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ECCE Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2008 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics
Note:The Ergonomics of Cool Interaction
Editors:Nuno Jardim Nunes; José J. Cañas; Françoise Détienne; Julio Abascal; Inmaculada Fajardo; Ian Oakley; Joaquim Jorge; Gerrit van der Veer; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Norros Leena; William Wong
Location:Madeira, Portugal
Dates:2008-Sep-16 to 2008-Sep-19
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-60558-399-5, 978-1-60558-399-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: ECCE08
Papers:39
Pages:205
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Keynote speeches
  2. Doctoral consortium
  3. Human error and reliability
  4. Innovative user interface concepts
  5. Posters
  6. Collaboration
  7. Design methods
  8. User experience
  9. Work, psychology and usability
  10. Users' individual differences

Keynote speeches

From cognitive compatibility to the disappearing computer: experience design for smart environments BIBAFull-Text 1
  Norbert Streitz
The objective of this keynote talk is to present selected visions of ambient and ubiquitous computing based on the notion of the disappearing computer and to reflect on the resulting challenges for designing experiences in future smart environments. It is a human-centred approach exploiting the affordances of real objects by augmenting their physical properties with the potential of computer-based support. In this approach, the computer "disappears" and is almost "invisible" but its functionality is ubiquitously available and provides new forms of interaction, communication and collaboration. In summary: the world around us is the interface to information and for conveying experiences.
The 100% solution: what is a user to do, and how are we helping? BIBAFull-Text 2
  Austin Henderson
We deploy our applications for use in worlds that change, and in places not anticipated by their designers. As a result, our applications do not -- and, in principle, cannot -- anticipate all the circumstances in which they are used. Yet the user must cope with every single circumstance that they confront, and they must find some way to bring the application to bear on those situations. I explore some thoughts and challenges concerning the resulting inevitable misalignment between the user's needs and the application's capabilities. I explore three kinds of solutions: fixes (changing the application), work-arounds (going "outside" the application), and appropriations (going to school on other cases). The resulting socio-technical systems (humans and applications working together) can address circumstances unanticipated by the applications. I argue that the implication for designers is that we must challenge ourselves to design applications that support, not only the circumstances that we anticipate, but also the systems that people adopt for dealing with circumstances that we have not anticipated. I close by speculating on reasons why we have not yet focused on this issue.

Doctoral consortium

Characterising user interaction to inform information-fusion-driven decision support BIBAFull-Text 3
  Maria Nilsson
Motivation -- The motivation is to extend the current technology driven design approach in information fusion by characterising how users interact with and are active components in information fusion based decision support.
   Research approach -- A combination of theoretical and empirical investigations has been chosen to examine how users interact with information fusion based decision support.
   Findings/Design -- The results define the building blocks for a future framework. So far, a new decision support class, i.e., fusion driven decision support, has been suggested. The class characterises the information fusion process, the users' role, and factors that affect interactions with such systems. Also, the result indicates that Distributed Cognition is a useful tool for capturing semi-automated information fusion processes.
   Research limitations/Implications -- So far, the building blocks for a framework, which capture users and information fusion systems, have been identified and further studies are needed in order to fully develop the framework.
   Originality/Value -- The characterisation of the user makes a contribution to the technologically oriented research field of information fusion, which most often considers users as passive receivers of information. In addition, the research makes a contribution to the field of decision support by extending the current list of decision support classes with semi-automated decision support.
   Take away message -- Unlike common beliefs, the information fusion process extends the boundary of the physical system, to include humans, technology, tools and the interactions among them.
Facilitating synchronization and coordination within dispersed emergency management teams BIBAFull-Text 4
  T. E. de Greef; A. H. J. Oomes
Motivation -- A team is capable to resolve issues beyond the limits of the individual at the price of an additional layer of cognitive resources as team members must coordinate and synchronize their activities. Literature shows that the inter-predictability and observability of others' action is one of the key ingredients that foster team performance. Little research, however, is dedicated to design specifically for observability and inter-predictability with a dispersed team. Designing and evaluating a prototype that facilitates inter-predictability and observability results in improved team performance.
   Research approach -- The approach is both qualitative and empirical using an iterative design method. In parallel data gathered from emergency management training sessions and prototyping the artefact. Subsequently an experimental and valorisation phase leads to empirical results concerning the support value for coordination and synchronization within dispersed teams.
   Findings/Design -- This paper is an initial step towards the understanding of difficulties that exist within dispersed team in a crisis organization. Findings from a number of observations in combination with a number of studies show encouraging indications that back our motivation and initial ideas. These have led to an initial design for a prototype.
   Take away message -- The idea to facilitate inter-predictability and observability within dispersed team has a potential to enhance team effectiveness.
Situational awareness support to enhance teamwork in collaborative environments BIBAFull-Text 5
  Olga Kulyk; Gerrit van der Veer; Betsy van Dijk
Motivation -- Modern collaborative environments often provide an overwhelming amount of visual information on multiple displays. The multitude of personal and shared interaction devices leads to lack of awareness of team members on ongoing activities, and awareness of who is in control of shared artefacts. This research addresses the situational awareness (SA) support of multidisciplinary teams in co-located collaborative environments. This work aims at getting insights into design and evaluation of large displays systems that afford SA and effective teamwork.
   Research approach -- An exploratory (Wassink et al., 2008) as well as experimental approach is applied. The results of our exploratory studies, which included contextual observations, interviews and task analysis, have been translated into requirements for support of multidisciplinary teamwork in life sciences (Kulyk and Wassink, 2006). Currently we perform practical case studies in omics experimentation domain (Kulyk et al., 2007). In a first controlled study we assess shared SA of team members, providing new SA concepts on a shared large display.
   Findings/Design -- We developed several concepts for SA support on large shared displays. Memory Board is an interface that automatically stores and visualizes the activity history on a shared large display. This allows team members to retrieve annotations made on previous slides or visualizations. It also provides awareness of who is currently in control of any display, and who is manipulating and annotating the visualizations. Highlighting on Demand interface enables a team member to highlight or fade out any part of a display using any personal interaction device.
   Take away message -- Designing systems that support situational awareness is of great importance to ensure that a collaborative environment enables efficient and effective team coordination and decision making.
Designing awareness support for distributed cooperative design teams BIBAFull-Text 6
  Dhaval Vyas; Dirk Heylen; Anton Nijholt; Gerrit C. van der Veer
Motivation -- Awareness is an integral part of remote collaborative work and has been an important theme within the CSCW research. Our project aims at understanding and mediating non-verbal cues between remote participants involved in a design project.
   Research approach -- Within the AMIDA project we focus on distributed 'cooperative design' teams. We especially focus on the 'material' signals -- signals in which people communicate through material artefacts, locations and their embodied actions. We apply an ethnographic approach to understand the role of physical artefacts in co-located naturalistic design setting. Based on the results we will generate important implications to support remote design work. We plan to develop a mixed-reality interface supported by a shared awareness display. This awareness display will provide information about the activities happening in the design room to remotely located participants.
   Findings/Design -- Our preliminary investigation with real-world design teams suggests that both the materiality of designers' work settings and their social practices play an important role in understanding these material signals that are at play.
   Originality/Value -- Most research supporting computer mediated communication have focused on either face-to-face or linguistically oriented communication paradigms. Our research focuses on mediating the non-verbal, material cues for supporting collaborative activities without impoverishing what designers do in their day to day working lives.
   Take away message -- An ethnographic approach allows us to understand the naturalistic practices of design teams, which can lead to designing effective technologies to support group work. In that respect, the findings of our research will have a generic value beyond the application domain chosen (design teams).

Human error and reliability

The influence of agent reliability on trust in human-agent collaboration BIBAFull-Text 7
  Xiaocong Fan; Sooyoung Oh; Michael McNeese; John Yen; Haydee Cuevas; Laura Strater; Mica R. Endsley
Motivation -- To investigate ways to support human-automation teams with real-world, imperfect automation where many system failures are the result of systematic failure.
   Research approach -- An experimental approach was used to investigate how variance in agent reliability may influence human's trust and subsequent reliance on agent's decision aids. Sixty command and control (C2) teams, each consisting of a human operator and two cognitive agents, were asked to detect and respond to battlefield threats in six ten-minute scenarios. At the end of each scenario, participants completed the SAGAT queries, followed by the NASA TLX queries.
   Findings/Design -- Results revealed that teams with experienced human operators accepted significantly less inappropriate recommendations from agents than teams with inexperienced operators. More importantly, the knowledge of agent's reliability and the ratio of unreliable tasks have significant effects on human's trust, as manifested in both team performance and human operators' rectification of inappropriate recommendations from agents.
   Originality/Value -- It represents an important step toward uncovering the nature of human trust in human-agent collaboration.
   Take away message -- This research has shown that given even minimal basis for understanding when the operator should and should not trust the agent recommendations allows operators to make better AUDs, to have better situation awareness on the critical issues associated with automation error, and to establish better trust in intelligent agents.
Drivers' needs and safety systems BIBAFull-Text 8
  Pierre Van Elslande; Katel Fouquet
Motivation -- Drivers' needs in safety functions must be defined from a human-centered point of view, going beyond technical offers. This paper presents a study conducted in the frame of the European TRACE project, focusing on the diagnosis of such needs from a detailed analysis of the real difficulties met by drivers in accident-generating situations.
   Research approach -- This study is based on a sample of 432 car drivers involved in a road accident. The sample was extracted from INRETS (France) in-depth accident studies database (EDA). The analysis relied upon a human error production model (Van Elslande, 2003; Van Elslande & Fouquet, 2007) delineating the different perceptive, cognitive and motor functional failures leading drivers to have an accident. Drivers' safety needs were deduced from these failures of the functions that usually make the driver able to compensate for driving system malfunctions.
   Findings/Design -- Drivers' difficulties in accident production show an important need in: 1) detecting other users, 2) diagnosing driver's condition, and 3) controlling the vehicle.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Drivers needs in safety functions were defined from attested safety problems as they are expressed in accident. A complement of such an approach is to be found in naturalistic driving studies.
   Originality/Value -- The definition of needs relies upon an ultra in-depth analysis of accident cases with detailed interviews of people involved and cinematic reconstruction of the events.
Variety of attentional failures in traffic accidents BIBAFull-Text 9
  Pierre Van Elslande; Magali Jaffard; Katel Fouquet; Véronique Vatonne
Motivation -- Attentional problems have been considered by many authors as one of the main causes of traffic accidents, but the results given leave to presume a certain notional vagueness.
   Research approach -- Analysis of the detailed data gathered at traffic accident scenes (EDA -- Etudes Détaillées d'Accidents) is an original tool that can be used for fine definition of accident-causing difficulties encountered by drivers. In a study conducted with this methodology in the frame of the European TRACE (Traffic Accident Causation in Europe) project, we have differentiated three types of attentional disturbances: inattention, distraction and competition for attention.
   Findings/Design -- Attention problems in accidentology are diverse and such a diversity is essential to define their characteristics (the situations in which they intervene, the functional failures they provoke, the associated factors, etc.) for each type of attention problem.
   Research Implications -- This study supplements the fundamental knowledge on attentional processes in driving situation. This acquired knowledge will also be useful to define optimized ergonomic developments to cope more effectively with the various problems of attention and to adapt new driving aid devices as a consequence.
   Take away message -- Thus, attention problems in traffic accidents constitute a complex field of study concerning all drivers.

Innovative user interface concepts

Wi-Wave: urban furniture for browsing internet contents in public spaces BIBAFull-Text 10
  Elisa Rubegni; Jevon Brunk; Maurizio Caporali; Erik Gronvall; Andrea Alessandrini; Antonio Rizzo
Motivation -- The socio-technical challenges created by Tangible User Interfaces with regards to invasiveness, privacy, visibility, control, etc. have been pointed out by several authors, but this case study focuses on two, more basic socio-technical aspects regarding the user's perspective and interaction with others. The paper presents a case study regarding the design of the interaction of interactive urban furniture, Wi-roni, for browsing information on the Web through a gesture-based interface in a public space.
   Research approach -- The interaction modalities options were discussed and analyzed during the convergence phase, in which designers, technicians and users worked on the design of a prototype that could respond to the activity analysis and the shaping of physical factors.
   Findings/Design -- The prototypes evaluation and assessment with users revealed many interesting aspects that mainly regard the interaction modality that changed significantly according to the shape of the artefact.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Wi-roni is just a first exercise in this research direction. The design of other furniture will allows a more complete study regarding the emerging behaviour of the people involved in new and old convivial activities in public spaces.
   Originality/Value -- We propose to respond to sociotechnical challenges by conceiving interaction modalities suitable for social activities complementing distant communication with in-presence communication and harmonizing "everywhere" with the specific values of a given location.
   Take away message -- Designing unique artefact needs a big effort that is necessary in order to design a set of devices with an aesthetic and imaginative values.
Mnemonical body shortcuts: improving mobile interaction BIBAFull-Text 11
  Tiago Guerreiro; Ricardo Gamboa; Joaquim Jorge
Motivation -- To study and validate a body space based approach to improve mobile device interaction and on the move interaction performance.
   Research approach -- We developed and user evaluated (20 + 10 users) an adaptive inertial sensing based system featuring default and personalized body space gesture recognition with suitable feedback.
   Findings/Design -- Results present gestures as suitable shortcut for on the move action triggering, improving mobile interaction performance.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The evaluations were performed in a controlled scenario. Further studies should be performed in more demanding situations (public transportations, stairs).
   Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution on the validation of body-space gestures to improve on the move interaction performance.
   Take away message -- Mnemonical Body Shortcuts improves shortcut triggering both in still and on the move scenarios.
Structures of life: the role of molecular structures in scientists' work BIBAFull-Text 12
  Dhaval Vyas; Olga Kulyk; Paul van der Vet; Anton Nijholt; Gerrit C. van der Veer
The visual and multidimensional representations like images and graphical structures related to biology provide great insights into understanding the complexities of different organisms. Especially, life scientists use different representations of molecular structures to answer biological questions and to better understand cellular processes. Combining results from two field studies, we explore the role of molecular structures in life scientists' current work from a human-factors perspective. Our main conclusion is that different representations of molecular structures, due to their visual nature, are important for supporting collaboration, constructing new knowledge and supporting scientists' professional activities in general.
Social inclusion and creative expressions using non-digital artefacts: a case study on pinholes BIBAFull-Text 13
  Françoise Decortis; Laura Lentini
Motivation -- The research aims to identify and analyse the relationships between social inclusion, sense of community and spaces through creative activities, exploiting the potential of low tech and "transparent" tools and their impact on the acquisition of social competencies, as well as on creative expression skills. In a long-term perspective, the study aims at exploring uses of ICT in art-based inclusion practices.
   Research approach -- An explorative case study approach is used to investigate the potential of non-digital artefacts in supporting creative workshops involving migrants, local citizens, children, adults and elderly people.
   Findings/Design -- The study provides evidence that social inclusion is related to the involvement of mixed groups of people in the community space. It highlights the role of non-digital artefact on the acquisition of social and creative competences: In the observed creative workshops, people learned about their local community; felt legitimized to express their views about it and to engage in its development. Participants learned about themselves and gained confidence, reinforcing their inclusion in the community. Both migrants and local people, youngsters and elders, overcame prejudices related to lack of understanding and gained empathy for other people's aspirations, contributions, and human potential.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The presented results are based on a study that focused on non-digital artefact: pinhole camera, as a support for creative activity fostering social inclusion. Their implications for designing technology-enhanced environments will be investigated based on the results obtained.
   Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to the need to design simple and federating tools in order to foster creative, joyful and mindful interactions between mixed groups of users.
   Take away message -- Technological artefacts to be used in creative activities fostering social inclusion should allow mindful interactions and appreciation of community places and spaces.

Posters

Models to facilitate the development of affective resources BIBAFull-Text 14
  Idoia Cearreta; Juan Miguel López; Nestor Garay-Vitoria
In this paper an affective interaction model is presented. This model has been developed in order to facilitate the creation of affective resources. In this case, a conversational system able to transmit emotions has been developed using the proposed model, providing the user a more natural and pleasant conversation.
A GOMS model of virtual sociotechnical systems: using video games to build cognitive models BIBAFull-Text 15
  Sylvain Pronovost; Robert L. West
Motivation -- The present paper extends the use of GOMS models, described by Kieras (Kieras, 2007) as models of the knowledge necessary for an agent to perform a task, to complex sociotechnical processes involving multiple agents in strategic activities situated in a virtual environment.
   Research approach -- The experiment consists of the SGOMS model, based on task analysis, and a statistical analysis to evaluate the accuracy of the SGOMS model for the description and prediction of the data.
   Findings/Design -- A SGOMS model featuring task interruptions, order violations and planning units representing the decision-making process is a good match with the experimental data.
   Take away message -- The GOMS model can be modified to account for complex sociotechnical interactions within low-fidelity synthetic environments.
In search for common ground: how an automatic turbine system supports operator work BIBAFull-Text 16
  Jonas Andersson; Anna-Lisa Osvalder
Motivation -- The use of automation technology tends to steadily increase in a wide range of applications. With this comes a demand to design systems that support team play among human operators and automation to avoid problems related to monitoring work.
   Research approach -- The study was performed as a field study using semi-structured interviews and observations.
   Findings/Design -- The initial interview and observation results indicate that generally accepted research in the field of human-automation interaction is valid in the studied nuclear power control room context. The work shows the benefit of studying human joint activity to improve interface design that supports human-automation collaboration.
   Take away message -- Further research in the area of human-automation cooperation in control rooms is needed. A possible way for development of a design basis is to examine human-human cooperation and extract useable design guidelines.
Design of joint intelligent systems: the design field framework BIBAFull-Text 17
  Leena Salo; Leena Norros
Motivation -- Improvement of the exploitation of human factors in the design of intelligent environments.
   Research approach -- The study is a conceptual synthesis of empirical research on different complex and safety critical work. It also draws on lessons learned from human-computer interaction studies.
   Findings -- The results provide a diagnosis of design tensions that constrain present product design. Key concepts are articulated and a new design framework, the Design Field Framework (DFF), is presented.
   Research implications -- New practical problems must be found and empirical studies accomplished to validate the joint system concept and the DFF design approach.
   Originality -- The approach draws on the discussion on joint cognitive systems and provides a theory-based contribution to developing joint system design.
   Take away message -- Constructing adaptive human-technology-environment joint systems requires a dialogical design activity. It comprises of interrelated activities in qualitatively different design fields that are characterised by the identified new modes of design and types of knowledge.
Exploring mediated interactions: a design exercise BIBAFull-Text 18
  Dhaval Vyas; Alan Dix; Anton Nijholt
With the emergence of personal and ubiquitous computing systems in the last decade, interaction designers have started designing products by employing quality oriented aspects such as user experience, playfulness, enchantment and others. In order to explore novel forms of mediated interactions, designers need to focus beyond the basic user requirements and usability issues. We present a procedure and results of a design exercise that we carried out with students of a master's course on Visual Design. Our intention was to explore new forms of mediated interaction by using a specific design exercise. We provide the details of the resulted design concepts and discuss the usefulness of our design exercise.
OneThousandAndOneStories: a format for multichannel multimedia narratives BIBAFull-Text 19
  Elisa Rubegni; Amalia Sabiescu; Paolo Paolini
Motivation -- In the field of cultural heritage, the need for producing fresh contents in many cases outruns the possibilities of the institution itself, while outsourcing can be too expensive to employ. The 1001 Stories authoring package that makes the object of this paper was meant to provide to cultural institutions a solution for speedy creation of interactive media, which can be easily achieved by content creators with no technical background. The package -- made of a pre-defined interactive format, a suggested workflow for creation of contents and a data-entry tool -- has been subsequently employed for tourism and corporate communication applications, as well as for educational purposes.
   Research approach -- The research assessed the use of 1001 Stories in two different contexts: (1) by professional content creators with little technical background; (2) by school children with low level of knowledge and skills in both technology and content creation. The research addresses three main issues: the time required for creating multimedia contents, the authors' response to a ready-made design format, and the suitability of the authoring workflow for professional and educational contexts.
   Findings/Design -- Data drawn from the use of the tool for building professional cultural heritage narratives indicates that the pre-defined interactive format favors the concentration on content creation, as it sets aside any preoccupation regarding the technical aspect of the application development. In the educational context, un-experienced content creators approached the authoring process using the pre-defined format in an inspiring and resourceful way. Children successfully accomplished the technological training and were fast in learning how to use the tool.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The data received so far indicates that a ready-made design format, rather than obstructing, it encourages creativity in its use for developing a storytelling application.
   Take away message -- 1001 Stories package supports the creation of multimedia narratives by providing a ready-made design format, a suggested workflow and an authoring tool that allow content creators to concentrate on the authoring process with no concern for technological constraints.
   Originality/Value -- What makes 1001 Stories innovative as compared to existing tools for fast multimedia creation is that it allows the creation of nonlinear multimedia multi-channel narratives, which support several user-navigation styles, while maintaining the authoring process -- workflow and data entry system -- simple and straightforward.
Developing a tool to support collaborative decision making via visualizations BIBAFull-Text 20
  Laura G. Militello; Drew Bowers; Jesse Walker
Motivation -- To provide visualizations that will support high-level decision makers in leveraging findings from analyses conducted using modelling and simulation techniques.
   Research approach -- Cognitive systems engineering methods were used to examine the decision making process as it exists today, identifying goals, challenges, and information needs at different phases.
   Findings/Design -- Decision makers will be better able to leverage findings from complex modelling and simulation analysis with tools that facilitate improved team communication and depiction of complex multivariate interactions via simplified, targeted visualizations.
   Research limitations/Implications -- This is ongoing work. The strengths and limitations of the design concepts have not yet been assessed experimentally.
   Originality/Value -- The design concepts resulting from this research have the potential to increase the accessibility of findings from complex multivariate analyses. Presenting results from modelling and simulation analyses in the form of actionable findings will likely increase the value of these powerful analytic tools.
   Take away message -- A key challenge to realizing the value of sophisticated modelling and simulation techniques is in creating effective visualizations for communicating complex multivariate relationships. Simple, familiar visualizations may be the most effective.

Collaboration

Elaboration of a common frame of reference in collaborative virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 21
  Amine Chellali; Isabelle Milleville-Pennel; Cédric Dumas
Motivation -- To design virtual environments that support collaborative activities.
   Research approach -- An experimental approach in which 44 students were asked to work in pairs to reconstruct five 3D figures.
   Findings/Design -- The results show that including a contextual clue in virtual environments improves collaboration between operators.
   Research limitations -- Further investigative work must be carried out to extract accurate female collaboration profiles.
   Originality/Value -- The results enable three collaboration profiles to be identified. They also allow the extraction of some characteristics of a contextual clue which can be added to a virtual environment to improve collaboration.
   Take away message -- The contents of a collaborative virtual environment influences the way that users collaborate.
Discomfort, affects and coping strategies in driving activity BIBAFull-Text 22
  Béatrice Cahour
Psychological comfort/discomfort is a global feeling constructed from the affective states which are lived by the users during the activity. This empirical study is about discomfort and emotions lived during all sorts of driving situations, and it is based on "explicitation interviews" and questionnaires.
   The analysis allowed us to specify the categories of uncomfortable situations during driving and their level of discomfort, to develop the underlying cognitive and social sources of discomfort (need of multiple attention; impossible anticipation; loss of control and feeling of un-ability; social image and relation), and to look at how people cope with the disagreeable situations, specifying the different types of coping modes (internal coping, external coping, avoidance).
Combining adaptive automation and adaptive teams in a naval command centre BIBAFull-Text 23
  Tjerk de Greef; Henryk Arciszewski
Motivation -- Adaptive teams and adaptive automation promote a flexible work division between humans mutually and between humans and machine in order to overcome limitations in human information processing under highly variable workloads. We wanted to construct a framework that enables both system-supported adaptability in a team and adaptive automation using the same concept.
   Research approach -- A situated iterative cognitive engineering approach was used to establish a set of requirements for the system support of adaptive teams.
   Findings/Design -- A framework that supports a number of different work allocation schemes can be constructed. The schemes are compared using informal narrative descriptions. The framework accommodates the teams currently used in command centres of naval ships and could aid in the adaptability of such teams.
   Research Limitations/Implications -- This study accommodates the hierarchical teams that are common in defence organisations. A re-evaluation is necessary when the model is applied to other organisations.
   Originality/Value -- The research extends the research on adaptive automation with a team-centred design that uses the same concepts for system and team adaptation.
   Take away message -- Adaptive teams and adaptive automation can be combined into a single framework that uses the same concepts for cooperation between users mutually and between users and system that does not unduly complicate the design of the system algorithms.
Investigating individual trust for collaboration using spider diagram BIBAFull-Text 24
  Xusen Cheng; Linda Macaulay
Trust has been an important issue in influencing the group collaboration. Individual trust is changing in the group collaboration over time. This paper will focus on introducing spider diagram as a useful method to investigate the individual trust development in facilitated collaboration over stages. A sample result and data analysis is given based on a two stage survey using spider diagram and online group support system support.
Multimodal collaborative activity among architectural designers using an augmented desktop at distance or in collocation BIBAFull-Text 25
  Jean-Marie Burkhardt; Françoise Détienne; Linda Moutsingua-Mpaga; Laurence Perron; Stéphane Safin; Pierre Leclercq
Motivation -- To analyse how Augmented Reality associated to video may affect collaborative design and multimodal interactions.
   Research approach -- An exploratory study that aims to compare 2 pairs of last year students in co-presence with 1 distant pair. Each pair had to solve an architectural design problem. Collected video has been coded with a systematic method of protocol analysis.
   Findings/Design -- When using an AR desktop-based CAD, distance may not affect the design process itself whereas it may affect how the process is distributed across the various modalities of collaboration. Furthermore, collaborating and architectural experiences influence collaboration and/or design.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Only 3 pairs of students participated in the study resulting in 12 h of video protocol, which limits generalisation of the findings.
   Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution in providing a detailed view on how external (e.g. situation, technology) and individual factors may affect the activity of collaborative design. Furthermore, we propose a coding method usable beyond design in a wide range of collaborative activities to underline how they are affected by technology and other situational constraints.
   Take away message -- Technology constraints as well as personnal characteristics of designers result in designing with specific forms of multimodal collaboration.

Design methods

Evaluation of systems usability BIBAFull-Text 26
  Paula Savioja; Leena Norros; Leena Salo
Motivation -- Development of complex system interfaces can benefit, in addition to the traditional safety focused evaluation, also from a usability approach to evaluation of system performance. But as the users, the information system, and the controlled process constitute a complex system, the usability evaluation method needs to be extended to cover the systemic aspects of the activity under evaluation.
   Research approach -- The research approach is constructive. By following a control room modernisation case and by conducting evaluations, a method to be used in the evaluation is constructed.
   Findings -- A new construct: Systems Usability is introduced. Systems usability raises usability evaluation from analysing user tasks to the level of analysing user activity. A method to assess systems usability is outlined. Although the construct has been created in nuclear industry, it has relevance also with regard to other complex systems.
   Take away message -- In evaluating complex system user interfaces, such as e.g. in nuclear power plant main control rooms, the whole activity in which the new user interface is adopted needs to be considered.
Experience design for dummies BIBAFull-Text 27
  Evert-Jan R. G. Oppelaar; Elbert-Jan Hennipman; Gerrit C. van der Veer
In this paper we explore the concept of experience and develop premises for the design for experience. In industrial practice designers frequently lack sufficient expertise to design for experience. We provide a view on how to support the design for experience in those cases where a single designer or a design team is not fully equipped to do the job without help. We will illustrate and validate our approach with a design case study from practice.
Rapid and rich prototyping: proof of concepts for experience BIBAFull-Text 28
  Elbert-Jan Hennipman; Evert-Jan R. G. Oppelaar; Gerrit C. van der Veer; Bert Bongers
In this paper we explore a suitable prototyping technique and approach for an experience-oriented design process without the need for rich equipped labs and resources. The key solution lies in 'mixed-fidelity' prototypes with interaction-enabled 'front-ends' and simple 'back-ends'. We illustrate and validate this approach mainly with a student project done by the authors dealing with environmental aware mobile information.

User experience

Video prototyping in human-robot interaction: results from a qualitative study BIBAFull-Text 29
  Dag Sverre Syrdal; Nuno Otero; Kerstin Dautenhahn
Motivation -- Explore and refine qualitative methods of video prototyping in Human-Robot Interaction in order to evaluate user experience of prototype systems.
   Research approach -- An exploratory, scenario based study, in which participants were interviewed following some specific guidelines regarding the interviewing technique.
   Findings/Design -- The results offer insights into how the context of a presented interaction through video impacts on participants' opinions and attitudes towards a particular interaction, and foster a reflection concerning the wider implications of a system.
   Take away message -- The use of evocation in open-ended interviews regarding user experience of video prototypes is a valuable tool for research.
Persuading users to perform follow-on tasks: an initial case study BIBAFull-Text 30
  Martin Colbert; Makayla Lewis; Jarinee Chattratichart; Nalini Edwards
Motivation -- To design ways of attracting users onto Internet sites, which are more persuasive than Banner advertisements, and which maintain the usability of the host site equally well.
   Research approach -- An initial example of a "Follow-on" 'advertisement' is developed in a demonstration domain and tested in a usability laboratory. The key is to ensure that the task promoted by the advertisement is relevant to the task performed on the host site.
   Findings/Design -- The "Follow-on" comprised an invitation to perform a promoted task placed in the navigation area of the final page of a wizard-like host site. The Follow-on was more persuasive than a Banner, and did not reduce the usability of its host site. However, the Follow-on did reduce the credibility of the host site.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Further work is needed to explain the reduction in credibility, and to generalize the approach to commercial domains
   Originality/Value -- Web sites need to attract large numbers of new visitors, but users almost never click through Banner advertisements. Prior to this work, the main alternative was Sponsored Links on search pages.
   Take away message -- To be persuasive and usable, ensure that the promoted task is relevant to the performed task. Other forms of advertising based upon follow-on tasks need to be designed and tested.
The affect of lecturers' attitude on students' use of an online learning environment BIBAFull-Text 31
  Lamis Hammoud; Steve Love; Willem-Paul Brinkman
There has been a dramatic increase in the development of technology-based learning and teaching. Large number of educational institutes are now offering web-based courses. In order to satisfy the needs of these organizations many tools have been developed such as: WebCT and blackboard. The increased use of technology in the teaching and learning process has highlighted the importance of understanding how these technologies improve the learning process. Research in this area is way behind the increase of activity in practice. This study investigates how instructors' attitude toward using WebCT affects students' satisfaction and performance on a web-based course. 131 students from Brunel University participated in this study. Their performance on two WebCT-based modules (referred to as module A and module B in this paper) were observed. A five point Likert scale was used to measure students' attitude toward WebCT for each module. Statistical data about students' activities on WebCT was collected from the WebCT tracking system. Results suggest that lecturers' attitudes towards using WebCT have an impact on students' attitudes to WebCT. Moreover the results show that the lecturers' method of using WebCT also affected students' activities on WebCT. The results of this study suggest more research should be undertaken on the impact of instructional behaviour on students' learning process on web enhanced courses.
Differentiating between novice and expert surgeons based on errors derived from task analysis BIBAFull-Text 32
  David Murphy; Gavin Doherty; Saturnino Luz
Motivation -- To capture the salient aspects of decision making during the Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy procedure to differentiate between novice and expert surgeons. The output of this study is being used in the design of a computer based training system for surgical decision making using serious game technology.
   Research approach -- A series of observations of a range of surgeons performing the Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy procedure was undertaken. These observations included video recordings, audio recordings, and textual observations of the procedures, and subsequent informal interviews. A task analysis was used, focusing on errors, to help identify key differences in expert and novice decision making in the Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy procedure. The occurrence and duration of these errors within video observations are examined.
   Findings/Design -- The observations confirm that there is a clear distinction between novice and expert surgeons both in the rate of occurrence of certain errors and in the duration of errors. While some of the results are surprising they lend support to the utilisation of errors as a measurement of expertise in this domain.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The observations were restricted to one teaching hospital, with a limited pool of surgeons.
   Originality/Value -- This research makes a contribution to the field of computer based training for laparoscopic surgery, and to the differentiation between novice and expert surgeons.
   Take away message -- Task analysis with an emphasis on measurements of error is a viable method for differentiating between novice and expert surgeons in the Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy procedure.

Work, psychology and usability

The effect of effort on responses to binary cues BIBAFull-Text 33
  Assaf Botzer; Joachim Meyer
Motivation -- To address the question how the effort required to obtain task relevant information and the sensitivity of a binary cueing system affect responses to cues in a binary categorization task that is aided by a binary cueing system.
   Research approach -- In a simulated quality control task, participants had to decide whether to discard an item or approve it based on the configuration of light and darker squares in it. In half the experimental blocks they could use cues from a binary cueing system. The experimental conditions differed in the contrast between the light and darker squares in the items and in the sensitivity of the cueing system. At the end of each experimental block participants completed the NASA-TLX questionnaire to assess their perceived workload.
   Findings -- The results showed that lower contrast led to higher perceived effort. However, compliance with the cues and reliance on them were not stronger among participants for whom the task required more effort. In addition, the use of binary cues reduced perceived workload only with the more sensitive binary cueing system.
   Take away message -- The results may suggest that when not overloaded people may prefer to be involved in decisions instead of letting them be strongly guided by an automated device.
Using cognitive task analysis for UI design in surgical work systems BIBAFull-Text 34
  Armin Janß; Wolfgang Lauer; Klaus Radermacher
While the experimental usability-evaluation of interactive systems is getting increasing attention for manufacturers of medical devices, the design engineer has to examine the usability of an envisioned system via the specifications in a very early developmental phase. Within the framework of the BMWi-funded project INNORISK a software tool is currently being developed in order to support the application of prospective usability assessment for complex medical devices, especially for modern surgical work systems. Adapted from two model-based methods, the ConcurTaskTree (CTT) and the CPM-GOMS (Cognitive Perceptual Motor -- Goals Operators Methods Selection Rules) approach, the software tool uses formal, normative models to predict user and system behaviour in order to estimate the usability of a new or re-designed system. It is intended to support the engineer with building these models either manually or automatically and for analysing these models on the basis of different failure taxonomies concerning human error. The software tool shall enable the design engineer to model not only the high- and low-level tasks of the system, the user and the interactions but also the performance shaping factors (PSFs), Human-Human-Interaction and additionally the different levels of cognitive regulations of a user while interacting with a device. On the basis of these investigations the design engineer can then derive potential use errors and design measures for the user interface (UI).
Organizational probes: exploring playful interactions in work environment BIBAFull-Text 35
  Dhaval Vyas; Anton Eliëns; Marek R. van de Watering; Gerrit C. van der Veer
Playfulness, with non-intrusive elements, can be considered a useful resource for enhancing social awareness and community building within work organizations. Taking inspirations from the cultural probes approach, we developed organizational probes as a set of investigation tools that could provide useful information about employees' everyday playful experiences within their work organizations. In an academic work environment, we applied our organizational probes over a period of three weeks. Based on the collected data we developed two design concepts for playful technologies in work environments.
User psychological problems in implementing production control system BIBAFull-Text 36
  Anna Kämäräinen; Pertti Saariluoma
Aim of this study was to analyze user psychological problems in implementing new production control system. Our preliminary results suggest that main user psychological problem is rare use effect and learning.
   Aim of this study was to analyze user psychological problems in implementing new production control system. Our preliminary results suggest that main user psychological problem is rare use effect and learning.

Users' individual differences

Bridging the digital divide for deaf signer users BIBAFull-Text 37
  Inmaculada Fajardo; Julio Abascal; José Juan Cañas
Motivation -- In order to design strategies to overcome deaf signer users' digital divide, the authors portray an overview of some of the cognitive processing characteristics of this type of users during Web information search based on insights gained from the Cogniweb project's empirical research.
   Research approach -- Critical review of 5 experiments on Web Information Search which manipulated system and users' variables.
   Findings/Design -- The results highlight the relevance of 3 cognitive factors as predictors of Web information search efficiency for deaf people: reading skills, verbal categorization abilities and visual-spatial span. Additionally, the results suggest that the usage of textual hyperlinks linked to videos with their Sing Language translations seems to be an efficient Web navigation mechanism for deaf signer users.
   Research limitations/Implications -- A small number of deaf signer users participated in the set of studies, which limited a possible generalisation of the findings.
   Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to the knowledge about how cognitive and systems factors interact and how this knowledge can be used to increase Web information scents for deaf signer people.
   Take away message -- Need of researchers to investigate Sign Language navigation mechanisms as an alternative to overcome the digital divide for users of linguistic minorities like deaf signers.
Measuring personality from keyboard and mouse use BIBAFull-Text 38
  Iftikhar Ahmed Khan; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Nick Fine; Robert M. Hierons
Motivation -- To measure computer users' personality from their use of keyboard and mouse.
   Research approach -- Two explorative studies were conducted. In first study a background application was executed on 20 participants' computers to record keys pressed and mouse clicks on an average of eight days. In a second Study 15 participants' completed a programming task in an hour while a background application recorded keys pressed and mouse clicks. Participants were asked to complete the short form of IPIP-NEO personality inventory afterwards. Pearson correlation analysis was done between participants' behaviour on keyboard, mouse events and personality ratings.
   Findings/Design -- The results suggest that some of the main traits and sub traits of personality can be measured from keyboard and mouse use. Significant correlations were found between personality main traits and sub traits and the use of keyboard and mouse. The maximum and minimum significant correlations were r (20) = 0.62, p <= 0.01 and r (20) = 0.40, p <= 0.05 respectively in first study and were r (15) = 0.7, p < 0.01 and r (15) = 0.51, p <= 0.05 respectively in the second study. Personality trait activity level was found to be significantly correlated with behavioural measure 'standard deviation of average time between events' in both the studies with r (20) = 0.54, p <= 0.05 and r (15) = 0.58, p <= 0.05 respectively
   Research limitations/Implications -- The group of participants in both studies was relatively small. There was about 40% overlap of participants in the studies.
   Originality/Value -- Relatively little research has focussed on personality and behaviour and specifically on the measurement of personality from the user behaviour on keyboard and mouse.
   Take away message -- It might be possible to measure computer users' personality from their use of keyboard and mouse.
Mobile text-entry models for people with disabilities BIBAFull-Text 39
  Tiago Guerreiro; Paulo Lagoá; Hugo Nicolau; Pedro Santana; Joaquim Jorge
Motivation -- To provide suitable mobile text-entry interfaces for the disabled, designed considering their capabilities and needs.
   Research approach -- We analyzed 20 blind users and the difficulties they face with traditional text-entry approaches. We designed a new text-entry method, modelled accordingly to the design guidelines retrieved from the user studies and evaluated in comparison to the traditional approach through user evaluation. The navigation model presented shows to be effective both on keypad and touch screen based devices.
   Findings/Design -- Results show that if the user's limitations and capacities are taken into account, the first approach with the mobile device is subtle and the learning curve is accentuated. In opposite to traditional approaches, the theoretical values are likely to be achieved.
   Research limitations/Implications -- As the available set of target users is limited, the user studies were made with five users per group (3 groups/15 users).
   Originality/Value -- The research presents an innovative text-entry method and its comparison with commonly used methods. We also present a solution to provide text input in touch screen mobile devices for blind users.
   Take away message -- If the interaction is designed with the end users in mind, the best theoretical values are likely to be achieved.