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ECCE Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2013 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:Proceedings of the 31st European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics
Editors:Philippe Palanque; Françoise Détienne; André Tricot
Location:Toulouse, France
Dates:2013-Aug-26 to 2013-Aug-28
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2251-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ECCE13
Papers:33
Links:Conference Website
  1. General considerations
  2. E-learning & education
  3. Coping
  4. Technology for all
  5. Cognitive support
  6. Cognitive & socio-cognitive models
  7. Design & experiences
  8. Learning, monitoring & mobile technology
  9. Workshop
Does airbus training cope with the evolution of the new aircraft generation? BIBAFull-Text 1
  Michael Kalbow
Many frame conditions are changing in the aviation industry. In addition to the general impression, that training and learning is changing from well-known and still frequently applied classroom training to mobile, distributed, individualised and collaborative e-learning in communities, the technology of new aircraft types like A380 and A350 also provide challenges to today's training and learning management in aviation.
   The talk will reflect on the evolution of training in aviation, from "chalk and talk" to e-Learning and Virtual Reality. Current and future challenges for designing training concepts, material and devices will be discussed, moving the human stakeholders -- instructor and trainee -- to the centre of the discussion.
   The specific requirements for training in aviation will be especially highlighted since aviation training is recognised as being one of the most important ways to ensure the highest safety standards in flight and maintenance operations.
Design considerations for tangible and embodied learning BIBAFull-Text 2
  Claire O'Malley
Recent developments in tangible and mobile technologies, including touch screens, sensors embedded in smartphones or other wearable devices, and so on, create potentially very interesting opportunities for forms of learning that combine sensorimotor representations arising from first person physical activity, with visual and auditory digital representations.
   When such technologies are embedded in social situations, they also create interesting representational topologies in which some of the user/learner's actions are observable by others but not necessarily the consequences of their activities in terms of digital representations. So, the shareability of learners' actions and their consequences with peers in collaborative learning contexts is constrained by some of the physical design features of these devices, and what is an advantage for an individual learner (small, personal, portable) can produce trade-offs in terms of opportunities for communication and group learning.
   In this talk I will present an analysis of some of these design constraints in terms of what they might afford for pedagogical design of embodied collaborative learning activities in young children, drawing upon a number of examples from my own and others' work. The analysis will also draw upon a number of theoretical approaches, including distributed cognition, physical distributed learning, embodied cognition and learning, and recent theories in HCI concerning so-called spectator interfaces.

General considerations

From STEM to STEAM: toward a human-centred education, creativity & learning thinking BIBAFull-Text 3
  Guy A. Boy
The 20th century was based on local linear engineering of complicated systems. We made cars, airplanes and chemical plants for example. The 21st century has opened a new basis for holistic non-linear design of complex systems, such as the Internet and air traffic management. Interconnectivity, communication and interaction are major attributes of our evolving society. But, more interestingly, we have started to understand that chaos theory may be more important than reductionism, to better understand and thrive on Earth. Systems need to be investigated and tested as wholes, which requires a cross-disciplinary approach and new conceptual principles and tools. Consequently, schools cannot continue to only teach isolated disciplines based on simple reductionism. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) should also be integrated together with the Arts to promote creativity together with rationalization, and move (back) to STEAM (with an "A" for Arts). This concept shift emphasizes the possibility of longer-term socio-technical futures instead of short-term financial predictions that currently lead to uncontrolled economies. Human-centred design (HCD) can contribute to not only improving education technologies, systems and practices, but also as a discipline offering an integrated approach to learning by doing, expressing and critiquing, exploring possible futures, and understanding complex systems: HCD supports learning thinking.
sCEthics: embedding ethical values in cognitive engineering BIBAFull-Text 4
  Tjerk de Greef; Arvind Mohabir; Ibo van der Poel; Mark Neerincx
Contemporary and future technologies are getting more intelligent and connect easily to one another, potentially leading to conflicts with human ethical values. Value Sensitive Design (VSD) is promising for its focus on ethical values but lacks an explicit and systematical elicitation of requirements, which is targeted explicitly in the situated Cognitive Engineering (sCE) methodology. Therefore, a sCE tool was combined with VSD leading to the sCEthics design methodology that accounts for ethical values in an explicit and systematical way. This entailed implementing five requirements and these were evaluated with eleven participants. The results reveal that the implementation of requirements relating to values, policies and design patterns are seen as useful, but require minor revisions. The extended scenario system was not seen as very useful while both visualization overviews were perceived as extremely useful. These results show that sCEthics serves as a structured and guiding user-centered approach towards the design of ethical intelligent systems.
Semantic work process analysis: a reflexive stakeholder articulation approach BIBAFull-Text 5
  Christian Stary
Developers still frequently fail to meet stakeholder needs due to the lack of human-centred work representations. The resulting lack of understanding among technology providers, responsible authorities, management, and staff requires revisiting work process representations. Semantic work analysis based on Concept Mapping and Value Networks Analysis helps eliciting, elaborating, reflecting, and developing essential elements of a currently perceived towards an envisioned work structure. Rather than referring to other stakeholders it pinpoints individual potential in terms of generated services or products. They are assessed as additional tangible or intangible input to other process participants.

E-learning & education

Impact of project-oriented educational methods on creative design BIBAFull-Text 6
  Nathalie Bonnardel; Sylvain Mazon; Alicja Wojtczuk
Due to current challenges in our society, education in the field of design is increasingly oriented towards work. Thus, the objective of this paper is to contribute to determine ways of favouring creativity in design by providing project-oriented training for design students. In accordance with cognitive models, we proposed and compared two educational methods intended to allow students to focus on either the management of constraints related to the design project at hand or the evocation of creative ideas. A total of 32 design students were trained in one of the two methods and they all had to solve the same design problem. The elements they evoked during the early stages of the design process were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analyses, and the creativity of their final designs was assessed by two design teachers. Results show that the type of method has a significant effect on the ideas and constraints evoked by designers but no correlation was observed between method and design outcome creativity. However, this research shows that it is possible to promote certain ways of thinking in design students and to train them with techniques they can use later on in their professional lives to satisfy the specificities of the design projects they undertake.
Cognitive theory and the design of education to work connection BIBAFull-Text 7
  Bijan Gillani
The current and future health of 21st Century economy depends on how broadly and deeply work and education are interconnected. Education to work connection should enable cognitive development of individuals and teams so that the outcome of education can be directly translated to work environment. Cognitive developmental theories attempt to explain cognitive activities that contribute to students' intellectual development, their long life learning, and solving problems. These are the attributes that one needs to acquire before entering work environments. The author will first briefly present Piaget's cognitive theory and derive a problem solving pedagogy model from it that will support learning that will translate to education to work connection. Second, an example developed by the author and his graduate students will be presented that uses the Web as an appropriate instructional delivery medium to apply Piaget's cognitive theory to create environments that promote the education to work connection.
What learners teach us: e-learning patterns for adult ICT education BIBAFull-Text 8
  Els Rogier; Selene Uras; Gerrit van der Veer
Based on our own experiences in the domain of University level ICT teaching for adult distance learning and blended learning, we develop a vision on design patterns for learning support. We analyze relevant pattern collections for structure as well as reusable content. We categorize learning goals at different levels, and we indicate how patterns may be developed and provided in a framework that enables design to match learning needs in context.
Electronic learning environments: worlds behind screens BIBAFull-Text 9
  Teresa Consiglio; Gerrit C. van der Veer
In an electronic learning environment learners may find a diversity of resources of a generic nature: books in a library, experiences in a laboratory, videos, techniques, or tools. Electronic learning environments should be well structured and devoted to a certain learning domain and a certain type of learning activities, to allow learners to identify the resources and to contribute to the learning experiences of their peers. In this paper we discuss the categorization of the environments from the metaphor of worlds behind screens, and show how three different types each fit different types of learning context and learning goals.

Coping

Coping with the demands of network management by autonomic functionalities and training BIBAFull-Text 10
  Marja Liinasuo; Iina Aaltonen; Hannu Karvonen; Leena Norros; Beatriz Fuentes
Telecommunication has experienced a rapid expansion with a huge increase in the amount of users, content, and utilized technologies. Consequently, the management of telecom networks has become more challenging. In this study, we have investigated what the demands of the domain are from the perspective of the professionals managing the network. Specifically, we have studied how the demands could be coped with by introducing autonomic network management functionalities or advanced training. The study is based on an extensive interview material about the demands of the telecom network management domain. We conclude that the challenges of the domain are originating both from humans and technology and the remedies vary accordingly. Autonomic functionalities and training could, however, mitigate several challenges found in the domain.
A framework for design of an integrated system for decision support and training BIBAFull-Text 11
  Elena Dalinger
This paper introduces a cognitive engineering approach for requirements definition and design of an integrated system for decision support and training for critical situations. Effective decision support and training should be provided not only for predefined, routine work situations, but also for a range of situations, including emergencies and other unanticipated events where decision support can be most valuable. This applies in particular to the case of decision-making in dynamic, complex environments. The design of decision support systems (DSS) should take into account the cognitive demands of decision makers to support them in their work. A DSS that can support a decision maker in critical situations can also be used for training of expertise to handle these critical situations; hence, there can be a large advantage to combining a DSS and training system into one application. A methodological approach for the design of an integrated system for decision support and training was developed using methods from Cognitive Systems Engineering and incorporating the Naturalistic Decision Making approach. A special case of novel or emerging work domains was considered.
Subjective overload: impact of driving experience and situation complexity BIBAFull-Text 12
  Julie Paxion; Edith Galy; Catherine Berthelon
The aim of the present study is to identify when drivers perceive that they are overloaded by an unexpected event, as a function of the situation complexity and their driving practice. The main contribution of this paper to the Cognitive Ergonomics field is that the experimentation allows identifying several factors which show that drivers' activity is not always adapted to unexpected situations. Fifty-seven young drivers (15 novices with a traditional driving education, 12 early-trained novices, 15 drivers with three years of experience and 15 drivers with at least five years of experience) were randomly assigned to three levels of situation complexity (simple, moderately complex and very complex) in a driving simulator. Self-reported levels of workload during unexpected pedestrian crossings were collected by a questionnaire (NASA-TLX) between each situation. Driving performance (reaction time to a pedestrian crossing that suddenly appears; number of collisions with this pedestrian) was also analysed. The experiment assessed the effect of four levels of driving experience and three levels of situation complexity on subjective workload and driving performance. Results confirmed that early-trained drivers have a higher subjective workload than more experienced drivers. Nevertheless, whatever the situation and the group, the increase of workload and RT provoke an increase of the number of collisions. Therefore, the driving automation acquired with experience doesn't allow avoiding accidents when an unexpected event appears. Subjective and physiological data will be compared in a second study in order to identify if drivers' behavior is more based on their state perception or on their physiological change.

Technology for all

Modelling the role of teachers in introducing portable technology to the school curriculum BIBAFull-Text 13
  Elisa Rubegni; Monica Landoni
The wide use of digital technology for educational purposes opens some issues regarding its integration within the school curriculum. In this paper we present a model that illustrates the roles of teachers in transforming digital technology as a resource to develop skills as required in educational curricula. The Teacher Role in Introducing Technology at School -- TRiTS -- model has been conceived by combining relevant literature and findings from a case study that we have been running in a primary school over the last four years. Our research aims to contribute to the current discussion about how mobile/portable technology can be integrated in formal education.
The environment: a source of capabilities for older adults? BIBAFull-Text 14
  Fanny Le Morellec; Margarita Anastassova; Pierre Falzon
This article presents an exploratory study on older adults' mobility. The study was based on both observations in a complex built environment (a university hospital), and on an online questionnaire distributed to people aged 50 and more. The main objective of the two studies presented in this paper was to determine the difficulties encountered by older adults when moving outdoors and indoors. A secondary objective was to investigate the resources used in order to cope with the difficulties. The results shows that the main mobility obstacles for older adults are related, firstly, to the salience of landmarks and the spatial organization of the environment and, secondly, to the age-related decline in physical, sensory and physiological abilities. Our studies show that the main resources to overcome these obstacles are landmarks and personnel support in the hospital and Internet, GPS, plans and maps outdoors.
The influence of haptic feedback on hand movement regularity in elderly adults BIBAFull-Text 15
  Baldassarre D'Elia; Benish Fida; Ivan Bernabucci; Silvia Conforto; Tommaso D'Alessio; Maurizio Schmid
Eight elderly adults and eight young adults were requested to perform circular movements with the hand through a commercial haptic platform, under different conditions in an ecological setting: with visual feedback, and with a force field produced by the machine. Measures of kinematics and movement regularity (maximum velocity, duration, mean square jerk, and its normalized form) were captured to determine the effect of these feedbacks on hand kinematics. In the elderly group, regularity was lower when haptic feedback was given in combination with visual feedback as compared to providing haptic feedback alone. This effect appeared also in the group of young adults, and outlines the possibility that the ability to integrate different feedbacks may need more time to be learned, even if the feedbacks are generated to facilitate movements.
Playing for the planet: designing toys that foster sustainable values BIBAFull-Text 16
  Mary Barreto; Michelle Scott; Ian Oakley; Evangelos Karapanos; Nuno J. Nunes; Sofia Gomes; Joana Gomes
The children of today are the adults of tomorrow, for this reason it is essential to educate this generation about sustainable values, such as recycling and reducing waste and energy consumption. By targeting children's main activity of playing and toys, the design of a toy that instills sustainable values is illustrated through PlayGreen, a prototype of an interactive application. We argue that this type of toy should be designed according to children's cognitive development and their learning skills, as well as conforming to a value centered design process. This paper focuses on Piaget's cognitive development theory, more specifically, the concrete operational stage processes, which occur between the ages of seven and eleven years old. Our prototype is an application focusing on the value of resource management and allows children to create new toys from household materials. This prototype was tested with 8 and 9 year old children via a Wizard of Oz method. The prototype successfully integrated a value related to sustainability and the users were able to manipulate it easily as it was adequate to their cognitive skills.

Cognitive support

Navigating in a virtual environment with model-generated support BIBAFull-Text 17
  Herre van Oostendorp; Saraschandra Karanam
Though the cognitive processes controlling user navigation in virtual environments as well as in websites are similar, cognitive models of web-navigation have never been used for generating support in virtual environment navigation. We created a simulated 3D building of a hospital and presented users various navigation tasks under two conditions: a control condition and a model-generated support condition. Mean task-completion time and disorientation were recorded. It was found that the cognitive model used can simulate the navigation behavior of participants and also that with model-generated support participants took significantly less time to reach their destination and were significantly less disoriented. The impact of providing model-generated support on disorientation was especially higher for users with low spatial ability. We demonstrated that it is possible to generate tools for navigation in virtual environments using cognitive models developed for web-navigation.
An ethical boundary agent to prevent the abdication of responsibility in combat systems BIBAFull-Text 18
  Tjerk de Greef; Alex Leveringhaus
Remote controlled combat systems and future autonomous systems create unprecedented capabilities to control the delivery of military force. However, there is a growing concern, which is only starting to be addressed now, that ethical values are violated as a result of high levels of autonomy and remote control. Before combat technologies can be deployed, we need to ensure that their usage enhances, rather than undermines, human decision-making capacities. To do this, we propose combining the idea of an ethical boundary agent with a partnership approach. The partnership approach is seen as a promising area for improved efficiency in interactive systems. In this paper, we claim that the ethical boundary agent safeguards compliance with implemented legal and moral boundaries. Hypothetically, such an agent prevents human operators from abdicating from their responsibilities. It does this by challenging operators to think critically about whether actions meet relevant ethical standards.
Secrets of the analog operating panels: can they be revealed digitally in the new training simulator BIBAFull-Text 19
  Hanna Koskinen; Jari Laarni
Design of novel interface technologies is challenging especially when the system is to be used in an advanced process control activity. In this paper, we present the design process of a new interactive operating panel system, "Virtual panels," for a training simulator of a Finnish nuclear power station. The Virtual panel concept has been realized as a part of the training simulator's human-system interface by introducing a set of touch-sensitive wall-mounted and table-top displays. The previously used conventional analogue operating panels provided the model for the new digital panel system. The main design aim has been to be able to capture the quality "look and feel" of the old analogue panel system in digital form. Overall, the Virtual panel development has been an invaluable learning experience for the whole multidisciplinary design team, and many innovative solutions but also defensible compromises has needed to be made in order to realize the new digital operating panel system.
Measuring emotions of robot operators in urban search and rescue missions BIBAFull-Text 20
  Tina Mioch; Tinka R. A. Giele; Nanja J. J. M. Smets; Mark A. Neerincx
This paper evaluates the feasibility and reliability of measuring the (emotional) state of the robot operators in urban search and rescue missions in real-time. An experiment has been conducted, in which a high-fidelity team task in a realistic urban search and rescue setting was executed by fire fighters in cooperation with robots. During the task, several emotion-eliciting events were triggered. In addition, the heart rate variability, skin conductance and facial expressions were monitored. After the scenario execution, the fire fighters were asked to describe their emotional state during task execution. We found that the facial expressions were not reliably recognized, but that heart rate variability and skin conductance measured a higher arousal during (some of) the emotion-eliciting events. However, the different measures still have shortcomings regarding use in complex and dynamic environments.

Cognitive & socio-cognitive models

Using the critical incidents technique to explore variables related to users' experience of public transport modes BIBAFull-Text 21
  Elise Grison; Valérie Gyselinck; Jean-Marie Burkhardt
This study aims to achieve a better understanding of the variables that affect the choice of route in public transport. We investigated the experience of 19 users related to public transport, using the critical incident technique. The incidents were collected through interviews. The results show different patterns of route that differ according to the specific contexts (e.g. event(s) surrounding the travel such as the aim, the travel insertion into the activity, etc.). For each context the reasons given for the perceived satisfaction of the route or not, differs. Taking an alternative travel is also dependent of context. It would be preferred in case of a travel back home. These results indicate the importance of the contextual variables in route choice and suggest that these variables should be taken into account in new tools and services for mobility.
Towards a framework for documentation design: an abstract model of computer-mediated activity BIBAFull-Text 22
  Brigit van Loggem
An abstract model is developed of "computer-mediated activity" or CMA. The CMA model is based on the existing literature and describes how people interact with software to fulfil an intention and how, over time, they may achieve full mastery of the software. Academic studies related to the design of user documentation for software are sparse, and no underlying reference framework is available within which design rationale could be expressed. The CMA model is intended as a first step towards the development of such a framework. Its implications for documentation design are discussed and its application is illustrated by describing a number of well-known documentation formats in terms of the model.
Extending procedural task models by systematic explicit integration of objects, knowledge and information BIBAFull-Text 23
  Célia Martinie; Philippe Palanque; Martina Ragosta; Racim Fahssi
Task analysis can be considered as a fundamental component of user centered design methods as it provides a unique way of analyzing in a systematic way users' roles and activities. A widely used way of storing the information gathered during that phase in a structured and exhaustive way is to build task models which are then amenable to verification of properties or to performance evaluation. In widely used notations such as Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) or CTT (Concur Task Tree), information or objects manipulated by the users while performing the tasks does not receive a similar treatment as the sequencing of tasks which is usually carefully and exhaustively described. This paper proposes a systematic account for the various concepts manipulated by the users while performing tasks. Such concepts include different types of knowledge (declarative, situational, procedural and strategic), objects (manipulated by the user) and information. These concepts are systematically represented in a set of extensions of the HAMSTERS notation allowing the analysis of concepts-related properties such as learning curve, complexity, information workload,... We demonstrate the application of the approach on the example of a two players game making explicit the connection between these extended task models and the user interface of the game.
Interactions in an online community in ergonomics: from sharing information to comparing practices? BIBAFull-Text 24
  Flore Barcellini; Catherine Delgoulet; Dominique Fréard; Julien Nelson
The goal of our research is to characterize practices shared in an online community dedicated to ergonomics in order to understand how these online discussions are a means to construct co-elaborated knowledge about ergonomics and its practices. This communication presents a preliminary study of the nature (purpose of interactions, topics) and structure (relations between participants, purposes and topics) of exchanges on Ergoliste, a French speaking online mailing list dedicated to ergonomics. We show that the mailing list is mostly dominated by ergonomists (consultants, ergonomists working in private companies, institutions, students) seeking and sharing resources: information about jobs and resources (documentation, literature, etc.) and experiences about various topics (methodology, trades of ergonomics, specific tools or work settings...). It also opens some prospects for more longitudinal investigations of the contents of the list, to analyze more deeply how the list can be viewed as an efficient tool to co-elaborate knowledge about ergonomics and its development.

Design & experiences

User experience targets as design drivers: a case study on the development of a remote crane operator station BIBAFull-Text 25
  Hanna Koskinen; Hannu Karvonen; Helena Tokkonen
In recent years, the notion of user experience, or UX, as an essential aspect to be addressed in the design and development of technologies has been increasingly discussed. In this paper, we present a case study in which we have used UX targets as the main design drivers and focus areas in developing a new remote operator station user interface for container cranes. UX targets describe the experiential qualities to which the product design should aim at. However, taking UX targets into consideration during product design is challenging, because only little is known about how they would be best operationalized to serve the different phases of the design process. Through our case study, we describe how we identified relevant UX targets, how their content was defined, and how they were implemented into a new remote operator station concept that was then tested and evaluated by expert users.
Mean head and shoulder heights when seated: subconscious postural cycles during discrete computerised stimuli BIBAFull-Text 26
  Harry J. Witchel; Carina Westling; Rob Needham; Aoife Healy; Nachiappan Chockalingam
Discrete, three-minute, computer-presented stimuli (designed to range from engaging to incredibly boring) were used to elicit changes in cognitive/emotional states in seated, healthy volunteers. These stimuli did not require the use of a mouse, so movements were assumed to be non-instrumental. Stimuli included films, games, quizzes and music. Motion capture and video analysis were used to detect changes in head and shoulder position in response to the stimuli. Results include changes occurring between the first half and the second half of each of the main stimuli (i.e. arising in less than one minute as the volunteer "settles in"); in the second half of each stimulus, there were decreases in head height and shoulder height (i.e. position rather than movement). In conclusion, we speculate that non-instrumental changes in head height and shoulder height may suggest loss of vigilance or diminishing arousal in seated computer-users. Our unique contributions are: 1) discrete stimuli, were used on seated volunteers 2) without a mouse, to show that 3) modest (mm) head and shoulder movements in the vertical axis correlated with 4) subtle cyclical changes in boredom, not overall changes in fatigue. Future psychological validation of tutoring systems with discrete stimuli can use these postural parameters as part of a multimodal analysis of engagement.
Journey decision making: the influence of dynamic information presented on variable message signs BIBAFull-Text 27
  Sarah Sharples; Sally Shalloe; Gary Burnett; David Crundall
In many highways environments electronic media are increasingly being used to provide drivers with up-to-date information in order to influence driving decision making. These decisions may be associated with strategic choices, such as route selection, or tactical decisions, such as driving at a certain speed, or altering driving style.
   This paper presents a study that used two methods -- a scenario approach and a simulator study. This provides an insight into the role of information and other contextual influences in decision making in the driving context specifically, but also has useful implications for the way in which information should be designed in other decision making contexts such as travel using public transport or supporting real-time complex control operations. The use of two methods also enabled cross-study comparisons to be made, thus improving overall confidence in conclusions. The paper highlights the role of familiarity with information wording and context, level of detail, interpreted meaning, previous experience and contextual cues on trust in information and consequently behaviour in response to the information presented.
Towards resilient adaptive socio-technical systems BIBAFull-Text 28
  Marc Werfs; Gordon Baxter
Today's socio-technical systems (STSs) are more open to their external environment than ever before. There are now so many more technologies to connect to at all levels of the system. As the environment (and the tools and technologies within it) changes more often and rapidly, so do STSs. Simultaneously, the nature of work has changed as these technologies have become more widespread and increasingly sophisticated and connected. Adaptive socio-technical systems provide a systemic approach to describe this changing world. These systems are needed to deal with the constant flux in systems and organizations that is partly due to disruptive technologies. We describe why we need adaptive STSs, noting the potential downside to adaptation. Organizations can remain resilient by using sensitization and constructive engagement to exploit the opportunities provided by adaptive STSs. We are starting to compile a set of characteristics that can be used to define adaptive STSs with a view to identifying ways to make systems and organizations more adaptive, while still maintaining resilience.

Learning, monitoring & mobile technology

Mobile applications for incident reporting systems in urban contexts: lessons learned from an empirical study BIBAFull-Text 29
  Cédric Bach; Regina Bernhaupt; Caio Stein D'Agostini; Marco Winckler
Many governments are now promoting the use of mobile applications allowing citizens to report incidents in their neighborhood to the administration. Such applications are sought to sense the quality of the environment thus enabling authorities to promote safety and well-being among citizens. However, little is known about how users perceive incident reporting systems and which factors affect the user experience (UX) and the perception of risk. In this paper we present some lessons learned from an empirical study involving twenty users engaged in reporting urban incidents using a mobile application. A significant result from the present study is to point out how and which UX dimensions can be effectively used as triggers to motivate users to report incidents. Based on citizens' perception of urban incidents, we discuss how to build innovative incident reporting systems that can improve the communication between citizens and administrations.
Supporting learning within the workplace: device training in healthcare BIBAFull-Text 30
  Ioanna Iacovides; Anna L. Cox; Ann Blandford
The phrase "lifelong learning" places emphasis on the fact that learning continues beyond the classroom and formal educational environments, though it is often supported by training within the workplace. Continued professional development is particularly important within the context of healthcare, where technology is constantly evolving and errors run the risk of causing serious harm to patients. This paper considers the case of infusion device training within UK hospitals. Interviews were carried out with staff involved in medical device training and management across seven National Health Service trusts. The analysis indicates the range of training provided by different institutions and highlights important issues that influence how users develop their understanding of these devices. Further, the research indicates that while there is an increasing interest in e-learning as a way to overcome some of the challenges trainers face in relation to time and resources, there are also significant concerns which need to be addressed when considering this approach.
Understanding challenges and opportunities of preventive blood pressure self-monitoring at home BIBAFull-Text 31
  Erik Grönvall; Nervo Verdezoto
The herein presented study explores socio-technical complexities that may occur when introducing preventive health-measurement technologies in older adults' daily routines and everyday lives. Using mainly blood pressure measurements in private homes, the study applied qualitative and quantitative methods to understand existing challenges and uncover opportunities of self-monitoring technologies to support preventive healthcare activities among older adults. Emerging challenges from our study were: rule complexity for self-measuring, reliability of measurements, interpretation, understanding and health awareness, the sharing activity for prevention, motivational sources, the role of the doctor for prevention, older adult's use of technology, the home as a distributed information space, and visualization of health data. An awareness of these challenges can help designers to develop better tools to support people's preventive self-monitoring needs compared with existing solutions. Furthermore, supporting the active and informed citizen can improve older adult's care abilities, awareness and activation towards preventive care.
The MoLE project: an international experiment about mobile learning environment BIBAFull-Text 32
  Marie-Hélène Ferrer; Jacob Hodges; Nathalie Bonnardel
This paper aims to present an international project, called the MoLE Project, which provided learning resources and tools for personnel in disaster or emergency situations. Thus, it illustrates the interpenetration of e-Learning and field workers with a variety of roles (medical professionals, eLearning, commercial, government and NGO), from five continents. The objective of this two-year project was to determine how to provide training or education in areas with low-bandwidth and limited Internet connectivity and infrastructure. It involved a management team, a science & technology coordinator and three working groups including members from 25 countries. These working groups were about medical content, technology & transition, and testing & evaluation.
   The project was conducted in two periods: the first one corresponding to the development of a mobile app, called "Global MedAid", and the second corresponding to the evaluation of this experimental application. This project answered questions regarding the effectiveness of using mobile devices to support multinational training and education requirements. The results showed that mobile devices could be practical and effective in such contexts. Indeed, they have benefits in providing training when coupled with other contents, such as videos and checklist. The project also demonstrated that mobile training applications are appropriate where there is an inability to train and communicate due to low-bandwidth, limited Internet connectivity and infrastructure challenges.

Workshop

Ergonomics of dependable and of safety critical systems BIBAFull-Text 33
  Eliezer Kantorowitz
System failures are in some applications (e.g., banking) difficult to accept and have resulted in the development of highly dependable systems. A special class of these systems regards the safety critical systems, whose operation involves risks for the health or the life of humans (e.g., air traffic control systems). This workshop considers the design of the user interfaces of such systems. Some of these user interfaces must enable coping with cognitively demanding situations. The workshop will, in addition, consider the process of designing these systems. The possibly most difficult part of the design regards the attempt to identify all the possible critical cases. This may require the participation of different kinds of experts and employing methods designed for uncovering difficult-to-detect critical cases. The design of dependable systems may thus involve a most demanding kind of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW).