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ECCE Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2009 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics
Note:Designing beyond the Product --- Understanding Activity and User Experience in Ubiquitous Environments
Editors:Leena Norros; Hanna Koskinen; Leena Salo; Paula Savioja
Location:Helsinki, Finland
Dates:2009-Sep-30 to 2009-Oct-02
Standard No:ISBN:; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: ECCE09
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Developing the conceptual basis of HSI design
  2. User experience
  3. Coping with emergency situation
  4. Posters
  5. Acting in computerised everyday environments
  6. Supporting activity by virtual and augmented technology
  7. Cognitive analyses of control activity
  8. Developing usability evaluation
  9. Analysis and design of tools for process control
  10. Activity theory in design
  11. HSI design for collaborative work
  12. Cognitive studies in HSI design
  13. Developing tools for design activity
  14. Supporting usage of information systems
  15. Understanding social dimensions of activity

Developing the conceptual basis of HSI design

Challenges to cognitive systems engineering: understanding qualitative aspects of control actions BIBA 1
  Morten Lind
The paper discusses the future role of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) in contributing to integrated design of process, automation and human machine systems. Existing concepts and methods of Cognitive Systems Engineering do not integrate well with control theory and industrial automation tools. It is argued that better integration may be obtained by deeper understanding of the purposes of control actions. Examples show how process functions and control purposes are integrated in Multilevel Flow Modeling. The paper concludes that these results should be considered in future developments of CSE.

User experience

Early adopters' experiences of using mobile multimedia phones in news journalism BIBA 2
  Tiina Koponen; Heli Väätäjä
Today's mobile multimedia phones with broadband connectivity have brought novel ways for journalists to live out their hectic profession. We interviewed six forerunners in Finnish news organizations on mobile phone usage in news production. Here, we present our results on how and why they use mobile phones in news production and provide implications for design and development. Our results show that users are delighted to use mobile phones in journalistic work if they can gain personal benefits from it, like more efficient use of time. Participants were not satisfied with the audio quality of mobile phones or mobile text editors. However, they considered mobile phones suitable for capturing short Internet videos. One reason constricting mobile production is editorial processes that are not designed for receiving material produced with a mobile phone. This causes extra work both in the newsroom and in the field.
Does cognitive style affect student performance on a web-based course? BIBA 3
  Lamis Hammoud; Steve Love; Willem-Paul Brinkman
A lot of research has been carried out to assess web-based courses. In many studies the concern has been the students' satisfaction and achievement in web-based courses and traditional face-to-face courses, and the comparison between the two. Other studies have focused on the development of web-based courses to meet the requirements of educational institutes. Studies about students' cognitive styles may be important for the designers of web-based courses because of the potential to enhance learning. However, the relationship between the students' cognitive styles and their satisfaction and achievement has not been researched fully and the implications are inconclusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between students' cognitive styles, their satisfaction, achievement, and their way of using a web-based course. Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA) by Riding and Rayner [11] was selected as the instrument to determine whether students were field-dependent or field-independent. Students' attitudes toward using WebCT (Web Course Tools) were measured by a questionnaire specially designed for this intention. Students' activities on WebCT were observed through the tracking system which provided information about students' use of every tool and page on WebCT. The study does not provide data to support a relation between students' cognitive style and their use of online learning environments such as WebCT. However cognitive style seems to have an effect on student achievements.
Developing a rapid questionnaire-based metric for experience of form BIBA 4
  Ville Lehtinen; Riikka Hänninen; Ville Toivonen; Antti Oulasvirta; Sari Kuuva; Pertti Saariluoma
In this paper we report on the process and results of creating a questionnaire-based metric for experience of form. The questions for the metric were chosen on the basis of an expert evaluation and short iterative pilot tests, with the emphasis on ergonomics and the usability of the metric for both the commissioner of the questionnaire and the subjects filling it in. Basic questionnaire design guidelines were applied for building a logical and understandable structure of questions and the process for the evaluation event. The metric was finally adapted for the evaluation of four everyday drinking glass designs and tested in a small field study with 20 subjects. The usability of the questionnaire was evaluated according to chosen parameters for speed, understandability, and subjective experience, while usefulness was evaluated in terms of how well the metric could highlight defining characteristics for the objects under evaluation. Overall, satisfactory values were received for all parameters defined, and the questionnaire did manage to bring out defining characteristics for the glasses in the context of a rapid implementation.

Coping with emergency situation

Change blindness and situation awareness in a police C2 environment BIBA 5
  Gabriela Mancero; William Wong; Martin Loomes
We conducted a field study at the British Transport Police (BTP) Control Room in London to evaluate three hypotheses: that operators in a command and control environment miss changes; that missing changing information affects Situation Awareness (SA); and that interruptions affect operators' ability to detect changes.
   Our results showed that if a controller's attention was drawn away, reading an immediately available log was sufficient for detection and understanding of relevant changes. Thorough incident logging in a well highlighted display was found to be an excellent recovery tool. However, a number of issues emerged about the operators' integration of information and spatial understanding requirements to maintain situation awareness during these incidents. A hypothesis that emerged from this study is that change blindness could occur in environments with graphical-tactical interfaces as opposed to the text-based ones used by the BTP.
   This paper suggests that BTP operators' critical challenge is the integration of information and the need for spatial understanding to maintain situation awareness rather than the detection of visual changes per se.
Collaborative situational mapping during emergency response BIBA 6
  Lucy T. Gunawan; Augustinus H. J. Oomes; Mark Neerincx; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Hani Alers
During emergency response, individuals observe only part of the picture, sharing of information is needed to get the required complete picture. The aim of our study is to get insight in the collaborative mapping process in order to derive requirements for a map-sharing tool. First, we analyzed the domain to assess the mapping processes, to identify general problem areas of the assessed processes. Subsequently, we conducted a laboratory experiment to systematically investigate the identified problem of collaborative map construction by individuals who observed an incident from different perspectives.
   This paper discuss an experiment, which showed that the individual maps are sometimes better than the jointly constructed map, among other things due to the collaboration biases of unbalanced relations and uncertainty about oneself. Thus based on this experiment, the collaborative mapping tool should support joint map construction and help to prevent the identified collaboration biases.
Analysis of work demands of multi-agency emergency response activity for developing information support systems BIBA 7
  Leena Norros; Robert Hutton; Patrick Grommes; Nick Colford; Marja Liinasuo; Paula Savioja
This paper reports first results of analyses concerning emergency response (ER) activity executed as a joint effort of three agencies: fire services, ambulance services and the police. The challenge to be tackled in the study is to understand the cognitive, operational and collaborative demands that characterize on-site responding to a complex emergency situation. The concept of Common Operational Picture (COP) is used to indicate one of the distributed cognitive functions of the multiagency ER personnel. The process of the adopted usage-driven design approach is described, and some central methodical solutions explained. Tentative results concerning the formation of COP indicate that a communication-oriented (semiotic) approach provides a possibility to empirically analyse the formation of COP and to understand the cognitive patterns that actors, environment and artefacts jointly form for tackling unanticipated and complex situations.
Decision making with a time limit: the effects of presentation modality and structure BIBA 8
  Yujia Cao; Mariët Theune; Anton Nijholt
In this study, a user experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of information presentation factors (modality and structure) on decision making behavior, using a time-limited task. The time constraint required subjects to develop heuristic strategies to substitute the defined normative strategy. The two presentation factors have been shown to significantly affect the decision making performance, assessed by time efficiency and accuracy. The modality factor mainly influenced the time efficiency, due to its impact on the efficiency of information perception. By analyzing the subjective reports and the error distribution, the structure was shown to influence the selection of heuristic strategies. Consequentially, it affected both the time efficiency and the accuracy of decision making. The interaction between the time constraint and the presentation effects was also observed.


Levels of automation and user control in use of an automatic turbine system BIBA 9
  Jonas Andersson; Anna-Lisa Osvalder
This paper describes an empirical field study performed in a nuclear power plant simulator control room and presents how the use of an automatic turbine system (ATS) affects nuclear power plant turbine operators' ability to stay in control during different levels of automation. The paper also presents how the operators cope with the automation interface and how their problem solving ability is affected by varying levels of automation. The Contextual Control Model (COCOM) was used to analyse the turbine operators' work with the ATS. The aims were to investigate how the ATS design support the turbine operators in their work in terms of monitoring and controlling the turbine process, and to identify possible improvements in the ATS user interface design. Seven turbine operators were interviewed during the simulator training session. The results of the interviews point out that automation related problems such as out-of-the-loop performance and loss of skills exist in the control room setting. The use of COCOM as a means for analysis provided explanations to these results and implied that time for evaluation is an important factor for effective performance. Finally, improving the visibility of the underlying program logic was found to be the most important measure to enhance the ATS interface.
Use errors and usability problems in relation to automation levels of medical devices BIBA 10
  Lars-Ola Bligård; Jonas Andersson
This paper is a reflection on the role of levels of automation in medical device usability. The reflection is based on a comparison of results from two independent usability evaluations on dialysis machines (one newer and one older). Usability problems were found that could be traced back to the use interface design and automation level of the machines. The comparison showed that there was a difference in usability problem types at different levels of automation and a conclusion was that the usability aspect becomes even more important as the level of automation increases.
Mobile air ticket booking BIBA 11
  Ivan Burmistrov
Online air ticket booking is a cognitively complex task even on fully-functional internet-access devices such as desktops, representing a repetitive multi-parametric search in the flights database and then browsing long lists of flights found, consisting of different carriers, prices, dates and times, to create an optimal combination of outbound and inbound flights. We present the results of research into prospective users of mobile air ticketing, a set of domain-specific user interface design guidelines, and a wireframe design for mobile air ticket booking application.
"Show me, how does it look now": remote help-giving in collaborative design BIBA 12
  Dhaval Vyas; Gerrit van der Veer; Anton Nijholt; Dirk Heylen
This paper examines the role of visual information in a remote help-giving situation involving the collaborative physical task of designing a prototype remote control. We analyze a set of video recordings captured within an experimental setting. Our analysis shows that using gestures and relevant artefacts and by projecting activities on the camera, participants were able to discuss several design-related issues. The results indicate that with a limited camera view (mainly faces and shoulders), participants' conversations were centered at the physical prototype that they were designing. The socially organized use of our experimental setting provides some key implications for designing future remote collaborative systems.

Acting in computerised everyday environments

A descriptive model of contextual activities for the design of domestic situations BIBA 13
  Pascal Salembier; Julie Dugdale; Myriam Frejus; Yvon Haradji
A challenging topic for cognitive ergonomics and cognitive engineering is the development of smart applications and devices which apply some "intelligence" of the situations, i.e. commonsense knowledge about the occupants of the household, their individual and collective routines, their expected patterns of behavior. Most people spend more time at home than in any other place, including work places, but few studies have been conducted on how new context-aware technologies could support people in their everyday life. Spaces that subtly reconfigure themselves according to their occupants and use can cause rejection or acceptance, depending on how intelligently they are designed. In this paper we describe a descriptive framework for contextual activities that aims at supporting collective thinking about the design of services for the domestic users.
Analysis of activity in domestic settings for the design ubiquitous technologies BIBA 14
  Germain Poizat; Myriam Fréjus; Yvon Haradji
The aim of this study was to analyzing and modeling domestic activities (i.e. what people do in the home). The ultimate goal is to help to design ubiquitous technologies which are context sensitive and which really fit with our needs.
Food for talk: photo frames to support social connectedness for elderly people in a nursing home BIBA 15
  Margit Biemans; Betsy van Dijk
Social connectedness is crucial to someone's well-being. A case study is conducted to test whether the social connectedness of elderly people living in a nursing home and their family and friends can be improved through a photo frame. A SIM-based photo frame is used to keep the elderly people informed about the comings and goings of their loved ones. Eight elderly people living in a nursing home participated in this case study for 6-7 weeks. A content analysis of the photos revealed that the photos often were related to special events or holidays that happened in the past. Interviews indicated that the photos mainly served as food for talk, i.e. the photos initiated conversations between the elderly people mutually, with their family members and with the healthcare professionals. They all liked the photo frame and it didn't serve as a means to exchange news, but as a catalyst to talk -mainly- about the past.
Disembedding computers: interfacing ubiquitous computers BIBA 16
  William Edmondson; Russell Beale
In this paper we look at four different interpretations of the term 'Ubiquitous Computing' -- many computers; people using them much of the time; embedded computers, and 'invisible' systems -- and consider how the two more specialist interpretations are being undermined by the other two. We explain how the increased manifestation of computers in our environment alters the ways in which we should consider how to design ubiquitous systems. There are some specific implications for design of interfaces to artefacts containing embedded computers and these are discussed in the context of recent work on Projected Cognition.

Supporting activity by virtual and augmented technology

Augmented reality as means for creating shared understanding BIBA 17
  Mirja Lievonen; Duska Rosenberg; Ralf Dörner; Guido Kühn; Swen Walkowski
The motivation for the work presented in this paper comes primarily from user experience of video-conferencing (v-c) settings in real-life collaboration. The design issues in this context focus on making such settings interactive enough to support natural communication and collaboration. The initial assumption is that users in an interactive v-c setting should be able to navigate the remote space in order to establish clear reference by pointing to people and objects in it. Clear reference to parts of the context in which conversations take place (that is, deictic reference) is an important factor in effective communication. With this aim, we enhanced the videoconferencing system with the ability to visualize abstract representations of pointers and investigated pointing gesture as a tool for collaborative referring. We thus designed a prototype that combines the communicative function of pointing gesture with a hybrid representation of real video and virtual objects (pointers) that identify particular parts of it. A game controller was employed for pointing and Augmented Reality (AR) for visualizing the referent in live video stream. Usability tests were run on two versions of the prototype using five common types of joint task. Evidence based on data from video recording, questionnaire, and interview, shows effectiveness of the system in mediating the communicative function of pointing. Test users adapted to the context of interpretation quickly. Feedback was provided for enhancing visualization and pointing technique. The method successfully captured relevant visuo-gestural and linguistic aspects of communication to inform design.
Field observations of therapists conducting virtual reality exposure treatment for the fear of flying BIBA 18
  Willem-Paul Brinkman; Guntur Sandino; Charles van der Mast
Recent research suggests Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) for the treatment of fear of flying as an important reliable technique for this phobia. This paper focuses on the role of the therapist during an exposure session. Six therapists were observed in 14 sessions with 11 different patients. Results show that in 93% of the observed sessions, therapists started with a similar flight pattern. Furthermore, a total of 20 errors were observed where therapists initiated inappropriate sound recordings such as pilot or purser announcements. Findings suggest that the system might be improved by providing the therapist with automatic flying scenarios.
User expectations for mobile mixed reality services: an initial user study BIBA 19
  Thomas Olsson; Pirita Ihamäki; Else Lagerstam; Leena Ventä-Olkkonen; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
Mixed reality, i.e. the integration and merging of physical and digital worlds, has become an integral part of the ubicomp research agenda. Often, however, in development of first technology concepts and prototypes, the expectations of potential users are not considered, and the development easily becomes technology-driven. To understand the expectations and needs of potential users of future mobile mixed reality (MMR) services, we conducted altogether five focus group sessions with varying user groups. We investigated the early impressions and expectations of MMR as a technology by evaluating various usage scenarios. Based on this initial study, we found relevance issues (what information to receive, how and when) and the reliability of MMR information to be the most salient elements that were anticipated to affect the overall user experience. In mobile and busy situations the MMR information content has to be something that is very important or useful for the user, especially if receiving the information or interacting with it draws the user's attention away from the tasks executed in the real world.

Cognitive analyses of control activity

Alarm handling in rail electrical control BIBA 20
  N. Dadashi; S. Sharples; J. R. Wilson
Recent technological advances have led to more complex control rooms and several ergonomics research studies have focused on understanding this complexity and the consequent roles of the operators [4, 6, 8]. Many of the key aspects of behaviour in cognitive systems are not easy to assess, these include reasoning, problem solving, prioritising, etc. This study is the first in a programme to examine the human factors of remote condition monitoring (RCM), and particularly the knowledge requirements to support successful strategies for operators to diagnose, prioritise and initiate action. Alarm handling in an Electrical Control Room is the focus of this study. In this paper the data collection, analysis, and interpretation are reported only as they inform and provide insight into the work of the ECRO and their handling of alarms and the consequences of this. The aim of this paper is to identify the artefacts associated with alarm handling and to conduct an exploratory contextual investigation of alarm handling.

Developing usability evaluation

User testing when test tasks are not appropriate BIBA 21
  Sirpa Riihiaho
This paper presents two usability evaluation methods called informal walkthrough and contextual walkthrough. Both the methods are intended for situations where specific prepared test tasks are not appropriate either for the use context or the goal of the evaluation. Informal walkthrough is intended for evaluating novel systems whose concept is familiar to the users and whose intuitiveness is of major concern, for example gaming slot machines. Contextual walkthrough, on the other hand, is intended for evaluating systems that cannot be separated from their real use environment and use context, for example call center applications. In addition to presenting the methods, this paper will give some examples of their use, and assessment of how effective they would be in testing ubiquitous systems.
What explains differences in users' inclination to appropriate technology for unconventional purposes?: a preliminary analysis BIBA 22
  Antti Salovaara; Sacha Helfenstein; Mikael Wahlström; Antti Oulasvirta
It is common to state that inventions of new purposes of use arise in social interaction with other technology users. Social aspects of appropriation have subsequently received a lot more attention than individual users' characteristics in appropriation research. To remedy this imbalance, this paper presents a preliminary analysis of a web survey that charted aspects of digital camera use and individuals' photography orientations and used them as predictors of digital camera appropriation. Gender, technology understanding and exchange of ideas with others proved tentatively the best predictors of appropriation.
Developing practical tools for user experience evaluation: a case from mobile news journalism BIBA 23
  Heli Väätäjä; Tiina Koponen; Virpi Roto
We present a questionnaire called Attrak-Work to support the evaluation of user experience of mobile systems in the context of mobile news journalism. We discuss theoretical background of the questionnaire and describe the development process including the field study within which the questionnaire was developed. The presented questionnaire assesses user's perception of the pragmatic (usability and task and goal achievement) and hedonic (stimulation and identification) qualities and an overall judgment of appeal. We used the questionnaire as part of a field study to corroborate and expand the findings of observations and interviews. We found the Attrak-Work questionnaire a useful tool to be used in this manner especially for the evaluation of the hedonic qualities.

Analysis and design of tools for process control

Using operating procedures in NPP process control BIBA 24
  Leena Salo; Leena Norros; Paula Savioja
This paper reports results of a qualitative analysis of procedure usage in NPP process control. The data was gathered in a test series that was conducted at the training simulator of the Fortum Loviisa nuclear power plant (NPP) in autumn 2008. The aim of the research is to construct understanding of the role of operating procedures in process control on a general level. In addition, the role of emergency operating procedures in structuring the activity in a specific accident scenario is studied. To demonstrate the methodology and to analyse in detail the role of procedures in one accident situation, the results concerning one run and one crew are presented.
Activity-driven design approach to the novel control room environments BIBA 25
  Hanna Koskinen; Jari Laarni; Leena Norros
This paper reports an ongoing work carried out in a project Tilava (Spacious). The aim of the project is four-fold: 1) to study how the control room as a space/environment enables operators to understand and control the system under their supervision; 2) to examine the possibilities to improve the control space's ability to communicate the process behind by better acknowledging the control room's physical, social and virtual space qualities and how these qualities could be supported through the introduction of new technology; 3) to create a future control room concept and 4) develop methods for early expert user involvement in design and elicitation of user requirements.

Activity theory in design

Strategic partnership as a design challenge: applying design competence to facilitate innovation-driven relationships and activities in public organization BIBA 26
  Mervi Hasu; Tuuli Mattelmäki; Salu Ylirisku
In addition to the application of traditional expert competences, practitioners in service-intensive public organizations today must develop new skills for dealing with collaborative service concept development and various user-driven and customer-orientated participative work practices. This paper discusses an example case in which a design approach was applied to boost the innovation process in a knowledge-intensive public organization.

HSI design for collaborative work

Design guidelines for negotiation support systems: an expert perspective using scenarios BIBA 27
  Alina Pommeranz; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Pascal Wiggers; Joost Broekens; Catholijn M. Jonker
Negotiation support systems (NSS) can enhance humans' performance in negotiations. Much research in this area focuses on finding optimal bids. However, there is little research on human factors in technological negotiation support. We believe an in-depth analysis of the task involving experts and users is needed to build a new generation of NSS focusing on man-machine collaboration. We describe a scenario-based approach to gathering requirements for such a system. We wrote five scenarios containing part of the envisioned functionality in the most important use situations, e.g. face-to-face negotiation, on the phone, collaborative or mobile preparation. We used claims analysis to clarify our design decisions. To evaluate our claims we organized focus groups including six general and six job negotiation experts. The filmed scenarios were used together with two claims each to guide the discussion. Based on the data analysis we constructed 12 design guidelines for NSS.

Cognitive studies in HSI design

Effects of repetitive practice on interruption costs: an empirical review and theoretical implications BIBA 28
  Antti Oulasvirta; K. Anders Ericsson
It has been argued that a worker's ability to overcome interruptions depends on his or her level of expertise in the interrupted main task. The effects of repetitive practice (repeated experience) with new task have not been systematically analyzed. This paper reviews practice effects as reported from interruption experiments. The theory of long-term working memory (Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) predicts that repetitive practice (experience) does not by itself lead to those changes in the structure of a novel memory-demanding task that are necessary for resisting interference. The review supports this prediction but also uncovers conditions in which repetitive practice produces a benefit, albeit limited, for interruption tolerance.
New interactions with workflow systems BIBA 29
  I. Wassink; P. E. van der Vet; E. M. A. G. van Dijk; G. C. van der Veer; M. Roos
This paper describes the evaluation of our early design ideas of an ad-hoc of workflow system. Using the teach-back technique, we have performed a hermeneutic analysis of the mockup implementation named NIWS to get corrective and creative feedback at the functional, dialogue and representation level of the new workflow system.

Developing tools for design activity

An approach to assess the quality of collaboration in technology-mediated design situations BIBA 30
  Jean-Marie Burkhardt; Françoise Détienne; Anne-Marie Hébert; Laurence Perron; Stéphane safin; Pierre Leclercq
Our objective is to measure and compare the quality of collaboration in technology-mediated design activities. Our position is to consider collaboration as multidimensional. We present a method to assess quality of collaboration which is composed of seven dimensions concerning communication processes such as grounding, coordination processes, task-related processes, symmetry of individual contributions as well as motivational processes. This method is used in a study aiming to compare the quality of collaboration in architectural design. In this experimental study, design situations vary according to technology-mediation -- co-presence with an augmented reality (AR) environment versus distance with AR and visio-conferencing -, and according to number of participants -- pairs versus groups of four architects. Our results show that distinctive dimensions of collaboration are affected by the technology mediation and/or the number of co-designers. We discuss these results with respect to technology affordances such as visibility and group factors.
Designers, users and a shared understanding of the product: a case study with product designers BIBA 31
  Anna Mieczakowski; Patrick Langdon; P. John Clarkson
This paper describes the results of a detailed study which included a literature review and twenty semi-structured interviews with product designers from a large telecommunications company. The company studied has a lot of experience in product design and consistently produces high quality, usable and competitive products. In essence, the study investigated the nature and structure of users' cognitive representations of products and the ways in which designers currently go about matching their intended design of products with the users' understanding of those products. The findings from the study indicate that designers have often very little time, limited financial resources, and not enough support to take notice of users' understanding of products as much as they would like to. Moreover, no appropriate tool for predicting inclusive interaction between products and users is currently used across the organisation. However, the interviewed designers expressed high interest in using such a tool. Further research will evaluate existing tools for modelling the match between the conceptual models of designers and users and find an appropriate tool for facilitating inclusive interaction.

Supporting usage of information systems

User interface sketching to improve low and high literacy user information seeking on government and social service websites BIBA 32
  Neesha Kodagoda; B. L. William Wong; Nawaz Khan
One of the challenges in designing online information systems for Government and Social Service systems is to understand their target ordinance and the level of literacy. The users' literacy is a fundamental factor in interface development, allowing designers to take advantage target users' information seeking behaviour. The paper will discuss how three ideas transformed the existing "Adviceguide" website. The ideas were based on previous research into information seeking behaviour characteristics. We used Jakob Nielsen's ten usability heuristics and Sweller's Cognitive Load Theory to focus on interaction of information and cognitive structures to guide instructional design. We further used different display techniques to solve and address focus plus context problems. The ideas were sketched following the above theories. Sketching, a rapid drawing technique to capture, represent and formulate outcomes visually was used to conceptualise the ideas. We will discuss the differences in the three user interface design sketches. Finally we will discuss how the new user interface designs might assist the low literacy users in their quest for information seeking in Government and Social Service websites.
A comparative field study of four crane control interfaces BIBA 33
  Joanna Bergström-Lehtovirta; Jussi Rämänen; Tiia Suomalainen; Antti Oulasvirta; Tuomo Kujala
This paper reports on a comparative field study looking at the relationship between crane operators' perception of directions in the working environment and the design of the control interface. Moving a load with a crane is a common task on factory floors, and human error in this may lead to accidents. In this paper, we show that the demands of this complex spatial task can be decreased with a simple design solution that helps the operator to understand the mapping between controls and movement directions of the crane more rapidly. We report on a field experiment that was conducted in a real use environment with experienced crane operators (N=6). We conclude with a discussion of how safety on factory floors can be improved with simple design solutions that decrease the attentional demands of the operating task.

Understanding social dimensions of activity

Understanding social entities, activity coupling and social computing affordances in industrial work environments BIBA 34
  Heljä Franssila; Petri Mannonen
In this paper we develop a conceptual framework and apply the framework in an case study about exploring intersections of work activity coupling, social entities, social capital and social computing tools in industrial work settings, a process industrial multi unit plant as an empirical example. The conceptual framework can be utilised in the analysis and understanding of interaction and communication practices in the work settings. It can be utilised as an evaluation framework when selecting social computing tools and understanding their potential functional affordances to support communication and coordination in distributed process control work settings.
Investigating accountability relations with narrative networks BIBA 35
  Daniel Boos; Gudela Grote; Mikko Lehtonen
In this paper, we describe a novel approach to investigate how accountability relations change alongside the introduction of a new Internet of Things application. The approach is based on the narrative network approach which was extended to study accountability relations. We show how this approach is useful to prospectively investigate critical accountability relations already when a new application is being developed.