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ECCE Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2015 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:ECCE'15: European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics
Editors:Tjerk de Greef; Krzysztof Marasek; Anke Dittmar; Marcin Sikorski
Location:Warsaw, Poland
Dates:2015-Jul-01 to 2015-Jul-03
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3612-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ECCE15
Papers:34
Links:Conference Website
  1. Keynotes
  2. Panel: Constructive Ergonomics, new challenges for the future
  3. Design methods and collaboration Tools
  4. Understanding people and Tasks
  5. Enhancing user-centred design methods and practices
  6. Understanding & Supporting Collaborative Activities
  7. Comprehending Intelligent Systems
  8. Team Dynamics
  9. The role of Technology in Design Applications
  10. Poster

Keynotes

Designing mediation BIBAFull-Text 1
  Victor Kaptelinin
The aim of this paper is to analyze the concept of mediation in the context of current HCI research, with a special focus on the use of the concept to inform and guide the design of interactive artifacts and environments. The paper discusses the adoption of the mediational perspective on digital technology in HCI and reflects on how the perspective has informed design-oriented research in the field. It is concluded that there is a general trend of moving beyond relatively basic notions of technology mediation toward a more differentiated view of mediation as a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The paper outlines a set of dimensions, which characterize technological mediation in relation to properties of mediational means, subjects and objects of mediated activities, levels of mediation, dynamics of mediation, and context. Design implications of adopting a view of technological mediation as a multi-dimensional phenomenon are discussed.
The Challenge of Designing Interactive 3D Content BIBAFull-Text 2
  Krzysztof Walczak
Interactive three-dimensional techniques offer a new quality in the design of user interfaces of computer applications. 3D user interfaces enable intuitive presentation and manipulation of complex data and objects, in many cases enhancing user perception and understanding of the presented information. A critical element for building practical 3D applications is adequate 3D content. However, designing high-quality interactive 3D synthetic content is a complex and challenging task. This difficulty is one of the major obstacles preventing widespread use of 3D techniques in many promising application domains. In this presentation, a range of methods aiming at simplification of the process of creating interactive 3D content are discussed.

Panel: Constructive Ergonomics, new challenges for the future

Enabling environments, enabling organizations, enabling interventions: a constructive ergonomics viewpoint BIBAFull-Text 3
  Pierre Falzon
This text advocates a view of ergonomics and of its goal that sets development as the target of ergonomics actions. Enabling environments are defined as environments that do not have detrimental effects on individuals, that take into account differences between them, and that allow individuals and collectives to succeed and learn. Enabling organizations are defined as organizations that facilitate "design-in-use" processes. An enabling organization must not only tolerate, but also encourage such processes. The objective of ergonomic actions is both to foster processes of development throughout the ergonomic intervention, and to design work systems that promote development. Enabling interventions integrate development as a means and as a purpose.
Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics BIBAFull-Text 4
  Ole Broberg
This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, many challenges are to be overcome. They relate among others to education and training of ergonomist, and the cultural and institutional setting of ergonomics in specific countries.
Learning in Work, Work in Learning: relations between Constructive Ergonomics and the Learning Sciences BIBAFull-Text 5
  Michael J. Baker
This short text is a commentary on Constructive Ergonomics from the point of view of research in the Learning Sciences, whose aim is to establishing a joint research agenda. This aim is motivated by the recent convergence between the worlds of work and education/training, in practical and academic terms. The main issues discussed are theories of development and learning and synergies between methods in Design-Based Research and in Constructive Ergonomics. It is concluded that these two fields have the same theoretically constructed object of study -- personal, collective, organisational and societal development -- and that a potentially fruitful exchange could be carried out on the levels of theories and methods for understanding development in education and professional training.

Design methods and collaboration Tools

HCI Design Methods: where next? from user-centred to creative design and beyond BIBAFull-Text 6
  Geert de Haan
This paper discusses the developments in HCI and new media design. HCI design evolved into human-centred and creative approaches to the conceptualising and building of user interfaces. De Haan [1] identified a number of factors underlying the changing nature of HCI design in moving towards ubiquitous computing and the Internet of Things. HCI and new media design focussed on light-weight product as mashups of readily available functions and services, and design became a prototyping, feature-driven and an iterative/incremental activity, with a highly flexible and exploratory approach to product design. Three factors describe the changes in design methodology: increasing extension of user-centred design, increasingly higher level software tools and frameworks, and the application of agile design and design exploration. For each factor, a supporting practice-oriented design method is discussed to illustrate the possible future developments in HCI design. In the conclusion, the paper proposes several recommendations regarding the further development of HCI design.
Blind Evaluation: Student's Experience of the Empathic Lead User Method BIBAFull-Text 7
  Peter D. Conradie; Lieven De Marez; Jelle Saldien
Many efforts on design research focuses on developing methods for design, while little research has been done on how students experience method use. This study looks at the experience of young design students using a specific design method, the empathic lead user method. This method relies on inhibiting certain senses in order to provide designers with alternative perspectives on user needs. We introduce the theoretical background behind the use of this specific method of design, and review results from related literature. In our study, the group using the empathic lead user method (n=26), and a second control group (n=23) without method restriction, performed the same assignment. We find that for both groups there are no statistically significant differences between how able, motivated or confident they were with performing the assignment. In their own assessment of the results, we found statistically significant differences between student's evaluation of how innovative they thought their results were, but for the factors effort and satisfaction, both groups gave similar self-assessments. We discuss the results and present areas for future work.
Social Media as ad hoc Design Collaboration Tools BIBAFull-Text 8
  Jesús Muñoz Alcántara; Panos Markopoulos; Mathias Funk
This paper explores the extent to which existing online collaboration tools support the demands encountered during the early stages of the creative design process. Results from a web survey among design communities and the interviews with 9 designers suggest that Facebook is the most used platform to collaborate with other designers. A qualitative analysis of the data collected reveals that existing tools do not properly support the social processes that define the design process. Furthermore, the design process is affected by the huge amount of information and the inability to filter out and connect the different information provided by the collection of tools. We conclude with a discussion of the results and challenges for future collaboration tools.

Understanding people and Tasks

An ecological analysis of task subgoals during a simulated medical emergency BIBAFull-Text 9
  Thierry Morineau; Pascal Chapelain; Philippe Quinio
Whereas classical task analysis methods consider task goals and intermediary task subgoals as formal nodes in graph formalism, cognitive work analysis has brought a new dimension by considering task goals as ascribed in the concrete work domain. Complementary to this latter approach, we suggest analysing task subgoals as the satisfaction of constraints coming from equipment and work space management. We present a classification of deficiencies in task environment constraint satisfaction based on observations in a simulated medical emergency setting.
Prototypes as Tools for Discovery: A Case Study on Multi-Touch UML Modeling BIBAFull-Text 10
  Björn Pullwer; Anke Dittmar
Prototypes are often seen as partially refined final products. A complementary perspective on prototypes is suggested in the literature where more emphasis is placed on the coevolution of artifacts, people and practices. It encourages designers to adopt a more experimental stance. The paper presents a small case study that applies this 'tool-for-discovery' perspective to the early design of a multi-touch UML class editor. It is shown to be particularly relevant for design situations in which current practices and the impact of existing methods and tools on people's skills are not fully understood, even by the practitioners themselves.
Tool-based gradual User Modeling for Usability Engineering BIBAFull-Text 11
  Anna Hüttig; Michael Herczeg
This contribution illustrates how software developers can be supported systematically in user analysis and user centered design. Particularly it has been explored how user models can be integrated in the entire development process in a reasonable and gainful manner. For this purpose, a module for user analysis within the Usability-Engineering-Repository (UsER) is presented. The system is based on an innovative concept of gradual user modeling with several levels of abstraction that is guiding and simplifying the process of practical user modeling. The design of the module was validated with the aid of formative expert evaluation and the realized application was evaluated summatively.

Enhancing user-centred design methods and practices

Detailed design exercises help promote conceptual thinking: Lessons learned from teaching User Centred Design to an engineering class BIBAFull-Text 12
  Nicolas Marmaras; Dimitris Nathanael; Konstantinos Gkikas
The present paper deals with a teaching method aiming at overcoming the difficulties of students for conceptual or abstract thinking within a course of User Centred Design. Following the hermeneutic approach a series of small in class exercises have been planned. In those exercises students are urged to brainstorm from early on with all levels of solution representations -- even detailed ones --, and then try to elevate these to higher levels of abstraction by questioning them through a peer critique process. The tutor all along that process facilitates several iterations between the conceptual and the detailed design solutions. Our experience has shown that when engaging in the above process, students become more aware of the value of the conceptual design, and are gradually developing a better understanding of it.
Label-checking strategies to adapt behaviour to design BIBAFull-Text 13
  James H. Smith-Spark; Hillary B. Katz; Alexander Marchant; T. D. W. Wilcockson
Despite robust quality control procedures, labelling errors on fresh produce are estimated to cost the UK supermarket industry approximately £50million pounds per year in product recalls and wastage. Changing the format of the labels themselves is not a viable option. Instead, the challenge is to change or guide human operatives' behaviour so that label printing errors do not go undetected during quality control procedures. To this end, a simulated label checking task was presented to naïve participants to compare more systematic and strategic methods of label checking. Two conditions in which behaviour was computer-led were compared with a control condition in which checkers adopted their own idiosyncratic checking method. The data indicate that the two computer-led approaches resulted in improved levels of accuracy. Pushing label checkers towards a more systematic approach would appear to be effective in reducing undetected label errors, and could lead potentially to significant financial savings and reduced environmental wastage in the fresh produce industry.
Learnings from Workplace User-Centered Design: the Case of a Media and Communication Company BIBAFull-Text 14
  Maria Ianeva; Patrick Chotel; Frédérique Miriel
The paper presents a study of an industrial experience of user-centered design of an office accommodation and use. In order to design the future office of a large media company, several field studies, including observation of users' activities and workshops with users were conducted. The design team was composed of workplace consultants, an ergonomist, an architect and an office planner. Our case study highlights that the project narrative acts as boundary object in the design process. Our analysis raises issues on how to sustain the sense-making processes over time and across participants.
On the Use of Personalization to Enhance Compliance in Experience Sampling BIBAFull-Text 15
  Panos Markopoulos; Nikolaos Batalas; Annick Timmermans
This paper argues that allowing personalization can increase respondent adherence in experience sampling studies. We report a one week long field experiment (N=36), which compared response rates when respondents select the times at which they are prompted to report in an experience sampling protocol (experimental group), versus the situation where these times are selected by the experimenter (control group). Results showed that participants who could choose their time slots showed a significantly higher response rate than participants who received the questions on preset time slots (p=0.002). There was no difference in response rates for different times of the day. Social influence, as permitted through the personalization process is offered as one of the explanations for enhancing compliance to the experience sampling probes. Future research needs to establish whether this or other practical explanations regarding respondent convenience explain the increased adherence and whether the found effect can be sustained for longer studies.

Understanding & Supporting Collaborative Activities

Boundary Objects in Sales and Delivery Process BIBAFull-Text 16
  Marja Liinasuo; Maiju Aikala
Sales and delivery process is one means to support customer's positive (user) experience, facilitating an efficient process proceeding and good customer-supplier relationship also after the process. We studied the role and content of boundary objects by investigating them within the concrete framework of sales and delivery process phases, each with objectives defined differently for the contributing parties of supplier and customer. The process phases as well as the objectives and boundary objects in each phase were identified by interviewing professionals performing conceptual or field work in a company selling machinery to process industry globally. Furthermore, boundary objects are scrutinised from the perspective of categorisation created in this study. As a result, the type of boundary objects which is expected to be designed the best was found to be the one requiring development the most as well.
Joint Remembering in Co-Design: An Ethnographic Study of Functions and Multimodal Processes BIBAFull-Text 17
  Lucas M. Bietti; Michael J. Baker; Françoise Détienne
The aim of this paper is to provide empirical evidence that illustrates how the interweaving of verbal, bodily, social and material resources supports joint remembering of relevant aspects of co-design projects during group interactions. Our data comes from an ethnographic study we conducted in a video design studio in Barcelona. The analysis focuses on the role of questions triggering the formation of multimodal remembering sequences (MRSs). This study suggests that questions acting as reminders foster the formation of MRSs. MRSs are supported by an on-the-fly integration and coordination of multiple contextually relevant resources. Our preliminary findings are relevant for the development of new design-rationale systems in HCI that consider such complex dynamics.
Construction of an "activity sharing space" to improve healthcare safety BIBAFull-Text 18
  Sylvie Thellier; Pierre Falzon; Lucie Cuvelier
Preventive approaches in risk management assume that the first step is risk analysis. However, an important basis for this work is the prior identification of risks. Our critical analysis of the "Failure Mode and Effects Analysis" method (FMEA) has shown that risk identification is not self-evident. Risk identification is not intuitive especially when risks are not apparent, as in Radiotherapy. We assume that the classical models are incomplete. In this way, the first step for reflection groups is the identification of the risks. We suggest changing both the composition of the classical reflection groups and the object of reflection that standard methods propose. We also suggest carrying out an experiment with multi-trade reflection groups. Participants have to share the real work or their activities from the "particular situation" of work -- defined later in the text -- in order to improve the treatment safety.
Flexible Tool Support for Collaborative Design of Interactive Human-Machine Systems BIBAFull-Text 19
  Tilo Mentler; Michael Herczeg
The Usability Engineering Repository (UsER) and its mobile frontend MUsER compose a flexible, web-based platform to support collaboration in User-Centered System Design. Modules for different stages of cognitive and usability engineering are provided and can be applied as needed. Analysis and design entities can be linked through hypermedia relationships. In this manner, a semantic network emerges from analyzing the context of use through design up to the summative evaluation of the product. Results can be presented in a document with a linear structure and is suitable for purposes like formal project deliverables or contracts. Heterogeneous and distributed design teams can benefit from immediate data exchange, better awareness of co-workers' activities and appropriate visualizations for different organizational roles and expertise. Images of cognitive artifacts and other findings from user research and field studies in mobile contexts can be documented and shared among project members.

Comprehending Intelligent Systems

Supporting Non-Experts' Awareness of Uncertainty: Negative Effects of Simple Visualizations in Multiple Views BIBAFull-Text 20
  Emma Beauxis-Aussalet; Elvira Arslanova; Lynda Hardman
Video analysis tools can provide valuable datasets for a wide range of applications, such as monitoring animal populations for ecology research, while reducing human efforts for collecting information. Transferring such technology to novel application domains implies exposing non-expert users to unfamiliar datasets and technical concepts. Existing data analysis practices must adapt to the new data characteristics and technical constraints. With such changes, uncertainty is of major concern as it can yield misinterpretation of data, or distrust and rejection of valid results. We present a study of an interactive visualization of computer vision results and uncertainty. We evaluate the correctness of users' interpretation of data, and their confidence in their interpretation. We compare the impact of either data features (i.e., the true level of uncertainty) or visualization features on user perception of uncertainty. Visualization features had a similar impact on user responses than the data uncertainty itself, thus biasing user awareness of uncertainty. We conclude with the opportunities (intuitive navigation in complex unfamiliar data) and limitations (poor extrapolation and memory loss) of our visualization design which integrates simple graphs in coordinated multiple views. Our design and insights contribute to other cases where non-experts need to familiarize with novel datasets and explore their uncertainty.
Designing sociotechnical systems: a CWA-based method for dynamic function allocation BIBAFull-Text 21
  Philippe Rauffet; Christine Chauvin; Gael Morel; Pascal Berruet
Dynamic function allocation (between human agents or between human and technical agents) is a crucial issue in complex sociotechnical systems, particularly in changing or demanding situations. This issue has not yet been explicitly addressed in the Cognitive Work Analysis framework. This paper presents a conceptual and methodological proposal for designers that supplements the existing CWA tools. The new tool is integrated into the Social Organization and Cooperation Analysis (SOCA) stage. It formalizes different kinds of associations between work functions and elementary work situations and between resources and work functions. It enables the identification of conflicts (impossible allocations) when examining a complex situation resulting from the conjunction of several elementary situations. When conflicts are resolved, it is possible to choose the best configuration among a set of possible associations between resources and work functions. This proposal is illustrated with the case study of an electric pedal-assist bike.
A Tool for Easing the Cognitive Analysis of Design Prototypes of Aircraft Cockpit Instruments: The Human Efficiency Evaluator BIBAFull-Text 22
  Sebastian Feuerstack; Andreas Lüdtke; Jan-Patrick Osterloh
Development and evaluation of dynamic and complex systems require new techniques and tools to evaluate the risks of Human and Systems Error, especially for safety critical systems. Established techniques like the cognitive workload analysis that can be used to assess the individual perceived operator workload for sets of tasks these are not widely used in industrial development. That is, because cognitive analysis of dynamic systems depends on complex architectures and simulations to evaluate workload over time, and is still driven by proprietary notations for cognitive models that require in-depth cognitive modeling skills and is currently only accessible to experts. In this paper we present an extension to CogTool, the Human Efficiency Evaluator (HEE) to ease the analysis of the impact of new instruments and new display designs with respect to human operator workload and task execution times. The tool is designed to make these cognitive analysis techniques available to non-experts, such as system analysts and engineers. We explain the cognitive modeling and analysis process supported by the HEE referring to an aeronautics scenario presented earlier by Hutchins. The cognitive analysis compares the task performance and workload of three generations of cockpit instrument designs to support pilots' with the slats/flaps settings during an aircraft approach with the current support in modern aircrafts and was performed by using the HEE.
A Contextual Approach to Home Energy Management Systems Automation in Daily Practices BIBAFull-Text 23
  Julien Guibourdenche; Pascal Salembier; Germain Poizat; Yvon Haradji; Mariane Galbat
This short paper considers how classical concepts and approaches of cognitive ergonomics/engineering (e.g., automation, trust or control levels) could both enhance Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS) design and energy efficiency, while requiring a specific reference to home and daily life practices. We rely on initial results of a research, evaluating different design principles of HEMS in real homes. Our results show that it is necessary to enhance the quality of coupling between monitoring and control possibilities not only with the characteristics of the human operators considered as natural information processing systems, but also with their everyday practices in home settings. This credits the perspectives of articulating and extending cognitive ergonomics/engineering issues to contextual approach of household activities.

Team Dynamics

Online Investment Advisors and Novice Users BIBAFull-Text 24
  Susanna Heyman
Online investment advisors, recommender systems in the finance domain, are becoming more common as a low-cost alternative to human financial advisors. However, little is known about how online investment advisors are perceived by users with low financial expertise, who would arguably be the most vulnerable target group. In a qualitative test, novice users with a low income were found to distrust the advisory system and financial markets in general, to possess too little financial literacy to be able to understand the system's advice, and to feel unmotivated and pessimistic regarding the benefits of investing.
How Communication Modalities Can Impact Group Creativity in Multi-User Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 25
  Mathieu Forens; Nathalie Bonnardel; Marie-Laure Barbier
This study investigates the impact of communication modalities on creative performance of groups engaged in a brainstorming activity within a Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE). Prior studies are unclear about whether oral or written communication is the most advantageous to support creative activities within virtual teams and especially those who interact within MUVEs (Dennis & Williams, 2003; Paulus, 2000). In our research, 66 students were asked to perform a creative task in a MUVE, in groups of 3 people. The comparison of their performance, according to the communication modalities, suggests that oral communication triggers more numerous and original ideas.

The role of Technology in Design Applications

Towards Stakeholder-Centered Design of Open Systems: Learning from Organizational Learning BIBAFull-Text 26
  Christian Stary; Florian Krenn; Harald Lerchner; Matthias Neubauer; Stefan Oppl; Dominik Wachholder
Today's business requires stakeholders to get involved in organizing work and developing organizational processes, ranging from product life cycle management to cross-boundary networking of organizations. In that context stakeholders continuously and iteratively need to address their business and knowledge processing environment at the same time. When the business processing environment is concerned, the adaption of work procedures in-use takes center stage. Going beyond operation affects learning, and thus the knowledge processing environment. Hereby, proposals to (fundamentally) change existing work processes are handled. Each input needs to be formulated as knowledge claim, before being investigated for taking decisions on modifying currently implemented processes. The design of corresponding support technologies requires highly flexible, since context-aware architectures. We introduce a corresponding component framework for design support. It features organizational development based on articulating and processing work-relevant knowledge for changing affected business processes. As the framework is open to different implementations versatile interactive solutions can be generated in dynamically evolving settings.
The Potential of Technology in Facilitating Positive Stress Experiences BIBAFull-Text 27
  Päivi Heikkilä; Mari Ainasoja; Virpi Oksman
The positive side of stress, eustress, has remained an understudied area in psychology, health technology and HCI. Based on 21 qualitative interviews with entrepreneurs on their positive stress experiences, we aim at providing implications for technology-supported service design. First, we shed light on the current role of technology in experiencing positive stress in the everyday work-related situations of entrepreneurs. Second, the potential of technology is assessed by analysing entrepreneurs' mind-sets and the ways of working which they perceive as enablers for eustress and which could be facilitated by novel technological solutions. Our findings show that the potential of technology for supporting eustress includes areas such as co-creation and collaboration, planning and scheduling, togetherness and shared success, the means for mental preparing and ways to recover.
A model for gathering and sharing knowledge in maintenance work BIBAFull-Text 28
  Susanna Aromaa; Antti Väätänen; Iina Aaltonen; Tomi Heimonen
Industrial maintenance is a complex and knowledge-intensive field. Therefore, maintenance technicians need to have easy access to versatile and situationally relevant knowledge. The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of maintenance technicians' interactions and knowledge sharing with colleagues and technology during maintenance work. Three industrial maintenance cases were studied using interviews and observation. As a result, a model for knowledge sharing in maintenance work was developed. Based on the model, it is easier to tackle challenges in knowledge gathering and sharing. In addition, it supports the research and development of technologies that contribute to knowledge sharing in the future.
Malfunction of a Traffic Light Assistant Application on a Smartphone BIBAFull-Text 29
  Michael Krause; Sebastian Weichelt; Klaus Bengler
A traffic light assistant on a smartphone is assessed in real traffic, with an eye tracking system. In one experimental condition, the system showed (intentionally) false information to the drivers to simulate a malfunction. The glances for this condition showed similar gaze parameters, as a working system. The subjective ratings of the test subjects after this malfunction dropped significantly.
   The gathered gaze data are compared to three former studies (two in a driving simulator and another study in real road driving). Findings indicate, that a driving simulator is a safe and reliable alternative to get some of the glance data (e.g., glance durations to the smartphone) without driving in real traffic.

Poster

Game of Stimuli: an Exploratory Tangible Interface Designed for Autism BIBAFull-Text 30
  Luca Giacolini; Patrizia Marti; Iolanda Iacono
In this paper we describe Game of Stimuli (GoS) an interactive tangible interface designed for children and adolescents diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder [1]. The system is designed to engage children in play scenarios where the objective is to maintain the attention on a given task and turn-taking while filtering irrelevant stimuli. Eventually, the resulting prototype has been tested in Siena, Italy, at the Association for Autism -- "Piccolo Principe". The preliminary field trial allowed us to assess the usability of the design and showed promising preliminary results from a clinical point of view.
Visual Information as a Means for Substituting Haptic Sense BIBAFull-Text 31
  Michael Wagner; Assaf Botzer; Tomer Elbaum
Robots can be used when performing non-invasive surgical operations. They are operated by surgeons using remote controllers (e.g., control sticks; buttons). However, these controllers cannot convey the haptic feedback (touch) as with direct manipulation by one's hands. We tested whether peripheral visual feedback in the form of a flickering ring in the circumference of the control screen can to some extent substitute for haptic feedback. Participants had to lead a stylus pen in a predefined track while maintaining certain height from the stylus surface. In the experimental trials, changes in height were coupled with changes in the frequency of flickering of the ring. Results showed that participants who received the visual feedback performed the task better than participants without such feedback. It appears then that frequency can be transformed to other modalities like distance and may possibly be used to guide surgeons when using robots for medical procedures.
A tool for research and training in Cognitive ergonomic system design BIBAFull-Text 32
  Eliezer Kantorowitz
The subject of this demo is a tool, under development, for training undergraduate students in system design. The tool supports the requirement elicitation and system specification phases of system design. The tool permits specifications in natural languages, such that stakeholders not familiar with computer programming and formal specifications may participate in the development and validation of the requirements and the specifications. A GUI may be produced from verbal specifications enabling think aloud evaluations of the designed system. The tool is intended for undergraduate students who do not have the time required for learning the use of feature rich industrial software tools. Our tool has few features making it easy to learn and easy to use, which should enable the students to invest most of their resources in the essence of their exercises.
Introducing the RSDiary App for the Collection of Resilience Strategies BIBAFull-Text 33
  Jonathan Day; George Buchanan; Stephann Makri
Drawing from the fields of human computer interaction (HCI) and resilience engineering, researchers have begun to take an interest in the emerging topic of cognitive resilience strategies. These comprise behavioural interventions and tactics that people adopt to foresee and mitigate threats such as error, and maintain performance. In order to validate conceptual frameworks resulting from analysis of these resilience strategies, and as a development of a previously undertaken traditional diary study, we have developed the RSDiary app for collecting such strategies. In this poster-demo, we introduce the notion of cognitive resilience strategies, present the RSDiary app, outline the process that led to its inception, and discuss the potential contributions of the tool itself, and of the data resulting from it.
Psychological comfort and discomfort in transport modes BIBAFull-Text 34
  Anaïs Allinc; Béatrice Cahour; Jean-Marie Burkhardt
Since a decade in ergonomics, comfort has been increasingly investigated with a focus on its psychological dimensions, based on the idea that comfort is an enjoyable, pleasant and relaxed psychological state felt by a person who is interacting with its surroundings. In contrast, discomfort is a tense and unpleasant state linked to negative emotions and sensations. We examine the various factors related to psychological comfort and discomfort experienced by users in different transport modes situations. From the literature we identified the following sources of comfort/discomfort: social relationship, safe/unsafe feeling, variable time control, attentional charge and possible multiactivity, need for control and social image. Our research question is twofold. On one hand, we want to specify situations of comfort/discomfort experienced by users. On the other hand, we aim at developing projective techniques to help users in anticipating the comfort/discomfort experience as well as their adhesion and reticence to change towards innovative ecological-friendly modes.