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ECCE Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2014 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:ECCE'14: European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics
Editors:Christian Stary
Location:Vienna, Austria
Dates:2014-Sep-01 to 2014-Sep-03
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2874-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ECCE14
Papers:35
Links:Conference Website
  1. Keynotes
  2. Workshops
  3. Paper Session 1: Situation Awareness
  4. Paper Session 2: Learning and Empowerment
  5. Paper Session 3: Social Cognition
  6. Paper Session 4: Cognition@Workplace and Problem Solving Support
  7. Paper Session 5: Inputs to Method Development
  8. Paper Session 6: Instrument Developments
  9. Young Researcher Contributions

Keynotes

Reflecting Back on Designers' Mental Models: The Power to Influence? BIBAFull-Text 1
  Geraldine Fitzpatrick
The conference theme of ECCE 2014 refers to 'cognition in the wild' and how the various contexts involved in cognitive modeling can be revealed. The contexts that are noted -- domain structures, task competences and learning capabilities -- reflect the perspective of the researcher looking out to the domain and the users of interest. In this talk I want to turn the 'in the wild' mirror back onto ourselves as researchers and practitioners. A traditional way of talking about designer/researcher mental models is with respect to the system being designed, and the potential for mismatch between designer and user mental models about the system. Reflecting on some of our own past work, I will argue that there can also be much more subtle but powerful ways in which our mental models and conceptualisations matter. In telling some of our stories, the hope is to trigger more general reflections: What hidden assumptions and biases do we bring to how we conceptualise our domains or users, and that only reveal themselves when some unexpected mismatch arises 'in the wild'? What ways are we unintentionally influencing, that we don't even think to think about, in particular around sub-conscious processes that play out particularly 'in the wild'? While the very point is that many of our most powerful mental models are hidden or implicit, there is also the potential for us to develop more reflective strategies to probe and help reveal these models, to better serve the domains and users of interest.
What Affordance Can Teach Us About Enabling Processes of Knowledge Creation BIBAFull-Text 2
  Makus F. Peschl
Innovation and knowledge creation does not take place in a vacuum. Apart from communicating human cognitive systems we can find heavy interaction with the organizational environment, technology, architectural space, etc. The approach of Enabling Spaces takes this fact seriously and as its main point of departure for supporting knowledge processes, and in particular innovation processes.
   J.J.Gibson describes his idea of affordance as something that the environment offers the animal, what it provides or furnishes, either for good or ill. Following these theoretical lines as well as the approach of extended cognition from cognitive science, the concept of enabling (as opposed to managing or controlling) and an enabling environment for the context of knowledge work will be developed. The guiding question is how such environmental structures can facilitate our cognitive (and social) processes of knowledge creation, reflecting our mental models, etc. in various dimensions (epistemological, emotional, social, technological, cognitive, architectural, etc.). Theoretical foundations, a possible design process, as well as practical examples of such (built) Enabling Spaces will be presented (in the fields of innovation, office design, and universities).

Workshops

Revisiting Socio-technical System Design BIBAFull-Text 3
  Thomas Herrmann
Meanwhile, socio-technical system design has a long tradition in system's engineering and development. As many social systems, such as organizations, (need to) rely on technical systems, socio-technical system design techniques have become part of curricula and the body of system development knowledge. With the advent of semantic technology the meaningfulness of designs in socio-technical systems becomes an issue, in particular when work for stakeholders should make sense and allow for reflection and participatory (re-)design. New challenges have to be met since the boundaries of many organizations dissolve when they become parts of larger networks and are tied together via technical infrastructure and organizational process. Under these conditions, a system and the corresponding unit cannot be clearly identified. This can also be observed in the context of Web 2.0 applications which are based on a culture of participation but do more evolve than being designed.
   The workshop should be an open space for developing a common understanding of the origin and objectives of socio-technical design while challenging current cognitive engineering practices for sensemaking and meaningful design or meta-design. Researchers involved in either discipline are invited to present their position and discuss interfaces, commonalties, and practicable interactions for human-centered design approaches.
Low Cost User Experience (UX) Design BIBAFull-Text 4
  Eliezer Kantorowitz
Designing a computer application to provide a satisfactory user experience (UX) is often labor intensive. This workshop focuses on reducing these labor costs. With possible low cost design methods, it may be affordable to compare a reasonable number of different design alternatives and select the best one. Possible low cost design methods may thus facilitate the design of quality UX. Possible low costs methods may also facilitate empirical cognitive ergonomic research involving a considerable number of cases.
   In order to achieve its goals, the workshop will consider the labor costs of different UX design methods. The participants of the workshop are invited to submit position papers on UX design costs issues. After the presentation of the position papers, the workshop will discuss the findings and summarize its observations and possible recommendations.
   Examples of topics of possible position paper:
  • UX oriented requirements elicitation and task analysis. By UX, orientation is
       meant for example avoiding features that the end users may misunderstand,
       developing a cognitive coherent model of the application and validating the
       UX of this model on prototypes.
  • Labor efficient UX evaluation methods, e.g. economic think aloud techniques,
       automatic logging and analysis of user actions and fast prototyping
       techniques facilitating comparison of the UX of different solutions.
  • Software architectures where it is quite easy to modify the user interface.
       This may facilitate a gradual UX improvement process.
  • Critical review of published recommendation for user interface design, e.g.
       user interface design patterns (interaction design patterns).
  • Experience reports from industry and education. What were the labor costs
       lessons learned?
  • Comparison of different methods for doing the same thing from a labor costs
       point of view.
  • Efficient stakeholder participation methods.
  • Agile development issues.
  • The psychology and sociology of the UX design team. What team member
       qualifications and work methods are most appropriate?
  • Paper Session 1: Situation Awareness

    Studying Ecologies of Calendar Artifacts BIBAFull-Text 5
      Anke Dittmar; Laura Dardar
    Calendar use has been widely investigated over the past decades. While many studies focus on specific domains or on a competition between paper and digital tools, this paper tries to understand calendar artifacts as part of ecologies where tasks, practices, artifact collections and users co-adapt and co-evolve [12]. It presents findings from interviews and a follow -- up study that applies the Day-Reconstruction Method to give detailed accounts of the diverse individual calendar ecologies. Behavioral patterns in individual calendar work are identified. The participants' appropriation of specific calendar tools is considered and reasons for the observed co-existence of paper and digital artifact species are discussed.
    Effects of situation complexity and driving experience on performance through subjective and objective tension BIBAFull-Text 6
      Julie Paxion; Edith Galy; Catherine Berthelon
    The aim of the present paper is to identify the effect of situation complexity and driving experience on performance through subjective and objective levels of tension. The main contribution of this paper to the Cognitive Ergonomics field consists in the identification of accidents' factors of young drivers faced to a stressful event. Thirty-two drivers (16 novices vs. 16 more experienced) were randomly assigned to three levels of situation complexity (simple, moderately complex and very complex) in a driving simulator. Physiological and subjective levels of tension were respectively associated to "pedestrian crossings" events and to the whole situations. Driving performance corresponded to reaction times and to collisions' number with the pedestrians. Results showed that novice drivers had weaker performance than the more experienced once, even though their high level of objective and subjective tension due to situation complexity improved their performance. Therefore, target driving assistance systems to deal with hazard events could reduce road accidents among young novice drivers.
    The concept of "presence" used as a measure for ecological validity in driving simulators BIBAFull-Text 7
      Christophe Deniaud; Daniel Mestre; Vincent Honnet; Benoit Jeanne
    The main contribution of this paper to the Cognitive Ergonomics field is to propose a new approach of the behavioral validity's assessment of driving simulators. In this paper, our ambition is to find a way of measuring "presence" to use it as a measure for ecological validity in driving simulators. The underlying assumption is that a person experiencing a strong sense of presence in the virtual environment will react in this environment as if it would be a real one. We propose to measure "presence" by measuring "attention" toward the driving task". Our objective is to demonstrate that the higher the subject's attention required by the primary driving task will be, the more the spatial presence will be felt. In the experiment we tried to vary "attention" by adding a dual task and by adding traffic and measure driving performance and subjective "presence" (MEC-SPQ; Measurement, Effects, Conditions-Spatial Presence Questionnaire). The main result is a lack of congruence between subjective and behavioral measures.
    Ergonomics Intervention in Automobile Driver Communication in a Developing Country BIBAFull-Text 8
      Sajan S. Pillai; Gaur G. Ray
    Communication is a crucial process in ensuring safety in road transportation. This paper explores the constructs of communication from a cognitive ergonomics point-of-view in order to explain the need and relevance of communication in ensuring on-road safety. An attempt to establish a communication error model has been made with the help of communication and information processing tasks, and delving into the cognitive aspects of traffic behavior. Direct observation on errors in various communication tasks was used to understand the relevance of the proposed model. From an information ergonomics perspective, workflows of major driving maneuvers are proposed that could be used in the development of driver assistance systems, as well as in driver training, to make novice drivers understand the importance of accurate communication in ensuring safety of self and other road users.

    Paper Session 2: Learning and Empowerment

    Co-designing a Vision for Educating Human-Centered Creative Technology BIBAFull-Text 9
      Geert de Haan
    In this paper we discuss the re-design of the educational vision for Media Technology curriculum. Because of the introduction of ubiquitous computing and the internet of things a new approach to education is required. The educational vision is redesigned from three sources: first, the traditional approach of competences and requirements, secondly, an example course which addresses the ongoing developments in the research area, and, thirdly, a World Café session to generate ideas about the characteristics of Media Technology people and their work in a relatively distant future. As such, the future vision is redesigned by treating it as a media product and applying the creative methods and tools from its own professional practise.
    Individual Education Feedback using Competence Structure Models BIBAFull-Text 10
      John-Harry Wieken; Peter Forbrig
    Due to their growing importance in education competencies have been modeled and analyzed in many ways. Here we present a model to represent competence structures in a flexible conceptual model called CSP (Core, Setting, Personal), which in fact is a meta-model of competence models. The main concepts are flexibility, domain-independency and traceability in creating individual competence-profiles for practical usage. The model has been exemplified by populating it with mathematical competencies about linear and exponential growth as a specific domain. This domain has been used in an e-assessment and the results have been analyzed by basic IRT statistics. The correlation between the CSP-assessment and a classical assessment has been calculated. Some first individual competence profiles have been created semi-automatically and seem to be promising to provide fast and precise feedback to students and teachers.
    Subject-Oriented Employee Involvement and Empowerment in Organizational Innovation BIBAFull-Text 11
      Florian Krenn; Matthias Neubauer
    Within today's complex and dynamic environment, organizations need to constantly adapt and innovate. Although employees pose a valuable source for improvement ideas, they are often neglected in innovation processes. Empowering employees to take part in innovation and improvement processes requires organizational structures facilitating employee involvement and adequate tools supporting employee commitment. This paper proposes the enrichment of the subject-oriented approach to provide adequate tool support facilitating employee involvement and empowerment. It describes an enabling space that is illustrated in an industrial case study.
    Modeling cognitive style patterns to explore individuals' capabilities for processing knowledge in virtual settings BIBAFull-Text 12
      Salim Chujfi-La-Roche; Christoph Meinel
    Organizations continue building virtual working teams (Teleworkers) to become more dynamic as part of their strategic innovation with great benefits to individuals, business, and society. Geographically distributed organizations however have the big challenge of managing people's knowledge not only to keep operations running but also to promote innovation within the organization creating new knowledge. This study analyses how knowledge-based organizations working with decentralized staff may need considering cognitive styles (CS) and learning styles (LS) of individuals participating on their programs to effectively manage knowledge in virtual settings. The study aims at modeling patterns to identify abilities of individuals according to their cognitive and learning styles attempting to match affinities to work remotely and take part in virtual team work, and also to correctly determine the use of appropriate hypermedia tools to help overcoming lower performance and effectiveness, which may occur due to the lack face-to-face communication normally found in typical offices.

    Paper Session 3: Social Cognition

    The shared priorities measure as a way of assessing team strategic awareness: a bridge between self-assessment and the deep blue sea of field recordings BIBAFull-Text 13
      Peter Berggren; Björn Je Johansson; Nicoletta Baroutsi; Nils Dahlbäck
    Objective, easy to use, easy to comprehend, high face-validity assessment methods for measuring shared awareness in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a new measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is tested. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task in terms of performance and shared awareness. The shared priorities measure was used alongside other, well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. The results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlate with performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures, suggesting that it captures a different quality of team work than the self-rating measures. Further, the shared priorities measure was found to be easily administered and gained a high user acceptance.
    Mutual Belief and Mental Subgrouping: How Team is Mentally Modeled in Members' Mind BIBAFull-Text 14
      Dipta Mahardhika; Taro Kanno; Kazuo Furuta
    In this paper, a model of team cognition is proposed. This model describes team cognition as a set of individual cognition and mutual belief, separated into three different layers namely self-cognition, direct belief, and projected belief. Another aspect discussed in this paper is a process called mental subgrouping. In a team larger than two persons, it is natural for each member to think of other members as a single entity instead of several different individuals. This behavior is defined as mental subgrouping. By incorporating mental subgrouping in the mutual belief model, this research attempts to more accurately describe cognition of a team.
    Chronicles of Lived Experiences for studying the process of trust building in carpooling BIBAFull-Text 15
      Lisa Créno; Béatrice Cahour
    The goal of our research is to characterize user experience of carpoolers and more particularly their process of building trust, which allow them to cope with the perceived risks. This communication presents two passengers' chronicles of lived experiences, completed by other qualitative data, and detail how this social and mediated activity is really lived through 7 key sequences. We show that users may perceive 4 different kinds of moderate or higher risks, which leads them to pay attention to the ride conditions and driver profile. The sources of trust and mistrust are mainly linked to the relational, organizational, road safety, or vehicle and passenger placement dimensions. From the first sequence of "Choosing a ride" to the post-ride sequence, most users are sensitive to these elements to build trust; but this process is fragile and can be deconstructed at any time. We argue that web carpooling platforms must be particularly cautious about the available indicators which reassure the users, in order to encourage new one to practice and to maintain a critical mass of carpoolers. We finally discuss some ergonomic recommendations and methodological perspectives for studying trust.
    Relationship between workload and styles of cooperation developed during medical emergency care BIBAFull-Text 16
      Bourgeon Léonore; Darses Françoise; Debien Bruno
    Activities undertaken in the management of dynamic and risky situations are subject to wide variations of workload. Operators may then develop strategies enabling them to regulate this workload. However, the collective dimension of these activities is hardly taken into account in studies of the problem. In this submission, we shall examine the styles of cooperation employed by 12 medicine interns during the treatment of a patient in a life-threatening emergency situation. A coding scheme was set up in order to identify styles of cooperation from the analysis of verbal exchanges among teams of three members. Four styles were identified: Information sharing, Organisation of actions, Setting up cooperation, and Mutual comprehension. Their frequency of occurrence differed significantly according medical performance and according to phases of medical care differing in terms of workload. Further studies should be conducted to enrich our sample.

    Paper Session 4: Cognition@Workplace and Problem Solving Support

    Strategic planning in dynamic urban operations: Problem solving under time constraints BIBAFull-Text 17
      Oliver W. Klaproth
    This paper presents a study on the decision making process of task force teams in urban operations. Teams often face a dynamic operational picture and severe time constraints. The effect of time constraints on cognitive performance in an incremental analytic and an insight problem were investigated. Results suggest that high time constraints are detrimental to both analytic and creative problem solving, while under moderate time constraints, performance on the insight problem increased.
    Fostering Information Seeking BIBAFull-Text 18
      Herre van Oostendorp; Sonal Aggarwal
    Easiness of navigation within a website is an important factor for information seeking performance. Several cognitive models exist that simulate the web-navigation process. These models are based on different information processing components. In this paper we propose a new cognitive model, CoLiDeS++Pic (Comprehension-based Linked model of Deliberate Search), which uses information scent and path adequacy, applies backtracking, and also takes the semantics of pictures into consideration. We hypothesized that in this way information seeking performance can be better modeled when compared to previous models. This was verified by simulating the model on a mock-up website and comparing the results with previous models. The results support our hypothesis. We also present briefly the results of an experiment with tool-support based on the new model CoLiDeS++Pic. The results prove that model-generated support is fostering information seeking performance and helps in search tasks. We further discuss the challenges and advantages of automating navigation support using the proposed model.
    Activity Analysis of Expert and Novice Operators in a Semi-Automated Manufacturing Process BIBAFull-Text 19
      Marie Hoarau; Camilo Charron; Franck Mars
    Designing a human-machine interface for a manufacturing process requires a good knowledge of both the work domain and the operators' representation. Ecological Interface Design (EID) offers some interesting tools that can be of help in the design process. The literature on cognitive control also offers a good understanding of operators' cognitive resources. Analysing the activity of both expert and novice operators through these two frameworks may help us to better understand the differences between them. A three-step protocol was followed: 1. the elaboration of a means-end hierarchy, 2. the extraction of schemes via interviews, and 3. the evaluation of the behavioural manifestation of schemes. In the present case study, interviews revealed that both the novice and expert operators of a manufacturing process shared a representation of the global process. However, in contrast with the expert operators, the novice operators did not develop an operative scheme that related to the machine. The results will be used as a basis for the design of a human-machine interface that will aid them to do so.

    Paper Session 5: Inputs to Method Development

    Experiences from Using Formal Verification Techniques to Analyze Human-Machine Interaction: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 20
      Bertram Wortelen; Andreas Lüdtke; Denis Javaux; Sonja Sievi
    Using formal verification techniques for the analysis of human-automation interaction can support the design process of safety-critical systems. In recent years several approaches have been developed, which address different problems in the human-automation interaction. In this paper we present our experiences from a one-year study of applying such techniques to analyze the Environmental Control and Life Support System of the Columbus module of the International Space Station.
    Users' participation to creative design of new solutions for mobility: An exploratory study BIBAFull-Text 21
      Peter Richard; Jean-Marie Burkhardt; Todd Lubart
    As transportation is one of the main environmental concerns, design of new solutions in this area constitutes a priority for the European Union. This study aims to compare different factors of user involvement in design in terms of obtained contributions of users, whether positive or negative. Based on the Critical Incidents Technique, we interviewed 23 experts (especially in transportation), asking them to describe their positive and negative experiences when they collaborated with users in design projects. This resulted in the collection of 71 Critical Incidents (40 positive and 31 negative) that were then characterized along 6 coding categories. We conducted a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) on the corresponding contingency table and found two main axes that structured the incidents. The interpretation of the axes indicated that individual user involvement allows obtaining rich information about users' needs whereas collective user involvement allows enhancing user acceptance. Moreover, users involved at later stages of development suggest mainly ideas for service improvement, whereas users involved at earlier stages of innovation suggest creative ideas provided that they are supplied tools to develop their projection skills.
    It's Not Interaction, It's Make Believe BIBAFull-Text 22
      Phil Turner; Susan Turner; Lindsay Carruthers
    A principal, but largely unexplored, use of our cognition when using interacting technology involves pretending. To pretend is to believe that which is not the case, for example, when we use the desktop on our personal computer we are pretending, that is, we are pretending that the screen is a desktop upon which windows reside. But, of course, the screen really isn't a desktop.
       Similarly when we engage in scenario- or persona-based design we are pretending about the settings, narrative, contexts and agents involved. Although there are exceptions, the overwhelming majority of the contents of these different kinds of stories are not the case. We also often pretend when we engage in the evaluation of these technologies (e.g. in the Wizard of Oz technique we "ignore the man behind the curtain"). We are pretending when we ascribe human-like qualities to digital technology. In each we temporarily believe something to be the case which is not.
       If we add the experience of tele- and social-presence to this, and the diverse experiences which can arise from using digital technology which too are predicted on pretending, then we are prompted to propose that human computer interaction and cognitive ergonomics are largely built on pretending and make believe.
       If this premise is accepted (and if not, please pretend for a moment), there are a number of interesting consequences.
    Eye Metrics for Task-Dependent Automation BIBAFull-Text 23
      Puck Imants; Tjerk de Greef
    Future air traffic is expected to grow increasingly, opening up a gap for task dependent automation and adaptive interfaces, helping the Air Traffic Controller to cope with fluctuating workloads. One of the challenging factors in the application of such intelligent systems concerns the question what the operator is doing in order to optimize support and minimize automation surprises. This study questions whether eye metrics are able to determine what task the operator is engages in. We therefore examined A) if the eye-path would differ for three different ATC tasks and B) whether this effect can be quantified with six eye-metrics. In an experiment, the six eye-metrics were calculated and used as a dependent variable. The results show that some tasks can be inferred by eye movement metrics and other metrics infer workload, although none inferred by both task and workload.

    Paper Session 6: Instrument Developments

    Interactive Cognitive Artifacts for Enhancing Situation Awareness of Incident Commanders in Mass Casualty Incidents BIBAFull-Text 24
      Tilo Mentler; Michael Herczeg
    In mass casualty incidents (MCIs), incident commanders are responsible for managing operations, guiding rescue forces and applying resources appropriately. Data required for situation assessment and decision making are gathered and shared by numerous face-to-face talks, radio calls and paper-based forms. These tools and means of communication support flexible modes of operation but often lead to deficient awareness of the situation. Information sharing in the field is hampered and delayed. Interactive cognitive artifacts might improve the situations compared to using established paper-based artifacts by exchanging and visualizing data in real-time. However, because of users' workload and working conditions, designing mobile computer-based tools and systems for this context of use is a usability challenge. Based on the results of a two-year user-centered system design project with Emergency Medical Services, we discuss currently used and interactive cognitive artifacts for incident commanders. Challenges and approaches to successful user interface and interaction design are described.
    Cognitive Support for S-BPM User Interfaces Intertwining Modeling and Execution BIBAFull-Text 25
      Albert Fleischmann; Werner Schmidt
    Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) aim to support users accomplishing their work tasks in a timely and accurate way. Due to agility requirements stakeholders increasingly model business processes themselves before executing them. They are likely to be confronted with disruptive user interfaces when switching between modeling and execution and vice versa. Revealing methodological and technical background enables cognitive design input for non-disruptive user interfaces. We report on a respective case study on Subject-oriented Business Process Management, targeting seamless roundtrip engineering.
    Development and Evaluation of an Assistant System to Aid Monitoring Behavior during Multi-UAV Supervisory Control: Experiences from the D3CoS Project BIBAFull-Text 26
      Florian Fortmann; Tobias Mengeringhausen
    The core function a human operator in charge of a supervisory control task is responsible for is monitoring. However, research has shown that the correct execution of this function is often violated. The consequences can be disastrous for human life and the environment. Within the framework of the European project D3CoS, we developed an assistant system to aid the monitoring behavior of a human operator in charge of supervisory control of highly automated unmanned aerial vehicles. The idea behind the assistant system was to continuously invoke visual cues on the display used to supervise the mission in order to guide the operator's visual attention towards information demanding attention. Two studies were performed to evaluate the system along different target measures, such as situation awareness, workload, user acceptance and market potential. Overall, the results show that the system has positive effects on many target measures but not on all of them. Further research is needed to improve the system functions.
    Flight Collision Avoidance System for Self-Separation BIBAFull-Text 27
      Peter G. Higgins; Yakubu Ibrahim
    In a Free Flight Environment, pilots are delegated the authority to choose the flight paths, maintain spatial separation and consider environmental conditions with minimum intervention from Air Traffic Controllers. These factors constitute new tasks for pilots, which otherwise would be performed by Air Traffic Control. To maintain separation of aircraft, pilots are reliant on spatial awareness in controlling basic flight parameters such as speed, heading and altitude.
    Target Designation and Indication with GPS Map in Night-Op Conditions BIBAFull-Text 28
      Per-Anders Oskarsson; Björn J. E. Johansson; Jonathan Svensson
    Previous experiments have shown that target indication supported by satellite-guided positioning with map on a GPS device can be made with high precision in daylight. Since the ability of military units to operate in night-op conditions is vital, the possibilities of using such equipment with night vision goggles was tested in a night-time experiment with ten officers. Their tasks were 1) to designate direction and distance to targets visible in the terrain, and 2) to identify target positions in the terrain. They performed the tasks both with GPS device and with conventional verbal target designation. Precision was approximately equal whether the tasks were performed with the GPS device or verbally, but performance time was longer with GPS device. To elicit more information the officers also participated in focus group discussions. This provided important information on design and usage of a GPS device in night-op conditions, e.g. concerning compatibility with other systems and usability in cold weather.
    Providing Web Credibility Assessment Support BIBAFull-Text 29
      Sonal Aggarwal; Herre Van Oostendorp; Y. Raghu Reddy; Bipin Indurkhya
    Presence of information from multiple sources on the internet requires evaluating the credibility of the information, before its utilization. Researchers have suggested that internet users experience difficulty in accessing necessary information and do not pay enough attention to its credibility. We present here the design and implementation of an automated Web Credibility Assessment Support Tool (WebCAST) that considers multiple factors (type of website, popularity, sentiment, date of last update, reputation and review based on users' ratings reflecting personal experience) for assessing the credibility of information and returns a summary indication of the credibility of a website. We use Potentially All Pairwise RanKings of all possible Alternatives (PAPRIKA) method of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) to give weights to the scale values on each factor, representing the relative importance of the attributes. An empirical evaluation of the tool was conducted by computing the correlation between the tool-generated credibility scores and that of human judges. The correlation was found to be 0.89, thus verifying the validity of the tool. In the future the proposed tool can be made useful to students in their learning process of credibility assessment.
    Making Sense of Rich Data Collections on Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 30
      Florian Güldenpfennig; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Wolfgang Reitberger
    Mobile phones today offer great opportunities for capturing information enabled by sensor capabilities. A challenge, however, is to create meaningful order in this increasing amount of heterogeneous data and to exploit it in proficient ways. In this paper we present ContextCatcher, a mobile phone application for creating rich multimedia repositories and information collections on mobile devices. This software enables capturing a variety of file formats, for example, photos, videos, text, GPS locations, etc. Moreover, ContextCatcher facilitates the aggregation of these files into ContextObjects, which can be thought of as container structures for bundling the file collections. We describe a study featuring 18 participants, who created 681 media files contained within 80 ContextObjects. We analyze this data to explore its underlying structure and the emergent relations between the files through the lens of sensemaking. Finally, we show why the ContextCatcher concept can both be helpful in information foraging and sensemaking.
    Interactive Coupling of Process Models: A Distributed Tabletop Approach to Collaborative Modeling BIBAFull-Text 31
      Dominik Wachholder; Stefan Oppl
    Organization-oriented approaches for the representation of business processes allow for role-separated modeling by means of distributed tabletop systems. Acts of communication, as for instance the exchange of messages, conflate relevant model parts as they enable to specify the corresponding coupling points. In this paper, two interaction approaches -- knob-based and tray-based -- are proposed that promise to support the interactive coupling of process models using tabletop systems. The findings of qualitative studies carried out during this research indicate the applicability of either approach, however, show differences related to their utilization in the course of modeling.

    Young Researcher Contributions

    A Tool for Neuroergonomic Study of Repetitive Operational Tasks BIBAFull-Text 32
      Pavle Mijovic; Evanthia Giagloglou; Petar Todorovic; Ivan Macuzic; Branislav Jeremic; Ivan Gligorijevic
    The objective of the present work in progress, in the field of neuroergonomics, is to find psychophysiological correlates for vigilance decrement and mental fatigue in industrial environments as well as the measurements of postural loads using multimodal system. This system is composed of (wirelessly obtained) electroencephalographic measurements (EEG), electrodermal activity (EDA) and commercial 3D motion capture sensor kinect™. The aim of this study is to decrease potential operational error due to slips in attention and mental fatigue of a worker and consequently lead to more reliable and safer production. Further, postural loads could be assessed on-line, thus preventing the over-load of the workers and, consequently, possible work-related MSDs.
    Evaluating home devices with real and virtual simulations BIBAFull-Text 33
      Benjamin Chateau
    The work aimed to develop a method for evaluating objects in real or virtual environment. It should specify the relevant evaluation dimensions depending on the environment (REAL or VIRTUAL) and task that can be performed (I DO an action, or I WATCH an action). These conditions can have an impact on the mental representation of the object, since they may involve a different perspective taking and spatial reference. A first study highlights that participants produced larger task verbalization (describe an object or simulate its use) in virtual context that in real context, and a second study showed that an observer evaluates the usability of objects more favorably than an actor.
    Computer-Supported Learning of Societal Participation Skills by Low-Literates and Non-Natives BIBAFull-Text 34
      Dylan G. M. Schouten
    People of low literacy and non-native migrants in the Netherlands engage in low levels of societal participation. Current societal participation learning support tools do not provide optimal learning support for these demographics. By making use of incorporating didactical methods, personalization techniques and interaction principles derived from and tailored to these target groups, this study aims to design a new kind of virtual learning environment support tool.
    Sensemaking in Crisis Intervention Team Members BIBAFull-Text 35
      Hana Harencárová
    This article presents a part of the dissertation project, where we will examine the processes of understanding the situation from the sensemaking perspective [1, 2, 3, 4]. As stated by Malakis and Kontogiannis [5], in routine situations the frame was identified by a simple pattern matching, that participants often performed spontaneously without deliberation. Therefore, we will focus on the nonroutine situations, where the way of handling the situation is not obvious.