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ECCE Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2007 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics
Note:Invent! Explore!
Editors:Willem Paul Brinkman; Dong Han Ham; B. L. William Wong
Location:London, England, United Kingdom
Dates:2007-Aug-28 to 2007-Aug-31
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-84799-849-6, 978-1-84799-849-1; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: ECCE07
Papers:58
Pages:334
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Keynote addresses (abstracts)
  2. Methods in research and design
  3. Collaboration
  4. Support tools
  5. Learning and training (1)
  6. Learning and training (2)
  7. Input technology
  8. Visualization and feedback
  9. Design for user experiences
  10. Decision making, cognition, and problem solving
  11. Doctoral consortium
  12. Posters and demonstrations

Keynote addresses (abstracts)

Network analysis of command and control: investigations into psychological and social dimensions BIBAFull-Text 3-4
  Neville Stanton
This research focuses on the research work undertaken by the HFI-DTC using a network theory approach to understand the structural aspects of social tasks and situated cognition. Investigations have been undertaken in military, civilian and emergency services domain. This research has led to developments of ideas on distributed cognition, based on the analysis of networks 'system' awareness and the arrangement of tasks. The research has extended the ideas of distributed situation awareness to consider both compatible and transactive awareness. It is suggested that in distributed systems compatibility in the awareness of system agents is essential for performance. Any exchange of awareness 'elements' is more like a transaction than a 'sharing' of awareness, because agents relate the information to their own personal goals and tasks. The analysis presents frames of activity sequences, rather like a film strip, to show how the networks can reconfigure with every step. The ability of the networks to reconfigure and adapt to changing tempo and situations is a measure of their agility and potential for success.
Coping with complexity: then and now BIBAFull-Text 5-6
  Erik Hollnagel
When human factors engineering came into being around 1945, the reason was that technological developments had enabled the building of technological artefacts (i.e., machines) so fast and so complex that humans were unable effectively to control them. That necessitated a solution, not so much to improve the plight of the humans, but rather to ensure that the performance of the machines would not be encumbered by human shortcomings. There were in principle different solutions on offer. One could either try to adapt the human to the machine, or the machine to the human.
Intelligent decision support in medicine: back to Bayes? BIBAFull-Text 7-8
  Gitte Lindgaard
Decision Support Systems (DSSs) are proliferating at an increasingly rapid pace in many areas of human endeavor including clinical medicine and psychology. These DSSs are typically based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), many of which have been shown to perform very well (e.g. Ennett, 2003). In this talk in which I am specifically concerned with medicine and e-health, I will attempt to show that Bayes' Theorem can offer an alternative and very effective approach to the design of DSSs. Bayesian models are highly adaptive in the sense that they are able to 'learn' iteratively from 'experience' without changing the underlying structure. This important feature enables customization of Bayesian models to individual users and thus to their changing needs. In e-learning contexts as well as in interventional e-health, particularly in clinical psychology, this is an important advantage, especially when courses or treatment plans are offering a range of different routes through, or different possible presentation modes of, the learning material.

Methods in research and design

Effective recommendations in loosely coupled accident investigations BIBAFull-Text 11-18
  Anna Götmar; Jonas Lundberg
Motivation -- In many accident investigations, the investigating agency does not directly effect changes in the system investigated, and does not dictate the changes to make. Instead, the recipients of recommendations implements changes as they see fit. In such systems, acceptance of the recommendations by the target organization is vital. In this paper we describe how investigators in the Swedish Accident Investigation Board characterize effective and acceptable recommendations.
   Research approach -- Interviews were conducted with seven accident investigators at the Swedish Accident Investigation Board.
   Findings/Design -- Three of the investigators adapt their recommendations to the safety maturity, as they view it, of the recipient organization. Five of them emphasized the need for communication with the recipient organization, during the course of the investigation, or at the end, to facilitate understanding. All of them considered the cost / benefit of their recommendations.
   Originality/Value -- This research fills an important gap regarding our knowledge about the step from analysis to recommendations in accident investigations.
   Take away message -- Safety maturity, communication with recipient organizations, and cost / benefit are important values to consider when issuing recommendations in loosely coupled accident investigation systems.
Evaluation of software usability using scenarios organized by abstraction structure BIBAFull-Text 19-22
  Gyuhyun Kwon; Dong Han Ham; Wan Chul Yoon
Motivation -- To improve the current practice of scenario-based usability evaluation by suggesting a new method for generating more comprehensive scenarios and using the scenarios more easily and systematically.
   Research approach -- Work domain analysis (WDA) concept in cognitive work analysis (CWA) framework was employed to develop a method for identifying functions and their relationships, which need to be reflected in scenarios. Two methodological tools were developed to help evaluators analyze functional structure and generate meaningful scenarios respectively.
   Findings/Design -- A new method for generating and using scenarios was developed, which accompanies two new tools (function-control matrix and function order diagram).
   Research limitations/Implications -- As the method was applied to only one word processing software, there is a lack of case studies; however, the method has features that may be generalized to other kinds of software.
   Originality/Value -- This research contributes to making a scenario-based evaluation process more systematic by supplementing its current weak points. Also this research applied abstraction hierarchy concept to software systems to which little attention has been given.
   Take away message -- Scenario-based usability evaluation can be enriched with the use of abstraction-based functional structure of software.
Studying organizational collaboration: lessons learned BIBAFull-Text 23-26
  Stephanie D. Swindler; Laura Militello; Joseph B. Lyons
Motivation -- Understanding organizational collaboration requires thoughtful and flexible research strategies. This paper briefly addresses a newly developed framework for studying collaboration, and the implementation of that framework in a command and control domain. Results from the framework and lessons learned from studying collaboration in a field setting are discussed.
   Research approach -- Observations, interviews, and surveys were used to collect data. These methods were pulled from The Socio-technical Readiness Evaluation and Assessment Model (STREAM), which is a newly developed model that provides a framework for studying organizational collaboration barriers and facilitators. Two military organizations were examined in the context of the STREAM framework.
   Findings/Design -- Based on the data collected, several organizational collaboration barriers were identified including confusion about information flow, constant rotation of military personnel, and intense specialization in a particular job. The lessons learned from studying collaboration within an organization involved the ability to use different data collection methods to better understand the environment, the difficulty in developing collaboration metrics, and the complexity of organizational collaboration.
   Take away message -- Identifying and implementing metrics for collaboration, setting up the appropriate preliminary meetings, and leveraging triangulation methods proved beneficial for studying organizational collaboration.
Measuring situation awareness in command and control: comparison of methods study BIBAFull-Text 27-34
  Paul M. Salmon; Guy H. Walker; Darshna Ladva; Neville A. Stanton; Daniel P. Jenkins; Laura Rafferty
Motivation -- This research sought to compare three different approaches for measuring Situation Awareness (SA) during a command and control scenario.
   Research approach -- A total of 20 participants undertook question one of the Combat Estimate, a military planning process, in an experimental command and control test bed environment. Participant SA was measured using three different SA measures: a freeze probe technique, a post trial subjective rating technique, and a critical incident technique interview approach. Comparisons were then made between the measures of SA obtained during the study.
   Findings/Design -- The results show that the freeze probe measure (SAGAT) was the only measure that had a statistically significant correlation with participant performance. The findings also demonstrate that there was no significant correlation between the three SA measures used.
   Research Implications -- The findings offer validation evidence for the SAGAT approach when used to measure participant SA during a command and control task and suggest that the three approaches used view SA in a different manner.
   Originality/Value -- The research explores the measurement of SA during command and control activity and makes judgements on the suitability of each method for application in this context.
   Take away message -- Analogous to the different theoretical perspectives on SA presented in the literature, these findings suggest that the methods compared view and assess SA in a very different manner.

Collaboration

The effects of spatial processing load and collaboration technology on team performance in a simulated C2 environment BIBAFull-Text 37-43
  Gregory J. Funke; Scott M. Galster
Motivation -- To address the effects of spatial processing load and text-based collaborative tools on team performance in command and control environments.
   Research approach -- Thirty-two people served as paid participants in this study. Teams of two participants competed against a computer opponent in a RoboFlag simulation based on 'capture-the-flag.' Participants either could or could not see their teammates' simulated vehicles during a trial, and they were restricted to no communication, verbal communication, text-based communication, or verbal and text communication.
   Findings/design -- Spatial processing load substantially impacted team performance and participants' ratings of workload and situational awareness. Team communication condition influenced workload, situational awareness, and team communications, but did not affect team performance.
   Take away message -- Results of the current experiment support and extend previous research concerning the effects of collaborative technologies on team performance in C2 environments.
Managing work at several places: a case of project work in a nomadic group of students BIBAFull-Text 45-51
  Chiara Rossitto; Kerstin Severinson Eklundh
Motivation -- This paper explores the collaborative and spatial practices of university students engaged in project work. Regarding students as nomadic workers, we attempt to elucidate how their activities are shaped by the lack of a stable and fixed location where work can be carried out.
   Research approach -- The data presented in this paper were collected by means of ethnographically-informed methods.
   Findings/Design -- The results elucidate how students manage their collaborative activities at different locations and how they use artifacts and technology in order to do so.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Only Swedish students participated in the field study discussed in this paper. Cultural attributes, related to privacy for instance, might contribute to the distinction between private and public places.
   Originality/Value -- This work highlights the relationships between group activities and the places they are bound to, with a main focus on how these relationships are mediated by technological artifacts.
   Take away message -- The nomadic work described suggests that design efforts should be oriented towards an integration of different applications and/or technological devices.
Organizational collaboration: effects of rank on collaboration BIBAFull-Text 53-56
  Julie A. White; Joseph B. Lyons; Stephanie D. Swindler
Motivation -- Organizational change initiatives often fail resulting in wasted time, money, and human resources. Many organizational changes such as the implementation of new technology are driven by high ranking personnel. However, these changes are often executed by junior ranking personnel. Thus, potential conflicts can arise if there are mismatches between these groups regarding organizational perceptions. The present study sought to understand if different levels of rank influenced perceptions of organizational collaboration in an Air Force domain.
   Research approach -- Participants (N=236) from a military logistics Command and Control (C2) center participated in an organizational questionnaire which included a measure of organizational collaboration. Based on their rank, participants were categorized into senior, mid-level, and junior groups. Group differences in collaboration perceptions were tested.
   Findings/Design -- The findings suggested that rank effects perceived quality of organizational collaboration. Overall, junior ranking personnel reported lower organizational collaboration perceptions compared to senior ranking personnel.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Due to the exploratory nature of this study and the paucity of collaboration research in general, the generalizability of the results beyond the domain of knowledge work are unclear. Though just a pilot study, the results of this research suggest that organizational leaders must be aware of and acknowledge different perspectives from the range of personnel in their organizations prior to planning organizational changes, such as new technology, policies, and job design. Such changes may have a very different impact on military personnel depending on their organizational beliefs, which in turn, appear to be influenced by their hierarchical status in the organization (i.e., rank).
   Take away message -- The results suggest that rank does play a significant role in the perceived quality of organizational collaboration across several factors including, general collaboration attitudes, adaptability to new technology, collaboration enablers, as well as job characteristics.
Cross-participants: fostering design-use mediation in an open source software community BIBAFull-Text 57-64
  Flore Barcellini; Françoise Détienne; Jean Marie Burkhardt
Motivation -- This research aims at investigating emerging roles and forms of participation fostering design-use mediation during the Open Source Software design process
   Research approach -- We compare online interactions for a successful "pushed-by-users" design process with unsuccessful previous proposals. The methodology developed, articulate structural analyses of the discussions (organization of discussions, participation) to actions to the code and documentation made by participants to the project. We focus on the user-oriented and the developer-oriented mailing-lists of the Python project.
   Findings/Design -- We find that key-participants, the cross-participants, foster the design process and act as boundary spanners between the users and the developers' communities.
   Research limitations/Implications -- These findings can be reinforced developing software to automate the structural analysis of discussions and actions to the code and documentation. Further analyses, supported by these tools, will be necessary to generalise our results.
   Originality/Value -- The analysis of participation among the three interaction spaces of OSS design (discussion, documentation and implementation) is the main originality of this work compared to other OSS research that mainly analyse one or two spaces.
   Take away message -- Beside the idealistic picture that users may intervene freely in the process, OSS design is boost and framed by some key-participants and specific rules and there can be barriers to users' participation.

Support tools

Sharing the design of a cognitive tool between researchers and potential users BIBAFull-Text 67-74
  Lorène Prost; Marianne Cerf; Marie Hé lène Jeuffroy
Motivation -- Learning from the shared design process of a cognitive tool: how it promotes changes in designers' activities as well as in those of potential users, and how the tool evolves in such a process.
   Research approach -- Three groups of potential users worked in interaction with agronomist researchers who had designed the tool's concepts, and ergonomists who assisted them in building this interaction and in the debriefings. After explorative surveys to build a prototype of the cognitive tool in line with users' activities, this prototype was used in collective groups of agronomists and potential users and then put into the hands of the users for a two-week period to give them a personal view of the tool. Data collected during this "test" period were then analysed to further develop the tool and to discuss with the users the changes they encountered in their activity, in relation to the process as a whole.
   Findings/Design -- The interface but also the concepts underlying the tool were altered profoundly, thus raising new scientific questions for agronomists. The users developed a new understanding of their cognitive task. We suggest that this was achieved by (i) group discussions around the prototype between actors with diverse points of view; and (ii) the way the users were asked to "play" with the prototype by focusing specifically on cognitive dimensions of their activity.
   Take-away message -- We explored three dimensions of tool design, namely crystallization, plasticity and development, as well as their evolution over time. This we did by examining a cognitive task, along with a prototype for supporting it, in a dialogical process between potential users and designers.
Supporting creative product/commercial design with computer-based image retrieval BIBAFull-Text 75-81
  S. J. Westerman; S. Kaur
Motivation -- The task of creative product/commercial design can be supported by the retrieval of inspirational images from computer databases. However, 'traditional' computer-based information retrieval algorithms, that emphasise convergent over divergent processes, may not be well suited to this task context. The reported empirical study examines related issues, including effects of users' search strategies.
   Research approach -- Participants (Engineering and Design students: n=12) were given a car design brief and asked to perform five searches for inspirational images. Participants rated the first 10 retrieved images for a variety of constructs including inspirational value and semantic distance to search terms.
   Findings/Design -- Inspirational images tended to be those that were semantically proximate to the search terms used to retrieve them. However, there were sufficient exceptions to suggest that semantic/conceptual diversity also plays an important role. Some key image attributes, relating to inspirational value, were identified and considered with regard to supporting effective task performance. Finally, specific search strategies were found to be associated with the retrieval relatively more inspirational images, although effect sizes were small.
   Take away message -- Creative design tasks require information systems support for both convergent and divergent processes. Improvements can be made in terms of the design of interface, retrieval algorithms, and training of users' search strategies.
Flight crew task performance and the design of cockpit task support tools BIBAFull-Text 83-87
  Joan Cahill; Gabriel Losa
Motivation -- This paper presents provisional concepts for improved Flight Crew task support tools, linking airline safety and risk management initiatives to Flight Crew information management ideas.
   Research approach -- To date, research had included process workshops, task analysis (interviews and observations) and collaborative envisionment and prototyping of new tool concepts.
   Findings/Design -- Empirical research indicates that Pilots require intelligent, context based task support, facilitating the management of information relating to operational risks and changes throughout the flight operation. The provision of performance feedback to crews would enhance both individual and team competencies, along with flight safety. Also, crew require time saving and human friendly cockpit mechanisms to provide safety and process improvement feedback to relevant airline personnel.
   Take away message -- Improvements in cockpit information management should link to airline flight safety and risk management initiatives. New Flight Crew tools might facilitate crew situation assessment and performance reporting, in relation to the management of operational and environmental contingency and risk.
A proactive recommendation system for writing: helping without disrupting BIBAFull-Text 89-95
  Mari Carmen Puerta Melguizo; Lou Boves; Anita Deshpande; Olga Muñoz Ramos
Motivation -- Finding appropriate information while writing a scientific paper is essential, but also difficult and time consuming. A Proactive Recommender System (PRS) retrieves information relevant to the text being written, and presents it automatically. However, current PRSs overlook that writing is a demanding task, affected by interruptions. We look for those moments during writing where finding information is important and where proactive presentation interrupts least.
   Our goal is to develop a PRS for professional writers that presents information non-intrusively and timely so as to minimize disturbing the writing process.
   Research approach -- Finding information is most needed during Reviewing and Planning. In two experiments we explore the effects of a PRS during these phases.
   Findings -- PRSs speed up writing and improve the quality of the text compared to situations where writers have to look for information actively.
   Originality/Value -- Our research will change the design of PRSs and enhance our understanding of complex cognitive tasks such as writing and how electronic information processing tools affect them.
   Take away message -- We can turn interruptions in complex cognitive tasks into an advantage in terms of time and the quality, provided that the interruption comes at the right time and the information offered is relevant and accurate. Future research should focus on precisely this: when are interrupts least disturbing and how to make PRSs more accurate and relevant.

Learning and training (1)

Design of argument diagramming for case-based group learning BIBAFull-Text 99-105
  John Dowell; Thomas Gladisch
Motivation -- Argument diagramming tools are likely to be a significant feature of future virtual learning environments. In such environments, where communication is typically computer-mediated and predominantly textual, communication can be integrated with argument diagramming. We report on an exploratory investigation of this design concept.
   Research approach -- We built a virtual learning environment supporting remote collaborative learning with computer mediated communication by chat text and argument diagramming. We examined the effect of using an explicit argumentation scheme to integrate the discussion with the drawing of the argument. We report the results of an evaluation study conducted with this system.
   Findings/Design -- We found that learners were able to successfully use the argument diagramming system to represent their discussion.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Although use of the argumentation scheme was limited, the study nevertheless demonstrates the viability of using explicit argumentation schemes.
   Originality/Value -- The study suggests the potential for embedding schemes more directly into communication tools in virtual learning environments.
   Take away message -- People are able to use argument diagramming tools to augment their discussion in a virtual learning environment, and argumentation schemes can enhance that augmentation.
Assessment of the training efficacy afforded by a low cost night vision goggle simulator BIBAFull-Text 107-110
  Kee Yong Lim; Jiajin Wu
Motivation -- To assess the physical and performance fidelity and the efficacy (transfer of training) afforded by digitally created images to be used in a low cost NVG training simulator.
   Research approach -- 48 students were split into 4 groups and subjected to 3 tests, namely physical fidelity of image test, object recognition test and transfer of training test using 2 existing methods of NVG training as benchmarks. Performance accuracy and time were used as measures.
   Findings/Design -- The results reveal that the low cost training simulator is a promising alternative to current methods of training involving an actual NVG.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Only students participated in the study. Learning effects can not be totally excluded and accurate subjective responses to the low cost NVG training simulator could not be assessed.
   Originality/Value -- The low cost NVG training simulator is the first of its kind. The research helps in advancing a case to minimise the use of actual flight and NVGs in training. This reduces training costs and ensures training safety.
   Take away message -- The low cost NVG training simulator is feasible and promising. Digitally created simulated NVG images are valid.
Driver training: the collective dimension in trainers' activity BIBAFull-Text 111-118
  Vidal Gomel Christine; Rogalski Janine
Motivation -- To analyse the collective dimension in professional trainers' activity, in the context of studies on driver training for safety.
   Research approach -- The paper presents an explorative field study in the domain of initial driver training about trainers' activity depending whether they individually follow trainee's progression or share it with other trainers. A particular focus is put on the methodology for analysing trainers' interventions during driving sessions from a collective point of view.
   Findings -- The results suggest that trainers did not seem to come upon great difficulties for anticipating trainees' "didactical guidance" when they did not manage the previous training session. However, formal constructs implemented in a "driver-training reference" frame -- (DTR) and a "trainee's record form" (TRF) -- appeared as relatively low efficient tools in the asynchronous cooperation: the DTR training progression was not fully followed, and there was no homogeneity in filling TRF in. There were ambiguities in the written comments, concerning trainees' progressiona and trainers' future didactical focus. Typical cases called for direct face-to-face mediation both between trainers and with the trainee.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Only few training sessions were analysed, from a limited sample of trainees at various driving levels. However the methodology developed for analysing trainers' didactical actions was generic. Implications concern both the organisation of driver-training situations and the formal initial training of the trainers themselves, including the use of TRF as a communication tool between trainers.
   Originality/Value -- The research contributes to the design of methods for studying individual and collective trainers' activity in situations designed for professional learning and competence development.

Learning and training (2)

Quality of learning in ubiquitous interaction BIBAFull-Text 121-128
  Christina Brodersen; Susanne Bødker; Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose
Motivation -- Ubiquitous computing places the user in dynamic configurations of technology. As a result, learning in use has new complexities.
   Research approach -- We develop concepts to understand and design for learning in ubiquitous settings based on empirical examples and a foundation in activity theory.
   Findings/Design -- Specifically, we point to core concepts: Quality of an action; functional organs; and routines and strategies as being pivotal in analysing and designing for learning in ubiquitous settings.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The concepts will ultimately need to be evaluated in use by ourselves and others.
   Originality/Value -- Our approach moves beyond understanding and designing one-off interfaces.
   Take away message -- We argue that by focusing on general, high-quality routines we can better support learning in dynamically changing webs of technology.
A system architecture model for web-based adaptive e-learning systems BIBAFull-Text 129-132
  Hitoshi Nagasaki; Mutsuko Nagasaki
Motivation -- The aim of this research is the development of a web-based e-learning system which is adaptive to user's characteristics (i.e. user's computer skills).
   Research approach -- The present study proposes a new model based on a UI architecture model (Nagasaki 2000, 2002) which was developed for stand-alone application software. We adopted the UI architecture model to develop our e-learning system. Since the model could not support a web-based system, it was modified to be used on the Web.
   Findings/Design -- The new model's ability to work on the web was confirmed by the prototype.
   Take away message -- It is necessary to remove any influences of usability in order for learners to concentrate on their study using the e-learning system.
The use of an e-learning constructivist solution in workplace learning BIBAFull-Text 133-138
  J. E. Stephenson; W. B. Morris; H. G. Tempest; D. K. Griffin; A. Mileham; A. M. Payne
Motivation -- To investigate whether an e-learning approach which uses constructivist principles can be successfully applied to train employees in a highly specialised skill thought to require expert individuals and extensive prolonged training.
   Research approach -- The approach involved the development of an e-learning package which included simulations and interactivity, then experimental testing in the workplace environment with the collection of both quantitative and qualitative data to assess the effectiveness of the package.
   Findings -- Our study shows that this e-learning strategy improved the skills of the inexperienced operator significantly. We therefore propose that such programmes could be used as a work based training aids and used as a model system for the training of employees in complex skilled tasks in the workplace.
   Research Implications -- This research illustrates that the e-learning can be applied outside the traditional learning environment to train unskilled employees to undertake complex practical tasks which traditionally would involve prohibitively expensive instruction. This work also illustrates that simulations and interactivity are a powerful tools in the design of successful e-learning packages in preparing learners for real world practical situations. We would suggest that workplace learners can be better served by e-learning environments as they allow asynchronous learning and private study which are valued by employees who have other demands on their time and are more comfortable receiving tuition privately.
   Originality/Value -- This research uniquely demonstrates the harnessing of simulations and interactivity in an e-learning environment for high skill level workplace training.
   Take away message -- In conclusion we present an e-learning solution to the teaching of a complex task which at present is seen as too costly and specialised to be worth sending employees on a traditional training course to learn. The use of constructivism principles to aid its design, along with acknowledged e-learning best practice demonstrates that this medium can be used successfully in the training of highly specialised and skilled tasks required in the modern workplace.

Input technology

A cognitive simulation model for novice text entry on cell phone keypads BIBAFull-Text 141-147
  Arindam Das; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Motivation -- To create a cognitive simulation model that predicts text entry performance and learning on cell phone keypads by novice users.
   Research approach -- A programmable cognitive architecture, ACT-R, is used to execute the simulation model. Part of the simulation result is compared with the result of a previous user study.
   Findings/Design -- The proposed model is an a priori model (not tuned to any real user data) that predicts the amount of time spent in finding a key on the keypad and pressing it repeatedly. The predicted amount of time in finding a key differs by 6% and the time between two repeated key-presses of the same key by 27% compared to the results of a previous user study. The model also captures the learning of keypad layout by novice users. Memorization of keypad layout is simulated using task repetition.
   Research limitations/Implications -- This research has several limitations described towards the end of this paper. An important one among them is that the work does not model the impact of visual distracters in the field of view (frontal surface of the handset) on user performance.
   Originality/Value -- This is the first cognitive simulation model of novice user's text entry performance and learning on cell phone keypads.
   Take away message -- This work introduces an a priori cognitive model of text entry by novice users. This forms a basis for systematic exploration of keypad designs for cell phones in shorter time and lower cost.
Fingers, veins and the grey pound: accessibility of biometric technology BIBAFull-Text 149-152
  Chris Riley; Heather McCracken; Kathy Buckner
Motivation -- Fingerprint verification systems are the most widely used biometric technology, however several studies suggest that their performance deteriorates when older individuals use the technology. This research investigated both the accessibility and acceptability of biometric technology for an older population.
   Research approach -- A fingerprint and a vein system were tested with a group of 36 participants, with a mean age of 65.7 years. Participants used both devices and both objective performance data and subjective measures of opinion were collected.
   Findings -- The vein system performed significantly better than the fingerprint system, and was preferred by the majority of participants.
   Research implications -- The relationship between user preference and device performance is complex however, and could not be fully explained through this evaluation.
   Take away message -- The elderly are poorly represented in studies investigating biometric technology, though this research suggests that vein systems are a technology that could accommodate this demographic.
A comparison of different input devices for a 3D environment BIBAFull-Text 153-160
  Nguyen Thong Dang; Monica Tavanti; Ivan Rankin; Matthew Cooper
Motivation -- To identify a suitable interaction modality -- among the ones currently implemented in a three-dimensional (3D) environment for Air Traffic Control -- for allowing interactive exploration of and gathering information about 3D weather structures.
   Research approach -- A usability study entailing four interaction modalities (also called 'interaction interfaces'): voice, wand, pen and sketch interfaces, across a task requiring 3D surface exploration, information gathering and recall of information. Quantitative data (time, errors and a composite performance index) as well as qualitative data were collected.
   Findings/Design -- Overall, the results indicate that the wand supported a better performance when compared to the other interaction interfaces. Among the four interaction interfaces, the voice interface seems to present additional limitations, mostly related to time lag in the voice recognition, that were judged as a source of frustration.
   Originality/Value -- The present work provides empirical results deriving from a comparative usability study of four interaction interfaces; it contributes to the study of interaction in 3D environments with new empirical data.

Visualization and feedback

Sensitive chair: a force sensing chair with multimodal real-time feedback via agent BIBAFull-Text 163-166
  I. Daian; A. M. van Ruiten; A. Visser; S. Zubic
Motivation -- The paper presents an alternative prevention system for Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI) in visual display terminal (VDT) workers. The system integrates an ergonomically adjustable chair with a computer program that provides multimodal real-time feedback through an agent.
   Research approach -- A user study was conducted to test the use of the sensitive chair in a natural work environment. Data regarding user satisfaction, awareness provided by the system, and actions taken in response to system were gathered.
   Findings/Design -- Findings of the user study show that the participants were positive about the sensitive chair and that they became much more aware of their sitting posture.
   Take away message -- The use of sensors and an agent to give real-time feedback about an adequate sitting posture was positively evaluated and has a strong effect on the awareness of sitting posture in VDT workers.
Looking but not seeing: implications for HCI BIBAFull-Text 167-174
  Gabriela Mancero; William Wong; Paola Amaldi
Motivation: In this paper we report on part of a study to understand how information layering techniques can be used to reduce change blindness. Change blindness, in general, is the failure of the human to detect changes to information that occur within his or her visual field. There are several variants of failures of visual awareness known as: Change Blindness, Inattentional Blindness, Repetition Blindness, and Comparison Blindness. Failure or delays in observing changes in complex, dynamic and safety critical systems by, say, operators can lead to disastrous outcomes. Hence, drawing together the different reasons reported in the literature can provide us with a first step towards developing design techniques for reducing change blindness in the hope that we can contribute to better and safer systems.
   Research Approach: We reviewed 21 key studies on the different forms of change blindness reported in the literature between 1976 and 2005. Using an Emergent Themes Analysis approach, we identified five effects that arise across the different forms of change blindness, and the likely effects that designers need to consider when designing visual interfaces to reduce change blindness.
   Findings/Design: These five effects are (i) the effect of rate of change, (ii) the effect of eccentricity, (iii) the effect of conspicuity, (iv) the effect of significance, and (v) the effect of task's relevance. We also discuss the implications these effects have on information design.
   Research limitations/Implications: These effects were identified through a review of key literature. Not all effects occurred in every form of change blindness. The effects represent the variety of effects that a designer should be aware of that can cause change blindness to occur.
   Originality/Value: This paper provides a summary of the different forms of change blindness, and highlights their effects in a way relevant to design.
   Take away message: In designing displays to reduce the effect of the various forms of change blindness, it is necessary to factor these effects into the information design.
Integrating the visualisation reference model with ecological interface design BIBAFull-Text 175-178
  Connor Upton; Gavin Doherty
Motivation -- In some situations EID's high-level visual design principles can be difficult to apply. A more concrete design methodology would make the framework more accessible for interface designers.
   Research approach -- Graphics research was reviewed across a number of fields. The Visualisation Reference Model was identified as a useful model that could be used alongside EID's visual design principles. A case study is used to demonstrate this approach.
   Findings/Design -- Supplementing a work domain analysis with a task analysis can reveal how information requirements are used. This allows data transformations and visual mapping to be carried out to generate visual components in an ecological interface design.
   Take away message -- Task analysis not only improves the quality of our information requirements, it can also inform the visual design process.
Operational potential for 3D displays in air traffic control BIBAFull-Text 179-183
  Simone Rozzi; Paola Amaldi; William Wong; Bob Field
Motivation -- Investigating the application of a 3D display concept on previously identified safety critical air traffic control scenarios.
   Research approach -- Small scale human in the loop simulation followed by qualitative in depth interview to understand when, why, and how the 3D information was used.
   Findings/Design -- Qualitative results confirmed the findings from the previous field study by showing that 3D representation promises to be an effective aid with respect to certain tasks, i.e., to deepen local tactical understanding of traffic situation and collect feedback on implemented course of action. At the same time operational viability of 3D can be undermined by problems related to interface management.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Results are qualitative based on a small sample.
   Originality/Value -- The approach taken -- human in the loop simulation -- makes the results significant for the ATC domain. Second a novel sketching techniques has been used to investigate and report on operators' problem.
   Take away message -- Affordances of 3D visualization can match the demand of the ATC task.
Minimalism in information visualization: attitudes towards maximizing the data-ink ratio BIBAFull-Text 185-188
  Ohad Inbar; Noam Tractinsky; Joachim Meyer
Motivation -- To evaluate people's acceptance of the minimalist approach to information visualization.
   Research approach -- Eighty seven students, divided into three experimental conditions, rated their preference for two different graphs displaying identical information -- a standard bar-graph and a minimalist version. Both versions were taken from Tufte (1983).
   Findings/Design -- The results indicate a clear preference of non-minimalist bar-graphs, suggesting low acceptance of minimalist design principles such as high data-ink ratio.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Subjects had no prior experience with the minimalist graph and therefore familiarity might have an effect on the results.
   Originality/Value -- The research contributes empirical results on people's preferences to the mostly theoretical/ideological debate over approaches to the presentation of quantitative information.
   Take away message -- People did not like Tufte's minimalist design of bar-graphs; they seem to prefer "chartjunk" instead.

Design for user experiences

What do people like?: the design of a mobile tool to harness and share positive thoughts BIBAFull-Text 191-198
  Marije Kanis; Willem Paul Brinkman
Motivation -- To increase understanding of technologymediated sharing of positive thoughts.
   Research approach -- Following in the positive psychology tradition, two studies involving over 50 participants, using paper-based questioning techniques and social-online tools were conducted that captured over 150 contributions on what thoughts people like to share. The contributions were analysed and motivated the design of a positive expressive prototype.
   Findings/Design -- The studies conducted showed the potential for a prefix-based elicitation of positive emotions and suggest that various messages of a predominantly positive nature can be harnessed. The contributions revealed the importance of immediacy in expression. This drove the development of a mobile tool called PosiPost Me (Mobile Edition) that allows users to create and share positive thoughts anytime and anywhere.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Early findings suggest that PosiPost Me has the potential to study and catalyze beneficial effects such as increasing social awareness. Additional studies will have to further explore and verify these benefits.
   Originality/Value -- This research provides the design of a mobile tool that aims to encourage positive communication through technology. It is also an exemplar of how on-line social tools and positive psychology can be beneficial for theories and studies of human computer interaction.
   Take away message -- Technologies such as PosiPost Me can offer promising outcomes for communicating positive thoughts. However, their success depends on understanding and incorporating appropriate strategies for interactive system design and development.
Are icons used in existing computer interfaces obstacles to Taiwanese computer users? BIBAFull-Text 199-202
  Hsiu Feng Wang
This experiment was set up to explore the relationship between English proficiency and computer experience among Taiwanese computer users and their ability to identify icons. The experiment involved 60 Taiwanese participants divided into groups, with the aid of a questionnaire and English test, according to their computer experience and English ability. Each participant was shown a set of 20 icons on a computer screen and asked to state what he/she thought each icon was for. Results suggested that computer experience was the main factor that helped people identify the computer icons shown. English ability was seen to positively influence those participants not familiar with computers (the better their English ability, the better their icon identification). Participant's incorrect answers seemed to be linked to how familiar they were with computers rather than their English ability.
A survey of icon taxonomy used in the interface design BIBAFull-Text 203-206
  Hsiu Feng Wang; Sheng Hsiung Hung; Ching Chih Liao
Many icon taxonomy systems have been developed by researchers that organise icons based on their graphic elements. Most of these taxonomies classify icons according to how abstract or concrete they are. Categories however overlap and different researchers use different terminology, sometimes to describe what in essence is the same thing. This paper describes nine taxonomies and compares the terminologies they use. Aware of the lack of icon taxonomy systems in the field of icon design, the authors provide an overview of icon taxonomy and develop an icon taxonomy system that could bring practical benefits to the performance of computer related tasks.
Re-establishing user perception norms: how long does it really take BIBAFull-Text 207-214
  Pat Lehane; Samuel Huf
Motivation -- A study was undertaken within a software upgrade 'process' in a real life setting to identify issues that effect user acceptance of upgraded software in the workplace itself
   Research Approach -- The study is part of an Action Research PhD project undertaken (and is ongoing) at a regional university in Australia. Part of the study involves development of a survey instrument used to record user response to introduced technology. No adequate survey instrument currently exists to guide organisations in the overall long-term assessment of acceptance or uptake of new technology. The paper presents results summarising survey presentation prior to, during and subsequent to the release of a software upgrade. The survey was also presented to users approximately one year after rollout, to better evaluate and interpret the participants' responses to the upgrade.
   Findings/Design -- The initial results indicated that after three months of use (a commonly cited timeline for acceptance) the level of user satisfaction with the upgrade had not returned to the levels prior to the upgrade. Application of the survey after 12 months of system use further supports this position.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The survey was supplied to a relatively small number of users (50) during the upgrade of a voluntary-use software application.
   Originality Value -- System acceptance after the introduction of technology is a major concern for ICT. These findings provide what is, somewhat surprisingly, a very rare example of an attempt to quantify user perceptions of the impact of new technologies.
   Take away message -- Minimise the user stress and loss of production that occurs with the introduction of new technology by supporting the users during the transition from one system to another.
Improving the user experience of complex applications: adapting to the user's mental model BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  Asli Adisen; Trevor Barker; Carol Britton
Motivation -- To develop a user model based on the users' visual and verbal skills which are important factors in the mental models users employ when interacting with computers.
   Research approach -- A laboratory based empirical approach was used, in which 50 participants took part in visual skills, verbal skills and Riding's Cognitive Style Analysis (CSA) tests.
   Findings/Design -- We were able to show that Riding's CSA test was not a valid measure for the visual and verbal skills required for user performance in complex applications. A factor analysis conducted on the data gathered was able to identify important components of the necessary skills.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The use of laboratory based studies in order to measure real life skills are a limitation of the study. However we argue that our findings are generally applicable in wider contexts.
   Originality/Value -- This research makes an important contribution to understanding how to model the skills necessary for users to interact with complex applications
   Take away message -- As computer interaction becomes increasingly more complex, it is likely that valid measures of user characteristics and skills, such as those that we are developing will become increasingly important.

Decision making, cognition, and problem solving

Slip errors and cue salience BIBAFull-Text 221-224
  Jonathan Back; Ann Blandford; Paul Curzon
Motivation -- Many empirical accounts of slip errors have focused on identifying causal factors. However, to what extent can avoiding slip errors be considered a cognitive skill?
   Research approach -- A series of experiments have shown that some actions seem to "spring to mind" for the performance of a task, whereas others do not, and that the latter are much more likely than the former to feature in erroneous actions.
   Findings -- The results suggest that procedural and sensory cues need to be strong enough to capture a participant's attention away from actions that "spring to mind".
   Research limitations/Implications -- Avoiding error can be considered a cognitive skill when a 'window of opportunity' is utilised to rehearse procedural steps or when participants are able to create their own environmental cues.
   Originality/Value -- The research suggests that identifying how people avoid making errors can provide us with a deeper understanding of why errors happen.
   Take away message -- Rehearsal and personalised cue creation is spontaneous and can be used to minimize the likelihood of error.
Guidance in the interface and transfer of task performance BIBAFull-Text 225-232
  Christof van Nimwegen; Herre van Oostendorp
Motivation -- Previous research has shown that a "guided" interface where relevant task information is shown on screen (externalization) can result in worse performance than an "unguided" interface where users have to think more for them selves (internalization). In this study we investigate transfer of task performance. We will investigate whether switching from an "unguided" to a "guided" interface results in better performance than if it were the other way around. We also investigate whether the unguided interface enhances performance on a (near) transfer task.
   Research approach -- We conducted an experimental study in two phases: an initial phase, and a transfer phase. In the initial phase, 45 students divided in a "guided" and "non-guided" condition solved a series of problems with the respective interfaces. After, in the transfer phase, they were presented with the opposite interface. This could happen during the first transfer task, or during the second one.
   Findings -- The unguided interface resulted in more efficient performance than the guided interface. We attribute this to the fact that the unguided interface provokes more active thinking and contemplation. Furthermore, switching from an unguided to a guided interface had no effect on efficiency, while the other way around, it had a negative effect on efficiency. Finally, performance on a first transfer task with an unguided version after having worked with a guided version caused worse performance than other combinations.
   Take away message -- Deeper levels of thought instigated by the unguided interface, causes more solid knowledge and stronger, more flexible strategies. This is also reflected when doing a transfer task. This can be important in situations where learning itself is the aim, but one can also think of situations where making errors generates a high cost.
Levels of automation in a binary categorization task BIBAFull-Text 233-236
  Joachim Meyer
Motivation -- To study the effect of levels of automation on binary categorization decisions.
   Research approach -- A laboratory experiment was conducted on 80 students, employing a simulated production control task that involved binary categorizations of situations.
   Findings/Design -- The performance with the lower level of automation tended to be less affected by the quality of the aid and overall better than performance with the higher level of automation.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The system is fairly abstract, and additional validation of the findings in more realistic settings may be desirable.
   Originality/Value -- The study is one of a fairly small number of empirical studies on the effect of levels of automation on performance.
   Take away message -- Lower levels of automation may actually lead to better results in a wide range of conditions.
Spatial cognition in a navigation task: effects of initial knowledge of an environment spatial abilities on route description BIBAFull-Text 237-242
  Morgane Roger; Nathalie Bonnardel; Ludovic Le Bigot
Motivation -- The applied aim of this study is to define guidelines that have to be taken into account for designing a dialogic guiding system for pedestrians. Towards this end, our main objective is to define what information is exchanged during a Human-Human telephonic interaction. During this interaction, a concurrent navigation in a large scale environment is performed by one member of the dyad. The content of route descriptions produced by guides is analysed with regard to (1) the initial representation of the person to guide based on his/her initial level of knowledge of the route environment and (2) the guides' spatial abilities.
   Research Approach -- An experimental approach was used, in which 48 employees of an international telecommunications group were asked to guide a person on a defined route. Participants' spatial abilities were measured.
   Findings/Design -- The results we obtain show that the interlocutor's initial representation (based on his/her initial level of knowledge of the environment to be explored) is important in route production. Contrary to previous findings in monologue experimental situations, this is not the case of the guides' spatial abilities.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Although the interaction was realistic in our study, the dyads were not because the guided was always the same for every guide (i.e. he was a confederate).
   Originality -- This study uses a more ecological approach compared to the majority in this area. It is based on a realistic interaction situation with concurrent navigation whereas former studies were mainly based on monologues.
Decisions and collaborative work: a different perspective BIBAFull-Text 243-246
  Nallini Selvaraj; Bob Fields; Paola Amaldi-Trillo
Motivation -- The driving theme for this investigation has been to present a different perspective on decision making and the effect of decisions made on the collaboration involved in a complex work process. This work is influenced by the recent change in perception towards the conceptualization of decisions and their bearing on collaborative work. Instead of viewing decisions as just a mental act the change in perception is to view it as a device for managing and coordinating activities (Brown, 2005). This investigation endeavours to demonstrate how decisions made by people in a work process not only determines their individual actions but also supports and facilitates collaborative work. This is achieved by viewing decisions as abstract information resources that encourage appropriate distribution of information, distribution of cognitive tasks, and coordination between individuals and teams involved in the work process.
   Research approach -- A series of ethnographically inspired studies carried out to study the work of airport staff (Fields, Amaldi et al., 2005; Selvaraj, 2006) at an European airport over a year has been instrumental in supporting the notion put forth in this paper. Data collection was performed by engaging in observation, note-taking, and semi-structured interviews with personnel in the control tower, etc. Observation sessions typically lasted between two and four hours. The field material consists of data from several sources, i.e. notes, audio recordings, photographs, and interview transcripts. Scenarios have been elicited from transcriptions of audio recordings of conversations taking place between people in the tower and those involved in the activities of the tower as well as from interviews conducted with personnel in the control tower. Apart from this, observation and notes from the fieldwork augment our understanding of these scenarios and help steer the ensuing discussions.
   Findings/Design -- This paper is an initial step towards investigating the notion of decisions as mechanisms for organizing collaborative work The analysis of the complex work process of air traffic control reveals that decisions made by individuals and groups in the course of their work activities determine the coordination and integration of contextually appropriate actions and interactions necessary to accomplish tasks.
   Take away message -- Rethink the notion of decision making; decisions play a significant role in organizing various aspects of collaborative work and are not just mental acts.

Doctoral consortium

Lateral control support for car drivers: a human-machine cooperation approach BIBAFull-Text 249-252
  Navarro Jordan; Mars Franck; Hoc Jean-Michel
Motivation -- This paper is based on a research project which examines the way car drivers and automated devices cooperate to achieve lateral control of a vehicle. A theoretical classification of automotive devices in terms of human-machine cooperation is presented. Mutual control and function delegation modes are specifically investigated in three experimental studies.
   Research approach -- All three experiments were conducted using a driving simulator. Driver behaviour was studied under normal driving conditions and in critical situations, with or without the intervention of assistance devices designed to improve lateral control. A new way to help drivers when lane departure was imminent, called motor priming was the main focus of the project up till now.
   Findings/Design -- Initial results suggest that a motor priming device (asymmetric steering wheel vibrations) is more effective than more traditional warning devices. Preliminary findings also suggest that some negative behavioural adaptation occurs when a car's lateral position is fully controlled.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Our findings were very encouraging for the future development of in-car automation using motor priming devices. However, before any such application can go ahead, it will be necessary to carry out further experiments, using real traffic conditions and more complex scenarios.
   Take away message -- Support systems for steering control should be designed in such a way that their action blends into drivers' perceptual and motor processes. Acting at the symbolic level may not be sufficient.
Usability evaluation methods in practice: understanding the context in which they are embedded BIBAFull-Text 253-256
  Dominic Furniss; Ann Blandford; Paul Curzon
Motivation -- To address a knowledge gap in why usability evaluation methods (UEMs) are adopted and adapted in professional usability practice.
   Research approach -- The approach is qualitative. A grounded theory of usability practitioners is being developed. 10 interviews have been conducted in the website domain; and a similar study has begun in the safety-critical domain. These studies will be compared and combined to produce a more general theory.
   Findings/Design -- Findings suggest UEM adoption and adaptation cannot be fully understood devoid of context. So their fit with a broader system of usability practice has to be established. Results suggest that usability practice can be thought of as a plug and play component to fit a wider design and business process. A Positive Functional Resonance Model could provide leverage in explaining how UEMs are adopted and adapted to fit into the wider system of usability practice, to maximise potential under constrained resources.
   Originality/Value -- An explanation of UEM use through functional resonance provides understanding of UEM adoption and adaptation in practice.
   Take away message -- Valuing UEMs using problem identification as a measure is highly limited. UEM adoption and adaptation should be explained within the broader context of the design and business process.
An instrumental paradigm for ubiquitous interaction BIBAFull-Text 257-260
  Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose
Motivation -- Developments of novel interaction techniques and computer uses have exploded during the last decade. These new ways of interacting with a computer -- here covered by the umbrella term ubiquitous interaction -- give rise to a range of interesting theoretical HCI challenges, and reveal shortcomings of some of the restrictive assumptions contemporary graphical user interfaces are built upon.
   Research approach -- Based on activity theory and ecological psychology a conceptual model for ubiquitous interaction is proposed and iteratively challenged and developed through actual implementation.
   Findings/Design -- The project will ultimately shed light on how an understanding of interaction form activity theory and ecological psychology maps to an implementation of a new conceptual model for interaction with technology.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Implementation of an actual system will require comprehensive experimental user centred development.
   Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing.
   Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous interaction is proposed.
Mapping safety assumptions across the European aviation industry BIBAFull-Text 261-263
  Kyla Steele
This paper describes the plans for a doctoral research project on the variations of safety assumptions across the aviation industry in Europe.
   An inventory of safety principles considered common to aviation will be compiled based on the literature and past research. Working-level exemplars of these principles will be generated based on an analysis of work methods and documentation. A survey will then be done across different branches of the aviation sector. This will allow us not only to test our hypothesis about the prevalence of these beliefs about safety, but also to identify any existing variations across the sector.
   This is an attempt to make the scientific paradigm underlying industrial safety work explicit, thus making it easier to question and easier to identify its limitations.
Graphical representation of statistical information in situations of judgment and decision-making BIBAFull-Text 265-268
  Ohad Inbar
Motivation -- To address both the theoretical and practical issues related to graphical representation of probabilities in the attempt to create 'corrective' representations that can counter-effect documented biases in judgment and decision-making.
   Research approach -- 64 students were asked to answer questions dealing with statistical information that was presented either numerically or graphically, replicating two well-knows experiments in the field of judgement and decision-making.
   Findings/Design -- The results of the pilot study suggest that graphical representation may help to counter the effect of documented biases.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The pilot study has only marginal significance due to the relatively small sample size.
   Originality/Value -- The research aims to suggest optimal graphical representations to help people in their decision-making process.
   Take away message -- Graphical representations may be an untapped resource that can be used along with or instead of numerical representations in decision-making.
Mood independent programming BIBAFull-Text 269-272
  Iftikhar Ahmed Khan; Robert M. Hierons; Willem Paul Brinkman
Motivation -- The motivation behind this study is to improve the programmer's coding and debugging performance by considering their moods.
   Research approach -- This study will use an empirical research approach that involves the use of un-controlled and controlled experimentation.
   Findings/Design -- The main findings suggest that there is a possible effect of moods on the performance of the programmers' coding and debugging activities.
   Take away message -- Moods may have an impact on programmer's performance. It may be possible to detect moods on the basis of information regarding the programmer's use of the keyboard and mouse, and to integrate them into development environments that can improve programmer performance.
Safety margins perceptions integration in the driver: an explorative study on required deceleration and headway in car-following tasks BIBAFull-Text 273-276
  Matteo Fiorani
Motivation -- To verify if visual information about required deceleration and preferred headway are integrated by drivers during car-following tasks.
   Research approach -- A within subjects simulator-based experiment is being conducted, in which 18 subjects are asked to drive under different cinematic conditions, grouped in two sessions. Obstacle size, absolute speed and relative speed are manipulated.
   Findings/Design -- The results are being collected and analysed. Three main hypothesis are under inquiry: integration of safety margins perceptions, dominance of preferred headway, or dominance of required deceleration information.
   Take away message -- Several studies have shown empirical evidence supporting diverging models attempting to describe how drivers regulate longitudinal control of the vehicle. An attempt to investigate how existing models could be integrated or included is outlined.
Your skin knows when you will jump BIBAFull-Text 277-280
  László Laufer; Bottyán Németh
Motivation: Most of the affective gaming researches are focusing on using physiological measures to determine the emotional state of the user, while others try to create applications where the player can influence the game with his/her inner emotional states. We would like to mix these two approaches taking advantage of the psychological phenomena of anticipation of stress and using it up in games to predict user actions.
   Research Approach: Our research focuses on the user action in the course of play, and tries to establish a link between physiological parameters reflecting on the user's emotional sate and the interaction he/she initiates in the game.
   Research Design: In our experiments we are recording skin conductance response while playing a simple arcade game. We train artificial neural networks to learn when the user interacts (jumps).
   Findings: In our paper we demonstrate that neural networks are not only capable of learning the exact time, but are also able to predict a jump 2 seconds before it is carried out only from the skin conductance data.
Perceptual depth to detect changes that we don't see BIBAFull-Text 281-284
  Gabriela Mancero
Motivation: The purpose of this research is to understand how perceptual depth and information layering techniques can be used to improve the design of computer interfaces for safety critical environments in which failure or delays in observing changes by, say, operators can lead to disastrous outcomes.
   Research Approach: We used the Emergent Themes Analysis on a literature review of 21 separate studies on different aspects of change blindness, we identified five effects common across the different forms of "change blindness", and hence the likely effects that designers need to consider when designing visual interfaces to minimise change blindness using visual depth cues.
   Findings/Design: These five effects are (i) the effect of rate of change, (ii) the effect of eccentricity, (iii) the effect of conspicuity, (iv) the effect of significance, and (v) the effect of task relevance.
   Research limitations/Implications: We intend to conduct a series of experiments to analyze the influence of perceptual depth cues on these effects.
   Originality/Value: Much of the research to date is about the phenomenon itself. This research extends on that body of research to investigate if and how change blindness can be minimised by using visual depth cues.
   Take away message: Understanding the effects of change blindness will provide a basis for investigations into developing guidance for designs that could minimise change blindness.
Weather hazards in ATM: designing for resilient operations BIBAFull-Text 285-288
  Ronish Joyekurun
Motivation -- Aid the normal decisions of airborne crews and ground controllers during tactical approach operations to airfields and in the presence of adverse atmospheric conditions.
   Research approach -- A Resilience Engineering framework is used in this research. A conversation analysis of 348 verbal exchanges among airborne crews and ground controllers involved in weather-related aviation incidents and accidents was performed.
   Findings/Design -- The results obtained were in the form of collaborative themes of work. They indicate that flight crews and ground controllers work as a tightly-coupled collaborative team by exchanging air traffic and atmospheric-related information. Results also indicate that decisions during approaches in hazardous conditions are influenced by goals of efficiency.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Only US-based accident information from readily-transcribed verbal exchanges was used which limited the generalisation of the findings. The discussion in this paper centres on the first phase of work analysis -- the findings will be subsequently used to inform design exercises on Air Traffic Control Human Machine Interfaces.
The role of input devices in the gaming experience BIBAFull-Text 289-291
  Eduardo H. Calvillo Gámez
Motivation -- To define user experience within the gaming environment and understand the role of input devices.
   Research approach -- An empirical methodology based on ethnographic studies, interviews and grounded theory is used to define user experience. A design approach will be used to evaluate user experience.
   Findings/Design -- Partial results identify the user experience while playing videogames as Gameplay and environment with an experience builder which was called puppetry.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The use of user narratives as the main source of data based on Dewey's experience theory can be considered controversial.
   Originality/Value -- This research aims at understanding mechanisms to assessing user experience.
Personalized learning using adapted content modality design for science students BIBAFull-Text 293-296
  Fang Liu
Motivation -- The mismatch between current e-Learning design and user needs has drawn the research attention on personalized instruction. Our research intends to investigate the impact on e-Learners' learning performance and experience using various modalities presenting the learning content based on Felder-Silverman's learning style theory, and eventually to provide the possible suggestions on content modality design.
   Research approach -- Laboratory experiment is our main approach to conduct this research. 28 participants with similar profiles pertaining to the dominant styles will be recruited from Computing and Information Systems subjects. A two-group design with repeated measures is selected so the same participants will use two different e-Learning environments in order to investigate their influences on the students' learning performance and experience.
   Findings/Design -- Our previous studies claimed the suitability of Felder-Silverman's theory as the theoretical basis for the research. A framework was also developed to identify the main e-Learning system features accommodated to typical science and technology students.
   Take away message -- As learning styles are believed to be considerably important to instruction, our research on content modality design is likely to help facilitate the users' learning performance and experience in e-Learning.

Posters and demonstrations

The effects of the reliability of an automatic target recognition system on image analyst performance BIBAFull-Text 299-300
  Peerly Setter; Hadas Marciano; Joel Norman; Major Michal Hovev
Motivation -- To study the effects of the reliability of ATR (Automatic Target Recognition) designations on the performance of expert image analysts of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images.
   Research approach -- A psychophysical study of the performance of 12 expert analysts of SAR images.
   Findings -- Analyst performance was influenced by ATR reliability. Higher reliabilities yielded higher hit rates and higher false alarm rates, and low reliabilities the opposite results. This and a signal detection theory analysis indicate that ATR reliability affects the response criterion and not performance per se. (But see Discussion).
   Research Implications -- The fact that the reliability of items designated by the ATR system affected the criterion of the analysts has important implications. The tendency to mark more items that were designated by the ATR as being true targets should improve the overall performance of analysts working with state-of-the-art ATR systems (see Discussion).
   Originality/Value -- The research systematically manipulated the reliability levels of simulated ATR systems, and measured their influence on the performance of human analysts. In this context reliability rate means what percentage of the designated items by an ATR system are actually correct targets. Each ATR block was coupled with a similar non-ATR block, a design that aimed to extract the added value of the ATR system to the performance of the human analysts. In addition, a complete within subjects design was used. This procedure provided a good basis for comparing the different conditions in the experiment.
   Take away message -- While developing an ATR system, one should provide the image analysts with valid assessments of the system's reliability.
The effects of time limitations on target identification BIBAFull-Text 301-302
  Peerly Setter; Hadas Marciano; Joel Norman; Major Michal Hovev
Motivation -- Aiming at making image interpretation more efficient, we studied the effects of limiting exposure durations on performance.
   Research approach -- Two psychophysical experiments were performed examining the performance of 36 expert image analysts. The targets were presented at three image quality levels.
   Findings -- The results suggest that limiting the exposure duration of an image to four seconds does not impair the performance of the analysts, i.e., four seconds suffice for identification in an the image interpretation task, no matter what the quality of the image.
   Research Implications -- This finding suggests that limiting the exposure duration during actual image interpretation would be beneficial since it would shorten the total amount of time needed for interpretation while not lowering the probability of correct identification.
   Take away message -- Sometimes unlimited time is not necessary in order to obtain the best results. When someone is an expert at what s/he does, making a quick decision might yield equivalent outcomes.
Thermoelectric tactile display based on the thermal grill illusion BIBAFull-Text 303-304
  Yael Salzer; Tal Oron-Gilad; Adi Ronen
Motivation -- Our goal was to design a thermal tactile display based on the thermal grill illusion sensation (created with spatially adjacent warm and cold stimuli), and to explore perception of information with such display.
   Research approach -- A prototype of a Thermoelectric Tactile Display (TTD) was developed, based on Thermoelectric Coolers (TEC) Peltier technology. Temporal and spatial manipulations of signals will lead to definition of optimal TTD parameters, and to mapping of the sensory perception.
   Findings -- Currently at initial stages of the experimentation of TTD prototype, findings indicate clear and distinguishable sensations. The TTD's performance is supported by an analytical model.
   Research Limitations -- Pilot study with limited number of participants.
   Originality -- This study expands the knowledge and availability of tactile-modalities. The majority of tactile interfaces used in research and applied settings are based on vibration and pressure. No previous references show the use of thermal displays as a stand-alone signal source, nor is there evidence of the use of the thermal grill illusion for that purpose. It is the first use of TEC technology for generating thermal grill stimuli.
   Take away message -- TTD opens a new channel of tactile communication, whose optimal parameters and functionality needs yet to be fully determined.
Examining task demands in web interaction and age differences through episodic memory BIBAFull-Text 305-306
  Isabelle Etcheverry; Patrice Terrier; Jean Claude Marquie
Motivation -- Relying on the sensitivity of memory measures to the depth of processing in a prior episode could provide a means of analysing how information is processed during Web interaction (Oulasvirta, 2004). This strategy is applied in order to examine task-related differences in Web information search activity as a function of age.
   Research approach -- 26 "young" participants (mean=22.31 years) and 24 "old" participants (mean=64.54 years) accomplished several information finding tasks on Web pages in two conditions: navigation -- orientation and content -- orientation. Afterwards, they carried out two recognition tests.
   Findings/Design -- Overall, the data indicated that the older adults performed at lower levels than the young participants for navigational search. Also, they had difficulty in recollecting episodic information concerning previously viewed Web pages, as revealed by two memory dissociations.
   Originality/Value -- Experimental investigation of dual-memory processes (recollection vs. familiarity; verbatim vs. gist-based representations) lead to more sensitive measures of task-related differences and age differences than correct recognition memory performance.
   Take away message -- Episodic memory measures can give an account for variations in task requirements and age-related differences in Web interaction.
Visualisation of topological structures as a training tool for acquiring causal models of complex systems BIBAFull-Text 307-308
  Anne Klostermann; Manfred Thüring
Motivation -- Our research aims at developing and investigating training strategies that foster the development of causal models of complex systems.
   Research approach -- An experimental approach was used in which 90 students were trained in handling a simulation of a process control system. Training tools differed regarding the type of visualisation of process components and the extent of learner control. Causal model quality was assessed through both a knowledge questionnaire and the performance in a regulation task with the process control system.
   Findings/Design -- Results indicate an influence of visualisation and training strategy type on quality of system knowledge but no effects on performance in system interaction.
   Take away message -- A visualisation of process interrelations in combination with a learner-controlled training mode leads to adequate knowledge acquisition.
Pointing movements visually controlled through a video display: a new device for air traffic control? BIBAFull-Text 309-310
  Roland Alonso; Robert Parise; Patrice Terrier; Jean Marie Cellier
Motivation -- Development of new devices for the human-computer interaction allows more efficiency. The aim of this study is to determine in light of motor control theories, what condition of use of digitizing tablet technology is the most efficient for Air Traffic Control (ATC).
   Research approach -- 24 participants were instructed to perform aiming movements, as fast and accurate as possible in three distinct conditions. The pointing movements had been carried out either directly on the tablet, or through a video screen capable of displaying the feedback of the hand, or through a video screen without the feedback of the arm.
   Findings/Design -- The data reveal that pointing movements through a video display seems to be usable only if feedback of the location of the arm is displayed. With this feedback, the error rate is similar to pointing movements carried out directly on a tablet. However, the movement time is doubled.
   Originality/Value -- This experiment takes dimensions of motor behaviour into account in order to explain performance differences between devices.
   Take away message -- Informational constraints on planning and controlling aiming movements could be used to predict and understand the differences between pointing devices in human-computer interaction.
Mobile applications for helping users to keep track of their travel experience BIBAFull-Text 311-312
  Elisa Rubegni; Sandro Gerardi; Maurizio Caporali
Motivation -- This research work aims to exploit the opportunity of Tangible User Interface for improving recollection of memories using personal objects.
   Research approach -- The project follows an approach which integrates two different perspectives: user-centred and technology-oriented. They take place in parallel informing each other during the process.
   Findings/Design -- Connection of digital resources with physical objects while travelling improves the recollection of travel experiences and the sharing of these memories.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Findings have not yet been applied to a more complex scenario in which many users interact with the system and exchange information while travelling.
   Originality/Value -- This work contributes to the research on Tangible User Interface and on mobile technology for tourism.