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ECCE Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2005 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the European Association of Cognitive Ergonomics
Editors:Nicolas Marmaras; Tom Kontogiannis; Dimitris Nathanael
Location:Athens, Greece
Dates:2005-Sep-29 to 2005-Oct-01
Standard No:ISBN: 9-60254-656-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: ECCE05
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. On theories, methods and techniques
  2. Medical applications
  3. PhD forum

On theories, methods and techniques

Validating diagnostic design knowledge for air traffic management: a successful case-study BIBA 3-10
  John Long; Becky Hill
This paper reports research, aimed at validating design knowledge (Timmer, 1999) for air traffic management (ATM). The knowledge is applied to an ATM simulation to diagnose design problems, associated with controller planning horizons. The case-study is judged a success. The design knowledge is shown to be correctly operationalised, tested and generalised to an ATM simulation, more complex than that used to develop the knowledge. However, problems with application are reported. The validation is, thus, only partial. Solution of these problems constitutes a requirement for future research. More general problems of applying design knowledge from research are identified and discussed.
Applying the control adaptation method to a real-world system: hydropower system example BIBA 11-18
  Xilin Li; Rizah Memisevic; Penelope Sanderson; B.-L. William Wong; Sanjib Choudhury
This paper presents part of a project aimed at evaluating ecological interfaces in a real world complex system -a hydropower system. We investigate whether an advanced measurement method -- here called the control adaptation method (CAM) -- can be extended to evaluate how effectively a human operator is coupled to a complex process control environment. So far the CAM has been successfully applied to the simple, DURESS II microworld. In this paper we attempt to extend the CAM to a real-world complex control environment -- a hydropower system operating in a deregulated electricity market. We encounter challenges in transferring the CAM to this more complex work domain. Nonetheless, we provide an approximation to the original methodology that should let us measure the effectiveness of ecological displays for hydropower systems. Our findings may generalise to the evaluation of ecological interfaces in other real-world systems.
Core-task analysis in requirements gathering for an adaptive batch process control interface BIBA 19-25
  Paula Savioja; Leena Norros; Leena Salo; Sauli Kivikunnas; Jari Karppinen
In this paper, we describe a research project in which Core-Task Analysis (CTA) is used to elicit functional requirements for an adaptive user interface of a batch process control system. The process under study is a continuous steel casting process the end products of which are steel slabs of varying size and quality. The paper is aimed to be methodological describing how technological requirements can be formulated with a work analysis method. Description of the prototype implementation shows how practical constraints and tools available form the solution. In the study it was find out that CTA works as work analysis method and with it, it is possible to identify interface content related requirements for new tools.
Adaptable task modelling and its application to job design for safety and productivity in process control BIBA 27-34
  Tom Kontogiannis
Changes of task demands due to unforeseen events and technological changes can cause variations in job design such as job procedures and task allocation. Failure to adapt to job design variations can lead to human errors that may have severe consequences for system safety. Existing techniques for task modelling cannot adequately model how tasks can be adapted to changing work conditions and system demands. The work described here presents a simulation tool that takes into account the context of work (e.g., competing activities, errors and suspended tasks) and adapts the task model to this context according to a cognitive user model. Performance shaping factors (e.g., workload, fatigue and mental-tracking load) are calculated at any point in time to identify performance bottlenecks and evaluate the consequence of human errors on system safety and productivity. The simulation tool is based on Coloured Petri Nets so that humans and technical systems are described with a common modelling language. Limitations and further developments of the tool are also discussed.
Safety culture assessment as crucial phase for tailoring human factors training: the case of an Italian refinery BIBA 35-42
  Mauro Marchitto
A work context presents different levels of interest from the Human Factors perspective: together with technical analysis (about risk, reliability, errors management of an organization) the social aspects of an organizational reality acquire importance, as for example communications, social interactions and norms, and the shared values of the workers as members of a community. All these parameters have an influencing action about what is meant by safety, and how safety standards are perceived and followed in everyday practices. In this paper, Safety Culture is studied as basic instrument to guide the development of Human Factors training. In other words, Safety Culture, as set of shared values and norms socially transmitted regarding safety, is an important factor to be considered when approaching a work reality for a safety study.
Countermeasures and barriers BIBA 43-50
  Johannes Petersen
The present paper addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies. An attempt is made to formalize the strategies using a model of causation that generalizes Haddon's energy transfer model of unwanted phenomena.
   Important problems associated with the term "barrier" are outlined. By means of applying the causal model to the level of countermeasure a clarification of the terminology is proposed.
   Finally, an attempt is made to extend the scope of countermeasures from causal actions to communicative actions, i.e. actions based on signs produced in order to influence the action of the agent interpreting them.
The use of near miss information in the railway industry: a case study in the Netherlands BIBA 51-56
  Linda B. Wright
This paper describes the development of near miss reporting and analysis in ProRail and the role of specific initiatives in the railway industry in general. In particular the nature of the problem is outlined and the individual steps taken to resolve the issues are discussed. The paper highlights the decision making processes in ProRail and the steps taken to optimise investigation and analysis of both near misses and actual accidents. PRISMA-Rail has been chosen as the method for analysis of near misses and accidents in ProRail. An example of a near miss analysed according to PRISMA is shown.
Music composition in the wild: from the horizon of creative cognition to the time & situation of inquiry BIBA 57-64
  Nicolas Donin; Jacques Theureau
The theme of large temporal span of cognition is emerging in cognitive ergonomics. We will consider it through the analysis of a musical composition process: that of Voi(rex) by Philippe Leroux. After presenting the data collecting method, we will consider the analysis of the resulting data concerning the writing of two movements of Voi(rex). Such an analysis will allow us: (1) to draw methodological conclusions about the time and mode of inquiry; (2) to set out a series of organised constraints to be respected by a cognition theory in order to deal with the large temporal span cognitive phenomena.
Historical analysis as a means to uncover the dynamics of evolving practices BIBA 65-70
  Dimitris Nathanael; Nicolas Marmaras
In the present paper we advocate that by adopting an evolving practice perspective and conducting an historical analysis, we may gain valuable insights on the inherent dynamics of a field of practice. By tracing back the co-adaptation between a field of practice and various artefacts introduced to it in the past, we may learn a lot more than what is being done today; past successful interventions, but more importantly unsuccessful ones, can provide insights about the nature of cognitive activities, their ontology and evolution. Such an investigation is particularly useful in the view of interventions in domains of practice guided more by human intentionality and historical causality than by a stable work domain structure based on natural or other laws. In order to illustrate the above, we present an example of such an analysis conducted in view of designing a software tool for the support of distant medical consultation.
Designing complex socio-technical systems: a heuristic schema based on cultural-historical psychology BIBA 71-81
  Antonio Rizzo; Simone Pozzi; Luca Save; Mark Sujan
This paper presents a practical description of an analysis and design methodology for complex socio-technical systems. The basis of the approach is a re-elaboration of the unit of analysis originally proposed by Vygotsky. The method focuses on man-artefact interactions in order to inform the design of new artefacts and patterns of interactions. Depending on the required level of design intervention and on the level of structure of the domain the focus is directed either towards the analysis and re-design of weak interactions, or towards the analysis of strong interactions in order to support the design of innovative artefacts and patterns of interaction. Descriptions of the individual steps of the approach, including heuristics for the practical conduct of the analysis and design, are given and illustrated with examples from a range of projects from different domains (railway, clinical, and educational domain).
Portable tool for finalizing freehand drawings: activity analysis and design requirements BIBA 83-90
  Christelle Boulanger; Françoise Decortis; Stéphane Safin
Within a multidisciplinary team of designers, architects and mechanical engineers, and ergonomists, we participate in a research project (ICC) in design and creative interface. This paper describes a participative and iterative approach and reviews the results of field studies involved in the design of a portable tool for finalizing freehand drawings. The results are discussed in terms of Activity Theory and its contribution to this field.
Grounding experience: relating theory and method to evaluate the user experience of smartphones BIBA 91-98
  David Swallow; Mark Blythe; Peter Wright
The field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has become increasingly concerned with user experience. A variety of theoretical accounts of what experience is have been articulated in recent years offering a number of important insights, but it can be unclear how they inform design. Whilst they stress the importance of certain aspects of experience, such as anticipation and reflection, they seldom offer data collection or analysis techniques, nor do they demonstrate how such data can be related to the design process. This paper examines several techniques to analyse and evaluate user's experiences of interactive technology and demonstrates how a grounded theory approach can be used to generate design ideas. The paper presents three evaluative cases studies of user experience with the Orange SPV E200 "Smartphone".
Engaging with artificial pets BIBA 99-106
  P. Marti; A. Pollini; A. Rullo; T. Shibata
This paper is a reflection about the compelling yet difficult nature of interaction dynamics among humans and robots, and a special category among them: robots capable of mediating social interaction. Such systems are not designed to help the human being performing work tasks or saving time in routine activities, but to engage them in personal experiences stimulated by the physical, emotional and behavioural affordances of the robot. The argument is illustrated by a case study in which an artificial pet was used as a support to therapeutic treatment of children with severe cognitive impairment.
Towards customized emotional design: an explorative study of user personality and user interface skin preferences BIBA 107-114
  Willem-Paul Brinkman; Nick Fine
Two key elements in the area of cognitive ergonomics are user-system performance and the user similarity. However, with the introduction of skinnable user interfaces, a technology that gives the user interface a chameleon-like ability, elements such as aesthetic, fun, and especially user individuality and identity become more important. This paper presents two explorative studies on user personality in relation to skin preferences. In the studies participants were asked to rate their preference of a set of Windows Media Player skins and to complete the BIS/BAS and the IPIP-NEO personality inventories. The results of the first study suggest colour and similarity-attraction as two possible underlying factors for the correlations found between personality traits and skin preferences. The results of the second study partly confirm these findings, however not for similar personality traits and skin types correlations.
Meaningful interactions for meaningful places: investigating the relationships between nomadic work, tangible artefacts and the physical environment BIBA 115-121
  Luigina Ciolfi; Iride Bartolucci; Darragh Murphy
This paper describes the conceptual approach and some of the fieldwork currently being conducted on the project "NomadS", aimed at understanding and supporting the activities of mobile "nomadic" workers. The focus of the project is on understanding how mobile workers make workplaces out of locations through their activities and interactions with the space and its components.
Cognitive ergonomics, didactics and discourse analysis for the analysis of teachers' and trainers' activity BIBA 123-130
  Janine Rogalski
In this paper, we present how trainers and teachers activity can be analysed through articulating concepts and methods of cognitive ergonomics with notions and tools of discourse analysis. The aim is a better understanding of the determinants and the properties of their activities in order to contribute to improve the initial and on the job training of the training staffs, and to design useful trainers' support systems. Similarities and differences with approaches of other human-centred domains are presented. It is proposed to consider training as a case of open dynamic environment management, where the object of action is trainees' knowledge or competence. A key component of the trainer's activity is the control of how trainees go through the didactical process designed for trainees' learning. For this, the trainer uses discourse in face-to-face interaction as a crucial instrument for his/her action. Concepts issued from the pragmatics are used for analysing some dimensions of analysis of trainer's discourse, using examples from mathematics teaching and professional training. We discuss the differences related to the trainees: young children, adolescent and adults students, professionals, and to the type of training target: generic 'theoretical' knowledge, specific professional competence). In the conclusion, we will sketch some consequences for trainers' training and support.
Cognitive analysis of collaboration as an activity BIBA 131-138
  Kaveh Nezamirad; Peter G. Higgins; Simon Dunstall
When multiple distributed parties work together and coordinate activities towards a common purpose, they have common plans, tasks and goals, while they do not share individual tasks, goals and domain expertise. Hence, they need to cooperate to organise individual activities in a way so that individual as well as common goals are achieved. Therefore, all the activities must be harmonised in a holistic framework of true collaborative state. Using observations of a case study in project planning and scheduling, analysis of this collaboration is classified into three levels of organisational, collective and individual. The focus of this paper is on interconnecting the second and the third levels. While a cognitive approach is applied to explore human interaction in decision-making, the relationship between individual and group praxis is studied using the concepts of Activity Theory (AT). In fact, collaborative scenarios are where we need to use both viewpoints for a smooth movement between the layers of studying joint activities. This framework can be used to support collaborative work.
Comparing distributed cognition and course of action: an application to car driving BIBA 139-146
  Jean-Baptiste Haué
Distributed Cognition and Course of Action theories offer frameworks for micro-analysis of activity. The former leads to an abstract level of description of the propagation of information in a socio-technical system. The latter embeds conclusions from the Situated Action approach in the enaction theory to observe and analyze the Course of Experience.
   A compared analysis of the same moment of driving illustrates the discussion about similarities and differences between these approaches on topics such as the unit of analysis, the degree of stability assumed in the system, the contribution to design and the articulation of individuals, group and artifacts.
Perception enhancement system for automotive steering BIBA 147-153
  T. P. Berber-Solano; J. A. Giacomin
Laboratory-based experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of the frequency and scale of transient vibration events on the human detection of road surface type by means of steering wheel vibration. The study used steering wheel tangential direction acceleration time histories which had been measured in a mid-sized European automobile that was driven over three different types of road surface. The steering acceleration stimuli were manipulated by means of the mildly non-stationary mission synthesis (MNMS) algorithm in order to produce test stimuli which were selectively modified in terms of the number, and size, of transient vibration events they contained. Fifteen test participants were exposed to both unmanipulated and manipulated steering wheel rotational vibration stimuli, and were asked to indicate, by either "yes or no", whether the test stimuli was from a target road surface which was displayed on a board. The findings suggested that transient vibration events play a key role in the human detection of road surface type in driving situations. Improvements of up to 20 percentage points in the rate of correct detection were achieved by means of selective manipulation of the steering vibration stimuli. The results also suggested, however, that no single setting of the MNMS algorithm proved optimal for all three road surface types that were investigated.
Assessing a driver support system by field test and subjective data analysis: the case of EUCLIDE anti-collision warning system BIBA 155-158
  L. Macchi; M. Martinetto; P. C. Cacciabue
This paper focuses on the assessment of a driver support system by mean of end users' subjective data. The data have been collected during the field tests carried out in the final phase of the EUCLIDE European Project. The statistical data analysis pointed out the global validity of the HMI used, but highlighted the significant difference between age-related different groups of the population.
Measuring the perceptual image quality of a sight effectiveness enhancement system for cars BIBA 159-166
  Kristin Due Hansen; Hans H. K. Andersen
This paper describes an experiment that measures participants' preferences regarding the perceptual image quality of a sight effectiveness enhancement system for cars. One normal video recording and three different types of infrared recordings (long wave, short wave and a data fusion of the two) were compared. Eye-movement data revealed that the long wave infrared display was preferred to a significant degree in detection tasks, whereas no particular display was preferred in maneuvering tasks. The results promote the qualities of the long wave infrared images in obstacle detection. The paper focuses on the use of eye movements and subjective evaluations as primary measures.

Medical applications

Building a reporting and learning culture of medical failures in a healthcare system BIBA 169-173
  Sara Albolino; Tommaso Bellandi; Sebastiano Bagnara; Riccardo Tartaglia
This paper focuses on how to build up a clinical risk management system in healthcare organizations. It is maintained that, for achieving this result, a change in the cultural attitudes is needed. It can be obtained by developing adequate tools for risk analysis which should focus on the peculiarities of the healthcare systems.
   A no-blame culture should be shared. This culture is based on some basic assumptions: People make mistakes besides their best skills and good will, sharing adverse events is a learning opportunity, near misses are free lessons, and adverse events are often the outcomes of the system.
Biases in a medical incident causation database: a quantitative evaluation using PRISMA-Medical BIBA 175-181
  Marieke Habraken; Tjerk van der Schaaf
The incident database of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate (IGZ) was suspected to be biased. To determine the type and extent of such biases three empirical analyses have been performed. In these analyses the current working method of the IGZ regarding the analysis and registration of incidents has been compared with PRISMA-Medical. The results of the analyses indicate that the number of registered root causes per incident is too small in the current incident database. Moreover, human failure is overrepresented, whereas organisational (latent) failure is underrepresented. When PRISMA-Medical is used for the analysis and registration of incidents, a more valid and reliable insight into the causes of incidents can be obtained.
Comparing two approaches to failure recovery: medication preparation versus chemical plants BIBA 183-189
  Lisette Kanse; Tjerk W. van der Schaaf; Nanco D. Vrijland; Heleen van Mierlo
Near miss data collected via confidential reports and follow-up interviews in a hospital pharmacy (31 events) and a chemical plant (50 events) was used to compare the processes followed to detect and further recover from failures. The comparison focused on organizational provisions supporting recovery. In the pharmacy, planned checks played a major role in detecting things going wrong, and most further recovery actions were also covered by procedures. In contrast, recovery in the chemical plant involved more non-prescribed actions. Findings are interpreted in light of organizational characteristics. Guidance is given regarding how recovery might be better supported in both domains and how the effect of such improvements might be measured.
Investigating the anaesthesiologists' practice through externalist and internalist approaches BIBA 191-195
  Bill Papantoniou; Nicolas Marmaras
In this paper we present two different stances in analyzing systems: the Internalist and the Externalist approach, which tend to favour different kinds of modelling methods: hierarchical-systemic methods, and flat-ethnographic methods. We advocate that neither are enough for a complete analysis of a work domain in the view of designing effective interventions and predicting their effects, and that a multimethodologic approach is needed. To support this we present two examples of analyses of the anaesthesiologist's work, adopting these two different approaches.
Introducing vocal modality into electronic anaesthesia record systems: possible effects on work practices in the operating room BIBA 197-204
  Alexandre Alapetite; Vincent Gauthereau
The work reported in this paper is part of a project aiming at introducing vocal modality into the electronic anaesthesia record in Denmark. The purpose of the paper is to offer a basis for comprehending the use of anaesthesia records in work practice, to list the current main issues and possible improvements, and finally to foresee the impact of the addition of a new voice interface. The present paper is the result of a collaboration between an engineer, involved in making prototypes of the system described above, and a socio-ergonomist. The analysis is based on a literature review, interviews and direct observations.
The use of human factors and risk analysis in anesthesia in the Netherlands BIBA 205-211
  Charles T. L. M. Nyst; Tjerk W. van der Schaaf
Health care is not as safe as it should be. Near-miss analysis may offer insight into the multiple causes of incidents and the factors that stopped progression towards adverse events. The applicability of the PRISMA (Prevention and Recovery Information System for Monitoring and Analysis) root-cause taxonomy of failure- and recovery factors on near misses in anesthesia was explored. Barriers for reporting were explored subsequently with a questionnaire because of the less than expected number of reports. Members of the working group on complication registration of the NVA (Dutch Sociëty of Anesthesiology) and their associates reported near miss events in anesthesia. PRISMA was applicable to near-miss incidents in anesthesia. Most incidents had a multifactorial origin. Human factors accounted for three-quarters of failure factors and for half of recovery factors. In half the number of incidents only one recovery factor could be identified. In most cases planned human interference stopped progression towards adverse events. In one-quarter of reports the patients themselves absorbed an error unexpectedly. In a subsequent study, a questionnaire was given to all participants of the yearly Dutch Anesthesiology Meeting to explore barriers to reporting. There was only a small number of respondents, but these were willing to report to improve quality of care and to learn from errors. They don't see an advantage in reporting near misses. Efforts to improve safety in anesthesia should be directed at removing barriers for reporting, application of human factors knowledge and introducing a near-miss reporting system.
System-based risk analysis in healthcare BIBA 213-216
  Ian P. Leistikow; Geert H. Blijham
In this paper, we describe the use of Root Cause Analysis and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in a large University Medical Center in the Netherlands. Both methods were successfully piloted and then implemented into the hospital-wide patient safety program. Systematic risk and hazard analysis can be used in healthcare. The effect on patient safety still has to be proven.
Use of a professional electronic documentation by travel medicine experts and novices BIBA 217-224
  Hervé Chaudet; Liliane Pellegrin; Nathalie Bonnardel
Travel Medicine practicing is particularly dependent on an important factual knowledge that must be continuously updated. This kind of knowledge can be found in Professional Electronic Documentations (PED), as specialized web sites or comprehensive off-line databases. In this study we show to what extent the use of a comprehensive pretravel database can compensate for a lack of knowledge in travel medicine during advice building despite inexperience in using such systems. Novices and experts in travel medicine have been solicited for building the adequate recommendations about real cases of international travels with the help of a specialized PED. Results indicate this PED helps a novice to build an advice that is on the whole equivalent to an expert's one in terms of quantity, if not of quality. Implications for the benefits of comprehensive PED to travel medicine practicing are discussed.
Personal assistants for healthcare treatment at home BIBA 225-231
  Geert de Haan; Olivier Blanson Henkemans; Amy Aluwalia
This paper describes the research plans in the SuperAssist project, introducing personal assistants in the care of diabetes patients, assisting the patients themselves, the medical specialists looking after the patients' healthcare, and the technical specialists responsible for maintaining the health of the devices involved. The paper discusses the issues of trust and cooperation as the critical success factors within this multi-user multi-agent (MUMA) project and within the future of agent-based healthcare attempting to increase the self-help abilities of individual patients.
Cooperation in healthcare -- theoretical and methodological issues: a study of two situations: hospital and home care BIBA 233-240
  Saliha Hamek; Françoise Anceaux; Sylvia Pelayo; Marie-Catherine Beuscart-Zéphir; Janine Rogalski
The aim of the study is to test a coding method beyond the domain for which it was designed. Indeed, the considered method was developed to analyze cooperation in highly dynamic environments (Air Traffic Control, piloting). In such environments, the situation changes quickly, and the cooperation is generally synchronous, horizontal and entails the "copresence" of other operators. In this paper, the method is examined in the medical domain, in two healthcare situations whose dynamics are moderate or slow. The first one, Medication Ordering in the hospital setting, involves synchronous cooperation with face-to-face communication, and is organized vertically by means of physician-nurse task distribution. The second one, Homecare, involves asynchronous cooperation with written communication and is organized horizontally to facilitate cooperation between nurses who accomplish tasks of a identical nature at different times. The results obtained seem promising, insofar as the method allows both the coding of the written and oral communication and the identification of the most important properties of the different kinds of cooperation. Nevertheless, the coding is not able to take all the cooperative activity occurring in such dynamic situations into account.
Event oriented representation for collaborative activities in an intensive care unit BIBA 241-248
  Liliane Pellegrin; Nathalie Bonnardel; Hervé Chaudet
We introduce in this paper a method for describing the components of medical activities during a patient management in an ICU (Intensive Care Unit) by the medical team, including physicians and nurses. This method allows both observing and representing the collective activity of patient management and should be used by the team members in order to prepare themselves to official accreditation procedures. An event-centred representation of medical activities is built during a 3-steps procedure. It successively involves an event-centred observation phase, an action extraction and coding phase, and an event and collaborative representation phase. The results allow us to characterize specific features of this complex and time-constrained situation as well as the collaborative activities between members of the team.

PhD forum

Understanding users' experience of interaction BIBA 251-254
  Sascha Mahlke
The design of the user experience has increasingly become a goal in developing interactive systems during the last years. Since then, several attempts have been made to broaden interactive system design's traditional focus on the efficient achievement of goals to better understand additional aspects that contribute to user experience. In this paper, I first give an overview of different approaches that have taken this development into account. Based on this review I present an integrative model of user experience. This model emphasizes a combined investigation of traditional and additional quality aspects like hedonics and aesthetics. Moreover their interaction with affect and emotions as an important part of user experience are pronounced. Thus, in next steps, this theoretical basis will be used to develop a framework for user experience evaluation.
Improving situation awareness in anaesthesiology BIBA 255-263
  Constanze Pott; Addie Johnson; Fokie Cnossen
Anaesthesiology is practiced within a complex socio-technical system that can reach an infinite number of states. Therefore, traditional methods of requirements engineering are not suited to model the tasks and support requirements of the anaesthetist. We introduce an approach for developing decision support systems in anaesthesiology based on a model of situation awareness and its determinants during surgery. This model is combined with a cognitive process model of anaesthetists' decision making to identify situations where decision support is most useful. We demonstrate that these situations can be identified on the basis of measurable patient state variables and introduce a preliminary knowledge-based system for decision support.
Supporting critical operational conditions in an electricity distribution control room through ecological interfaces BIBA 263-270
  Sotiria Drivalou
Designing ecological interfaces to solve real design problems in large-scale complex systems is an open issue for research. This paper presents and discusses an ecological interface, designed to support operations in an electricity distribution control room, during critical operational conditions. After an introduction, the ethnographic and cognitive work analyses performed to elicit the requirements specification of the ecological interface are presented briefly. The specific characteristics of critical operational conditions are then presented. The main features of the designed ecological interface and the way the designed interface supports the management of two real incidents, are presented next. The paper concludes discussing the way the various features of the developed ecological interface support operators' cognitive tasks.
Design for collaborative learning activities BIBA 271-275
  Giulio Toccafondi; Gabriele Molari; Jevon Brunk; Linda Napoletano; Erik Grönvall
The PhD students working on the continuing education and training project (DiDà) propose a collaborative evaluation session on the QB (Question-Based) method as a technique to structure contents for educational processes in traditional educational settings. A system based on the method was tested in 2003. The testing produced several challenges for the future. With this collaborative evaluation session the DiDà team aims to explore two of these: to further investigate the impact of the QB method in structuring educational contents through collaborative situated editing and to acquire insight on the way in which collaborative activities could be supported by enabling technologies.