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INT Tables of Contents: 84879095979901030507-107-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-3

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'07: Human-Computer Interaction 2007-09-10

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERACT'07: IFIP TC13 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part I
Note:Socially Responsible Interaction
Editors:Cécilia Baranauskas; Philippe Palanque; Julio Abascal; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
Location:Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Dates:2007-Sep-10 to 2007-Sep-14
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 4662
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-540-74794-9 (Print) 978-3-540-74796-3 (Online); hcibib: INT07-1
Papers:63
Pages:632
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. INT 2007-09-10 Volume 1
    1. Keynote Speakers
    2. Social Computing 1
    3. Social Computing 2
    4. Web
    5. UI Prototyping
    6. User Centred Design Methods and Techniques 1
    7. User Centred Design Methods and Techniques 2
    8. Intelligent User Interfaces
    9. Interaction on the Move 1
    10. Interaction on the Move 2
    11. Accessibility
    12. Designing for Multiples Devices
    13. Interaction Techniques 1
    14. Interaction Techniques 2
    15. Affective Computing 1
    16. Affective Computing 2
    17. 3D Interaction and 3D Interfaces
    18. Evaluation Methods 1
    19. Evaluation Methods 2

INT 2007-09-10 Volume 1

Keynote Speakers

Human Values for Shaping the Made World BIBAFull-Text 1
  Ben Shneiderman
Interface design principles have been effective in shaping new desktop applications, web-based resources, and mobile devices. Usability and sociability promote successful online communities and social network services. The contributions of human-computer interaction researchers have been effective in raising the quality of design of many products and services. As our influence grows, we can play an even more profound role in guaranteeing that enduring human values are embedded in the next generation of technology. This talk identifies which goals are realistic, such as universality, responsibility, trust, empathy, and privacy, and how we might ensure that they become part of future services and systems.
Getting Your Message Across to Your Users BIBAFull-Text 2-3
  Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza
Most models, theories and perspectives in human-computer interaction focus on users communicating with systems. The very name of our discipline illustrates how pervasive is the idea that users and systems are the only relevant parties involved in the process we want to design or investigate. For over a decade, the Semiotic Engineering Research Group (SERG) has elaborated an alternative account of HCI. In it, what we traditionally call human-computer interaction is characterized as a particular instance of a more general process of computer-mediated human communication.
Perspectives on Social Computing BIBAFull-Text 4
  Wendy A. Kellogg
Social computing has emerged as a broad area of research in HCI and CSCW, encompassing systems that mediate social information across collectivities such as teams, communities, organizations, cohorts, populations, and markets. Such systems are likely to support and make visible social attributes such as identity, reputation, trust, accountability, presence, social roles, expertise, knowledge, and ownership. Social computing is transforming organizations and societies by creating a pervasive technical infrastructure that includes people, organizations, their relationships and activities as fundamental system components, enabling identity, behavior, social relationships, and experience to be used as resources. In this talk, I argue for a broad definition of social computing, selectively review emerging applications, and discuss current research within and beyond IBM that is driving and is driven by the emerging vision of social computing.

Social Computing 1

Face-to-Face Sociability Signs Made Explicit in CMC BIBAKFull-Text 5-18
  Carla Faria Leitão; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza; Clarissa Maria de A. Barbosa
This paper discusses how semiotic engineering can support the formulation of problems and solutions involved in handling face-to-face (F2F) sociability models in computer-mediated communication (CMC). Based on a case study where a group of users migrated through different types of CMC systems, we show that the designer's model of F2F sociability is extensively signified and encoded into technology, whether they know it or not. Users are deeply affected by the designers' F2F sociability models. Two qualitative methods of analysis are used to reveal the richness of interpretive and communicative processes in which online communities are involved, and the interplay of designers' and users' signs at interaction time.
Keywords: Semiotic engineering; CMC; Sociability models
Exploring Temporal Communication Through Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 19-30
  Liaquat Hossain; Kon Shing Kenneth Chung; Shahriar Tanvir Hasan Murshed
The dissemination of information in social networks and the relative effect of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) use has long been an interesting area of study in the field of sociology, human computer interaction and computer supported cooperative work. To date, a lot of research has been conducted regarding an actor's mobile phone usage behavior while disseminating information within a mobile social network. In this study, we explore the structured network position of individuals using mobile phone and their ability to disseminate information within their social network. Our proposition is that an actor's ability to disseminate information within a social group is affected by their structural network position. In this paper, we determine an actor's structural network position by four different measures of centrality-(i) degree, (ii) closeness, (iii) betweenness, and (iv) eigenvector centrality. We analyse the Reality Mining dataset, which contains mobile phone usage data over a 9 month period for exploring the association between the structural positions of different actors in a temporal communication. We extract relational data to construct a social network of the mobile phone users in order to determine the association between their position in the network and their ability to disseminate information. The following questions form the basis for this study: Does information dissemination capability of an actor reflect their structural position within a social network? How do different measures of centrality associate with the information dissemination capability of an actor? Are highly central actors able to disseminate information more effectively than those who have a lower central position within a social network?
Keywords: Social Networks; Mobile Usage Behaviour; Centrality; Information Dissemination; Temporal Communication
Identifying Potential Social Impact of Collaborative Systems at Design Time BIBAKFull-Text 31-44
  Clarissa Maria de A. Barbosa; Raquel Oliveira Prates; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza
This paper presents Manas, a Semiotic Engineering epistemic tool for the design of collaborative systems (CoSys) whose aim is to expand the designers' knowledge and awareness of their influence on groups and group dynamics. Manas has been developed to help designers represent their conception of computer-mediated communication and reflect upon some of its potential social effects, springing from user-system interaction, as well from user-user interaction (through the system). The paper illustrates how Manas can lead designers to reflect upon both the design problem and its proposed solution(s), which allows them to make more conscious decisions. Increased knowledge and awareness should then enhance the quality of CoSys design.
Keywords: Semiotic Engineering; Collaborative Systems; Online Communities; Design Models; Computer-Mediated Communication; Social Aspects of HCI

Social Computing 2

Group Efficacy in Asynchronous vs. Multi-synchronous Virtual Teams: An Empirical Study BIBAKFull-Text 45-58
  Yingxin Pan; Chen Zhao
Group efficacy has begun to receive more attention in HCI. The paper describes a mixed-design experiment aimed to explore the effect of time on group efficacy development in two computer-mediated virtual conditions: asynchronous vs. multi-synchronous teams. The relationships of group efficacy measures at different times and tool evaluation, team satisfaction and performance are also explored. Forty university students who participate in the study are administered questionnaires over the course of the assigned ten-day task. Results show group efficacy changes as a function of time in the asynchronous environment. In addition, the positive relations between group efficacy and tool evaluation and adoption and team satisfaction were demonstrated for asynchronous groups. The findings indicate group efficacy is dynamic with team development and useful in signaling how technology and collaboration modes impact user experience and interaction in the asynchronous environment.
Keywords: Group Efficacy; Asynchronous & Multi-synchronous communication; groupware; virtual team; CSCW
Mutual Awareness in Collocated and Distant Collaborative Tasks Using Shared Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 59-73
  Alexandre Pauchet; François Coldefy; L. Lefebvre; Stéphane Louis Dit Picard; A. Bouguet; L. Perron; J. Guerin; D. Corvaisier; M. Collobert
Shared interface allowing several users in co-presence to interact simultaneously on digital data on a single display is an uprising challenge in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Its development is motivated by the advent of large displays such as wall-screens and tabletops. It affords fluid and natural digital interaction without hindering human communication and collaboration. It enables mutual awareness, making participant conscious of each other activities.
   In this paper, we are interested in Mixed Presence Groupware (MPG), when two or more remote shared interfaces are connected for a distant collaborative session. Our contribution strives to answer to the question: Can the actual technology provide sufficient presence feeling of the remote site to enable efficient collaboration between two distant groups?
   We propose DigiTable, an experimental platform we hope lessen the gap between collocated and distant interaction. DigiTable is combining a multiuser tactile interactive tabletop, a video-communication system enabling eye-contact with real size distant user visualization and a spatialized sound system for speech transmission. A robust computer vision module for distant users' gesture visualization completes the platform.
   We discuss first experiments using DigiTable for a collaborative task (mosaic completion) in term of distant mutual awareness. Although DigiTable does not provide the same presence feeling in distant and or collocated situation, a first and important finding emerges: distance does not hinder efficient collaboration anymore.

Web

A Proxy-Based Infrastructure for Web Application Sharing and Remote Collaboration on Web Pages BIBAFull-Text 74-87
  Richard Atterer; Albrecht Schmidt; Monika Wnuk
When people collaborate remotely, the WWW is part of the shared resources they use together. However, web pages do not offer support for collaborative interaction such as viewing or influencing another user's browsing session -- additional software needs to be installed for these features. In this paper, we present UsaProxy 2, an HTTP proxy that allows the same web page or application to be viewed and used in two browsers at the same time, without client-side software installation. This includes a visualisation of the remote user's mouse pointer, scrolling, keyboard input, following links to other pages and more. Our open-source proxy modifies HTML pages before delivering them to the browsers. The added JavaScript code provides session monitoring and shared browsing facilities. We conducted an experimental evaluation which shows that our approach works for different scenarios, such as shopping online and exchanging ideas on what to buy. The user study showed that our approach is accepted and liked by users. Combined with audio or text chat communication, it provides a very useful tool for informal, ad-hoc collaboration.
Investigating User Attention and Interest in Websites BIBAKFull-Text 88-101
  Alistair G. Sutcliffe; Abdallah Namoune
Users' attention was investigated by eye tracking, combined with reported rating of areas of interest, and free recall memory of six operational websites. The sites differed in the pattern of fixations recorded depending on their layout structure. Fixation durations and areas of interest were generally correlated but exceptions were present in both directions. The sites which were rated more attractive overall had an open layout and high density fixations on animations. The sites which were preferred overall had column layout, and content with brand seemed to be the more important determinants for preference. Fixation densities were closely related to reported user interest for 4/6 sites but not for two e-commerce sites. Reported attention, positive memory and overall preference were weakly related.
Keywords: Eye tracking; visual attention; website evaluation
FaericWorld: Browsing Multimedia Events Through Static Documents and Links BIBAKFull-Text 102-115
  Maurizio Rigamonti; Denis Lalanne; Rolf Ingold
This paper describes a novel browsing paradigm, taking benefit of the various types of links (e.g. thematic, temporal, references, etc.) that can be automatically built between multimedia documents. This browsing paradigm can help eliciting multimedia archives' hidden structures or expanding search results to related media. The paper intend to present a novel model for browsing any kind of multimedia archives and further focuses on an archive of meetings recordings, in order to illustrate the advantage of our method to perform cross-meetings and in general cross-documents browsing. First of all, the structure of meeting datasets is presented, describing in particular the media implied, the annotations used for cross-document linking and the major mining techniques integrated in this work. Then, the paper presents at a glance the visual browser we developed that combines searching and browsing by links. Further, the performances of the actual system are discussed, i.e. the automatic indexing and linking processes for the two different meeting corpora, as well as the access and browsing performances. Finally, the paper presents the major unsolved issues and our perspectives for future works.
Keywords: Multimedia browsing; multimedia indexing; multimodal alignments; information visualization; information retrieval; multimedia meetings archives
Degree-of-Interest Visualization for Ontology Exploration BIBAFull-Text 116-119
  Peter Hüsken; Jürgen Ziegler
In recent years, improvements in semantic web technologies have given us new expressive description languages for modeling knowledge domains -- the so called ontologies. Nevertheless, ontology editors lack of easy and intuitive user interfaces, so that the exploration and creation of ontologies is often too difficult to be efficient. In this short paper, we introduce a new tree widget which utilizes sophisticated visualization and interaction features for ontology exploration and editing as a work in progress study. Due to space limitations we co+ncentrate here on the aspect of ontology browsing.
S³: Storable, Shareable Search BIBAKFull-Text 120-123
  Meredith Ringel Morris; Eric Horvitz
We present S3, a system that implicitly captures the process and products of Web investigations (exploratory searches involving multiple queries). This automatically-created, persistent representation of an investigation enables future review and continuation of suspended search activities. This persistent representation can reduce unnecessary re-execution of queries and enable users to quickly regain the context of a resumed activity. Stored investigations can also be shared with, and augmented by, collaborators. Furthermore, a stored investigation can act as a standing query, proactively updating itself when a user revisits it.
Keywords: Web search; exploratory search; investigation; persistent search

UI Prototyping

Trainable Sketch Recognizer for Graphical User Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 124-135
  Adrien Coyette; Sascha Schimke; Jean Vanderdonckt; Claus Vielhauer
In this paper we present a new algorithm for automatic recognition of hand drawn sketches based on the Levenshtein distance. The purpose for drawing sketches in our application is to create graphical user interfaces in a similar manner as the well established paper sketching. The new algorithm is trainable by every user and improves the recognition performance of the techniques which were used before for widget recognition. In addition, this algorithm ay serve for recognizing other types of sketches, such as letters, figures, and commands. In this way, there is no modality disruption at sketching time.
UI Prototyping for Multiple Devices Through Specifying Interaction Design BIBAFull-Text 136-149
  Jürgen Falb; Roman Popp; Thomas Röck; Helmut Jelinek; Edin Arnautovic; Hermann Kaindl
While user interface (UI) prototyping is generally considered useful, it may often be too expensive and time-consuming. This problem becomes even more severe through the ubiquitous use of a variety of devices such as PCs, mobile phones and PDAs, since each of these devices has its own specifics that require a special user interface.
   Instead of developing UI prototypes directly, we propose specifying one interaction design from which UIs can be automatically generated for multiple devices. Our implemented approach uses communicative acts, which derive from speech act theory and carry desired intentions in interactions. Models of communicative acts, UI domain objects and interaction sequences comprise interaction design specifications in our approach and are based on a metamodel that we have defined. We support the development of such models through an IDE, which is coupled with the UI generator. This allows a new form of UI prototyping, where the effects of each model change can be seen immediately in the automatically generated UIs for every device at once.
Multi-fidelity Prototyping of User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 150-164
  Adrien Coyette; Suzanne Kieffer; Jean Vanderdonckt
Multi-fidelity prototyping combines within a single user interface prototype several elements whose representations are reproduced with different levels of fidelity with respect to the final user interface: no fidelity at all, low fidelity, medium fidelity, and high fidelity. In order to effectively and efficiently support multi-fidelity, an original set of techniques is defined and discussed: multiple representation manipulation by sketching and gesture recognition, smooth transition between any representation at any time, prototype reusability, multi-platform support, and multiple user interface prototyping facilities. The full implementation of these techniques in prototyping software provides designers and developers with a unique environment for exploring multiple designs with unprecedented support for quickly designing interfaces from scratch or from previously existing design templates. An experimental study reveals that the multiple representation manipulation together with smooth transition represents a valuable advantage for naturally designing user interfaces. The prototyping software supports several aspects involved in the user interface development life cycle and is convenient for non-WIMP user interfaces.
User-Centered Design and Business Process Modeling: Cross Road in Rapid Prototyping Tools BIBAKFull-Text 165-178
  Noi Sukaviriya; Vibha Sinha; Thejaswini Ramachandra; Senthil Mani; Markus Stolze
Fast production of a solution is a necessity in the world of competitive IT consulting business today. In engagements where early user interface design mock-ups are needed to visualize proposed business processes, the need to quickly create UI becomes prominent very early in the process. Our work aims to speed up the UI design process, enabling rapid creation of low-fidelity UI design with traditional user-centered design thinking but different tooling concepts. This paper explains the approach and the rationale behind our model and tools. One key focal point is in leveraging business process models as a starting point of the UI design process. The other focal point is on using a model-driven approach with designer-centered tools to eliminate some design overheads, to help manage a large design space, and to cope with changes in requirements. We used examples from a real business engagement to derive and strengthen this work.
Keywords: User-centered Design Process; UI Design; Model-driven User Interface; Low-fidelity UI Tools

User Centred Design Methods and Techniques 1

Ubiquitous Substitution BIBAFull-Text 179-192
  Christina Brodersen; Susanne Bødker; Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose
Ubiquitous interaction places the user in the centre of dynamic configurations of technology, where work not necessarily is performed through a single personal computer, but supported by a multiplicity of technologies and physical devices. This paper presents an activity-theoretically based framework for analyzing ubiquitous substitution, i.e. a set of mediators that are or can be continuously substituted with the purpose of highlighting expected and indented uses, and the conflicts encountered when attempting substitution between them. The paper develops a four-leveled analysis of such mediators, and point towards a minimalist approach to design of ubiquitous interaction.
Meta-design: Expanding Boundaries and Redistributing Control in Design BIBAKFull-Text 193-206
  Gerhard Fischer
Meta-design is an emerging conceptual framework aimed at defining and creating socio-technical environments as living entities. It extends existing design methodologies focused on the development of a system at design time by allowing users to become co-designers at use time. Meta-design is grounded in the basic assumption that future uses and problems cannot be completely anticipated at design time, when a system is developed. Users, at use time, will discover mismatches between their needs and the support that an existing system can provide for them. Meta-design extends boundaries by supporting users as active contributors who can transcend the functionality and content of existing systems. By facilitating these possibilities, control is distributed among all stakeholders in the design process.
   This paper characterizes different design methodologies and identifies the unique challenges and opportunities for meta-design. It illustrates this approach with two examples: (a) Web2Gether (enriching the organizational practices and community building of assistive technology teachers), and (b) the Memory Aiding Prompting System (MAPS) (addressing the needs of people with cognitive disabilities and their caregivers). Assessments of our developments are used to identify some future implications and challenges for meta-design and its role in socially responsible design.
Keywords: design; design methodologies; meta-design; socio-technical environments; boundaries; control; seeding / evolutionary growth / reseeding model; Web2Gether; Memory Aiding Prompting System (MAPS); application areas for meta-design; socially responsible design

User Centred Design Methods and Techniques 2

Improving Users' Comprehension of Changes with Animation and Sound: An Empirical Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 207-220
  Céline Schlienger; Stéphane Conversy; Stéphane Chatty; Magali Anquetil; Christophe P. Mertz
Animation or sound is often used in user interfaces as an attempt to improve users' perception and comprehension of evolving situations and support them in decision-making. However, empirical data establishing their real effectiveness on the comprehension of changes are still lacking. We have carried out an experiment using four combinations of visual and auditory feedback in a split attention task. The results not only confirm that such feedback improves the perception of changes, but they also demonstrate that animation and sound used alone or combined bring major improvements on the comprehension of a changing situation. Based on these results, we propose design guidelines about the most efficient combinations to be used in user interfaces.
Keywords: Empirical evaluation; animation; sound; multimodal feedback; comprehension of changes; dual task
Designing a Free Style, Indirect, and Interactive Storytelling Application for People with Aphasia BIBAKFull-Text 221-234
  Elke Daemen; Pavan Dadlani; Jia Du; Ying Li; Pinar Erik-Paker; Jean-Bernard Martens; Boris E. R. de Ruyter
In this paper, we describe the iterative design and evaluation of a storytelling application for individuals with expressive aphasia. Our user studies show that besides basic requirements for medical care and training, there is an unmet need of aphasics to share their daily experiences and activities, anecdotes and feelings with their significant others. Thus, the goal of the proposed design is to enhance aphasics' quality of life by providing a platform for them to create and share their stories. More specifically, the goal is to enable them to play a more active role in social exchanges by providing them with a multimodal interface for storytelling that has the following functionalities: taking photos, making drawings and annotations, and recording sounds. In the end of this paper, we also summarize important design guidelines that surfaced during the course of this project and that are potentially relevant for other designers and researchers working with aphasics.
Keywords: Personal medical devices; aphasia; storytelling; multi-modal interfaces; user-centered design; iterative design; assistive technology; alternative and augmented communication; handheld devices
Supporting the Planning and Organization of Multiple Activities in the Workplace BIBAKFull-Text 235-238
  Víctor M. González; Leonardo Galicia; Jesús Favela
Many studies have shown how knowledge workers face challenges while multi-tasking among several projects and initiatives at the workplace. Researchers and consultants of personal productivity have identified practical strategies and processes that people use to face, plan and manage their activities. Our work is based on the analysis of those processes and strategies involved in personal activity management (PAM), emphasizing the planning aspects of it, with the goal of designing appropriate supportive information technology.
Keywords: Personal Activity Management; Planning Activities; Personal Productivity; Knowledge Workers; Information Technology
Creators, Composers and Consumers: Experiences of Designing a Digital Library BIBAKFull-Text 239-242
  Ann Blandford; Jeremy Gow; George Buchanan; Claire Warwick; Jon Rimmer
Many systems form 'chains' whereby developers use one system (or 'tool') to create another system, for use by other people. Little work within Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has considered how usability considerations propagate through such chains and yet in many situations the usability of systems is determined by design decisions made at one or more steps removed from the immediate developers of the system in question. In this paper, we relate our experiences of developing digital library components and collections to this notion of "design chains". This case study illustrates the necessity of looking beyond the immediate users to try to anticipate the needs of stakeholders elsewhere in the design chain.
Keywords: digital libraries; system development; design chains

Intelligent User Interfaces

A Common Sense-Based On-Line Assistant for Training Employees BIBAKFull-Text 243-254
  Júnia Coutinho Anacleto Silva; Muriel de Souza Godoi; Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti de Carvalho; Henry Lieberman
We present a prototype of an on-line assistant to support a training course about workspace safety issues. The application uses a common sense reasoning engine and the Brazilian Open Mind common sense knowledge base, to make inferences about concepts that might be unfamiliar to the students. We explore the use of metaphors and analogies to explain topics, enhancing learning by using similarities to help students associate related topics. We believe that common sense can be used to take into account cultural considerations while helping learners to build analogies. A survey of students showed that they considered analogies useful in the learning process, that the system was helpful in understanding new concepts, and that it helped connect the information searched for with common sense knowledge.
Keywords: Distance learning; common sense; on-line assistant; training; education; cognitive strategies; metaphors and analogies
Proactive Assistive Technology: An Empirical Study BIBAFull-Text 255-268
  Amedeo Cesta; Gabriella Cortellessa; Vittoria Giuliani; Federico Pecora; Riccardo Rasconi; Massimiliano Scopelliti; Lorenza Tiberio
This paper analyzes the problem of evaluating elderly people's perception of assistive robots and domotic environments. Specifically, we focus on aspects related to the modalities in which interaction can occur between an elder user and an assistive robotic agent. Our work benefits from the products of project RoboCare, namely, a domestic environment in which sensors, intelligent software components and a domestic robot provide a set of cognitive support services for the elder user. This paper analyzes a number of evaluation criteria in detail, specifically related to the robot's aspect, the way in which it communicates with the user, and the perceived usefulness of its support services. Among these criteria, the paper proposes and reports an evaluation of the Proactive interaction modality (where the system takes the initiative) and On-demand interaction (in which the user explicitly requests a service). Users evaluate the On-demand support services in personal safety scenarios as particularly useful, and less so in scenarios which are not critical. The paper also provides a discussion which can be useful for the design of future assistive agents and robotic companions.
Use and Implications of a Shared, Forecasting Calendar BIBAKFull-Text 269-282
  Joe Tullio; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Changes in modern work environments, combined with advances in sensing and machine intelligence, have given rise to a new class of groupware applications that seeks to facilitate workplace communication through the prediction of future availability and/or location. We present the results of a four-month deployment of an experimental predictive calendar system in an academic setting. While participants appreciated several novel features of the system, most resisted adoption due to the uncertainty of its predictions, its effects on privacy and impression management, and accessibility issues. We present implications for designers who seek to incorporate forecasting components into their groupware tools using observations from the study.
Keywords: Groupware calendar system; evaluation; intelligent user interfaces; forecasting; communication; privacy

Interaction on the Move 1

Utilizing Sound Effects in Mobile User Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 283-296
  Hannu Korhonen; Jukka Holm; Mikko Heikkinen
The current generation of mobile devices is capable of producing polyphonic sounds, has enough processing power for real-time signal processing, and much better sound quality than their predecessors. The importance of audio is increasing as we are moving towards multimodal user interfaces where audio is one of the major components. In this paper, we present new ways of using audio feedback more efficiently and intelligently in mobile user interfaces by utilizing real-time signal processing. To test the ideas in practice, a prototype calendar application was implemented. We arranged a one week field trial to validate the design ideas. The results indicate that sound effects are capable of passing information to the user in some extent, but they are more useful in impressing the user and making existing audio feedback sound better.
Keywords: Auditory interfaces; multi-modal interfaces; sonification; data auralization; mobile phones; calendar; non-speech audio; reverb; navigation; sound effects
Multimodal PDA Interfaces to Assist Drivers in Monitoring Their Vehicles BIBAKFull-Text 297-309
  Giuseppe Ghiani; Fabio Paternò
In this paper we present a new hardware/software solution, which allows users to easily interact with their cars' components through the OBD-II system. We propose a multimodal interface for PDAs supporting vocal and graphical commands. Our aim is to provide a safe and usable way to access the sensed engine data and vehicular status while driving. The retrieved information, which can be presented through different modalities, is used to alert the driver about some events, such as surpassing the speed limit.
Keywords: Car interfaces; mobile devices; multimodal interfaces

Interaction on the Move 2

The Adaptive Hybrid Cursor: A Pressure-Based Target Selection Technique for Pen-Based User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 310-323
  Xiangshi Ren; Jibin Yin; Shengdong Zhao; Yang Li
We present the Adaptive Hybrid Cursor, a novel target acquisition technique for pen-based interfaces. To assist a user in a target selection task, this technique automatically adapts the size of the cursor and/or its contexts (the target size and the selection background) based on pen pressure input. We systematically evaluated the new technique with various 2D target acquisition tasks. The experimental results indicated that the Adaptive Hybrid Cursor had better selection performance, and was particularly effective for small-target and high-density environments in which the regular cursor and the Bubble Cursor [13] failed to show significant advantages. The Adaptive Hybrid Cursor is a novel way to improve target acquisition via pressure input, and our study demonstrated its viability and potential for pen-based interfaces.
Keywords: pen-based interfaces; pressure; small target acquisition; target density
ThumbSpace: Generalized One-Handed Input for Touchscreen-Based Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 324-338
  Amy K. Karlson; Benjamin B. Bederson
In this paper, we present ThumbSpace, a software-based interaction technique that provides general one-handed thumb operation of touchscreen-based mobile devices. Our goal is to provide accurate selection of all interface objects, especially small and far targets, which are traditionally difficult to interact with using the thumb. We present the ThumbSpace design and a comparative evaluation against direct interaction for target selection. Our results show that ThumbSpace was well-received, improved accuracy for selecting targets that are out of thumb reach, and made users as effective at selecting small targets as large targets. The results further suggest user practice and design iterations hold potential to close the gap in access time between the two input methods, where ThumbSpace did not do as well as direct interaction.
Keywords: ThumbSpace; one handed mobile interaction
Optimizing on Mobile Usage Cost for the Lower Income Group: Insights and Recommendations BIBAFull-Text 339-342
  Deepak P; Anuradha Bhamidipaty
There is an increasing trend in the penetration of mobile phones towards the lower strata (lower income) group of the society. Cost is perceived as the governing factor which determines the adoption of mobile phones in this group. This paper explores the effect of cost on the usage of mobile phones and proposes an enhanced design with features that optimize its usage cost for lower income group. These features help determine and restrict call duration, proactively alert user on usage deviations and avoid early call terminations. Preliminary evaluations of the enhanced design were decidedly positive about the effectiveness in controlling and optimizing mobile usage cost.
Button Keyboard: A Very Small Keyboard with Universal Usability for Wearable Computing BIBAKFull-Text 343-346
  Hyunjung Kim; Minjung Sohn; Seoktae Kim; Jinhee Pak; Woohun Lee
This paper presents the Button Keyboard, a very small wearable keyboard with universal usability. The Button Keyboard has high wearability and social acceptance due to its remarkably small size. As it is roughly button sized (33mm×33mm), it can be worn on the body without any discomfort. In addition, it adapts a mobile QWERTY layout to improve text entry for general users without special training. After an evaluation of the text input performance, it was found that the keyboard provides sufficient text input speed and learnability in spite of its small size. Furthermore, a touch-sensitive keypad divides input states by recognizing finger motions. Therefore, the system can provide visual or auditory feed-forwards to users. Thus, users can confirm the key before they execute. This previewable feature makes the keyboard a highly usable example of a wearable computer, in that it reduces the focus of attention and frequency of error. Moreover, it has the potential to assist the disabled by providing effective and appropriate ranges of feed-forwards.
Keywords: Wearable computing; Text entry; Keyboard

Accessibility

Electronic Communication: Themes from a Case Study of the Deaf Community BIBAFull-Text 347-360
  Valerie Henderson-Summet; Rebecca E. Grinter; Jennie Carroll; Thad Starner
We present a qualitative, exploratory study to examine the space of electronic communication (e.g. instant messaging, short message service, email) by Deaf teenagers in the greater Atlanta metro area. We discuss differences and similarities between deaf and hearing teen's usage of electronic communication mediums. Five common themes: Identity, Connection, Control, Tension, and Convenience were identified from the analysis of the data collected. These themes allow us to explore electronic communication from the "use-centric" view of teenagers who are indifferent to the underlying technology supporting this communication.
Accessibility and Interactive TV: Design Recommendations for the Brazilian Scenario BIBAKFull-Text 361-374
  Lara Schibelsky G. Piccolo; Amanda Meincke Melo; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
TV can be regarded as the most far-reaching media in Brazil. Its presence is noticed in 90% of Brazilian homes and it is the main source of information for a major part of the population. The moment of definition and consolidation of the digital TV technology provides us with a unique opportunity for analyzing and discussing this media accessibility. Making sure that TV contents and devices are flexible enough so that people are able to perceive, understand and interact with them is a main asset for its use and an essential requirement for the democratization of information via TV broadcasting. This paper analyzes interactive digital TV accessibility in informal, formal, and technical levels, considering the Brazilian context. In addition, it presents recommendations to design accessible interfaces by referring to the W3C guidelines 2.0 for Web accessibility and specific recommendations for iDTV.
Keywords: Accessibility; Interactive digital TV; User Interfaces for All
Guidelines for Designing Mobility and Orientation Software for Blind Children BIBAKFull-Text 375-388
  Jaime Sánchez; Miguel Elías
We present a study about the use of current electronic travel aids to help blind people navigate through familiar and unfamiliar environments. We also discuss the main strengths and weaknesses of electronic travel aids and propose guidelines to design and use them adequately. We provide a proposal to develop and use traveling aids. As a result, this can be a first step towards defining major aspects to develop travel aids oriented to assist mobility and orientation of blind people.
Keywords: Mobility and Orientation; User-centered software development; Blind users; Electronic travel aids; Virtual environments
SymAB: Symbol-Based Address Book for the Semi-literate Mobile User BIBAFull-Text 389-392
  Anuradha Bhamidipaty; Deepak P
Developing countries like India are observing an increasing trend in the penetration of mobile phones towards the base of the pyramid (lower strata of the society). This segment comprises of users who are novice and semi-literate and are interested in the basic usage of the mobile phone. This paper explores one of the basic features, the address book for its usability and presents an enhanced symbol-based design to cater for the semi-literate user. The enhancement uses symbols to replace current text based storage and retrieval and also includes a call distribution based address book access to align with the skewed nature of the user's requirements. The results of a preliminary evaluation of the prototype are encouraging regarding the value perceived through the design.
Accessibility of Assistive Software Installation Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 393-396
  Lucia Filgueiras; Edson Sales; Lucy Gruenwald; Ana Maria Barbosa; Renato Facis
Software installation is a one-time task; yet, it should work well. Regarding assistive technologies, users with disabilities will often require help in installation tasks. Five assistive software products were evaluated in order to identify barriers faced by visually impaired users performing the installation task and none of them, for different reasons, allowed full completion of installation task. Some recommendations are devised from the experience.
Keywords: Assistive technology; accessibility; installation software; usability

Designing for Multiples Devices

Model-Driven Adaptation for Plastic User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 397-410
  Jean-Sebastien Sottet; Vincent Ganneau; Gaëlle Calvary; Joëlle Coutaz; Alexandre Demeure; Jean-Marie Favre; Rachel Demumieux
User Interface (UI) plasticity denotes UI adaptation to the context of use (user, platform, physical and social environments) while preserving usability. In this article, we focus on the use of Model-Driven Engineering and demonstrate how the intrinsic flexibility of this approach can be exploited by designers for UI prototyping as well as by end-users in real settings. For doing so, the models developed at design-time, which convey high-level design decisions, are still available at run-time. As a result, an interactive system is not limited to a set of linked pieces of code, but is a graph of models that evolves, expresses and maintains multiple perspectives on the system from top-level tasks to the final UI. A simplified version of a Home Heating Control System is used to illustrate our approach and technical implementation.
Keywords: User interface plasticity; user interface adaptation; context aware systems; Model-Driven Engineering
The Beautification Process in Model-Driven Engineering of User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 411-425
  Inés Pederiva; Jean Vanderdonckt; Sergio España; José Ignacio Panach; Oscar Pastor
The beautification of a user interface resulting from model-to-model and model-to-code transformations in Model-Driven Architecture consists of performing manual changes to address user requirements which have not been supported during the transformations. These requirements may include customization, users' preferences, and compliance with corporate style guidelines. This paper introduces a beautification process into a user-interface model. This process includes a series of beautification operations based on a formal definition, as well as a constrained editor that enables designers to apply these beautification operations on a user interface. All manual changes done using these beautification operations are transformed into model-to-model transformations, thus reducing the problem of round-trip engineering. The paper also demonstrates that this process significantly reduces the number of manual changes performed on user interfaces of information systems, while preserving the quality properties induced by the transformations.
Keywords: Beautification operation; beautification process; human-computer interaction model; round-trip engineering; model-driven engineering; quality by construction; user interface description language; user interface code tweaking
Consistency Priorities for Multi-device Design BIBAFull-Text 426-429
  Rodrigo de Oliveira; Heloisa Vieira da Rocha
We propose consistency priorities to support multi-device interface design minimizing the user's cognitive effort while performing the same task on different interfaces. The methodology is being evaluated through a framework that generates Pocket PC interfaces from desktop web pages. Initial results point to the acceptance of the approach.
A Flexible Presentation Tool for Diverse Multi-display Environments BIBAFull-Text 430-433
  Kazutaka Kurihara; Takeo Igarashi
Display environments for presentations are becoming diverse, and it is common to have multiple displays in the same room. We present a system to edit and give presentations using multiple displays. The main idea is to separate the content from the views. The author prepares presentation visuals (text and images) on an infinitely zoomable canvas, and then specifies what is shown in each display by dragging a rectangular display proxy onto the canvas. The presenter can change what is shown in each display by manipulating these display proxies. We describe an example that showed that the system can handle various presentation scenarios using multiple displays.

Interaction Techniques 1

A Pressure-Sensing Mouse Button for Multilevel Click and Drag BIBAKFull-Text 434-446
  Masaki Omata; Kenji Matsumura; Atsumi Imamiya
This paper proposes a pressure-sensing mouse button that can better express the user's intention. When users use it for click or drag, the users can specify continuous parameters of the mouse operation by adjusting intensity of the button press between from lightly to strongly. For evaluating it, we conducted experiments to validate optimal number of pressure levels and to compare the mouse with conventional input methods. Subjects required significantly more time with eight pressure levels than with fewer levels. We also found that the mouse was not faster than conventional mice in terms of task performance time because users were not adept at adjusting force of the mouse button. We, therefore, suggest that an effective operation for the pressure-sensing mouse button is to change an insignificant effective parameter associated with fundamental determination of a mouse operation.
Keywords: Mouse button; pressure-sensing button; multilevel button press; pressure
DeskJockey: Exploiting Passive Surfaces to Display Peripheral Information BIBAKFull-Text 447-460
  Ryder Ziola; Melanie Kellar; Kori Inkpen
This paper describes DeskJockey, a system to provide users with additional display space by projecting information on passive physical surfaces in the environment. The current DeskJockey prototype utilizes a projected desk and allows information to be moved easily between active and passive displays using a world-in-miniature interaction metaphor. A four-week, in-situ field study was conducted to compare usage of DeskJockey with typical multiple monitor use. The results revealed potential for utilizing passive physical surfaces in this manner and demonstrated that this type of display space has distinctive affordances and benefits which enhance traditional display space.
Keywords: Augmented desk; multiple monitors; peripheral information; display space management; user interaction

Interaction Techniques 2

Drag-and-Guess: Drag-and-Drop with Prediction BIBAFull-Text 461-474
  Takeshi Nishida; Takeo Igarashi
Drag-and-guess is an extension of drag-and-drop that uses predictions which is based on application specific knowledge. As the user begins to drag an object, the system predicts the drop target and presents the result to the user. When the target is hidden in a closed folder or beneath other windows, the system makes it temporarily visible. This frees users from manual preparation such as expanding a folder tree or uncovering the target location. The user can accept the prediction by throwing the object, which then flies to the target. Or, if the prediction is unsatisfactory, the user can ignore it and perform the operation as usual. We built three prototype applications (email client, spreadsheet and overlapping windows) to show that DnG is useful in many applications. Results of the user study show that the proposed technique can improve task performance when the task is difficult to complete manually and reasonable prediction algorithm is available.
Wave Menus: Improving the Novice Mode of Hierarchical Marking Menus BIBAKFull-Text 475-488
  Gilles Bailly; Eric Lecolinet; Laurence Nigay
We present Wave menus, a variant of multi-stroke marking menus designed for improving the novice mode of marking while preserving their efficiency in the expert mode of marking. Focusing on the novice mode, a criteria-based analysis of existing marking menus motivates the design of Wave menus. Moreover a user experiment is presented that compares four hierarchical marking menus in novice mode. Results show that Wave and compound-stroke menus are significantly faster and more accurate than multi-stroke menus in novice mode, while it has been shown that in expert mode the multi-stroke menus and therefore the Wave menus outperform the compound-stroke menus. Wave menus also require significantly less screen space than compound-stroke menus. As a conclusion, Wave menus offer the best performance for both novice and expert modes in comparison with existing multi-level marking menus, while requiring less screen space than compound-stroke menus.
Keywords: Marking menus; Wave menus; novice mode
Nearly-Integral Manipulation of Rotary Widgets BIBAKFull-Text 489-492
  Rodrigo Almeida; Pierre Cubaud
We present a work in progress that investigates the manipulation of virtual rotary knobs using a device with three degrees-of-freedom. We draw a brief parallel between handling real knobs in professional sound appliances and interacting with desktop rotary widgets. Then, we present an interaction technique aimed to support a natural mapping, to reduce the activation time, and to enhance the fluidity along the gestures that compose this activity.
Keywords: Interaction Techniques; Rotary Widgets; 3DOF Devices
CATKey: Customizable and Adaptable Touchscreen Keyboard with Bubble Cursor-Like Visual Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 493-496
  Kentaro Go; Yuki Endo
This paper describes our ongoing project related to touchscreen keyboard interfaces. This customizable and adaptable touchscreen keyboard with bubble cursor-like visual feedback, CATKey, is a software keyboard for touchscreens that is designed to provide adaptable and customizable functions. We discuss its concept, prototype, and tentative evaluation.
Keywords: adaptation; bubble cursor; customization; touchscreen keyboard

Affective Computing 1

A Conceptual Framework for the Design and Evaluation of Affective Usability in Educational Geosimulation Systems BIBAKFull-Text 497-510
  Elizabeth Furtado; Vasco Furtado; Eurico Vasconcelos Filho
In this article we propose a conceptual framework for associating the concepts of usability, computer education and affective quality. We analyze the interaction student-teacher under the light of learning strategies used in educational geosimulators for defining the main emotional constructs that are involved in this process. We elaborate this initial analysis by identifying which interactive objects should be associated with the identified emotional constructs. We associate these objects with an architecture that defines the basics components of an educational geosimulation system as well as the learning strategies used in this context. We illustrate the utility of the framework with an evaluation of an education geosimulator for police training as well as an evaluation of the student's satisfaction during the interaction in different scenarios.
Keywords: Affective emotional quality; Educational System Evaluation
TEMo-Chine: Tangible Emotion Machine BIBAFull-Text 511-514
  Omar Mubin; Abdullah Al Mahmud; Christoph Bartneck
We examine whether or not it is possible to determine, recognize and/or report the emotional state of a group of people through touch and/or body motion. We present the initial design of a mechanism for an asynchronous yet anonymous means of communication where the basic framework is set up by defining interaction with the system and aggregating the individual interaction components. We present the results from our initial user evaluation based on a scenario-based methodology. The results prove that users tend to exhibit similar emotional expression and interaction modalities, which could be used to determine general emotional states.
Characterizing the Diversity in Users' Perceptions BIBAKFull-Text 515-518
  Evangelos Karapanos; Jean-Bernard Martens
This paper proposes a novel approach to modeling the diversity in users' perceptions, based on a mixture of qualitative and quantitative techniques: the Repertory Grid Technique and Multi-Dimensional Scaling. The proposed method can be used for identifying diverse user groups that can inspire a range of personas, or for selecting subjects for field studies and usability tests. In a case study we explored the perceptions of product creators and end users towards an innovative product in its early design stage.
Keywords: user profiling; Repertory Grid; Multi-dimensional Scaling

Affective Computing 2

Stay on the Ball! An Interaction Pattern Approach to the Engineering of Motivation BIBAFull-Text 519-522
  Kirstin Kohler; Sabine Niebuhr; Marc Hassenzahl
This paper introduces an interaction pattern approach to "engineer" motivation. Its goal is to provide concrete ideas (in the form of patterns) on how to design software that motivates its users to stay on a task. The paper presents an example of a motivating pattern, the Task Status Display (TSD), and its empirical validation. Preliminary results support its motivational effect, thereby lending support to the general notion of building motivation into interactive products for the workplace.
Motivational Needs-Driven Mobile Phone Design BIBAKFull-Text 523-526
  Judy van Biljon; Paula Kotzé; Gary Marsden
This paper provides support for the use of motivational needs in identifying mobile phone uses and related features. Drawing on motivational human and usage space research, the findings of interviews and surveys, this paper proposes the Mobile phone Usage Space Model (MUSM). MUSM distinguishes between two groups of features by identifying necessary and additional features, thus focusing the designer's activity on motivational needs-driven design, rather than feature escalation that currently appears to dominate.
Keywords: Mobile phone design; usage spaces; motivational needs
Mobile Application for Increasing Contextual and Emotional Work Group Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 527-531
  Mikko Salminen; Kari Kallinen; Kliment Yanev; Niklas Ravaja; Timo Saari
This paper presents a prototype of a mobile application enhancing emotional and contextual awareness in distributed knowledge work teams. Emotional, contextual, and other types of data from users are collected both implicitly and explicitly. The benefits of such a system are hypothesized to include increased individual and group awareness, emotional awareness, location-, task- and status awareness. A novel way to visualize data on location, use context, and user's subjective emotional state on a mobile phone are also presented.
Keywords: Mobile social application; knowledge work; contextual awareness; emotional awareness

3D Interaction and 3D Interfaces

Employing Dynamic Transparency for 3D Occlusion Management: Design Issues and Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 532-545
  Niklas Elmqvist; Ulf Assarsson; Philippas Tsigas
Recent developments in occlusion management for 3D environments often involve the use of dynamic transparency, or virtual "X-ray vision", to promote target discovery and access in complex 3D worlds. However, there are many different approaches to achieving this effect and their actual utility for the user has yet to be evaluated. Furthermore, the introduction of semi-transparent surfaces adds additional visual complexity that may actually have a negative impact on task performance. In this paper, we report on an empirical user study comparing dynamic transparency to standard viewpoint controls. Our implementation of the technique is an image-space algorithm built using modern programmable shaders to achieve real-time performance and visually pleasing results. Results from the user study indicate that dynamic transparency is superior for perceptual tasks in terms of both efficiency and correctness.
Towards Applicable 3D User Interfaces for Everyday Working Environments BIBAKFull-Text 546-559
  Frank Steinicke; Timo Ropinski; Gerd Bruder; Klaus Hinrichs
Desktop environments represent a powerful user interface and have been used as the de facto standard human-computer interaction paradigm for over 20 years. But the rising demand of 3D applications dealing with complex datasets exceeds the capabilities of traditional interaction devices and two-dimensional displays. Such applications need more immersive and intuitive interfaces. In order to be accepted by the users, technology-driven solutions that require inconvenient instrumentation, e.g., stereo glasses or tracked gloves, should be avoided. Autostereoscopic display environments equipped with tracking systems enable humans to experience virtual 3D environments more naturally, for instance via gestures, without having to use annoying devices. However, currently these approaches are used only for specially designed or adapted applications. In this paper we introduce new 3D user interface concepts for such setups which require minimal instrumentation of the user and can be integrated easily in everyday working environments. We propose an interaction framework which supports simultaneous display of and simultaneous interaction with both monoscopic as well as stereoscopic contents. We identify the challenges for combined mouse-, keyboard- and gesture-based input paradigms in such an environment and introduce novel interaction strategies.
Keywords: HCI; autostereoscopic display environments; 3D user interfaces
Dwell-Based Pointing in Applications of Human Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 560-573
  Christian Müller-Tomfelde
This paper describes exploratory studies and a formal experiment that investigate a particular temporal aspect of human pointing actions. Humans can express their intentions and refer to an external entity by pointing at distant objects with their fingers or a tool. The focus of this research is on the dwell time, the time span that people remain nearly motionless during pointing at objects. We address two questions: Is there a common or natural dwell time in human pointing actions? What implications does this have for Human Computer Interaction? Especially in virtual environments, feedback about the referred object is usually provided to the user to confirm actions such as object selection. A literature review and two studies led to a formal experiment in a hand-immersive virtual environment in search for an appropriate feedback delay time for dwell-based pointing actions. The results and implications for applications for Human Computer Interaction are discussed.
Keywords: Pointing gesture; dwell time; interactive systems
A Miniature, One-Handed 3D Motion Controller BIBAKFull-Text 574-577
  Kynan Eng
Users of three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) and gaming applications need to manipulate virtual objects in up to six degrees of rotational and translation freedom (DOF). To date, no 3D controller provides one-handed 6DOF input with miniature size and low cost. This paper presents a prototype of the first one-handed 6DOF motion controller suitable for use in portable platforms such as laptop computers, mobile telephones and hand-held game consoles. It is based on an optical sensor combined with novel planar spring mechanics, and can be easily manufactured using low-cost materials and processes.
Keywords: 3D motion controller; optical sensor; hand-held device

Evaluation Methods 1

Use Case Evaluation (UCE): A Method for Early Usability Evaluation in Software Development BIBAKFull-Text 578-591
  Kasper Hornbæk; Rune Thaarup Høegh; Michael Bach Pedersen; Jan Stage
It is often argued that usability problems should be identified as early as possible during software development, but many usability evaluation methods do not fit well in early development activities. We propose a method for usability evaluation of use cases, a widely used representation of design ideas produced early in software development processes. The method proceeds by systematic inspection of use cases with reference to a set of guidelines for usable design. To validate the method, four evaluators inspected a set of use cases for a health care application. The usability problems predicted by the evaluators were compared to the result of a conventional think-aloud test. About one fourth of the problems were identified by both think-aloud testing and use case inspection; about half of the predicted problems not found by think-aloud testing were assessed as providing useful input to early development. Qualitative data on the evaluators' experience using the method are also presented. On this background, we argue that use case inspection has a promising potential and discuss its limitations.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; use cases; software development
Evaluating Reduced-Functionality Interfaces According to Feature Findability and Awareness BIBAFull-Text 592-605
  Leah Findlater; Joanna McGrenere
Many software applications continue to grow in terms of the number of features they offer. Reduced-functionality interfaces have been proposed as a solution by several researchers, but evaluations have been limited in number and scope. We argue that traditional performance measures are not sufficient for these interfaces, so we introduce and distinguish feature findability and feature awareness measures. We have conducted a controlled study that demonstrates the tradeoff between these two measures: findability in a minimal layered approach was better than in the full interface alone, but subjects were more aware of advanced features if they used the full interface from the outset. A marked layered approach was also evaluated, but provided little benefit over the other interfaces. Ours is also the first experiment comparing more than one multi-layer approach to a control interface.

Evaluation Methods 2

Playful Probing: Making Probing More Fun BIBAKFull-Text 606-619
  Regina Bernhaupt; Astrid Weiss; Marianna Obrist; Manfred Tscheligi
We present a methodological variation of cultural probing called playful probing. In playful probing games are developed according to the area investigated, to enhance participants' involvement in the studies. The games are used as additional probing material and enhance participants' involvement. Based on an experimental case study with 40 households participating in a ethnographic study on new forms of media usage in the home context we show how playful probing can successful support users' engagement during the ethnographic study. We found interesting insights, for example the amount of data provided on creative cards doubled for households using the playful probing approach compared to households not using playful probing. Thus the methodological extension seems worth the effort when used in ethnographic studies within the home context.
Keywords: Ethnography; cultural probes; playful; method; computer technology usage in households; interactive TV
Do I Do What I Say?: Observed Versus Stated Privacy Preferences BIBAFull-Text 620-623
  Kay Connelly; Ashraf Khalil; Yong Liu
This paper examines the use of surveys in measuring privacy concerns in ubiquitous computing environments. Two evaluation techniques are used to study the privacy concerns of sharing context information: a paper based survey and in-situ questionnaires. Results from the two techniques differ significantly, suggesting that surveys are not reliable in predicting privacy concerns regarding context-aware services. Further, the surveys are not consistently biased; for some information, people shared more in-situ than they predicted they would share in the survey, while for other types, they shared less.
In and Out of the Hospital: The Hidden Interface of High Fidelity Research Via RFID BIBAFull-Text 624-627
  Svetlena Taneva; Effie Law
The use of RFID technology in HCI research is emerging. We identify its promising application in the healthcare sector by empowering the process of capturing, extracting and analyzing data, which help understand task patterns underlying human errors and other intriguing phenomena. RFID and video as research tools are compared to identify their strengths and weaknesses. RFID can be cost-effective and powerful, especially when combined with the hospital information system and optionally with video analysis.
Exploring Multiple Usability Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 628-632
  Tobias Uldall-Espersen
Industrial usability work often fails to produce the expected impact on software products even though significant resources have been used on uncovering problems and suggesting improvements. So, it seems that feedback from industrial usability work lacks persuasiveness, i.e. it fails to convince the key stakeholders that actions need to be taken. This study reports from interviews with 26 stakeholders in software development projects. Our data suggests that the interviewees address usability using different perspectives and based on our observations we describe five such perspectives. Further, we discuss how applying different usability perspectives might inform the persuasiveness of usability work.