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ECCE Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2012 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:Proceedings of the 30th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics
Editors:Phil Turner; Susan Turner
Location:Edinburgh, Scotland
Dates:2012-Aug-28 to 2012-Aug-31
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1786-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ECCE12
Links:Conference Website
  1. Decision support
  2. I like driving in my car
  3. Work
  4. Cognition I
  5. Six, slick shorts
  6. Design
  7. Even more cognition
  8. The final session
  9. Posters
  10. Doctoral papers

Decision support

Towards value-focused decision support systems BIBAFull-Text 1-7
  Alina Pommeranz; Pascal Wiggers; Catholijn M. Jonker
Motivation -- To support people in taking life-decisions in an informed way by reflecting on their values.
   Research approach -- A user-centred mixed methods approach. (1) a prototype was built based on expert advice; (2) the prototype was used in participatory user studies to elicit design considerations; (3) sketches based on the considerations were tested in a user survey.
   Findings/Design -- We present five design guidelines that were derived from the participatory design study and the online survey.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Only four participants took part in the participatory study, which may have led to a limited set of design considerations.
   Originality/Value -- Designing value-focused decision support systems and, in specific, tools for value-reflection is under-explored in HCI. Our guidelines raise awareness of this important area of research. Our results are also relevant for value sensitive design.
   Take away message -- When designing digital support for value-reflection, it is crucial to consider (1) uniqueness of each user, (2) trust in the system, (3) adjustable levels of guidance, (4) emotional triggers and (5) integration with social networks.
Rethinking collaborative decision making across distributed work communities in complex work settings BIBAFull-Text 8-14
  Nallini Selvaraj; Bob Fields
Motivation -- The motivation has been a recent shift in perception of decision making from an individual mental process to one that locates cognition within a rich ecology of social processes. The research aims to make theoretical contribution to this shift which would clarify and extend the current notion of decision making in real world collaborative work settings.
   Research approach -- Three phases of field studies were conducted to explore collaborative decision making taking place during everyday work practices of Airport Air Traffic Control Operations. The studies involved conducting observation and interviews with air traffic controllers in the Control Tower and Operations Centre of an airport. This was supplemented with other forms of data including organizational documents, audio recordings, and photographs. Data collection and analysis was founded on Grounded Theory Methodology.
   Findings/Design -- Four Patterns of Collaborative Decision Making emerge from the Grounded Theory analysis. They are: Sequential Decision Making, Mutually Consented Decision Making, Manipulative Decision Making, and Emergent Decision Making. These patterns characterise the ways in which decisions are made collaboratively during everyday work practices and depicts the situated, distributed, embedded, and embodied nature of decision making in a collaborative work setting.
   Research limitations -- Collaboration between multiple work communities involved in Airport ATC operations is studied only from the Control Tower and Operations Centre in one medium sized airport in the UK. Understanding of other various work community's involvement in the work process is with respect to the operations taking place in these two control centres. This limits the findings to be based on exploration of one Airport ATC operations and two of the multiple work communities operating collaboratively.
   Originality/Value -- The research makes theoretical contribution to the recent shift in perception towards decision making from a purely mental activity to one that is situated, embedded, and embodied in the sociality of work.
   Take away message -- This study presents decision making activity as not just choice points to make a selection but as a fluid, momentary, and cumulative activity which is dissolved and incarnated in the various actions and interactions taking place during everyday work activities.
Toward a situated cognition approach to design: effect of emotional context on designers' ideas BIBAFull-Text 15-21
  Nathalie Bonnardel; Laurence Moscardini
Motivation -- Our main objective was to explore the effect of context on designers' creative activities, especially on the emergence of sources of inspiration or ideas. In addition, we wished to suggest educational exercises and new computational systems aimed at stimulating creativity in design.
   Research approach -- Thirty-two professional designers were asked to individually design a new product according to a design brief. The design context consisted of images featuring a combination of two experimental factors: emotions and distance from the object to be designed.
   Findings/Design -- Results showed that it is possible to favour the evocation of sources of inspiration by professional designers. More specifically, the context conveying positive emotions and allowing designers to extend their idea search space significantly favoured the emergence of creative designs.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Only professional designers took part in this study. Thus, the positive impact of context was observed in participants who were already very knowledgeable about design.
   Originality/Value -- The present study helps to identify the contextual characteristics that favour creative design, notably by exploring the impact of emotions. In addition, our results suggest new directions for developing teaching methods as well as computational systems aimed at stimulating creativity in design.
   Take away message -- A context that conveys positive emotions stimulates the emergence of creativity. The beneficial effect of context is even greater when it combines positive emotions with examples that are at a remove from the object to be designed.

I like driving in my car

Using an electric car: a situated, instrumented and emotional activity BIBAFull-Text 22-28
  Béatrice Cahour; Claudine Nguyen; Jean-François Forzy; Christian Licoppe
Motivation -- The objective of the study was to specify how drivers deal with the autonomy of their car, be it traditional or electric, how they plan the recharge and how they check it while driving.
   Research approach -- For the first part of the study on traditional cars use, we conducted 14 in-depth interviews and 344 questionnaires were filled. For the second part of the study on electric cars use, we lend an electric car to 9 subjects during two weeks; they filled a diary and videotaped the interesting events during the driving activity. Then they had 3 self-confrontation interviews to document their lived experience, based on the video and on the diaries.
   Findings/Design -- People may have various emotional relations to the risk of breakdown, and it influences their activity and how they deal with the risky situations, especially in terms of anticipative conduct, reflexive instruments interpretation and avoidance.
   Research limitations -- Qualitative study of VE use with 9 subjects
   Originality/Value -- The research highlights the link between cognitive and affective aspects of situated activities.
   Take away message -- the management of a risk depends on the affective relation to this risk, on the degree of uncertainty and on the instruments available to cope with it.
Conceptual and methodological tools for analyzing situations of vulnerability on the road: examples from a motorcycle riding study BIBAFull-Text 29-36
  Samuel Aupetit; Jacques Riff; Virginie Gallier; Stéphane Espié
Motivation -- This paper presents some theoretical and methodological tools that help to identify and analyze "situations of vulnerability" for drivers.
   Research approach -- This study refers to "Course-of-Action Centred Design" that highly considers the situational aspects of activity to improve situations.
   Findings -- Examples have been drawn from a field study of the "situations of vulnerability" of novice motorcyclists in real world with a view to improving initial training in France.
   Research limitations -- The main limitation of the proposed methodology is the limited number of subjects due to the complexity of the data collection.
   Take away message -- The concept of "situation of vulnerability" provides an alternative to the concepts of "vulnerable road user" and "accident situation" which are conventionally used in transport research, and which have limitations for ergonomics research.
Enhancing the user experience of the crane operator: comparing work demands in two operational settings BIBAFull-Text 37-44
  Hannu Karvonen; Hanna Koskinen; Jaakko Haggrén
Motivation -- To understand the different crane operation experiences by analysing the work demands in both conventional and remote operation settings. On the basis of this analysis, we aim to find out ways to enhance the operator's experience of sense of control and feeling of presence when operating remotely.
   Research approach -- We conducted qualitative field studies in two different operating environments. The studies were based on the Core-Task Analysis method and included altogether 12 operator interviews and observations.
   Findings -- The results suggest that remote operation brings more uncertainty factors to the operator's work, whereas in the conventional cabin operation setting there is a stronger emphasis on dynamism. Based on the field studies, two user experience targets -- sense of control and feeling of presence -- were chosen and the design implications of these user experience targets for the development of a new remote operation station were elaborated. We suggest that in the design of remote crane operation solutions special attention should be paid for example to the creation of a comprehensive and coherent operating view as well as the development of a rich and realistic feel of operation.
   Take away message -- Remote crane operation system should provide the operator with an enriched hands-on experience to the crane on the field.


Human operator trust in autonomic functionalities BIBAFull-Text 45-51
  Marja Liinasuo; Hannu Karvonen; Iina Aaltonen; Beatriz Fuentes; Alfonso Castro
Motivation -- To shed light on the conceptions of human network operators about autonomic functionalities and the determinants of trust regarding future autonomic networks.
   Research approach -- An interview study with 33 human operators at non-managerial level was performed. The interview consisted of 19 questions related to various aspects of autonomic functionalities.
   Findings/Design -- Several components of trust and distrust for autonomic functionalities were found. Distrust based on assumed failure of the functionalities was the most prominent negative feature. The possibility to concentrate on more demanding tasks was the most surprising positive feature.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Only 33 human operators from two telecom companies participated in the study, which limits the possible generalisation of the findings.
   Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to the scarce amount of publications on human aspect in telecommunication domain.
   Take away message -- Trust-related factors can be used for identifying and extracting general requirements for future tools from the user point of view.
Understanding maintenance activities in a macrocognitive work system BIBAFull-Text 52-57
  L. Macchi; P. Oedewald; M. H. Rø Eitrheim; C. Axelsson
Motivation -- To illustrate a theoretical framework as well as three methods applied for describing how maintenance activities are actually carried out in a nuclear power plant, for understanding their local rationale and for evaluating their possible effects on system safety.
   Research approach -- Based on document analysis, interviews, field observations, and workshops Organisational Core Task modelling, Functional Resonance Analysis Method, and the analysis of trade-offs and goal conflicts have been applied to understand maintenance activities in nuclear power plants.
   Findings/Design -- Each method sheds light on specific aspects of maintenance activities performed during outages. Their combination provides insight about what maintenance activities actually are, and about the reasons for maintenance activities being performed in the manner they are actually performed.
   Take away message -- An innovative approach is needed to support safe and efficient maintenance activities.
Functional situation models in analyses of operating practices in complex work BIBAFull-Text 58-64
  Paula Savioja; Leena Norros; Leena Salo
Motivation -- In safety critical work it is common to evaluate human activity based on the concrete outcomes it produces. But, in order to understand more thoroughly the possible implications for safety, also profound perspectives concerning the mechanisms producing the outcome are needed. In this paper we introduce a model of control situations that connects human actions with the purposes rising from the domain. This model, labelled functional situation model (FSM) enables analysis of operating activity from the perspective of way of acting i.e. work practice. Analysis of work practices complements the analysis of outcome of activity (e.g. task completeness, errors, time). The aim is to promote adoption of resilient work practices by analysing which ways of acting in a given situation are aiming for the general objective of safety.
   Research approach -- Research approach is constructive: a formative modelling technique has been created which draws from theoretical roots of functional domain modelling. The exploitation of the models in analyses of operating activity draws from the pragmatist conception of habit.
   Design -- A FSM denotes a control situation from the point of view of critical functions which are endangered in a situation. The human actions are also depicted in the model, and connected to the critical functions which are aimed to maintain.
   Implications -- The practical implication of an FSM is that it enables analyses (and evaluation) of operating practices and characterisation of them according to how they take the critical functions and the general objectives of the domain into account.
   Take away message -- Resilience in operating practice assumes that actors are able to make the connection between situational goals of actions and the general objectives of the domain. FSM makes this connection explicit and thus enables analyses of resilience features in practices.
The ironies of automation: still going strong at 30? BIBAFull-Text 65-71
  Gordon Baxter; John Rooksby; Yuanzhi Wang; Ali Khajeh-Hosseini
Motivation -- Bainbridge highlighted some of the ironies of automation 30 years ago and identified possible solutions. Society is now highly dependent on complex technological systems, so we assess our performance in addressing the ironies in these systems.
   Research approach -- A critical reflection on the original ironies of automation, followed by a review of three domains where technology plays a critical role using case studies to identify where ironies persist.
   Findings/Design -- The reliability and speed of technology have improved, but the ironies are still there. New ironies have developed too, in cloud computing where the cheaper cost of computing resources can lead to systems that are less dependable when developers bypass company procedures.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The work relies on published or reported cases. This makes it difficult to precisely determine how widespread the issues are.
   Originality/Value -- The research re-iterates the importance of the need to regularly consider the ironies of automation in systems development so that we can mitigate against any potential adverse consequences.
   Take away message -- The more we depend on technology and push it to its limits, the more we need highly-skilled, well-trained, well-practised people to make systems resilient, acting as the last line of defence against the failures that will inevitably occur.

Cognition I

Bridging the analytical gap between distributed cognition and actor network theory using a tool for information trajectory analysis BIBAFull-Text 72-77
  Stuart Moran; Keiichi Nakata; Satoru Inoue
Motivation -- Distributed Cognition (DCog) and Actor-Network Theory (ANT) are two related perspectives which can be adopted when studying the relationship between humans and artefacts in collaborative environments. Although these perspectives share similar principles, how these analyses complement each other is not well explored. This paper investigates how TITAN, an information trajectory analysis tool, can be used to gain new insights by bridging the analytical gap between them.
   Research approach -- This bridging can be achieved through the shared principles of generalised symmetry, information trajectories, actant associations and the ANT concept of punctualisation.
   Findings/Design -- We observed that while conceptual differences remain, a DCog analysis can provide a basis for a further ANT analysis when supported by TITAN.
   Originality/value -- While some research has discussed the similarities and differences between DCog and ANT, to the best of our knowledge, none has explored how to support the use of them together in practice. TITAN provides a new analytical perspective, which may benefit researchers who adopt DCog, ANT and other similar approaches.
   Take away message -- TITAN can provide a means to support a DCog analysis leading into an ANT analysis.
Poetry in motion: appropriation of the world of apps BIBAFull-Text 78-84
  Susanne Bødker; Ellen Christiansen
Motivation -- This study was motivated by an interest in understanding the new opportunities brought to use by App technologies available on mobile devices. In our qualitative analysis of interview data we used the concept of 'appropriation', and in doing so we realized that we needed to address both individual and social appropriation.
   Research approach is a hermeneutic interpretation of data from interviews with 12 iPhone users triangulated with models of appropriation, theories of micro and macro level appropriation, and the concept 'expansive learning'
   Findings/Design -- Through use, idiosyncratically and in collaboration with others, people make the iPhone and its App-world their own to the extent that they use the phone as a port to exercising personal interests like poetry, Italian novels, planning and cookbooks; hence the title of this paper. A closer look shows that in doing so, the interviewees have expanded their scope of what activity is enabled by their iPhone.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Despite being an explorative study addressing only Danish users of iPhones and Apps, our findings suggest to take seriously the expansion of users' scope of activity and abandon the idea that use can be predicted.
   Originality/Value -- This paper presents a new conceptualization of context of use. The presented analysis of data opens a window to the transitions that users undergo, alone and together in order to make the iPhone their own. A particular focus is how the iPhone and its Apps support or hinder the artefact to become a personal access-point to the world of Apps.
   Take away message -- The paper presents findings, which indicate that appropriation takes place at two levels, first at the social, and then at the individual level. This pattern is parallel to that of learning in general. The conclusion we draw from this finding is that expansion must be also a social process where you learn by constructing a new activity.
Outlining epistemic interaction BIBAFull-Text 85-91
  Phil Turner
Motivation -- How can we account for the apparent easy with which we cope with the wide range of digital technology and the complex knowledge-rich environments we encounter everyday? An answer to this is that we rely a variety of fixes, workarounds (and so forth) which we may collectively describe as epistemic interaction. We employ epistemic interaction to scaffold our goal-driven, pragmatic behaviour.
   Research approach -- Evidence for epistemic interaction has been gathered from a wide range of published accounts, not least of which is the related work in cognitive science, human computer interaction and Computer Supported Cooperative Work. We also illustrate an aspect of epistemic interaction with two short vignettes from a larger study.
   Findings/Design -- Potentially the implications of this work are important to the ways in which we design and evaluate digital technology. If the epistemic aspects of our daily use of digital technology is as significant as we suspect, then perhaps we should be explicitly designing for epistemic interaction.
   Research limitations/Implications -- This is a first attempt to identify and describe this form of interaction. So far it is based on a critical synthesis of substantial and diverse findings but it does require focussed empirical investigation to develop fully the concept and its applicability to everyday coping with technology.
   Originality/Value -- The research makes a novel contribution to our understanding of how we use digital technology on an everyday basis.
   Take away message -- epistemic interaction is a lightweight account of how we deal with the complexity of the technology and situations we encounter. It is intended to encompass the roles of external representation, appropriation, abduction and a range of other mechanisms.
   Epistemic Interaction is a much more practically accessible concept than distributed and extended cognition to which it is related.

Six, slick shorts

Keep your heads down!: ignored features of driver assistance systems can influence drivers' responses BIBAFull-Text 92-95
  Birte Moeller; Christian Frings
Motivation -- To determine the effect, ignored features in warning displays can have on drivers' performance.
   Research approach -- In an experimental setup, participants (N=36) completed two tasks simultaneously. A continuous tracking task simulated driving requirements, while foot pedal presses simulated braking in response to the colour of warning displays. The warning displays contained relevant (i.e., the colour) and ignored features. They could be presented in a head-up or a head-down manner.
   Findings/Design -- The results suggest that responses shown at an earlier encounter of the warning display can be facilitated by the repeated presentation of an ignored feature of the warning. This effect was found for head-up but not for head-down setups.
   Research Implications -- Ignored features of a warning display influences drivers' performance only if the display is presented in a head-up manner.
   Originality/Value -- The findings evidence for the first time that responses can be retrieved by ignored stimuli in a dual task situation. The research demonstrates the need for designers to consider also the influence of ignored features of advanced driver assistance systems on drivers' reactions.
   Take away message -- Ignored features of driver assistance systems can influence drivers' responses and should be carefully considered in the design of head-up display warnings.
Cognitive resilience: can we use Twitter to make strategies more tangible? BIBAFull-Text 96-99
  Dominic Furniss; Jonathan Back; Ann Blandford
Motivation -- Cognitive resilience is ability to identify and implement strategies that minimise the likelihood or consequences of cognitive slips. Identifiable strategies need naming to make this phenomenon more tangible. This vocabulary will help people reason about and study strategies with similar characteristics.
   Research approach -- We analysed 49 reports of resilience strategies from Twitter to see whether a set of coherent strategies could be identified.
   Findings/Design -- Seven groups of resilience strategies were identified. However, the interrater reliability score in allocating reports to these categories was only moderate. We report lessons learnt from both the content and the process of this exercise.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The 49 tweets are limited in description and have few unique contributors. However, the data serves as a proof of concept and provides insight for cognitive resilience.
   Originality/Value -- This moves towards having an analytic apparatus to think about and discuss episodes of cognitive resilience. We propose seven classes of resilience strategy.
   Take away message -- Cognitive strategies are developed to remain resilient against human error. We can identify and name strategies that share similar characteristics to make this phenomenon more tangible.
Hypercube algebra: a diagrammatic and sentential notation to support inferences in logic BIBAFull-Text 100-104
  Thierry Morineau
Motivation -- Our objective was to design a Boolean algebra allowing both a diagrammatic and sentential representation of logical propositions in an intuitive manner. The purpose of this notation is to support inferential activity without heavy deductive procedure to follow.
   Research approach -- This research is founded on the notions of logical space proposed by Wittgenstein and of hypercube proposed by Pólya.
   Findings/Design -- Complex propositions in propositional logic can be depicted by hypercube within a coordinate system, and by sequences of lexical symbols allowing operations on hypercube with more than three dimensions.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Empirical studies are now required to validate the intuitiveness of this notation. Its scope of application must also be delimited.
   Originality/Value -- Contrary to classical diagrammatic notations based on Euler topological diagrams in logic, the hypercube algebra involves a coordinate-based representation combining diagrams and lexical symbols. This is a new form of notation.
   Take away message -- Rather than the format, the important variables in designing a representational system are those specifying the cognitive activity induced, e.g. straightforward inferences, abstraction level of symbols.
Some effects of increasing external constraint rules on design performance in a timetabling task BIBAFull-Text 104-107
  Victoria Smy; John Patrick
Motivation -- To take steps towards identifying how the number of explicit external constraints may affect performance in a constraint satisfaction task, here timetabling design.
   Research approach -- Thirty-seven psychology students, with no/little formal design training took part in a computer-based experiment wherein they completed three timetabling designs. Tasks varied in the number of external constraints implemented by varying the number of rules applicable to each task. Performance measures included number of successful class placements, task completion times and number of constraint violations during problem solving.
   Findings -- The results suggest that having a greater number of rules/constraints is associated with poorer design performance.
   Originality/Value -- The research provides some initial quantitative evidence in an area of design problem solving, specifically constraint satisfaction, in which there is a shortage of human-centred research.
   Take away message -- Increasing the number of external constraints reduces design performance.
A distributed cognition model for analysing interruption resumption during infusion administration BIBAFull-Text 108-111
  Atish Rajkomar; Ann Blandford
Motivation -- Nurses in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are interrupted frequently, and they often employ strategies involving artefacts during task resumption. Improving the design of artefacts can help nurses resume from interruptions correctly, mitigating chances of incorrect resumptions leading to patient harm.
   Research Approach -- A Distributed Cognition (DC) approach was used, based on the Distributed Information Resources Model, which explicitly considers resources for action represented by artefacts.
   Findings/Design -- To model interactions between a nurse and artefacts throughout a task in terms of distributed resource representations that can support interruption resumption, we propose a Temporal Resources Model.
   Research limitations/Implications -- This work focused on developing a theoretical model. Future work should apply the model at a more realistic level of granularity.
   Originality/Value -- The contribution of this paper is a new model that allows the analysis of interruption resumption from a DC perspective.
   Take away message -- By modelling resources represented by artefacts during a task, opportunities for improving artefact design to better support interruption resumption and reduce cognitive load can be identified.
Visualising zones of collaboration in online collective activity: a case study in Wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 112-115
  Dominique Fréard; Flore Barcellini; Françoise Détienne; Matthieu Quignard; Michael Baker; Alexandre Denis
Motivation -- This research aims to study the collective activity involved in co-elaborating knowledge objects in online communities, in this case, Wikipedia.
   Research approach -- We propose the design of a graph visualisation for studying communicating around shared task foci in collaborative editing of Wikipedia.
   Findings/Design -- Task foci of edits and interpersonal relations between participants shape a unified task structure that can be used to study subtasks that give rise to collaborative discussion, within the global collective process.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Our analysis is restricted to the editing process of a single article.
   Originality/Value -- We propose visualisation techniques of collective online activity using combinations of relations between task and discussion spaces.
   Take away message -- Online collective epistemic activity comprises alternation between decoupled action and zones of close collaboration between specific specialised participants, in relation to specific subtasks bearing on fundamental issues. This can be visualised across task and discussion spaces using specific techniques.


A study on the mediation of students' activities by digital material BIBAFull-Text 116-123
  Anke Dittmar; Romy Dumke
Motivation -- We aim to make visible, and understand, students' appropriation of digital course material.
   Research approach -- Artefact use was traced and ethnographic interviews conducted throughout one lecture period. Activity Theory guided the analysis.
   Findings/Design -- The study shows the diverse use of digital artefacts as part of a multiple mediation of students' activities at different levels. Possible uses are described that reveal how students develop agency.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Details of artefact use within lectures were not observed directly. The number of participants is small and limited to one specific university. A descriptive analysis is provided.
   Originality/Value -- Few studies have included a broader picture of students' activities in their analysis of digital artefact use in higher education.
   Take away message -- There is no perfect course (material) for everyone. Students' material use has to be understood in the context of their network of activities.
Exploration of facilitation, materials and group composition in participatory design sessions BIBAFull-Text 124-130
  Alina Pommeranz; Ulas Ulgen; Catholijn M. Jonker
Motivation -- To investigate how facilitation, material and group composition influence creativity in and outcomes of participatory design sessions.
   Research approach -- Several participatory design workshops were held with end-users and designers. Different materials were used to trigger creativity. Analysis of effects of group facilitation, material and composition was based on observational notes, prototypes and interview data.
   Findings/Design -- (1) Specific allocation of time for breaks and questions are useful. Examples or prototypes tied into the explanation of the domain and design challenge support the participants' understanding. (2) Paper prototypes are useful for non-designers to trigger creativity and allow for interaction between the group members while creating new prototypes. (3) Groups should be composed to contain a domain expert, designer and end-users as well as someone taking the role of a moderator leading the group work.
   Research limitations/Implications -- We did not follow a strictly conditional experiment set-up with our sessions. For an in-depth and systematic analysis of influencing factors a rigid set-up is advised.
   Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to an investigation of factors influencing the process and outcome of participatory design sessions.
   Take away message -- To allow for creativity and collaboration, participatory design sessions need to be set-up with care. Summarizing, groups should be composed of end-users, designers, domain experts and have a designated moderator. Prototypes are useful in the briefing, and should be provided to each group as paper versions to be used in the creative process. The researcher has the crucial task of facilitating the session, allowing enough time for questions and breaks and adapt explanations to the knowledge of the participants.
Soundscapes and repertory grids: comparing listeners' and a designer's experiences BIBAFull-Text 131-137
  Iain McGregor; Phil Turner
This paper reports on establishing whether listeners have the same listening experience as the person who designed the sound. Surprisingly, there is little or no evidence as to whether what is designed to be heard is what is actually heard. The study reported here is a qualitative study into these two experiences.
   Research approach -- A repertory grid technique was adopted using listener and designer generated constructs. One designer and 20 listeners rated 25 elements within a surround sound recording created by a soundscape generative system. The listeners' modal response was compared to the designer's.
   Findings/Design -- The results suggest that it is perfectly feasible to compare designers and listeners experiences and to establish points of agreement and disagreement.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Only UK-based university students and staff participated in the study, which limited generalisation of the findings.
   Originality/Value -- Demonstrates an ontology of sound based on user experience rather than designer's whim. This approach is based upon long-term experiences and our conceptualisation of sound
   Take away message -- Comparing listeners' experiences could allow designers to be confident with their sound designs.

Even more cognition

Studying interaction with documentation: methodological lessons learned in two semi-naturalistic designs BIBAFull-Text 138-143
  Brigit van Loggem
Semi-naturalistic research designs allow for studying behaviour in a realistic setting, achieving a fair degree of ecological validity without the disadvantages of purely naturalistic designs. A semi-naturalistic study sets boundaries for the behaviour under investigation, within which respondents still act freely. In order to allow for between-subjects comparisons, the raw data obtained must be structured, either through pre-structuring or through post-structuring.
   Motivation -- There exists little methodological guidance in the field of documentation design. Qualitative and quantitative studies alike are carried out using an amalgam of methods that were developed for other disciplines. This paper contributes to awareness of the pitfalls (but also the benefits) of doing so.
   Research approach -- This paper considers two semi-naturalistic studies into interaction with software and documentation from a methodological point of view. In the first, the data was collected in the respondents' workplace and then post-structured. In the second, the data was collected in a laboratory setting and pre-structured through the use of an observation tool.
   Findings/Design -- Both methods are described in some detail, followed by a discussion of methodological issues discovered after the design had been executed. Finally, the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are highlighted.
   Take-away message -- Documentation design can fruitfully combine methodological approaches originally developed for other disciplines, provided these are adapted for the purpose with care and discretion.
Patient-oriented support roles of self-management systems BIBAFull-Text 144-147
  Martin Laverman; Paul van der Boog; Yvonne Jansen; Bertie J. H. M. Schonk; Laurence Alpay; Mark A. Neerincx
Motivation -- The development of self-management systems has been mainly initiated and driven by health-care professionals, resulting in a primarily medical view on the role of these systems in health care for chronically ill patients. However, lay people consider their health rather in terms of 'participation' and 'feeling healthy'. Therefore, different views regarding the role of self-management systems in health care for chronically ill patients are to be expected.
   Research approach -- A focus group was conducted with eight patients with a chronic kidney disease. The role of self-management systems in their daily care was discussed, guided by a scenario that was based on a framework covering functionalities in such systems from a medical point of view.
   Findings/Design -- The results show that opinions and expectancies about the role of self-management systems can vary greatly between patients. Furthermore, patients' expectancies do not necessarily correspond with the role of self-management systems from a medical perspective.
   Take away message -- Expectations about the role of self-management systems should be addressed during all design stages. Self-management systems should be tailored to suit different types of users, for instance by incorporating evidence from the field of human factors.
Feedback to renal transplant patients in a self-management support system BIBAFull-Text 148-150
  Wenxin Wang; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Ton J. M. Rövekamp; Paul van der Boog; Laurence Alpay; Mark A. Neerincx
Motivation -- A key function of a future self-management support system (SMSS) for renal transplant patients is to provide feedback about their health status. This study investigates patients' understanding, preference, and trust of such feedback.
   Research approach -- Three types of feedback form, namely simplicity, empathy, and empowerment, were designed and tested with 12 non-patients. The task completeness and the participants' preference were compared.
   Findings -- The users did trust the empowerment feedback more than other feedback. Furthermore, the feedback types seemed to influence users' ability of reporting their previous days' health status.
   Research limitations/Implications -- This research worked out three feedback types and provided insight into their effectiveness and preference. However, the number of participants was small, and they were non-patients, highly educated and relatively young.
   Originality/Value -- This research investigated different feedback types for self-management support systems in the healthcare domain.
   Take away message -- The different way of presenting the same information might influence users' trust and understanding of their health status.

The final session

Real-time task recognition based on knowledge workers' computer activities BIBAFull-Text 152-159
  Saskia Koldijk; Mark van Staalduinen; Mark Neerincx; Wessel Kraaij
Motivation -- Supporting knowledge workers in their self-management by providing them overviews of performed tasks.
   Research approach -- Computer interaction data of knowledge workers was logged during their work. For each user different classifiers were trained and compared on their performance on recognizing 12 specified tasks.
   Findings/Design -- After only a few hours of training data reasonable classification accuracy can be achieved. There was not one classifier that suited all users best.
   Take away message -- Task recognition based on knowledge workers' computer activities is feasible with little training, although personalization is an important issue.
Reducing user linguistic variability in speech interaction through lexical and syntactic priming BIBAFull-Text 160-167
  Dominique Knutsen; Philippe Bretier; Christine Ros; Margot Poletti; Manuel Gimenes; François Rigalleau; Ludovic Le Bigot
Motivation -- To reduce user linguistic variability in human-system interaction.
   Research approach -- An experiment was conducted in which 72 participants interacted over the phone with a simulated natural language dialogue system. The main manipulation concerned the lexical content and the structure of the message prompts.
   Findings/Design -- The results confirm that users align with the system on the lexical and structural levels in human-system dialogue. However, the strength of the syntactic alignment depends on the content of the prime.
   Research limitations/Implications -- This experiment should be replicated user a greater number of different prime system messages.
   Originality/Value -- By manipulating prime content, this study allows investigating alignment strength as a function of word frequency and user preferences.
   Take-away message -- Lexical and syntactic priming can be used to reduce user linguistic variability in human-system interaction, but the strength of these phenomena depends on the content of the prime.
A situated cognition aware approach to the design of information retrieval systems for geospatial data BIBAFull-Text 168-172
  Paul Craig; Néna Roa-Seiler; Grégory Leplâtre
Motivation -- To improve the process of information retrieval (IR), specifically for geospatial data, by accounting for the natural processes of situated cognition where knowledge is a product of both action and context.
   Research approach -- To focus on a specific topic (Mexican history), evaluate the limitations of existing approaches and design/implement a new system that overcomes these limitations.
   Findings/Design -- As the theory situated cognition stipulates-all knowledge is situated in activity bound to social, cultural and physical contexts. It was found that the knowledge produced by information retrieval can be situated in the activity of exploring search results and bound to the context of geographic location (specifically, place names). In the design of our new application this made it important to allow the user to be able to have place-names for towns and cities visible throughout the search process.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Tests were only undertaken with Mexicans living in the Mixteca region of Oaxaca with data about Mexican events, hence results may be culturally specific or specific to users from countries with a particular geography.
   Originality/Value -- The results of this research should be of interest to designers of interactive maps and those who attempting to apply the theory of situated cognition to application design.
   Take away message -- Taking account for the context in which users want to view the results of searches can improve the usability of IR applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated for geographic data where maintaining the visibility of place-names makes results generally more valuable.


The elicitation of common cognitive referents to leverage organizational change BIBAFull-Text 173-176
  Tiziana C. Callari; Alessandra Re
This paper presents a method to work analysis able to leverage organizational change by the elicitation of a multi-prospective object, a common cognitive referent, shared by all the actors and functions operating in the work system. The focus of the action moves from the acquisition of reflexivity by a single operator, or within the same group of operators, to the study of the interfaces between groups in the work system of reference.
   Research approach -- The case study method was the research strategy used to collect in-depth data, support data convergence and findings analytical generalization. In the design, an embedded single-case study was applied, with the involvement of three different subunits of analysis. The case was a Hospital specialized in infectious diseases.
   Findings/Design -- The results proposed work systems analysis presented with infographics with evidence of the relations and interdependencies between sub-systems and the possible flaws that may affect the system performance.
   Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to the way to visualize leverages for change in complex socio-technical systems.
   Take away message -- A visual explanation of how a work system functions and where it can be improved will support the operators themselves to promote organizational change.
Cognitive failure at work: factorial structure of a new questionnaire BIBAFull-Text 177-180
  Virpi Kalakoski; Henriikka Ratilainen; Jani Lukander; Simo Salminen
Motivation -- To estimate cognitive failure and preceding conditions at work with a new questionnaire, and to describe its factorial structure and subscales.
   Research approach -- An explorative survey approach was used with a questionnaire consisting of three parts: Workplace Cognitive Failure Scale (WCFS), a new scale on cognitive failures, and a questionnaire on work conditions.
   Findings/Design -- The results replicate the factorial structure of the original WCFS, with its memory, attention, and action subscales. With additional items of cognitive failure we found four subscales detailing perception of relevant information, forgetting work tasks, multitasking, and acting in the environment. Seven subscales were found for work-related factors that are likely to impair cognitive functioning.
   Research limitations/Implications -- Only employees of one company and one occupation participated in the preliminary study, which limits generalisation of the findings.
   Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to defining and detailing cognitive failure at work and identifying work-related conditions that may induce human error and accidents in occupations that are not safety-critical, but nevertheless prone to accidents.
   Take away message -- Improving safety at conventional workplaces requires means to recognise central latent causes of human error. We developed a cost-effective method to identify types of cognitive failure and work conditions that may induce error at work.
"Ten things i want to know about you": unveiling friends' attribute relevance BIBAFull-Text 181-184
  João Guerreiro; Daniel Gonçalves
Motivation -- The growing amount of personal information on the web raises increasing concerns about what and with whom we share information online. Nevertheless, little effort has been made in determining the relevance of the information shared with us or in filtering it accordingly. This is even more important considering our need to be constantly aware of what is happening in our friends' lives.
   Research approach -- A study to identify the most relevant characteristics when seeking information about friends and to scrutinize which specific features they mention. To achieve that, we resorted to interviews and questionnaires. We asked participants to describe people and asked them to rate the perceived relevance of a carefully pre-determined set of attributes.
   Findings/Design -- Results suggested that the most relevant attributes when seeking information about friends are: Personality, Relationship, Interests & Hobbies, Academic History, Profession, Phone, Email and Address. We also provide indications of the specific features people mention when referring these attributes.
   Take away message -- The relevance among attributes varies when seeking information about friends. It should be considered to warn users or highlight the changes when they occur in the most important attributes.
e-learning in a distance learning curriculum: a workplace approach BIBAFull-Text 185-188
  Laura Benvenuti; Els Rogier; Gerrit C. van der Veer
Motivation -- Tools that should support academic distance learning often support mainly distance teaching. In our vision, this is not compatible with the academic ambitions of university curricula. We propose an alternative approach.
   Research approach -- We share our observations from practice.
   Findings/Design -- We developed an environment for academic distance learning to allow adult students to experience research.
   Research limitations/Implications -- The setting, the Dutch University for Distance Learning, only allows action research.
   Originality/Value -- The researchers have experimented with online environments where they can perform research in the presence of their students.
   Take away message -- For distance learners too, academic education and research should go hand in hand. Online learning environments should be designed to support that.
Comparing four technologies for measuring postural micromovements during monitor engagement BIBAFull-Text 189-192
  Harry J. Witchel; Carina Westling; Aoife Healy; Nachiappan Chockalingam; Rob Needham
Objective metrics of engagement are valuable for estimating user experience or progression through interactional narratives. Postural micromovements of seated individuals during computer engagement have been previously measured with magnetic field sensors and chair-mounted force matrix detection mats. Here we compare readings from a head-mounted accelerometer, single camera sagittal motion tracking, and force distribution changes using floor-mounted force plates against a Vicon 8-camera motion capture system. Measurements were recorded on five participants who were watching or interacting with a computer monitor. Our results show that sagittal and coronal plane measurements for Vicon, the accelerometer and the single camera produced nearly identical data, were precisely synchronized in time, and in many cases proportional in amplitude. None of the systems tested were able to match the Vicon's measurement of yaw.

Doctoral papers

How does the representation of the computer evolve during human-computer dialogue? BIBAFull-Text D1-D4
  Dominique Knutsen
Motivation -- To better understand how the representation of the computer's capabilities and needs built by the user evolves through interaction.
   Research approach -- An experiment is being conducted where participants interact with a simulated dialogue system. We look at the order in which users produce information as an indicator of how the computer's needs and capabilities are perceived.
   Findings/Design -- So far, the results show that the representation of the computer's capabilities evolves. Users perceive the system more like a human as the interaction unfolds. Thus, if the aim is to design a human-like system which elicits collaborative behaviour from the user, starting by presenting the system as collaborative could benefit the interaction.
   Research limitations/Implications -- In this study, interactions were limited to reference production.
   Originality/Value -- This experiment looks at information production as a way of determining how the representation of the computer's needs evolves as the user has the opportunity to interact with the system.
   Take away message -- The way in which a user perceives a dialogue system evolves as the interaction unfolds. This affects knowledge mobilisation by the user: the more he or she interacts with the system, the more the latter is perceived as a collaborative partner. This can be exploited for system design.
Improving effectiveness and well-being in knowledge work through cognitive ergonomics BIBAFull-Text D5-D8
  Jani Lukander; Virpi Kalakoski; Minna Huotilainen
Motivation -- To study if the use of information technology (IT) really does improve efficiency in different knowledge work professions in itself, and to identify possible unnecessary cognitive stress factors in systems and environments.
   Research approach -- The research consists of four parts:
  • 1. A survey based on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (Broadbent et al.
        1982), CFQ, and the Workplace Cognitive Failure Scale (Wallace and Chen,
        2005), WCFS. The questionnaires will be slightly modified to fit knowledge
        work environments and tasks better.
  • 2. An experiment studying the costs of inconsistent information in knowledge
        work. These costs are measured with a newly developed cognitive task that
        simulates working with both consistent and inconsistent systems.
  • 3. An experiment studying environmental factors and their effect on work flow
        and efficiency. Such environmental factors include ambient office noise,
        interruptions in work flow, and system usability. Work is simulated using
        the same cognitive task as in part 2.
  • 4. A review of cognitive stress factors inflicting cognitive errors, harming
        work flow, and decreasing efficiency. Also aspects of the true costs of
        such factors, and ways in which they could be avoided are discussed. Findings/Design -- First, common cognitive errors and failures in knowledge work environments are recognized. Novel methods for studying the effects of information consistency and various environmental factors are developed and applied. The findings of these studies are then applied to a broader context including the well-being of individuals, knowledge work flow and effectiveness, and the economic effects of cognitive failures and stressful environments.
       Research limitations/Implications -- Research is limited to Finnish knowledge work environments, hence the socio-economic aspects and work environment conditions are not universally generalisable. However, the cognitive aspects and limitations studied are likely to be cross-cultural.
       Originality/Value -- A correlation between cognitive failure at work and workplace accidents has been recognized. However, typical knowledge work environments are not prone to accidents, but should be particularly susceptible to cognitive errors. The frequency, effect and cost of such errors in these environments merits a more thorough study.
       Take away message -- Information systems are often introduced into work environments in order to improve efficiency. Such systems do not increase work efficiency just by being information systems, they must fit the work environment, tasks and most importantly the users in order to improve work flow and not frustrate or stress the employees.
  • Assembling a synthetic emotion mediator for quick decision making during acute stress BIBAFull-Text D9-D12
      Iris Cohen; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Mark A. Neerincx
    Motivation -- Previous research suggests that emotions and stressors influence the decision making processes in different ways. Decisions made by emergency workers in a stressful situation could be negatively influenced by emotions and stressors. This project aims to train police officers and military personnel to make high quality decisions in a stressful situation, by training them in a virtual reality environment and providing feedback on their valence and arousal levels.
       Research approach -- Literature research has been used to establish a model that can predict an individual's reaction to a stressful situation, and the way this will influence their decisions. This model will be implemented in a Synthetic Emotion Mediator. This mediator will be used in a virtual reality training, in which participants train on making good decisions, even when strong emotions inflicted by an acute stress response take hold of them.
    Representations of complex financial systems BIBAFull-Text D13-D14
      Evelien Kok; Gerrit van der Veer
    The main objective of the study is to get insight in the knowledge representations of complex financial products in novices and experts and in the effectiveness of the reasoning and decision making strategies that are used to solve problems in the finance domain.
       It is not known how and why consumers make decisions on finance. How is knowledge about money, debt and personal finance represented in novices and experts; and if and how do ideas about debt and money influence decisions on household finance? The study aims to obtain insight in these questions by investigating novices and experts on 4 cognitive aspects: representations, decisions making, knowledge and communication on finance.
       Research approach -- A number of studies and experiments will be carried out in for this doctoral thesis. The first study is planned for August 2012. Two groups of subjects, consumers of financial products (novices) and financial professionals (experts) will participate in a study using the Teach back method. This is a qualitative method to research mental representations of complex systems. Using the Teach back method, it will be analyzed if there is consistency in representations within both groups and differences between both groups will be investigated. The results of the study will be used for creating two or more personas. Personas are models of people. Using personas several experiments will be designed. These experiments will involve methods to create a common ground for finance concepts for novices and experts. One experiment will be the design of a workshop where groups of participants share knowledge on money and finance. A second experiment will be an online platform that supports knowledge sharing between novices and experts.
    Designing and evaluating a self-management support system for renal transplant patients: the first step BIBAFull-Text D15-D19
      Wenxin Wang; Ton J. M. Rövekamp; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Laurence Alpay; Paul van der Boog; Mark A. Neerincx
    Motivation -- Thanks to the mobile measurement and tele-care technology, it becomes possible to build self-management support systems for renal transplant patients. This project aims to provide (1) a trusted and accepted self-management support systems for renal transplant patients, (2) guidelines for building a virtual coach for supporting feedback in the self-management support system for chronic disease self-management, and (3) an overview of the human factors that should be taken into account in self-management support system development processes.
       Research approach -- A situated Cognitive Engineering method guides the development of a requirement baseline and its design rationale of the self-management support system, including a virtual coach, for renal transplant patients. Via focus group sessions, mock-ups and rapid prototypes, (parts of) the requirements and rationale will be generated, tested and refined in relatively short iterative cycles. Furthermore, about 50 patients will use a basic version of the system to examine (1) the influence of human factors on self-management and self-management support needs, (2) the impact of a self-management support system on the behavior of chronically ill patients, and (3) the doctors' acceptance of the system.
       Findings -- So far the first prototype was designed and evaluated; major issues and users' values were extracted.
    Automatic recognition of context and stress to support knowledge workers BIBAFull-Text D20-D23
      Saskia Koldijk
    Motivation -- Developing a computer tool that improves well-being at work.
       Research approach -- We collect unobtrusive sensor data and apply pattern recognition approaches to infer the context and stress level of the user. We will develop a coaching tool based upon this information and evaluate its effectiveness in user studies.
       Findings/Design -- The resulting system will be able to create more awareness on stress for knowledge workers, support them to improve their working pattern, resulting in an increase of well-being at work.
       Take away message -- Unobtrusive sensing and smart reasoning can be used to create a user aware system that improves well-being at work by providing feedback and support.