, some improvements could be made to current PHR privacy policies to enhance the management of other users' data, the notification of changes to the privacy policy to users and the audit of accesses to users' PHRs.
Keywords: Usable privacy; usable security; PHRs; healthcare
Shining Chrome: Using Web Browser Personas to Enhance SSL Certificate Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 44-51
  Max-Emanuel Maurer; Alexander De Luca; Tobias Stockinger
Average users lack the technical expertise to understand SSL certificates and security is not their primary goal. Thus, it is very hard to create a notable impact on user behavior using SSL-status indicators. However, with the introduction of web browser Personas (simple skins) as a possibility to change the browser's chrome, it becomes possible to provide a large status indicator without wasting screen real estate. In this work, we present an evaluation of Personas to represent the current SSL status combined with newly designed SSL warning messages, both in the lab and in the field. Results suggest that the concepts positively influenced security awareness.
Keywords: SSL certificates; Security Awareness; Security

User Experience I

Ambient Displays: Influencing Movement Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 52-65
  Tasos Varoudis
Ambient displays are gradually augmenting the principal static elements of architecture, such as walls, transforming space into a dynamic and ever-changing environment. Does the addition of such digital elements influence people's perception and understanding of space around them? If so, do ambient displays lead to behavioral changes like people's movement in such environments? In this particular study, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate public interior spaces with embedded ambient displays. The findings are then presented showing how the presence of an ambient display through its visual depth affects and changes movement patterns. This study discusses the ability of an ambient display to refine navigation paths and suggests that its visual depth can enhance its effectiveness.
Keywords: Ambient displays; human navigation; built environment; visual perception
Three User-Driven Innovation Methods for Co-creating Cloud Services BIBAKFull-Text 66-83
  Ting-Ray Chang; Eija Kaasinen
The role of users in design is changing from one of passive research subjects to one of active co-designers. Users are the best experts of their everyday life experiences, making them great potential sources of innovation. User-driven innovation requires methods by which user ideas can be captured and worked on further with designers. In this paper, we describe our experiences of three different methods to co-create cloud services. Our aim was to innovate with users how open access to telecommunication data such as user location, user profile and usage logs could be utilised in cloud services. The user-driven innovation methods included focus group, crowdsourcing in an open web lab and face-to-face interaction in an open innovation showroom. We compare these three methods and identify the best usage possibilities for each. We propose guidance on selecting user-driven innovation methods based on the available resources and targeted results.
Keywords: User-Driven Innovation; Co-creation; Cloud Services; HCI research methods; Focus Group; Crowdsourcing; Open Web Lab (Owela); Open Innovation Showroom (Ihme)
Designing for the Secondary User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 84-91
  Ole Andreas Alsos; Dag Svanæs
Computer systems are first and foremost designed for primary users. The needs of the other types of users, such as secondary users, are often overlooked. These users are not interacting with the system directly but are yet affected by it. This study is based on empirical findings from two usability evaluations in a realistic hospital setting with physicians and patient actors. We have found that also secondary users, such as patients, have a kind of user experience during the primary user's interaction with the system. We conclude from this that designers and developers should also address the need of secondary users and include them in the design and evaluation process. This means designing devices or GUIs that (1) support non-verbal communication, (2) provide feedback to the secondary users, (3) use their language and representation, and (4) is tailored for the secondary user. Sometimes a focus on the secondary user implies that the designer must deal with conflicting needs between the primary and the secondary users.
Keywords: User experience; UX; end user; secondary user; secondary user experience; patient experience; clinical simulation; usability evaluation
Engaging Visitors in Museums with Technology: Scales for the Measurement of Visitor and Multimedia Guide Experience BIBAKFull-Text 92-99
  Mohd Kamal Othman; Helen Petrie; Christopher Power
Mobile technologies such as multimedia guides (MMGs) are now an important part of the visitor experience in museums and other cultural spaces. We report the development of two scales to measuring visitors' museum experiences: the Museum Experience Scale (MES) and the Multimedia Guide Scale (MGS); these quantitative measures can helpfully complement qualitative information about visitor experience. A standard psychometric methodology was used in the development of these scales: from a large set of potentially relevant statements, 57 were chosen and 255 people rated a museum experience (102 of whom had used a multimedia guide). A Principal Components analysis yielded a four factor solution for the MES (Engagement, Knowledge/Learning, Meaningful Experience and Emotional Connection) and a three factor solution for the MMGS (General Usability, Learnability and Control, Quality of Interaction). Comparing respondents who used a MMG during their museum visit with those who did not, there was a significant difference on the Engagement component of the MES, with respondents who used a MMG being significantly more engaged. The other components of the MES did not show significant differences.
Keywords: Museums; cultural spaces; user experience; multimedia guides; audio guides

User Experience II

An Image of Electricity: Towards an Understanding of How People Perceive Electricity BIBAFull-Text 100-117
  Yoram Chisik
Although an enormous amount of research effort has been devoted to understanding people's energy consumption habits, visualizing their consumption and finding ways of motivating them towards more sustainable behaviours we are still in the dark with regards to people's basic perception of electricity, their concept of what electricity is and their notion of the consumption rates of various electrical devices. In this study we have employed a sketching methodology to elicit people's basic mental image of what electricity is, how they conceive of the electrical infrastructure in their home and which devices they think represent the largest drain on their wallets. Preliminary analysis of the results show that people do not have a clear mental model of electricity and tend to associate the size of the device and the duration of use with higher rates of consumption regardless of the type of device, the type of use it is put to and its actual consumption level.
Structuring the Collaboration of Multiple Novice Design Ethnographers: Towards a New User Research Approach BIBAKFull-Text 118-135
  Paul Gault; Catriona Macaulay; Graham Johnson; Judith Masthoff
This paper proposes a new design research method to support businesses engaging in the innovation of products and services intended for use in public spaces. Increasing numbers of companies are turning to detailed user/consumer research often based on ideas from the design ethnography community. In an increasingly complex and fast moving business world, there is a need for faster user research that also provides a wider focus on the situation under investigation. A potential solution is using a larger number of fieldworkers on one study. As it would be difficult and costly to utilise many experienced design ethnographers, this may also involve the use of novices. This paper describes the development of a method for adapting existing practices to the emerging context outlined above (i.e. large numbers of fieldworkers, not all of whom necessarily have experience in ethnography). We discuss 3 field studies that show how the method can be applied and how it has been fine-tuned based on the outcomes. This method involves multiple groups of fieldworkers situated at a range of public spaces and each assigned with a specific theme of interest. The wealth of material that this fieldwork activity produces is then digested and insights are generated from it to help inform an understanding of existing behaviour within public space. This paper shows that fieldwork can be reduced to a set of simple tasks that can be successfully distributed over a group of novices facilitated by an experienced design ethnographer. This work will be extended further so that it can be applied as part of a toolkit for use in businesses where there is no established culture of utilising this type of user research.
Keywords: Ethnography; Crowdsourcing; Fieldwork; Innovation; Methodology; Public Space
Customer Experience Modeling: Designing Interactions for Service Systems BIBAKFull-Text 136-143
  Jorge Teixeira; Lia Patrício; Nuno Jardim Nunes; Leonel Nóbrega
Designers aspire to create engaging and desirable experiences. To that end they study users, aiming to better understand their preferences, ways of thinking and desired outcomes. In the service sector this task is more intricate as experiences encompass the whole customer journey, or the sequence of moments of interaction between customer and company. In services, one poorly designed interaction can severely compromise the overall experience. Despite experience holistic nature, current methods address its components separately, failing to provide an overall systematized picture. This paper presents Customer Experience Modeling, a novel multidisciplinary approach to systematize, represent and evaluate customer experiences to guide service and interaction design efforts. We illustrate this method with an application to a multimedia service provider built upon 17 interviews with service users.
Keywords: Customer Experience; User Experience; User Modeling; Service Design
User Experience Research in the Semiconductor Factory: A Contradiction? BIBAKFull-Text 144-151
  Marianna Obrist; Wolfgang Reitberger; Daniela Wurhofer; Florian Förster; Manfred Tscheligi
No doubt, user experience (UX) has become of high relevance within the HCI community. Within this paper, we present initial results from a qualitative study on UX in the factory context, more precisely in a semiconductor factory. We highlight the challenges of performing UX research in this particular context and the usefulness of probes for collecting feedback from operators in the factory context within in a limited timespan. The results provide an initial rich description of the operator's everyday experiences in a semiconductor factory. From a designer's point of view, this allows for a more empathic interaction design informed by a subjective operator perspective.
Keywords: user experience; factory context; probing; user study

User Experience III

Client's Temporal Trajectory in Child Protection: Piecing Information Together in a Client Information System BIBAKFull-Text 152-169
  Saila Huuskonen; Pertti Vakkari
Our study focuses on the information needed for overviews by social workers in child protection, and how information is presented in client information systems (CIS). Data consists of semi-structured interviews and social workers' observations while they used CIS in their daily work. The analysis was structured by the concept of temporal trajectory. We identified three major interconnected information strands: concern, child's private life and institutional actions. Their temporal lengths and aspects are disparate. CIS offers modest temporal overviews of clients' cases. Representing information strands as timelines on the interface would provide better overviews.
Keywords: client information system; child protection; temporality; work tasks
Unsupervised Parameter Selection for Gesture Recognition with Vector Quantization and Hidden Markov Models BIBAKFull-Text 170-177
  Przemyslaw Glomb; Michal Romaszewski; Arkadiusz Sochan; Sebastian Opozda
This article presents an investigation of a heuristic approach for unsupervised parameter selection for gesture recognition system based on Vector Quantization (VQ) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The two stage algorithm which uses histograms of distance measurements is proposed and tested on a database of natural gestures recorded with motion capture glove. Presented method allows unsupervised estimation of parameters of a recognition system, given example gesture recordings, with savings in computation time and improved performance in comparison to exhaustive parameter search.
Keywords: Gesture recognition; Vector Quantization; Hidden Markov Model; automatic parameter selection
Number Entry Interfaces and Their Effects on Error Detection BIBAKFull-Text 178-185
  Patrick Oladimeji; Harold W. Thimbleby; Anna Louise Cox
A significant amount of interaction involves number entry. The purpose of any number entry interface is to accurately select or set a numeric value. There are two main styles of number entry interfaces found on medical devices: serial interfaces like the ubiquitous 12-key numeric keypad, and incremental interfaces that use a knob or a pair of keys to increase or decrease numbers. We report an experiment that investigates the effect of interface design on error detection in number entry. The initial findings show that the incremental interface produces more accurate inputs than the serial interface, and the magnitude of errors suggests that the incremental interface could reduce the death rate relative to the numeric keypad.
Keywords: number entry; data entry; error detection
An Exploration of the Utilization of Electroencephalography and Neural Nets to Control Robots BIBAKFull-Text 186-194
  Dan Szafir; Robert Signorile
It has long been known that as neurons fire within the brain they produce measurable electrical activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) is the measurement and recording of these electrical signals using sensors arrayed across the scalp. The idea of Brain-Computer interfaces (BCIs), which allow the control of devices using brain signals, naturally present themselves to many extremely useful applications including prosthetic devices, restoring or aiding in communication and hearing, military applications, video gaming and virtual reality, and robotic control, and have the possibility of significantly improving the quality of life of many disabled individuals. The purpose of this research is to examine an off the shelf EEG system, the Emotiv EPOC© System, as a cost-effective gateway to non-invasive portable EEG measurements and to build a BCI to control a robot, the Parallax Scribbler®. We built middleware to interpret the outputs from the Emotiv and map them into commands for the Scribbler robot.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction; Computer Human Interface; Control Systems; Neural networks
Social Translucence as a Theoretical Framework for Sustainable HCI BIBAFull-Text 195-203
  Mary Barreto; Evangelos Karapanos; Nuno Jardim Nunes
Motivating sustainable behaviors is increasingly becoming an important topic in the HCI community. While a substantial body of work has focused on the role of peer-pressure through social networks, we argue that the community has largely overlooked the importance of strong social ties and specifically those of family members. We propose the theory of Social Translucence as a theoretical framework for understanding how eco-feedback interfaces can integrate with and support existing communication practices within families. We report on our ethnographic inquiry involving a day reconstruction study followed by in-depth interviewing with 12 families, which took place during a six-month deployment of an eco-feedback interface. Through our study we attempt to inquire into how eco-feedback interfaces: a) raise mutual awareness of family members' consumption behaviors, and b) induce feelings of accountability on individuals regarding their consumption behaviors.

User Modelling

A Revised Mobile KLM for Interaction with Multiple NFC-Tags BIBAKFull-Text 204-221
  Paul Holleis; Maximilian Scherr; Gregor Broll
The Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) is a model for predicting the execution time of routine tasks. Initially, it had been devised for standard keyboard-desktop settings but an extension of this model for interactions with mobile phones has been described by Holleis et al. [10]. We propose a considerable update of this KLM focusing on NFC-based applications and interactions which are continuously gaining interest. Insufficiencies within the previous model regarding operators for Pointing, Mental Acts, and System Response Time are treated. We present the results of several studies conducted in order to update the values of these operators. A specific focus is put on the differences between static (NFC tags behind a printed poster or object) and dynamic interfaces (tagged displays or projections). Finally, we validate our results by modeling two applications with the former and the proposed model. The latter performed consistently better when compared with measurements from real user interaction data.
Keywords: Keystroke-level model (KLM); mobile device interaction; Near Field Communication (NFC); static / dynamic multi-tag interaction
The Entropy of a Rapid Aimed Movement: Fitts' Index of Difficulty versus Shannon's Entropy BIBAKFull-Text 222-239
  R. William Soukoreff; Jian Zhao; Xiangshi Ren
A thought experiment is proposed that reveals a difference between Fitts' index of difficulty and Shannon's entropy, in the quantification of the information content of a series of rapid aimed movements. This implies that the contemporary Shannon formulation of the index of difficulty is similar to, but not identical to, entropy. Preliminary work is reported toward developing a model that resolves the problem. Starting from first principles (information theory), a formulation for the entropy of a Fitts' law style rapid aimed movement is derived, that is similar in form to the traditional formulation. Empirical data from Fitts' 1954 paper are analysed, demonstrating that the new model fits empirical data as well as the current standard approach. The novel formulation is promising because it accurately describes human movement data, while also being derived from first principles (using information theory), thus providing insight into the underlying cause of Fitts' law.
Keywords: Fitts' law; Human Performance Modelling; Entropy
The Difference Matters: Benchmarking Visual Performance of a Cognitive Pilot Model BIBAKFull-Text 240-247
  Florian Frische; Andreas Lüdtke
In this paper we introduce an approach to objectively validate visual performance of a cognitive pilot model using benchmarks of human performance. A study with 16 human airline pilots and two competing models has been conducted in order to validate visual performance of the models applying these benchmarks. The study shows that human performance benchmarks can support analysts with a powerful and easy to use method for validation of human performance models. The benchmark is part of a larger-scale method, which will be developed in order to evaluate human factors issues of future HCI-concepts in early stages of system design.
Keywords: Human Performance Modelling; Validation; Analysis; Goodness-of-Fit Measures
Visual Search in Radial Menus BIBAKFull-Text 248-255
  Krystian Samp; Stefan Decker
Menu research has focused predominantly on linear menus (e.g., cascading menus). Little is known about user behavior with radial menus, which have been around for some time. The paper investigates the order in which users find items in radial menus. We analyze data collected in a controlled experiment and define serial position for items laid out in a circular fashion. For the first level (ring), the serial positions start at 12 o'clock position and alternate between both sides of the ring. For subsequent levels, the serial positions follow distance from a parent item. The defined search pattern yields strong fit and has substantial effect on search performance. We discuss the results in the context of radial menu design.
Keywords: Visual search; search patterns; radial menus; pie menus

Visualization

Analytic Trails: Supporting Provenance, Collaboration, and Reuse for Visual Data Analysis by Business Users BIBAKFull-Text 256-273
  Jie Lu; Zhen Wen; Shimei Pan; Jennifer C. Lai
In this paper, we discuss the use of analytic trails to support the needs of business users when conducting visual data analysis, focusing particularly on the aspects of analytic provenance, asynchronous collaboration, and reuse of analyses. We present a prototype implementation of analytic trail technology as part of Smarter Decisions (a web-based visual analytic tool, with the goal of helping business users derive insights from structured and unstructured data. To understand the value and shortcomings of trails in supporting visual analytic tasks in business environments, we performed a user study with 21 participants. While the majority of participants found trails to be useful for capturing and understanding the provenance of an analysis, they viewed trails as more valuable for personal use rather than for communicating the analytic process to other people as part of a collaboration. Study results also indicate that rich search mechanisms for easily finding relevant trails (or portions of a trail) is critical to the successful adaptation and reuse of existing saved trails.
Keywords: Information visualization; Visual data analysis; Analytic provenance; Asynchronous collaboration; Analysis reuse
Exploration Views: Understanding Dashboard Creation and Customization for Visualization Novices BIBAKFull-Text 274-291
  Micheline Elias; Anastasia Bezerianos
With the increase of visualization platforms targeting novices, researchers are now focusing on gathering insights regarding novice user practices. We describe the design and evaluation of Exploration Views (EV), a system that allows novice visualization users to easily build and customize Business Intelligence information dashboards. EV provides an intuitive environment for dynamically creating, rearranging, searching and exploring multiple visual data representations from diverse data-sources. These aspects aid users to better retrieve, experiment and familiarize themselves with their data. We evaluated EV with both novice and expert dashboard designers and report here (i) how novice users interact with the system, (ii) differences in how novice and expert users react to a dashboard systems that targets both, and (iii) provide new design guidelines for practitioners building dashboard applications, on the needs of novice visualization users.
Keywords: synchronized views; interface customization; novice users; visual queries; business intelligence dashboards
Patient Development at a Glance: An Evaluation of a Medical Data Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 292-299
  Margit Pohl; Sylvia Wiltner; Alexander Rind; Wolfgang Aigner; Silvia Miksch; Thomas Turic; Felix Drexler
This paper describes the results of an evaluation study of a prototype for the visualization of time-oriented medical data. Subjects were nine physicians. The prototype combines well-known visual representation techniques and extensive interaction techniques. The aim of the study was to assess the system's usability and whether the prototype solved relevant problems of physicians in hospitals. It was found that one of the great advantages of the system was that it allowed physicians to see the development of the patients at one glance. It was also shown that users clearly preferred an easy to learn and understand design and familiar visualizations.
Keywords: interaction techniques; user study; time-orientated data; visual exploration; medical data
Evaluation of HaloDot: Visualization of Relevance of Off-Screen Objects with over Cluttering Prevention on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 300-308
  Tiago Gonçalves; Ana Paula Afonso; Maria Beatriz Carmo; Paulo Pombinho de Matos
The complexity of presenting and exploring large amounts of graphical data, on mobile devices, increases due to their small screen size. To mitigate this problem several approaches have been proposed to give clues about objects that are located off-screen. In this paper we present a user study comparing the Halo off-screen visualization technique with HaloDot, our approach that aims to improve direction awareness, as well as, relevance of off-screen objects, and to avoid cluttering of Halos. The study shows that searching and pointing relevant Points of Interest (PoI) can be achieved faster than with Halo and that the proposed aggregation method is useful.
Keywords: Visualization; Mobile Devices; Off-Screen Objects; Relevance

Web Interaction

Using Card Sorts for Understanding Website Information Architectures: Technological, Methodological and Cultural Issues BIBAKFull-Text 309-322
  Helen Petrie; Christopher Power; Paul A. Cairns; Cagla Ozen Seneler
The card sort technique has many uses in HCI research and practice. Card sorts have traditionally been conducted with physical cards but now programs are available for this task. It is unclear if results from an online version of this technique are as reliable as the "oncard" version. This paper presents a study comparing oncard and online versions of the card sort technique for card set reflecting the information architecture (IA) of two website domains (museum and news sites). No differences were found between the two versions. However, the online version took significantly longer for participants than the oncard version, particularly for non-native English speakers. The card sort technique was also able to reveal cultural differences between mental models of British, Chinese and Indian participants of the IAs of both museum and news websites and showed that all participants have mental models that differ substantially from the typical IAs of websites in these domains.
Keywords: card sort; online card sort program; evaluation methodology; information architecture; website design; museum websites; news websites; cultural differences
The Treatment of Temporal Data in Web-Based Reservation Systems: An Inspection-Based Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 323-339
  Gerhard Knolmayer; Lukas E. Helfenstein; Viola Sini
Web-based reservation systems realize a broad variety of different and often inadequate ways of handling temporal data in their user interfaces. We compiled possible procedures for treating temporal data in reservation systems in a Morphological Box, ending up with 49 treatment options for 15 features. We initiated an usability inspection by 15 usability experts, asking for evaluation of the user-friendliness of these options and the relevance of their differences. After discussing the results we use them to develop an evaluation model. We draw profile lines to compare existing systems, weight the scores of the options by relevance factors of the features, and compute aggregate usability indicators to rank the systems. In our analysis of 60 airlines, Delta Air Lines and American Airlines reach the best results. We also show that companies that belong to the same group differ remarkably in the usability of their reservation systems.
Keywords: Temporal Data; Morphological Analysis; Reservation Systems; Usability; Usability Indicators; Usability Inspection
A Tool Support for Web Applications Adaptation Using Navigation History BIBAFull-Text 340-348
  Sergio Firmenich; Marco Winckler; Gustavo Rossi
Currently the Web is a platform for performing complex tasks which involve dealing with different Web applications. However users still have to face these tasks in a handcrafted way. In this paper we present a novel approach that combines concern-sensitive adaptation and navigation history to improve the user experience while performing a task. We have developed some simple though powerful tools for applying this approach to some typical tasks such as trip planning and house rental. We illustrate the paper with a simple though realistic case study and compare our work with others in the same field.
Web Usability Probe: A Tool for Supporting Remote Usability Evaluation of Web Sites BIBAKFull-Text 349-357
  Tonio Carta; Fabio Paternò; Vagner Figuerêdo de Santana
Usability evaluation of Web sites is still a difficult and time-consuming task, often performed manually. This paper presents a tool that supports remote usability evaluation of Web sites. The tool considers client-side data on user interactions and JavaScript events. In addition, it allows the definition of custom events, giving evaluators the flexibility to add specific events to be detected and considered in the evaluation. The tool supports evaluation of any Web site by exploiting a proxy-based architecture and enables the evaluator to perform a comparison between actual user behavior and an optimal sequence of actions.
Keywords: Tools for Usability Evaluation; Remote evaluation; Log analysis

Demos

A Demo of a Dynamic Facial UI for Digital Artists BIBAKFull-Text 358-359
  Pedro Bastos; Xenxo Alvarez; Verónica Orvalho
Character facial animation is difficult because the face of a character assumes many complex expressions. To achieve convincing visual results for animation, 3D digital artists need to prepare their characters with sophisticated control structures. One of the most important techniques to achieve good facial animation is to use facial control interfaces, also called facial user interfaces, or facial UI's. But facial UI's are usually dull and often confusing, with limited user interaction and no flexibility. We developed a concept and a working prototype of a dynamic facial UI inside the Blender [1] open-source software to allow their large community of digital artists to better control and organize the facial animation of a character. Our interactive system is running stable in the latest version of Blender and we started to build a full-face dynamic UI to show its interactive potential in a character's face.
Keywords: Accessibility and Usability; Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques; Adaptive Interfaces; Dynamic Interfaces; Facial Interfaces; Facial Rigging and Animation; Digital Artists
A Set of Customizable Games Supporting Therapy of Children with Cerebral Palsy BIBAKFull-Text 360-361
  Beant Dhillon; Areti Goulati; Ioannis Politis; Agata Raczewska; Panos Markopoulos
This research explores the potential of tangible tabletop technology for motor skills training of children with Cerebral Palsy. Therapists have emphasized the importance of customization of therapy programs to the needs of each patient. Five customizable games for the TagTiles tangible interactive gaming board are presented. These games have been developed based on feedback from 11 therapists from two clinics in the Netherlands, 9 children with Cerebral Palsy as well as 14 healthy children. The design process and the potential of this solution are briefly outlined.
Keywords: Cerebral Palsy; Motor Skills; Rehabilitation; TagTiles; Therapeutic Games; Design
Mobile Total Conversation -- Communication for All, Everywhere BIBAKFull-Text 362-363
  Erik Zetterström
This paper describes a demonstration of an open source Total Conversation client for the Android mobile phone platform. It also explains the rationale for Total Conversation and gives a brief overview of the open standards on which Total Conversation is based.
Keywords: Total Conversation; mobile; Deaf; Sign language; Video conference; Android; disabilities
Storytelling Meets the Social Web: An HTML5 Cross-Platform Application for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 364-365
  Tiago Boldt Sousa; Pedro Tenreiro; Paula Alexandra Silva; Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues
This demonstration presents a storytelling application specifically designed for older adults to share stories and thoughts. Studies claim that older adults commonly have difficulties in engaging with on-line social networks [1], but increased social inclusion and sense of well-being has been observed in those who engage [2]. While following a user-centered design approach, we have developed an HTML5 device-independent and intuitive social web application which addresses older adults' specific needs and age-related impairments, allowing them to connect to their friends and family through storytelling.
Keywords: Storytelling; Online Social Networks; User-Centered Design; Older Adults; HTML5
Tablexcel: A Multi-user, Multi-touch Interactive Tabletop Interface for Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets BIBAKFull-Text 366-369
  Guillaume Besacier
In this paper, we present Tablexcel, a tabletop interface to Microsoft Excel. Single-user, desktop-based computer applications are pervasive in our daily lives and work. An application like Microsoft Excel, a widely deployed spreadsheet application, is used by a large number of businesses and users. Often, several users will collaborate on the creation of a spreadsheet, for example exchanging Excel files by e-mail. A multi-user, multi-touch interactive tabletop could create better working conditions, but Excel is not compatible with tabletop interfaces. Tablexcel use the scripting capabilities of Excel to extract live data from Excel files, and display them in a tabletop-appropriate way. Multiple users can interact with the Tablexcel interface using tabletop interactions, like gestures or rotating windows. Tablexcel manage the collaborative aspect of the interaction and send the resulting modifications to the original Excel application, which update the formulas, graphs, macros, etc.
Keywords: Interactive tabletop; legacy application; spreadsheet; scripting

Doctoral Consortium

Assessing Short-Term Human-Robot Interaction in Public Space BIBAKFull-Text 370-373
  Jakub Zlotowski
This thesis discusses an evaluation approach for assessing social acceptance of short-term HRI in public space with special emphasis on robots seeking information from pedestrians.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction; Evaluation Methodology; Measures and Metrics; Social Acceptance
Barefooted Usability Evaluation: Addressing the Mindset, Resources and Competences BIBAKFull-Text 374-377
  Anders Bruun
Lack of usability specialists, high resource requirements and developer mindsets are three considerable barriers for introducing usability engineering into software companies. This Ph.D. project explores the effect of letting software developers and end users apply usability engineering methods instead of a specialist, a solution which may reduce the barriers.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; Training; Software Developers; End Users
Collaborative Human-Machine Communication: User-Centered Design of In-Vehicle Speech Dialog Systems BIBAFull-Text 378-381
  Linn Hackenberg
Research-area: User-centered Design, speech dialog systems, in-vehicle HMI
   Description of the research topic: Evaluation of Speech Dialog Systems that make use of collaborative strategies from human conversations by providing continuous and appropriate feedback whilst showing dynamic interaction-structures.
Development of a Methodology for Evaluating the Quality in Use of Web 2.0 Applications BIBAKFull-Text 382-385
  Tihomir Orehovacki
Quality in use is comprised of two seemingly different though interlocking concepts: usability and user experience. Consequently, complementary evaluation of pragmatic and hedonic attributes could significantly affect the acceptance of software applications. However, in the context of Web 2.0 applications this topic has still not attracted enough attention from the HCI community. Therefore we present a research aimed at developing a methodology that would facilitate the analysis and comparison of evaluated Web 2.0 applications.
Keywords: Web 2.0; Quality in Use; Usability; User Experience; Subjective and Objective Measures; Evaluation Methodology
Distortion Techniques for Sketching Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 386-389
  Paul Schmieder
Using sketching as the application domain, this research compares current distortion techniques for enlarging content. The goal is to develop a distortion lens which allows for a natural and uncomplicated drawing and writing experience on an electronic device.
Keywords: Distortion techniques to enlarge interaction spaces for ink
Evaluation of Information Classification on Websites and Impact of Culture: A Cross Country Comparison of Information Classification BIBAFull-Text 390-393
  Ather Nawaz
The structure of information classification has an important role in the usability of websites. A majority of cross cultural studies have emphasized on localized elements of interface design and termed them as cultural markers However, not many studies have pointed out on how the classification of information on the websites can be similar or different, especially for those communities who have recently joined the global community of the Internet. This research aims to investigate the information classification of users in different countries and compares it with information classification of a website. The study will evaluate how different demographical properties impacts on the information structure of websites. The study will also evaluate to what extent users' performance and productivity changes, when the information classification of website matches with the end users mental model.
Exploring New Ways of Utilizing Automated Clustering and Machine Learning Techniques in Information Visualization BIBAFull-Text 394-397
  Johann Schrammel
Research Area: Information visualization, human-computer interaction.
   Research Topic. The main research topic of the thesis is to explore the possibilities of automated clustering and machine learning techniques for developing new approaches in information visualization.
   Research Problem. The main goal of information visualization is to present data to the users in a way that optimizes intelligibility of the data and support the detection of relevant patterns in the data, where the application context defines what qualifies as 'relevant'. Many different approaches typically tailored to a specific problem have been developed within the past years. At the same time the application of mathematical methods for data analysis and identification of patterns has substantially increased, and is typically referred to as data mining. Different visualization techniques are used in data mining, however the systematic and dynamic integration of data mining techniques with visualization approaches is only in its beginning.
Exploring Serendipity's Precipitating Conditions BIBAKFull-Text 398-401
  Lori McCay-Peet
Serendipity is generally characterized as a sagacious, unsought discovery. Innovations and advances in science and engineering such as penicillin and Teflon as a result of interactions with tangible engineered and natural phenomena are often labeled serendipitous. Serendipity also results from more conceptual interactions with information, knowledge, and ideas. But how does serendipity emerge when the discovery is predominantly conceptual? What conditions in the digital environment would help facilitate less tangible but similarly unexpected and fortunate interactions for knowledge workers? The objective of my research is to approach the study of serendipity as a process involving precipitating conditions, interacting internal and external factors that either hinder or facilitate serendipity, to understand how to best facilitate serendipity in a digital, information-rich environment. This research will contribute to an emerging field of study -- support for serendipity in information systems -- that is striving to make our experiences in digital environments richer and more meaningful.
Keywords: Serendipity; precipitating conditions; information systems
Human-Computer Interaction and Human Mental Workload: Assessing Cognitive Engagement in the World Wide Web BIBAKFull-Text 402-405
  Luca Longo
Assessing the cognitive engagement of a user while seeking and consuming information over the World Wide Web is a key challenge for studying the quality of interactions. Indicators of cognitive engagement are useful for enhancing usability of interfaces, designing adaptable systems but also for analysing user behaviour and performance. For this purpose, we aim to adopt the multifaceted concept of Human Mental Workload, mainly applied in psychology and cognitive sciences, to study individual performance and user engagement in the context of Web. We aim to design a framework in which mental workload can be measured, analysed and explained. This will lead to analysis of individual and mass behaviour, guidelines and recommendation for interaction design, usability of front-end web applications and proposal of adaptive systems.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Human Mental Workload; User Engagement; Artificial Intelligence; Web-mining; Human Factors
Human-Computer Interaction for Security Research: The Case of EU E-Banking Systems BIBAFull-Text 406-409
  Caroline Moeckel
Brief Description. This short paper highlights the interaction between security and usability in e-banking security and presents objectives and difficulties for studies in this field.
   Research Area: Human-Computer Interaction for Security (E-Banking)
Information Architecture Automatization for the Semantic Web BIBAKFull-Text 410-413
  Josep Maria Brunetti; Roberto García
Our proposal is to develop generic Information Architecture components to facilitate publishing and browsing semantic data in the web, improving its usability and accessibility.
Keywords: Semantic Web; Linked Data; Information Architecture; Usability; Accessibility; Navigation; Metadata
Microinteractions to Augment Manual Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 414-417
  Katrin Wolf
This paper summarizes the first nine months of progress on my Ph.D. project. The research focus of the project is on investigating microinteractions. a sub-topic of HCI and gesture research. The project will develop a framework for applications that use microgestures to support everyday tasks through invisible and context-aware appearing interface layers underneath object-grasping hands. In an expert study that has been accepted as a full paper at INTERACT 2011, I explore the motor limitations and opportunities of microgestures while grasping objects and valued manual dual-task scenarios by walking through three tasks that involve grasping objects. The outcome of the study is a generic microgesture set for different grasp types and a collection of parameters that have a relevant effect on the choice of the grasping tasks. A further user study in progress is investigating the effect of grasped objects, such as handheld devices, on the feasibility of performing microgestures. Users are asked to perform finger-tip and drags on the front and/or back of a handheld device. The device is two-sided and touch-sensitive, it is made by stacking 2 pads together in a sandwich-like prototype. This allows tracking users' finger gestures through a camera as well as through front and touch screens. The outcome of the two mentioned studies will describe a design space for out-of-a-grasp microgestures. At the INTERACT doctoral consortium I aim to present this design space and discuss how this can serve as a basis for developing a framework of out-of-grasp microinteractions that are subtasks of grasping tasks. The microinteractions will be developed to support the grasp tasks with regard to their perceived ergonomic and hedonic qualities.
Keywords: Microinteraction; gestures; dual-task; multitask; interaction style
OPEN-HEREDEUX: OPEN HEuristic REsource for Designing and Evaluating User eXperience BIBAKFull-Text 418-421
  Llúcia Masip; Marta Oliva; Toni Granollers
The need of enhancing design and evaluation of user experience exists. We propose a resource which helps to semi automate the design and evaluation of user experience.
Keywords: User experience; evaluation resources; heuristic evaluation
Sketching Language: User-Centered Design of a Wizard of Oz Prototyping Framework BIBAFull-Text 422-425
  Stephan Schlögl
Research Area: Wizard of Oz prototyping with modern Language Technology Components
   Research Topic: This research aims at understanding the challenges involved in running Wizard of OZ experiments and searches for an optimal software interface supporting the actions of the wizard.
Time Affordances and Physical Mobility in the Context of Ubiquitous Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 426-429
  Larissa Pschetz
This research aims to use design demonstrators to speculatively explore the relation between perceived time affordances and physical mobility in the context of ubiquitous technologies.
Keywords: user experience based approaches; speculative design
Usability Evaluation in Software Development Practice BIBAFull-Text 430-433
  Marta Kristín Lárusdóttir
Brief description of the topic: Usability evaluation is explored by comparing the effectiveness of using different evaluation methods and by studying how usability evaluation is conducted by practitioners.
   Research area. Usability, evaluation, agile development, Scrum, practice
Website Customization: Exploring a Tag-Based Approach in the Australian Banking Context BIBAFull-Text 434-437
  Rajinesh Ravendran
Description: Website customization is important to better fulfill the needs and wants of individual customers. Tags assigned to web resources are suitable to facilitate website customization.
   Area: Website customization, online banking, tags

Industrial Papers

Acceptance and Speed of Animations in Business Software BIBAFull-Text 438-441
  Lisa Mattes; Martin Schrepp; Theo Held; Patrick Fischer
Well-designed animations can improve the usability of graphical user interfaces for business software. It is crucial in this area that the user considers animations to be helpful and that they do not decrease perceived work efficiency. Thus, both the acceptance of animations and the selection of an appropriate animation speed are of high importance. We investigate those aspects in three explorative studies. Results show that animated interactions are considered to be useful by a considerable majority of participants. The observed settings for the animation speed show that quite fast animations are generally preferred. We demonstrate that for some of these animations the observed settings for animation speed can be explained by cognitive modeling.
Developing Mobile Remote Collaboration Systems for Industrial Use: Some Design Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 442-445
  Leila Alem; Weidong Huang
Many real-world collaboration scenarios involve a helper remotely guiding a worker performing a task requiring the manipulation of physical objects/devices. Systems currently available for remote guiding have limitations for industrial use, particularly in terms of supporting the mobile aspect of work. To meet these needs and as part of our work for the mining industry, we have developed two systems. These systems use a wearable computer and a wearable display to support the mobile aspect of the remote collaboration. In this paper, we review existing work in remote guiding and state their limitations in relation to industrial needs. We then present two mobile remote collaboration systems that we have designed and developed to support the maintenance of mining equipments. Designing for real world use is challenging, systems need to be easy to use and be able to operate in various environmental conditions. Systems also need to support the mobility aspect of work and support different roles of the collaborators.
Keywords: Remote collaboration; mobile collaboration; remote gestures; augmented reality; usability
Experiences of Online Co-creation with End Users of Cloud Services BIBAKFull-Text 446-449
  Kaarina Karppinen; Kaisa Koskela; Camilla Magnusson; Ville Nore
This paper describes an online co-creation study done via an online co-creation platform Owela as well as shares industrial experiences and lessons learnt about the study. The Owela study was conducted in order to provide a deeper understanding of users' perceptions of cloud services and their security. By utilising the online co-creation platform it was possible to get quick and easy contact to geographically distributed cloud service users. For the company Owela offered an efficient way to apply online user participation while for the end users Owela enabled convenient participation in various co-creation activities regardless of time and place. As an end result of the study the voice of the cloud service users was turned into several new business ideas.
Keywords: Online co-creation; Owela; Cloud services; End users
Interactive Installations: Tales from the Trenches BIBAKFull-Text 450-453
  Pedro Campos; Miguel Campos; Joaquim A. Jorge
Breakthrough innovation can be interpreted as research translated into products that the market accepts. The process of market translation of several products developed by WowSystems, a Portuguese company specialized in novel interaction paradigms, is explained in this paper as a case study shedding some light into how innovation centers can better promote innovation, in the form of well-succeeded products. We describe two paradigmatic "tales from the trenches" and conclude with some guidelines that were outlined on the basis of more than three years delivering fifty interactive installations.
Keywords: Interactive Installations; Guidelines; Case Study; User Interfaces

Interactive Posters

A Conceptual Framework for Modeling Awareness Mechanisms in Collaborative Systems BIBAKFull-Text 454-457
  Fernando Gallego; Ana I. Molina; Jesús Gallardo; Crescencio Bravo
Awareness is defined as the perception of the activities being carried out by members of a team in a given context. The use of awareness support techniques reduces the effort needed to realize communicative and collaborative tasks. Therefore, this leads to an increase in group work productivity. In this article we propose a conceptual framework which improves upon the process of building interactive collaborative systems as proposed by CIAM (a methodological framework for designing interactive applications for group work) by taking the dimension of awareness into consideration.
Keywords: Awareness; Meta-modeling; Groupware
A Longitudinal Pilot Study to Evaluate Non-visual Icons in a Mobile Exertion Application BIBAFull-Text 458-461
  Huimin Qian; Ravi Kuber; Andrew Sears
This paper describes an evaluation of a mobile exertion application, developed to promote physical activity among adult users. To extend previous work, we aimed to identify changes in walking behavior over time, and to determine the efficacy of non-visual cues presented via the phone. Data was gathered using three methods: automated logging, participant-maintained diaries and interviews. Findings revealed that participants were able to respond most effectively to multimodal icons to modify their pace over a two week period. However, their preferences were noted to change depending on the situational context. The study has also highlighted the complexities associated with data collection techniques for mobile evaluations.
A Remote Multi-touch Experience to Support Collaboration between Remote Museum Visitors BIBAKFull-Text 462-465
  Ernesto Arroyo; Valeria Righi; Roger Tarrago; Josep Blat
This paper presents a collaborative experience designed to support learning in two remotely located museums sharing a common exhibition. A remote collaborative multi-touch experience offers an additional channel for museum visitors to explore the exhibition and increase the sense of connectedness and awareness between the two spaces. The experience flow includes stages offering opportunities for exploration, negotiation and cooperation. The paper describes the design and implementation of a system that allows simultaneous collaborative interaction and communication through two multi-touch surfaces augmented with videoconferencing. The system allows museum visitors to communicate with remote participants and with their peers. Finally, the paper discusses preliminary observations of end-users, and cultural organizations using the prototype. This work provides a use case for social interactive experiences that could draw museum visitors to further explore an exhibition and share their views and interpretation with others.
Keywords: Computer supported collaborative learning; multi-user interaction; informal learning; serious games; remote awareness; interactive surfaces
A Systematic Evaluation of Mobile Applications for Diabetes Management BIBAKFull-Text 466-469
  C. Martin; Derek Flood; D. Sutton; A. Aldea; Rachel Harrison; M. Waite
This short paper contains a summary of work that is currently in progress towards the development of an intelligent, personalised tool for diabetes management. A preliminary part of the development process has consisted of a systematic evaluation of existing applications for mobile phones.
Keywords: Efficiency; effectiveness; keystroke level modelling; heuristics
An Integrated Approach to Develop Interactive Software BIBAKFull-Text 470-474
  Begoña Losada; Maite Urretavizcaya; Isabel Fernández de Castro
In this poster we present InterMod, an approach that combines Agile Methods, Model-Driven Developments and User-Centered Design, which are widely accepted in the development of interactive software. The planning and project organizing are based on User Objectives (user desires). The project is organised as a series of iterations and the work is distributed in different workgroups according to some developmental and integration activities. The requirements are incrementally collected and validated with models based on user-centered design. To speed up this validation, we put forward the SE-HCI model, which enriches a human-computer interaction model with the semantics of the application and some basic characteristics of an abstract prototype.
Keywords: User-Centered Design; Agile methods; Model-Driven Development; Software Engineering
Analyzing the Level of Presence While Navigating in a Virtual Environment during an fMRI Scan BIBAKFull-Text 475-478
  Miriam Clemente; Alejandro Rodríguez; Beatriz Rey; Aina Rodríguez; Rosa María Baños; Cristina Botella; Mariano Alcañiz Raya; César Ávila
We have conducted an fMRI research using virtual reality to study the level of presence that subjects experience during the navigation through a virtual environment, in comparison with the presence felt during a video or a photograph viewing task. The fMRI results have not been analyzed yet, but responses to presence questionnaires have been analyzed. Presence levels are similar to those obtained while monitoring with other brain imaging techniques. The highest values are obtained for navigation tasks followed by video and photographs tasks.
Keywords: fMRI; presence; virtual reality; navigation; SUS questionnaire
Applying the Affinto Ontology to Develop a Text-Based Emotional Conversation System BIBAKFull-Text 479-482
  Idoia Cearreta; Nestor Garay
With the recent spread of computing systems the need to enhance interactions between users and systems is evident. Conversation systems have a key role to play in achieving this. However, further efforts are needed to enhance conversation systems that use text to interact with users. This paper presents a text conversation system that includes user emotion recognition and generation, with the aim of achieving a more natural communication. The Affinto ontology is used to perform these tasks.
Keywords: Conversational System; Affective Computing; Ontology
Augmented Mirror: Interactive Augmented Reality System Based on Kinect BIBAKFull-Text 483-486
  Lucía Vera; Jesús Gimeno; Inmaculada Coma; Marcos Fernández
In this paper we present a virtual character controlled by an actor in real time, who talks with an audience through an augmented mirror. The application, which integrates video images, the avatar and other virtual objects within an Augmented Reality system, has been implemented using a mixture of technologies: two kinect systems for motion capture, depth map and real images, a gyroscope to detect head movements, and control algorithms to manage avatar emotions.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Motion Capture; Virtual Characters
Calls for Interaction: The More the Better? User Experience of 3D Carousel and Additional Interaction Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 487-490
  S. Shyam Sundar; Saraswathi Bellur; Jeeyun Oh; Haiyan Jia
We perform a user study to investigate the psychological consequences of adding interaction techniques to the interface. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 143), we explore how (i) variations in sheer number of interaction techniques and (ii) addition of a novel technique, i.e., 3D carousel, influence the volume of users' actions, their memory, perceptions of interactivity, as well as their attitudes and behaviors toward a website. Power usage is examined as a potential moderator. First-cut findings from self-reports and log data indicate that the 3D carousel feature has a strong impact on user experience, both positive and negative. It also moderates the curvilinear effect of adding traditional interaction techniques to the interface.
Keywords: Interaction Techniques; 3D carousel; user experience; user engagement
Can Persona Facilitate Ideation? A Comparative Study on Effects of Personas in Brainstorming BIBAKFull-Text 491-494
  Xiantao Chen; Ying Liu; Ning Liu; Xiaojie Wang
Personas are results from user studies and viewed as a design and a communication tool in user-centered design processes. There were many studies addressing how to create good personas but what types of personas and how personas could help in ideation processes were less discussed in past works. In this paper, we conducted a comparative study to explore effects of personas on the ideation process and idea qualities in a brainstorming setting. The results indicated that personas could enhance the ideation process and design deliverables on two aspects: personas could help both individual designer and a group of designers focus on the target user group during the ideation process; and the delivered ideas or concepts were viewed more relevant to the user groups and were more comprehensive.
Keywords: Comparative study; Persona; Ideation; Brainstorming
Children with Special Needs: Comparing Tactile and Tangible Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 495-498
  César Ortea Suárez; Javier Marco; Sandra Baldassarri; Eva Cerezo
In this paper a comparison of the same computer game with two interaction styles is achieved: through tactile interaction in a digital board or using tangible interaction on a tabletop. Tests were carried out with children with special needs, who have different degrees of disability. The aim of the paper is to compare usability and accessibility of each interface, as well as the experiences of children playing with them. Preliminary results indicate the necessity to provide feedback continuously, both hearing and visual, in order to facilitate the understanding of each task and its progression. In addition, the outcome obtained from a questionnaire show a significant preference for the tangible version of the game.
Keywords: Tactile; tangible; digital board; tabletop; special education; game
Coupling Interaction and Physiological Metrics for Interaction Adaptation BIBAKFull-Text 499-502
  Luís Duarte; Luís Carriço
We present an adaptation system whose goal is to provide users with interaction experiences tailored to their current physiological status and performance. The system captures emotion, motion and application related metrics to proactively adjust the available interaction patterns. Interacting in different environments -- stationary/mobile -- or under different emotional status -- relaxed/stressed-- can affect performance, engagement and enjoyment. This contribution describes the initial design steps in the creation of an interaction adaptation engine.
Keywords: Physiological Signals; Adaptation; User Performance
Dual Flow Interaction: Scene Flow and Data Flow, Dual Interaction in Art Installations BIBAKFull-Text 503-506
  José Ma Alonso-Calero; Arcadio Reyes-Lecuona; Jesus Marín-Clavijo; Josefa Cano-García
In an interdisciplinary context with regards to the experience of interaction in virtual reality art installations, we propose an analysis from the point of view of exchanges between the user and the art installation, which is produced by a dual-flow: data flow and scene flow. This dual flow is defined as a double layer which in parallel has a physical component and an abstract one, the division is between a physical interaction considered as external and the virtual as internal. The purpose is to identify and focus the relationship between materials and components of the interaction experience.
Keywords: Art installation; virtual art; interaction; physical interface; virtual reality; space; scenic; scene flow; participation; spectator-user presence
Effects of Touch Screen Response Time on Psychological State and Task Performance BIBAKFull-Text 507-510
  Nozomi Sato; Kentaro Nakajima
The purpose of this study was to investigate how touch screen response time affected user's psychological state and task performance. Ten male participants performed numeric entry task on the touch screen under six different conditions by crossing speed of touch screen response for pressing buttons and of switching pages. Results suggested that the touch screen with the faster response time would be accepted more favorably than that with the slower response time. However, with regard to the results of task performance, opposite trend was obtained.
Keywords: touch screen response; psychological state; task performance
Elaborating Analysis Models with Tool Support BIBAKFull-Text 511-514
  Gregor Buchholz; Peter Forbrig
Integrating models as essential elements into the software development process is supported by numerous methods and tools but the creation of such models still bears a considerable challenge. This paper proposes a structured modeling of tasks and activities during the requirements analysis in order to pave the way for the very early utilization of models. A tool implementation demonstrates the elaboration of models based on scenarios.
Keywords: Task Models; Scenario Analysis; Model Based Development
End-User Support for Information Architecture Analysis in Interactive Web Applications BIBAKFull-Text 515-518
  Luis A. Rojas; José A. Macías
Information Architects analyze conceptual models and descriptions concerning non-functional requirements that will be later on used by Analysts and Software Engineers to design software artifacts. However, this flow of information is sometimes difficult to automate due to conceptual knowledge differences in the information processed by each expert. To facilitate this flow, in this paper we propose a CASE tool called InterArch. Our tool bridges the gap between both professionals, and it automatically generates UML diagrams for Analysts from the conceptual diagrams created by the Information Architect.
Keywords: Information Architecture; End-User Development; Analysis and Design of Interactive Web Systems
Enriching Evaluation in Video Games BIBAKFull-Text 519-522
  José Luis González Sánchez; Rosa M. Gil Iranzo; Francisco Luis Gutiérrez Vela
One of the greatest challenges to the evaluation of UX in video games is to ascertain if the experience is appropriate for the game. Thus, it is necessary to know how to measure Playability in order to analyze, optimize and adapt it to the player's preferences. However, it is also important to remember that the final satisfaction of the user depends on his or her emotional response, social and cultural influences and hedonic properties of the interaction process with a video game. In this paper we present a way to perform a UX evaluation based on Playability by adding hedonic factors. The aim is to easily and cost-effectively analyze the UX in an agile video game development process.
Keywords: Playability; UX Evaluation; Emotions; Cross-Cultural Factors
Evaluation of 3D Object Manipulation on Multi-touch Surfaces Using Unconstrained Viewing Angles BIBAKFull-Text 523-526
  Daniel Mendes; Alfredo Ferreira
Recently, considerable research has been carried out regarding three-dimensional object manipulation on multi-touch surfaces. However, most current solutions were developed having in mind scenarios with a camera perpendicular to a scene axis, and cannot be easily used to manipulate three-dimensional objects in unconstrained viewpoints. In this paper, we present and evaluate a set of object manipulation techniques. As a test bed for this study, we used an unconstrained virtual LEGO modeling tool, taking advantage of ongoing work and popularity of LEGO construction among people of all ages. From this evaluation we improved our understanding on how users prefer to manipulate 3D objects on multi-touch surfaces.
Keywords: Multi-touch interaction; 3D object manipulation; rotation; translation; user evaluation
Evaluation of an Accessible Home Control and Telecare System BIBAKFull-Text 527-530
  Fausto Sainz; Judit Casacuberta; Marta Díaz; Jaisiel Madrid
The article presents part of the research carried out within a project aimed at procuring interaction of people with disabilities and elderly with their environment through the use of information and communication technologies. We present methodological aspects related to participation models, user experience, technology acceptance and peer training. Technology was designed to test the effectiveness of systems and interfaces developed. Evaluation was conducted in an automation environment with older people as users.
Keywords: usability; accessibility; interactive system evaluation; evaluation methodology; device interaction; domotics
Experimenting and Improving Perception of 3D Rotation-Based Transitions between 2D Visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 531-534
  Maxime Cordeil; Christophe Hurter; Stéphane Conversy
Exploring a multidimensional dataset with visualization requires to transition between points of view. In order to enable users to understand transitions, visualization can employ progressive 3D rotations. However, existing implementations of progressive 3D rotation exhibit some perception problems with visualization of cluttered scene. In this paper, we present a first experiment showing how existing 3D rotation is effective for tracking marks, and that cluttered scenes actually hinder perception of rotation. Then, we propose to set the axis of rotation on the graphical marks of interest, and ran a second experiment showing that focus-centered rotation improves perception of relative arrangement.
Keywords: Information Visualization; Visual exploration; Navigation; Transition; 3D Rotation
HTML 5 Support for an Accessible User-Video-Interaction on the Web BIBAKFull-Text 535-539
  Lourdes Moreno; Paloma Martínez; Ana Iglesias; María González
Multimedia content covers the Web, and we should provide access to all people. For this reason, it is very important to take into account accessibility requirements in the player to avoid barriers and to ensure access to this multimedia content as well as their resources. One of the most frequent barriers is the technological obstacle: the necessity for the user to install the required plug-ins in to order to access video. The new standard HTML5 provides a solution to this problem. However, it does not fully support accessibility requirements of W3C standards, including WCAG and interaction requirement of UAAG. This paper introduces an overall study of this new standard in relation to accessibility requirements for the players as well as an accessible HTML5 Media Player.
Keywords: Web accessibility; video HTML 5; user agent; media players
Improving the Flexibility of Model Transformations in the Model-Based Development of Interactive Systems BIBAFull-Text 540-543
  Christian Wiehr; Nathalie Aquino; Kai Breiner; Marc Seissler; Gerrit Meixner
This paper presents an approach that adds flexibility in the varieties of user interfaces that can be generated by processes of model-based user interface development. This approach is used at design time. Ideas from this approach have been extended for use at runtime and have been applied to SmartMote, a universal interaction device for industrial environments.
In Two Minds about Usability? Rationality and Intuition in Usability Evaluations BIBAFull-Text 544-547
  Volker Thoma; Elliott P. White
Usability ratings of a university website by 60 students were analysed together with participant's self-ratings of their cognitive style. The degree of users' "rational" as well as their "intuitive" style correlated with usability evaluation scores. In particular, self-reported rational ability was connected with evaluations of Controllability, intuitive ability was related to Helpfulness scores of the interface. Thinking style significantly affects usability ratings (explaining over 9% of the ratings' variation), which has implications for evaluations across user groups.
Influence of Web Content Management Systems in Web Content Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 548-551
  Juan Miguel López; Afra Pascual; Llúcia Masip; Toni Granollers; Xavier Cardet
Web Content Management Systems (CMS) are traditionally used in institutions to allow web content management by people without technical skills. This study intends to check the influence of the CMS in the accessibility of the contents they handle. First, an accessibility analysis of six widely used CMS is performed base don the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG). Second, an accessibility analysis of a series of city council web pages managed by abovementioned CMS by using Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). Results of the study show that although web pages managed by the CMS with a better degree of ATAG fulfilment provide better accessibility, there is no direct correlation between results obtained in both evaluations. Information about what aspects cause accessibility errors in the CMS and the impact of such aspects in accessible web content management is also provided.
Keywords: Web Content Management Systems; Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines; Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
Instructional Animations: More Complex to Learn from Than at First Sight? BIBAKFull-Text 552-555
  Anna Wong; Nadine Marcus; John Sweller
This paper presents a cognitively guided set of design guidelines for instructional animations based on a review of the existing literature. The guidelines are based around a cognitive load theory framework, which assumes learners' limited working memories must be considered for instructional animations to be effective. We propose six design guidelines: (1) animations are more beneficial for learners with higher levels of prior knowledge; (2) animations are more effective for certain knowledge domains; (3) segment animations in shorter sections; (4) give learners control; (5) signal or cue important information; (6) remove details and information from instructional animations that are not necessary for learning.
Keywords: Cognitive load theory; animation; multimedia instructional design
Integrating Feedback into Wearable Controls BIBAKFull-Text 556-559
  Cátia Sousa; Ian Oakley
Wearable computing is a highly specialized application domain requiring the development of novel interaction technologies. This is due not only to the distracted and eyes busy scenarios that such systems target, but also due to the necessity of implementing highly wearable systems that take advantage of the affordances of cloth and clothing. This paper presents the design and development of three novel wearable input devices based on commonplace elements of clothing: zippers, cords strung with beads and fabric patches. These devices implement different forms of input (respectively, linear continuous, linear discrete and tagging) and are notable in that they combine input with output in the form of persistent physical feedback -- each device is designed to physically and visually resemble the digital information it controls. This paper argues that this approach is novel in the domain of wearable computing and has the potential to significantly improve usability.
Keywords: Smart textiles; wearable technology; craft materials; sensors
Intelligent Playgrounds: Measuring and Affecting Social Inclusion in Schools BIBAKFull-Text 560-563
  Olga Lyra; Evangelos Karapanos; Vassilis Kostakos
Equal access to education has recently been declared by the United Nations a basic human right [14]. However, despite the substantial attention given to inclusive education in recent years, researchers have criticized a lack of empirical evidence on how exclusion is manifested in student behavior. Recent development in sensor technology and social network analysis techniques can provide a new perspective to the impact of educational practices through the measurement of students' social interactions. In this paper we outline our research agenda that aims at a) measuring the current stand as well as the impact of inclusive educational interventions using sensor technology and sociometric analysis, and b) challenging pupils' perceptions of diversity with the aim of eliminating discriminatory behaviors in primary schools using persuasive games.
Keywords: Inclusive education; social networks; persuasive games
It Does Not Fitts My Data! Analysing Large Amounts of Mobile Touch Data BIBAKFull-Text 564-567
  Niels Henze; Susanne Boll
Touchscreens are the dominant input device for smartphones and learning about smartphone users' touch behaviour became even more important. We developed a game for Android phones to collect a truly large amount of touch data from diverse devices and players. A part of the game is designed as what we expected to be a Fitts' law task. By publishing the game in the Android Market we collected 5,359,650 micro tasks from 63,154 installations of the game. Using Fitts' law to find a model for these tasks we found a very weak correlation and an implausible high index of performance across different devices. Further analysis shows a similar correlation between time and distance as with Fitts' law but only a very weak correlation with the targets' width.
Keywords: Fitts' law; mobile phone; touch screen; app store; large-scale
Measuring Cognitive Workload with Low-Cost Electroencephalograph BIBAKFull-Text 568-571
  Avi Knoll; Yang Wang; Fang Chen; Jie Xu; Natalie Ruiz; Julien Epps; Pega Zarjam
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important physiological index of cognitive workload. While previous research has employed high-end EEG devices, this work investigates the feasibility of measuring cognitive workload with a low-cost EEG system. In our experiment, EEG signals are recorded from subjects performing silent reading tasks under different difficulty levels. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of cognitive workload evaluation even with low-cost EEG equipment.
Keywords: Cognitive workload; electroencephalography (EEG); physiological index
Model-Based Accessible User Interface Generation in Ubiquitous Environments BIBAKFull-Text 572-575
  Raúl Miñón; Julio Abascal; Amaia Aizpurua; Idoia Cearreta; Borja Gamecho; Nestor Garay
This paper presents a system that automatically generates accessible interfaces tailored to the users' capabilities and needs in order to provide them with access to ubiquitous computing environments. The aim is to ensure that people with disabilities are able to use ubiquitous services provided by intelligent machines, such as ATMs and vending machines. The tailored interfaces are generated from a formal description specified by a User Interface Description Language, and based on user and context models represented by ontologies.
Keywords: Adapted user interfaces; accessibility; ubiquitous computing
Multiuser Augmented Reality System for Indoor Exhibitions BIBAKFull-Text 576-579
  Jesús Gimeno; Ricardo Olanda; Bibiana Martinez; Fernando M. Sanchez
Over the last years, museums and galleries are looking for new ways to show exhibitions to visitors. For that purpose, new technologies like augmented reality are used. In this paper an augmented reality system for indoor exhibitions is presented. The system is formed by visualization screens that mix exhibition environment, visitors included, with multimedia and virtual 3D objects which visitors can manipulate naturally using a markers system. This system has been used in the exhibition "Valencia, tierra de comarcas: Diálogos con el patrimonio", which deals with a trip through the Valencian cultural heritage.
Keywords: Augmented reality; interaction; augmented mirror
Natural Interaction without Marks BIBAKFull-Text 580-583
  Carina S. González-González; David Cabrera-Primo; Melvin Gutierrez; Jose Sigut-Saavedra
In this paper we present a natural interaction system that simulates an interactive mirror behavior where a subject or object can appreciate in real time the effects of external agents over themselves and the causes or actions that trigger these effects. It is a low cost system and easy to use, personalize and configure, which makes it extensible to different operating sectors, especially on the education area for interactive demonstrations. The system does not use marks and realize the detection and projection of effects in real time. For the system development a technology was invented and developed that originated the patent request ES200901210.
Keywords: HCI; Natural Interaction; Adaptive interfaces; Augmentative reality
NAVI -- A Proof-of-Concept of a Mobile Navigational Aid for Visually Impaired Based on the Microsoft Kinect BIBAKFull-Text 584-587
  Michael Zöllner; Stephan Huber; Hans-Christian Jetter; Harald Reiterer
We present a proof-of-concept of a mobile navigational aid that uses the Microsoft Kinect and optical marker tracking to help visually impaired people find their way inside buildings. The system is the result of a student project and is entirely based on low-cost hard- and software. It provides continuous vibrotactile feedback on the person's waist, to give an impression of the environment and to warn about obstacles. Furthermore, optical markers can be used to tag points of interest within the building to enable synthesized voice instructions for point-to-point navigation.
Keywords: Vibrotactile User Interface; Navigation User Interface
OntoCompo: A Tool to Enhance Application Composition BIBAKFull-Text 588-591
  Christian Brel; Anne-Marie Dery-Pinna; Philippe Renevier-Gonin; Michel Riveill
Mash-ups emerged through the web 2.0 to juxtapose several applications and use them together. The next step after juxtaposition is the composition of existing applications to build a new one. A solution of this being born need is the reuse of parts from formers applications. To perform this composition and reuse in an easy and comfortable way, we propose a tool based on several extensions of selection to help the developer during his composition.
Keywords: Application Composition; Semantic Annotation; CBSD; UI; task model
Personal Chart: Health Data Logging Made Easy with a Mobile Device BIBAKFull-Text 592-595
  Mikko Paldanius; Anu Lehtiö; Minna Karukka; Pertti Huuskonen
Many devices are still unconnected. We apply mobile imaging to log measurements from personal health devices. Such devices sometimes offer wired and wireless links, but they suffer from many problems (setup, breaking connections, non-mobility). We propose to use instead ubiquitous mobile phone cameras to capture the measurements and store them for further viewing and follow-up. In this paper we discuss the principle, the prototype, the user study and initial conclusions of this approach.
Keywords: Healthcare; human factors; optical character recognition
Psychosocial Indicators via Hand Tremor BIBAKFull-Text 596-599
  Ted Selker; Patricia Collins; Will Dayton
We propose hand tremor as a new type of input that can corroborate psychosocial conditions. An Android application was able to distinguish tremor variability differences between people with and without diagnosed hand tremor. Tremor measurements also corroborated self-assessment of sleep quality. Hand tremor evaluation may be a monitorable, implicit input to systems that respond to various psychosocial states. We encourage researchers to consider how interface design changes when using implicit sensors such as tremor sensing.
Keywords: psychosocial indicators; novel user interface; hand tremor; implicit input
Recognizing Emotions from Video in a Continuous 2D Space BIBAKFull-Text 600-603
  Sergio Ballano; Isabelle Hupont; Eva Cerezo; Sandra Baldassarri
This paper proposes an effective system for continuous facial affect recognition from videos. The system operates in a continuous 2D emotional space, characterized by evaluation and activation factors. It makes use, for each video frame, of a classification method able to output the exact location (2D point coordinates) of a still facial image in that space. It also exploits the Kalman filtering technique to control the 2D point movement along the affective space over time and to improve the robustness of the method by predicting its future locations in cases of temporal facial occlusions or inaccurate tracking.
Keywords: Affective computing; facial expression analysis
Supporting Moodle-Based Lesson through Visual Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 604-607
  Diego Alonso Gómez Aguilar; Miguel Ángel Conde González; Roberto Therón; Francisco José García Peñalvo
The effective use of CMS requires that instructors can be provided with appropriate means of diagnosing problems. The aim of this research is to support the comprehension of the semantics content evolution within eLearning environments through uncovering by means of visual representations. Therefore, we have carried out the meaning of an eLearning database and represented the more relevant results by depicting them using a visualization based on the tag cloud visual representation. Additionally, we have validated our proposal through a case study.
Keywords: Visualization; e-learning; timeline; tag cloud; Moodle
Supporting Transformations across User Interface Descriptions at Various Abstraction Levels BIBAKFull-Text 608-611
  Mauro Lisai; Fabio Paternò; Carmen Santoro; Lucio Davide Spano
Model-based approaches for user interfaces exploit various models in order to represent interactive systems at different levels of abstraction. During the design and development process, it is useful to have transformations to derive higher or lower level models. Such transformations should be customizable by designers to reach the desired results. In this paper we present a tool that allows designers without deep knowledge of transformation languages in creating and executing such transformations.
Keywords: Model-based Design; Model-to-model transformation
Texture Recognition: Evaluating Force, Vibrotactile and Real Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 612-615
  Jonatan Martínez; Arturo S. García; Diego Martínez; José Pascual Molina; Pascual González
A force-feedback Phantom device, a custom-built vibrotactile dataglove, and embossed paper sheets are compared to detect different textures. Two types of patterns are used, one formed by different geometrical shapes, and the other with different grooves width. Evaluation shows that the vibrotactile dataglove performs better in the detection of textures where the frequency of tactile stimuli varies, and it is even useful to detect more complex textures.
Keywords: force feedback; vibrotactile; textures; dataglove
The Application of Preference Mapping in Aesthetic Website Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 616-619
  Eleftherios Papachristos; Nikolaos M. Avouris
The objective of this study was to apply a technique called preference mapping to the context of aesthetic website evaluation. Preference mapping is a method in which evaluators and stimuli are simultaneously represented in the same multidimensional space. User segmentations and drivers of preference can easily be identified. We argue that this technique is particularly suited for website design evaluation especially for alternative prototype comparisons. The application of this method to an actual dataset resulted in a better understanding of participant preferences that could not be reached through simple comparison of average ratings.
Keywords: Web design; aesthetic evaluation; preference mapping
The Effect of Religious Identity on User Judgment of Website Quality BIBAKFull-Text 620-623
  Ons Al-shamaileh; Alistair G. Sutcliffe; Antonella De Angeli
The paper investigates the effect of users' religious identity on their judgments of website quality. Websites related to Islamic and Christian identities were evaluated by Christian and Muslim respondents. Aesthetics, usability, service quality, pleasurable interaction, content, website identity and overall judgment were assessed, showing that respondents were more positive to the website which related to their own belief but the effect was stronger with the Muslim sample. Interviews were conducted to support the above results with a non-religious well known branded website added. Respondents provided consistent evaluations preferring the website matching their beliefs but brand identity showed to be more important than the religious identity.
Keywords: User experience; user judgment; Religion; brand
Toward a Better Guidance in Wearable Electronic Orientation Aids BIBAKFull-Text 624-627
  Slim Kammoun; Marc J.-M. Macé; Bernard Oriola; Christophe Jouffrais
Electronic Orientation Aids (EOA) usually guide visually impaired pedestrians using turn-by-turn instructions. However, several studies have demonstrated that mental representations of space seem difficult to build when turn-by-turn instructions only are provided. This is a crucial point as getting an accurate spatial representation of the surroundings can make the difference between successful and unsuccessful navigation. In this paper, we describe components of a guidance system designed to provide a better service in wearable electronic orientation aids for the visually impaired. They especially include non-visual landmarks and points of interest that are used as environmental features to improve mental spatial representations.
Keywords: Visually impaired; Electronic Orientation Aids; navigation; orientation; mobility; assistive technology; guidance
Towards a Context Oriented Approach to Ethical Evaluation of Interactive Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 628-631
  Sandra Burri Gram-Hansen; Henrik Schärfe; Jens Vilhelm Dinesen
This paper explores and develops the notion of applying the ethical perspective of Danish philosopher and theologian K.E. Løgstrup, when designing and developing interactive technologies. The ethical reflections presented in this paper are currently considered in the development of Persuasive Learning Designs within the EU funded PLOT project, thus enabling this paper to support the argumentation with a practical example of integrating ethical considerations into the different stages of a design process.
Keywords: Ethics; Persuasive Design; Løgstrup; PLOT; e-Learning; Learning Objects
Towards a Framework of Co-Design Sessions with Children BIBAKFull-Text 632-635
  Emanuela Mazzone; Janet C. Read; Russell Beale
In this poster we present a framework of the elements of co-design sessions with children. The involvement of children in the design process is important in order to understand their needs but it is often considered a complex practice. Considering a thorough appreciation of this practice as the basis for its accurate application, we addressed its complexity in a framework. To do so, we identified and organised elements that have an impact on co-design sessions in who, where, when, what and how dimensions. This theoretical framework aims to support novice practitioners in their decisions when coordinating co-design sessions.
Keywords: Interaction Design; Children; Co-Design; Framework
Towards a Semantic Modelling Framework in Support of Multimodal User Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 636-639
  Elena Tsiporkova; Tom Tourwé; Nicolás González-Deleito
In this paper, we propose a semantic modelling framework to capture the available domain knowledge in the field of multimodal interface design and to support designers in their daily design tasks.
Towards an Experimental Framework for Measuring Usability of Model-Driven Tools BIBAKFull-Text 640-643
  José Ignacio Panach; Nelly Condori-Fernández; Arthur I. Baars; Tanja E. J. Vos; Ignacio Romeu; Oscar Pastor
According to the Model-Driven Development (MDD) paradigm, analysts can substantially improve the software development process concentrating their efforts on a conceptual model, which can be transformed into code by means of transformation rules applied by a model compiler. However, MDD tools are not widely used in industry. One of the reasons for this poor adoption is the lack of usability of MDD tools. This paper presents a framework to evaluate the usability of such tools. The framework will be used as a basis for a family of experiments to get clear insights into the barriers to usability that prevent MDD tools from being widely adopted in industry.
Keywords: Usability; model-driven development; evaluation framework
TROCAS: Communication Skills Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders via ICT BIBAKFull-Text 644-647
  Margarida Lucas da Silva; Carla Simões; Daniel Gonçalves; Tiago João Guerreiro; Hugo Silva; Fernanda Botelho
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a triad of disturbances affecting the areas of communication, social interaction and behavior. In educational contexts, without appropriate intervention methodologies, these limitations can be deeply disabling. Our research promotes the communicative competence of children with ASDs It extends the current state-of-the-art in the field, both in terms of usability for the educators and functionality for the end-users. We performed a long-term study, and results suggest that the proposed approach is effective in promoting the development of new interaction patterns.
Keywords: Communicative competence; Autism spectrum disorder; Assistive technologies; Computer-mediated communication; Multimedia platform
Usability Assessment of a Multimodal Visual-Haptic Framework for Chemistry Education BIBAKFull-Text 648-651
  Sara Comai; Davide Mazza
In this work, we assess the usability of a virtual environment where the force of interaction between the electrostatic field around the molecule and a charge associated to the proxy of a haptic device can be felt. Feedbacks to user are provided in a multimodal visual and haptic way, and auxiliary information are also rendered.
Keywords: Haptics; chemistry education; usability evaluation
Usability Planner: A Tool to Support the Process of Selecting Usability Methods BIBAKFull-Text 652-655
  Xavier Ferré; Nigel Bevan
There is increasing pressure on developers to produce usable systems, which requires the use of appropriate methods to support user centred design during development. There is currently no consistent advice on which methods are appropriate in which circumstances, so the selection of methods relies on individual experience and expertise. Considerable effort is required to collate information from various sources and to understand the applicability of each method in a particular situation. Usability Planner is a tool aimed to support the selection of the most appropriate methods depending on project and organizational constraints. Many of the rules employed are derived from ISO standards, complemented with rules from the authors' experience.
Keywords: UCD method selection; development process; usability integration in systems development; standards
User Experience Specification through Quality Attributes BIBAKFull-Text 656-660
  Llúcia Masip; Marta Oliva; Toni Granollers
The concept of user experience includes different facets which have still not reached a consensus. On the other hand, the ISO/IEC 25010:2011 standard shows a structured quality model which permits us to obtain quality systems and software. The main aim is the specification of user experience based on the facets which are implicitly considered in the standard.
Keywords: User experience; facets; ISO; quality systems and software
Using Availability Heuristics in Game Design to Introduce Children to Energy Sufficient Behaviours at Home BIBAFull-Text 661-664
  Nsemeke Ukpong; Privender Saini; Abdullah Al Mahmud
Parents looking to foster more energy sufficient behaviours in their children struggle to have their child maintain these behaviours unsupervised. Our research indicates that in order for the child to maintain these behaviours, s/he must perceive him/herself as an eco conscious individual. We propose that increasing a child's ability to firstly recognise eco-friendly behaviours and secondly, recollect them, is likely to yield a greater affinity for habitual energy sufficient behaviours. This paper describes a first prototype game, whose interface employs availability heuristics and other persuasive design elements to achieve this goal.
UsiXML Extension for Awareness Support BIBAKFull-Text 665-668
  Jose Figueroa Martinez; Francisco Luis Gutiérrez Vela; Víctor López-Jaquero; Pascual González
Awareness support in MDA technologies is virtually nonexistent. Furthermore, until recently there was no conceptual model suitable for representing Awareness support in model based architectures. Here, we introduce an extension of UsiXML user interface description language to support Awareness as an information requirement. UsiXML aims to describe multi-context and multimodal user interfaces. The model-based approach of UsiXML makes it a good candidate for integrating Awareness Support from the requirements phase to the final user interfaces. It enables Awareness requirements to be traced from the final user interfaces to the tasks and domain entities that generate them, allowing developers to maintain and validate all the Awareness mechanisms provided by the system. This leads not only to a better quality of system developed, but also an organized and traceable development of Awareness mechanisms, easier maintenance and improved user interaction.
Keywords: Awareness; model-based user interface development; requirements
Web Accessibility Requirements for Media Players BIBAKFull-Text 669-674
  María González; Lourdes Moreno; Paloma Martínez; Ana Iglesias
Video Content continues to strengthen on the Web, because of that fact, it is necessary to include video content with suitable accessibility requirements to be used by all people. User Agent (such as player, browser), also have to include accessibility requirements. In this paper a set of basic guidelines is included for professionals who want to embed video players on their Web.
Keywords: Web accessibility; user agent; media player; standard; evaluation

Organization Overviews

Christian Doppler Laboratory: Contextual Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 675-676
  David Wilfinger; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Astrid Weiss; Manfred Tscheligi
The Christian Doppler Laboratory for Contextual Interfaces is a cooperative research lab dealing with interaction designs of contextual interfaces in the automotive area and the cleanroom of a semiconductor factory. This paper describes the research approach and example activities conducted in the laboratory.
Interaction Modeling at PROS Research Center BIBAFull-Text 677-678
  José Ignacio Panach; Nathalie Aquino; Oscar Pastor
This paper describes how the PROS Research Center deals with interaction in the context of a model-driven approach for the development of information systems. Interaction is specified in a conceptual model together with the structure and behavior of the system. Major achievements and current research challenges of PROS in the field of interaction modeling are presented.
Overview of the Brazilian Computer Society's Council for Human-Computer Interaction (CEIHC) BIBAKFull-Text 679-680
  Cristiano Maciel; Elizabeth Furtado; Marco Winckler; Milene Silveira; Raquel Oliveira Prates
CEIHC is an acronym that stands for Council for Human-Computer Interaction. This council is composed by members of the Brazilian Computer Society (SBC) and its main goal is to promote the field of Human-Computer Interaction in Brazil. In this paper, we detail the missions assigned to the CEIHC and its recent activities. Moreover, challenges for the development of this field and future activities are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; HCI research; HCI education
Supporting a Multidisciplinary Digital Media Research Community with GRAND Aspirations BIBAKFull-Text 681-682
  Kellogg S. Booth; Eleni Stroulia
The challenges of managing a nationwide "network of centres of excellence" (NCE) are being explored by GRAND, a Canadian NCE comprising over 350 researchers from technical disciplines, social sciences, humanities and the arts within 34 interwoven projects focusing on all aspects of digital media. A complex web of relationships with funding agencies, private and public partners, and researchers is being managed using a purpose-built web-based platform (the GRAND Forum) that supports communication and collaboration across communities. The Forum explicitly represents multiple roles of individuals within the organization through formal and informal user-centred workflows that reflect both symmetric (peer-to-peer) and asymmetric (hierarchical) organizational structures. We describe the principles of each.
Keywords: Interdisciplinary research collaboration
The Centre for Internationalization and Usability: Enabling Culture-Centred Design for All BIBAKFull-Text 683-684
  José L. Abdelnour-Nocera; Andy Smith; John Moore; Cecilia Oyugi; Souleymane Camara; Malte Reßin; Sujan Shresta; Alison Wiles
The Centre for Internationalisation and Usability within the School of Computing and Technology at The University of West London aims to enhance understanding of cultural differences in international software development. A particular focus is the development and usability of ICT products in a global market, both in terms of international software development and economic, community and social development. We host a number of researchers and PhD students working in topics such as usability evaluation and culture, socio-technical participatory design, internationalization attitudes of software engineers, mobile learning and library cognitive design.
Keywords: internationalisation; usability; culture; sociotechnical; participatory design; empirical studies of software engineering

Panels

Critical Design: Is It Just Designers Doing Ethnography or Does It Offer Something More for Interaction Design? BIBAKFull-Text 685-686
  Michael Smyth; Chris Speed; Martin Brynskov
The panel will discuss the contribution of Critical Design to the field of Interaction Design and reflect on the insights that it provides on interaction.
Keywords: Critical Design & Interaction Design
Everyone is a Designer, Even Executives! BIBAKFull-Text 687-688
  Jannie Lai; Iram Mirza
This panel includes designers, product managers, and executives from various industries. The discussion focuses on how designers can collaborate effectively with product drivers and executives within their organizations to create a design-driven strategy from concept to implementation.
Keywords: Collaboration; collaboration with executives; partners; culture; vision; design; executives; product managers; designers; hands-on design; CEO; enterprise software; consumer products; start-ups; cloud computing; consultants; design influence; design leadership; design-as-a-strategy (DaaS); design process; best practices; recommendations; compelling design

Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

HCI for Peace: Promoting Peace and Preventing War through Computing Technology BIBAKFull-Text 689-690
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Natasha E. Bullock-Rest; Janet C. Read; Yoram Chisik
Our aim in this SIG is to discuss the role human-computer interaction can play in bringing about peace by influencing socio-economic factors that affect the likelihood of conflict as well personal values involved in making decisions to support conflict.
Keywords: Peace; war; pervasive computing; conflict
Interaction and Music Technology BIBAKFull-Text 691-692
  Sidney Fels; Michael J. Lyons
This SIG intends to investigate the ongoing dialogue between music technology and the field of human-computer interaction. Our specific aims are to explore major findings of specialized musical interface research over recent years and convey these to HCI researchers who may be interested but not yet active in this area, as well as to consider how to stimulate closer cooperation between music technology and HCI research communities.
Keywords: Music; Technology; Interactive Techniques; HCI
User Interface eXtensible Markup Language SIG BIBAKFull-Text 693-695
  Gaëlle Calvary; Olivier de Wasseige; David Faure; Jean Vanderdonckt
A User Interface Description Language (UIDL) is a formal language used in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in order to describe a particular user interface independently of any implementation. Considerable research effort has been devoted to defining various meta-models in order to rigorously define the semantics of such a UIDL. These meta-models cover different aspects: context of use (user, platform, environment), task, domain, abstract user interface, concrete user interface, usability (including accessibility), workflow, organization, evolution, program, transformation, and mapping. A complete development method is typically made up of the following elements: models that capture various aspects of an interactive application (compliant with the previous meta-models), a language that expresses these models, a development life cycle, and software that support this method. This Special Interest Group is aimed at presenting User Interface eXtensible Markup Language (UsiXML), a particular UIDL that is of interest to a wide audience. Then, the UsiXML End User Club is introduced so that any person, group, or organization could observe, test, or contribute to the UsiXML technology. The SIG will present the potential benefits so that everyone can use it.
Keywords: User interface description language (UIDL)

Tutorials

Activity-Centered Interaction Design: A Model-Driven Approach BIBAKFull-Text 696-697
  Larry L. Constantine
Activity theory has had a long history and a growing influence in the design professions broadly conceived and in interaction design in particular. Leading authorities, including Donald Norman, Bonnie Nardi, and others, have called for and argued the advantages of design approaches that focus more on the activities in which human users engage than on the users themselves.
Keywords: activity theory; activity modeling; model-driven design; interaction design
Analysis, Redesign and Evaluation with Teasing Apart, Piecing Together BIBAKFull-Text 698-699
  Clare J. Hooper
This half-day tutorial will teach participants how and when to use Teasing Apart, Piecing Together (TAPT), a two-phase design method for understanding and redesigning user experiences in new contexts. TAPT was developed to address a gap in the field for methods oriented around experiences, particularly with respect to understanding their social and emotional facets. TAPT has been successfully used in both industry and academia, and this workshop will draw on the tutor's experiences in the field.
Keywords: TAPT; UX; understanding; analysis; design; evaluation
Context-Aware Adaptation of User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 700-701
  Vivian Genaro Motti; Jean Vanderdonckt
Efficient adaptation aims at ensuring that a user interface is adapted to a user's task according to the context of use, since the end user is carrying out a task with one or several computing platforms in a physical environment. This tutorial presents key concepts of adaptation: principles that guide it, relevant context information and how to consider it, dimensions and abstraction levels subject to adaptation, as well as, languages, methods and techniques used in this domain. This tutorial aims at teaching major aspects to be considered for adaptation of user interfaces in general and concerning the context of use in particular, including the end user (or several of them, as in multi-user interfaces), the platform (or several of them, as in multi-device environments), and the physical environment (or several of them, as in multi-location systems).
Keywords: Multi-dimensional adaptation; Context-aware adaptation; Adaptive applications; Adaptable applications
Designing the Search Experience BIBAKFull-Text 702-703
  Tony Russell-Rose
This half-day tutorial provides a practical introduction to Human-Centred Design for information search, access and discovery. We present a concise overview of the fundamental concepts and principles of human information-seeking behaviour and show how to apply these in the design of search user experiences. A key element of the tutorial is the opportunity to practice these skills in a group exercise.
Keywords: search; navigation; information retrieval; information discovery; data visualization; user experience; user-centred design
Improving the Content of User Requirements BIBAKFull-Text 704-705
  Nigel Bevan
Identifying and defining user requirements is an essential input to good user centred design, but there is little guidance on content. The workshop will share and review examples of user requirements provided by the participants, to generate a contents list that could help practitioners identify and document the relevant requirements.
Keywords: Usability; requirements
Model-Driven Inquiry: Beyond Ethnography and Contextual Inquiry BIBAKFull-Text 706-707
  Larry L. Constantine
Model-driven approaches are of growing influence in interaction design owing to the promise of yielding more orderly and manageable processes with enhanced traceability from initial conception and the establishment of requirements through to design and final realization. Model-driven inquiry is an agile technique, an accelerated alternative in its own right to contextual inquiry and other ethnographic approaches for user research, field study, and requirements gathering that can also be combined with these more conventional techniques.
Keywords: model-driven inquiry; user research; user requirements; contextual inquiry; ethnography
Scenario-Based Requirements Engineering Facilitating Interaction Design BIBAKFull-Text 708-709
  Hermann Kaindl
When the requirements and the interaction design of a system are separated, they will most likely not fit together, and the resulting system will be less than optimal. Even if all the real needs are covered in the requirements and also implemented, errors may be induced by human-computer interaction through a bad interaction design and its resulting user interface. Such a system may even not be used at all. Alternatively, a great user interface of a system with features that are not required will not be very useful as well.
   Therefore, the primary motivation of this tutorial is to improve system development in practice both regarding requirements engineering and interaction design, especially facilitating the latter. We argue for combined requirements engineering and interaction design, primarily based on usage scenarios in the sense of sequences of actions aimed at accomplishing some task goal. However, scenario-based approaches vary especially with regard to their use, e.g., employing abstract use cases or integrating scenarios with functions and goals in a systematic design process. So, the key issue to be addressed is how to combine different approaches, e.g., in scenario-based development, so that the result is an overall useful and useable system. In particular, scenarios are very helpful for purposes of usability as well.
Keywords: Interaction design; usage scenarios; requirements engineering; user interfaces; usability
Sketching Interactive Systems with Sketchify BIBAKFull-Text 710-711
  Zeljko Obrenovic
Sketching is at the heart of design and creativity, an omnipresent element of any disciplined activity of design. In this tutorial we will summarize many of the existing studies of sketching, and emphasize its role in supporting creativity. We will look at how sketching aids in reflection and conversation, and supports designers' memory and cognition. We will discuss the relation of sketching to prototyping and engineering, and present Sketchify, a software tools for sketching beyond paper and pencil. We will cover various techniques that can be used to extend sketching to other forms than simple creation of a pencil trace on paper.
Keywords: Sketching; design of interactive systems; creativity
UIs Automatically Optimized for Your Smartphone BIBAKFull-Text 712-713
  Hermann Kaindl
Graphical user interfaces (UIs) for PCs will most likely not fit relatively small screens of devices like today's Smartphones. Providing dedicated UIs for several devices manually, however, is costly and takes time. Therefore, we have developed an approach to (semi-)automatic generation of UIs for various devices. A designer defines classes of dialogues in a device-independent discourse model. Such a discourse model can be also viewed as specifying classes of scenarios, i.e., use cases. It refers to a domain model that specifies the domain-of-discourse of the dialogues between user and application. From such models, we can generate UIs (semi-)automatically. Recently, we included in this generation process automatic optimization based on heuristic search. In effect, this tutorial shows that and how user interfaces can be automatically optimized for your Smartphone.
Keywords: (Semi-)automatic generation of user interfaces; automatic optimization for small devices; Smartphones
User Experience Evaluation -- Which Method to Choose? BIBAKFull-Text 714-715
  Virpi Roto; Arnold P. O. S. Vermeeren; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Effie Law
User experience has many dimensions and therefore, it is tricky to evaluate it. When the goal of user experience evaluation is to investigate how people feel about using an interactive system, the traditional usability methods are hardly applicable. In this tutorial, we introduce a set of 78 user experience evaluation methods that we have been collecting from the user experience community 2008-2010. We give both an overview of the different types of methods and examine a selected set of methods in detail.
Keywords: User experience; Evaluation; Assessment; Method
User Experience Evaluation in Entertainment and Games BIBAKFull-Text 716-717
  Regina Bernhaupt
In a nutshell. This tutorial comprehensively covers important user experience (UX) evaluation methods and opportunities and challenges of UX evaluation in the area of entertainment and games. The course is an ideal forum for attendees to gain insight into state-of-the art user experience evaluation methods, going way-beyond standard usability and user experience evaluation approaches in area of human-computer interaction. It surveys and assesses the efforts of user experience evaluation of the gaming and human computer interaction communities during the last 10 years.
Keywords: entertainment; user experience; evaluation methods; beyond usability; game

Workshops

5 th Workshop on Software and Usability Engineering Cross-Pollination: Patterns, Usability and User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 718-719
  Peter Forbrig; Regina Bernhaupt; Marco Winckler; Janet Wesson
The workshop focuses on how process models, methods and knowledge from the area of Human-Computer Interaction can be integrated and adopted to support and enhance traditional software engineering processes. In its 5th edition this workshop will investigate the application of usability engineering methods that are adapted to fit the evaluation of advanced interfaces and how usability and user experience evaluation methods can be incorporated to support design decisions and changes in standard software development. This workshop is organized by the IFIP working group 13.2 "Methodologies for User-Centered Systems Design".
Keywords: Software Engineering; Usability; User Experience; Cross-pollination; Patterns
Accessible Design in the Digital World BIBAFull-Text 720-721
  Gerhard Weber; Helen Petrie; Jenny S. Darzentas
The workshop provides an opportunity for researchers, practitioners and designers interested in eAccessibility to discuss and debate the possibilities for accessibility and usability in the emerging world of Web 2.0, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies, and multimodal interaction, bridging desktop and mobile applications.
Building Bridges -- HCI and Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 722-723
  Achim Ebert; Gitta Domik; Nahum D. Gershon; Gerrit C. van der Veer
The fields, HCI and visualization, are usually practiced as two separate disciplines by researchers with different backgrounds and capabilities. However, these two disciplines, HCI and visualization, could complement each other and leveraging on the differences and complementary features of the two research fields could be beneficial for both. In this workshop, we are going to discuss the different approaches and capabilities of these two disciplines and layout a road map for a unified approach of research using both.
Keywords: HCI; Visualization; Standardization
Combining Design and Engineering of Interactive Systems through Models and Tools (ComDeisMoto) BIBAKFull-Text 724-725
  Stefan Sauer; Kai Breiner; Heinrich Hussmann; Gerrit Meixner; Andreas Pleuss; Jan Van den Bergh
Development of interactive systems and their user interfaces combines engineering and design, formal and informal development methods from different domains. Diverse models and tools can be used to support the developers' work. In model-driven development, software systems are specified systematically using dedicated models for different aspects of the system. Yet, appropriate design of user interfaces is as important as functional correctness. This workshop provides a forum of multi-disciplinary discussion on how to integrate model-driven development with the often more informal methodologies used in user-centered design and engineering. Starting point of the discussion are the tools, models, methods and experiences of the workshop participants.
Keywords: User-interface engineering; interaction design; model-driven development; user-centered design; models
Data-Centric Interactions on the Web BIBAKFull-Text 726-727
  Paloma Díaz; Tim Hussein; Steffen Lohmann; Jürgen Ziegler
The World Wide Web has become a global database in recent years, with an ever-growing amount of data that is published online every day. Interactions with this data raise a number of research questions and practical challenges that are not yet sufficiently investigated. These issues will be addressed by the International Workshop of Data-Centric Interactions on the Web. It will serve as a platform for researchers, developers, and designers to foster the exchange of experiences and to discuss novel research ideas and results regarding data-centric interactions on the web.
Keywords: Web interaction; user interfaces; data-centric systems; semantic web; visualization; large datasets; interactive systems; data management
Encouraging Serendipity in Interactive Systems BIBAFull-Text 728-729
  Stephann Makri; Elaine G. Toms; Lori McCay-Peet; Ann Blandford
We regularly make serendipitous discoveries in both online and offline contexts -- from stumbling upon a useful website when searching for something completely different to meeting someone with mutual research or business interests in an unlikely place. However, most existing interactive systems do not provide a fertile environment for serendipity to occur. This workshop will identify key requirements and research challenges for designing and evaluating user-centred systems that aim to encourage serendipity.
Human Work Interaction Design for e-Government and Public Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 730-731
  Dinesh Katre; Pedro Campos; Torkil Clemmensen; Rikke Orngreen; Annelise Mark Pejtersen
Varied backgrounds of users, heterogeneous delivery media and diverse socio-cultural and organizational contexts pose new challenges of human work interaction design in the field of e-government and public information systems. The workshop will consolidate the empirical case studies of how human work analysis and interaction design has benefited in enhancing the user experience of e-government and public information systems and a set of effective methods, techniques and theories for this purpose. Selected research papers from the workshop will be published in the International Journal of Public Information Systems (IJPIS), Sweden.
Keywords: Interaction design; human work analysis; empirical case studies; e-government; public information systems
Improving the Content of User Requirements BIBAKFull-Text 732-733
  Nigel Bevan
Identifying and defining user requirements is an essential input to good user centred design, but there is little guidance on content. The workshop will share and review examples of user requirements provided by the participants, to generate a contents list that could help practitioners identify and document the relevant requirements.
Keywords: Usability; requirements
Mobile Accessibility Workshop BIBAKFull-Text 734-735
  Daniel Gonçalves; Luís Carriço; Markel Vigo
In this document we propose the creation of a Mobile Accessibility Workshop at Interact 2011. Mobile Accessibility is an area that has grown both in importance and number of researchers in recent years. Bringing them together in a workshop would be fruitful and lead to synergies and major developments in the area.
Keywords: Mobile Accessibility; mobile computing; accessibility; workshop
Promoting and Supporting Healthy Living by Design BIBAFull-Text 736-737
  Gordon D. Baxter; Lisa Dow; Stephen Kimani; Nilufar Baghaei
Chronic diseases are the main causes of premature deaths, and the number of these deaths keeps growing. People often do not understand, however, that by changing their diet and how much they exercise, they can drastically reduce their risk of being affected by chronic disease. The key to moderating people's behaviour lies in raising awareness of the links between lifestyle and chronic disease and in supporting the adoption and maintenance of a healthy lifestyle. Despite rises in global spending on health care, the pressure on resources is growing as people live longer. With people already using technology for medical information, it is an opportune time to develop technologies that can be used to raise public awareness of the links between lifestyle choices and chronic disease, and facilitate behavioural change.
Re-framing HCI through Local and Indigenous Perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 738-739
  José L. Abdelnour-Nocera; Masaaki Kurosu; Torkil Clemmensen; Nicola J. Bidwell; Ravikiran Vatrapu; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Vanessa Evers; Rüdiger Heimgärtner; Alvin Yeo
This one-day workshop aims to present different local and indigenous perspectives from all over the world in order to lead into an international dialogue on re-framing concepts and models in HCI/Interaction Design. The target audience is HCI researchers and practitioners who have experience with working with culture and HCI. The expected outcome of the workshop is a) network building among the participants, b) a shortlist of papers that can be basis for a proposal for a special issue of the UAIS journal, and c) identify opportunities to develop a funded network or research proposal.
Keywords: Indigenous HCI; HCI theory and methodology; localization; globalization; cultural usability
Software Support for User Interface Description Language BIBAKFull-Text 740-741
  Adrien Coyette; David Faure; Juan Manuel González-Calleros; Jean Vanderdonckt
A User Interface Description Language (UIDL) is a formal language used in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in order to describe a particular user interface independently of any implementation. Considerable research effort has been devoted to defining various meta-models in order to define rigorously the semantics of a UIDL. These meta-models adhere to the principle of separation of concerns. Any aspect of concern should univocally fall into one of the following meta-models: context of use (user, platform, environment), task, domain, abstract user interface, concrete user interface, usability (including accessibility), workflow, organization, evolution, program, transformation, and mapping. Not all these meta-models should be used concurrently, but may be manipulated during different steps of a user interface development method. In order to support this kind of development method, software is required throughout the user interface development life cycle in order to create, edit, check models that are compliant with these meta-models and to produce user interfaces out of these methods. This workshop is aimed at reviewing the state of the art of software support for a UIDL in the context of any development method (e.g., formal method, model-based, model-driven). From this review, a taxonomy of software support for UIDLs will emerge that will serve for describing, comparing, and exploring software support for UIDLs.
Keywords: Context of use; Model-driven architecture (MDA); Model-driven engineering (MDE); Service Oriented Architecture (SOA); situation engineering; user interface description language (UIDL)
User Experience in Cars BIBAFull-Text 742-743
  Manfred Tscheligi; Albrecht Schmidt; David Wilfinger; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Andrew L. Kun
This workshop will address two emerging fields within the HCI community: user experience (UX) and the automotive context. It will bring HCI experts together to discuss UX factors for the specific characteristics of car interiors and automotive user interfaces. It targets the development of a better view of UX within the whole car (driver, front seat, backseat area) beyond traditional marketing instruments known within the automotive industry.
User Interaction Techniques for Future Lighting Systems BIBAKFull-Text 744-745
  Dzmitry Aliakseyeu; Jon Mason; Bernt Meerbeek; Harm van Essen; Serge Offermans; Andrés Lucero
LED-based lighting systems have introduced radically new possibilities in the area of artificial lighting. Being physically small the LED can be positioned or embedded into luminaires, materials and even the very fabric of a building or environment. Together with new functionality and flexibility comes complexity; the simple light switch is not anymore sufficient to control our light. This workshop explores new ways of interacting with light. The goal is to define directions for new forms of user interaction that will be able to support the emerging LED-based lighting systems.
Keywords: Lighting; User Interaction; LED; Smart lighting
Values in Design -- Building Bridges between RE, HCI and Ethics BIBAFull-Text 746-747
  Christian Detweiler; Alina Pommeranz; Jeroen van den Hoven; Helen Nissenbaum
Designing for values has become increasingly important for technology development. In many technological systems (medical applications, social networks etc.) values (privacy, autonomy, trust etc.) play a role and are sometimes violated. In working with stakeholder requirements or user needs, various design methods in requirements engineering (RE) [3] and human computer interaction (HCI), in specific user-centered (UCD), deal with "soft issues" [4], "social issues", "people issues" or values. At the same time, applied ethics has begun to pay attention to design. We believe that many of the approaches could complement each other in useful ways. The aim of this workshop is to bring together people from different disciplines to share knowledge and insights about how to account for values in technology design, and to work towards integrating approaches, thereby putting value conscious design approaches (e.g. values-in-design [1] or value sensitive design [2]) to practice.