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Computers in Human Behavior 28

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Dates:2012
Volume:28
Publisher:Elsevier
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Papers:264
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2012-01 Volume 28 Issue 1
  2. CHB 2012-03 Volume 28 Issue 2
  3. CHB 2012-05 Volume 28 Issue 3
  4. CHB 2012-07 Volume 28 Issue 4
  5. CHB 2012-09 Volume 28 Issue 5
  6. CHB 2012-11 Volume 28 Issue 6

CHB 2012-01 Volume 28 Issue 1

Computer use in older adults: Determinants and the relationship with cognitive change over a 6 year episode BIBAKFull-Text 1-10
  Karin Slegers; Martin P. J. van Boxtel; Jelle Jolles
Cognitively challenging activities may support the mental abilities of older adults. The use of computers and the Internet provides divergent cognitive challenges to older persons, and in previous studies, positive effects of computer and Internet use on the quality of life have been demonstrated. The present study addresses two research aims regarding predictors of computer use and the relationship between computer use and changes in cognitive abilities over a 6-year period in both younger (24-49 years) and older adults (older than 50 years). Data were obtained from an ongoing study into cognitive aging: the Maastricht Aging Study, involving 1823 normal aging adults who were followed for 9 years. The results showed age-related differences in predictors of computer use: the only predictor in younger participants was level of education, while in older participants computer use was also predicted by age, sex and feelings of loneliness. Protective effects of computer use were found for measures of selective attention and memory, in both older and younger participants. Effect sizes were small, which suggests that promotion of computer activities in older adults to prevent cognitive decline may not be an efficient strategy.
Keywords: Computer use; Internet; Elderly; Cognitive aging
Assessing Web interaction with recollection: Age-related and task-related differences BIBAKFull-Text 11-22
  Isabelle Etcheverry; Patrice Terrier; Jean-Claude Marquié
The current study examined how young (n = 26; mean = 22.31 years) and older Internet users (n = 24; mean = 64.54 years) performed when they had to select and recollect information displayed in Web pages. Content-oriented and navigation-oriented information-finding tasks were used during the study phase. At test, the method made use of two recognition paradigms designed to assess recollection and the nature of representations in memory: namely, the remember/know procedure and a forced-choice recognition procedure which made it possible to compare the retrieval of detailed (verbatim-based) and semantic (gist-based) representations. The evidence from both procedures suggested that remembering was less contextualised in older participants. Furthermore, the idea that content-oriented searches impose greater processing demands than navigation-oriented searches in Web pages was confirmed for both age groups. Interestingly, the older Internet users experienced more difficulties in finding targets in navigation-oriented searches than in content-oriented searches.
Keywords: Internet; Information search; Aging; Recollection; Gist; Verbatim
Human-agent teamwork in dynamic environments BIBAKFull-Text 23-33
  A. van Wissen; Y. Gal; B. A. Kamphorst; M. V. Dignum
Teamwork between humans and computer agents has become increasingly prevalent. This paper presents a behavioral study of fairness and trust in a heterogeneous setting comprising both computer agents and human participants. It investigates people's choice of teammates and their commitment to their teams in a dynamic environment in which actions occur at a fast pace and decisions are made within tightly constrained time frames, under conditions of uncertainty and partial information. In this setting, participants could form teams by negotiating over the division of a reward for the successful completion of a group task. Participants could also choose to defect from their existing teams in order to join or create other teams. Results show that when people form teams, they offer significantly less reward to agents than they offer to people. The most significant factor affecting people's decisions whether to defect from their existing teams is the extent to which they had successful previous interactions with other team members. Also, there is no significant difference in people's rate of defection from agent-led teams as compared to their defection from human-led teams. These results are significant for agent designers and behavioral researchers who study human-agent interactions.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Cooperative behavior; Teamwork; Dynamic environments
Learning by foraging: The impact of individual knowledge and social tags on web navigation processes BIBAKFull-Text 34-40
  Christoph Held; Joachim Kimmerle; Ulrike Cress
The World Wide Web provides a tremendously large quantity of information. When users search for information or products on the Web, they will presumably be inclined to choose their path of navigation on the basis of their prior knowledge. In those cases in which the prior knowledge of users is incorrect, however, this navigation process is assumed to lead to suboptimal search results. In an experimental study with 180 participants, we examined to what extent both the users' prior knowledge and social tags -- which capture the collective knowledge of a Web community in tag clouds -- influenced the navigation of users and triggered incidental learning processes during the Web search. The results supported the assumption that the users' prior knowledge is indeed crucial for navigation, as users followed those tags which corresponded to their internal associations. Moreover, we found that social tags also affected the navigation behavior of users, as a strong collective association of social tags led to a high selection rate for these tags. Finally, the results showed that social tags triggered incidental learning processes, as those internal associations which corresponded to tags with a strong collective association were strengthened during navigation. The implications of these findings for further research are discussed.
Keywords: Web navigation; Social tagging; Tag clouds; Social software; Information foraging; Learning
It won't happen to me: An assessment of optimism bias in music piracy BIBAKFull-Text 41-48
  Ankur Nandedkar; Vishal Midha
Piracy continues to be a threat to the global economy. Previous literature on factors influencing individual's attitude towards piracy indicates that as perceived risk increases, individuals attitude of acceptance of piracy should decrease. In spite of the increased risks, some people pirate, there has been no explanation for this apparent paradox. We attempt to explain this paradox by using the concept of optimism bias. Results of structural equation modeling using a sample of 219 college students provide evidence that individuals having an optimism bias engage in piracy because they consider themselves to be at lower risk than average compared to a group. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed.
Keywords: Music piracy; Optimism bias; Perceived risks; Attitude; Intention
How do interactive tabletop systems influence collaboration? BIBAKFull-Text 49-59
  Stéphanie Buisine; Guillaume Besacier; Améziane Aoussat; Frédéric Vernier
This paper examines some aspects of the usefulness of interactive tabletop systems, if and how these impact collaboration. We chose creative problem solving such as brainstorming as an application framework to test several collaborative media: the use of pen-and-paper tools, the "around-the-table" form factor, the digital tabletop interface, the attractiveness of interaction styles. Eighty subjects in total (20 groups of four members) participated in the experiments. The evaluation criteria were task performance, collaboration patterns (especially equity of contributions), and users' subjective experience. The "around-the-table" form factor, which is hypothesized to promote social comparison, increased performance and improved collaboration through an increase of equity. Moreover, the attractiveness of the tabletop device improved subjective experience and increased motivation to engage in the task. However, designing attractiveness seems a highly challenging issue, since overly attractive interfaces may distract users from the task.
Keywords: Tabletop interfaces; Creative problem solving; Brainstorming; Social loafing; Collaboration; Motivation
How to work and play with robots: An approach to modeling human-robot interaction BIBAKFull-Text 60-68
  Rosemarie E. Yagoda; Michael D. Coovert
Effective human-robot team configurations and exchanges are needed to ensure optimal task performance for human-robot teams. The exchanges between robots and human operators are mediated through an interface and this interaction has a direct impact on the team configuration associated with a particular task. Building upon the traditional methodologies of job and cognitive work analysis, Petri nets are introduced as a modeling tool for human robot interaction (HRI). An overview of Petri nets is provided and utilizing data from search-and-rescue unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations, operator nets are constructed. Analysis of the networks yielded several significant findings. Petri nets provide many advantages beyond traditional methodologies and are seen as a useful tool for modeling human-robot interactions. Future research can utilize the methodology not only in a descriptive fashion, but also prescriptively for building models of optimal human-robot interaction.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; Petri nets; Modeling; Unmanned aerial vehicles
"To disclose or not to disclose, that is the question": A structural equation modeling approach to communication privacy management in e-health BIBAKFull-Text 69-77
  Seung-A. Annie Jin
Driven by communication privacy management (CPM) theory and regulatory focus theory (RFT), this study examined important antecedents of information withholding and truthful disclosure in the novel context of e-health communication. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that health consumers' behavioral activation system (BAS) and favorable evaluation of an e-health website are positive predictors of truthful disclosure and that health consumers' prevention regulatory focus and self-concealment tendency are positive predictors of information sensitivity. Theoretical contributions regarding the relevance of CPM and RFT to computer-mediated communication (CMC) and practical implications for the design of persuasive e-health websites are discussed.
Keywords: Privacy management; Information withholding; Truthful disclosure; E-health; Regulatory focus; Self-concealment tendency
Responses to an advergaming campaign on a mobile social networking site: An initial research report BIBAKFull-Text 78-86
  Shintaro Okazaki; María Jesús Yagüe
Advergames are a form of branded entertainment that feature advertising messages, logos, and trade characters in a game format. This paper reports a preliminary examination on the effects of an advergame on perceived brand value in a context of mobile social networking sites (SNSs). Drawn upon categorization theory, the study posits that, while mobile SNS engagement stimulates electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) intention among game players, perceived brand-game fit also drives eWOM intention, which in turn positively affects perceived brand value. Furthermore, perceived brand-game fit is contemplated to be a direct driver of perceived brand value. A research model is validated by a large-scale online survey. Using a real promotional campaign for a popular consumer good (Procter & Gamble's Pringles), the authors create an advergame for one of the most popular mobile SNSs in Japan. The results from structural equation modeling corroborate all hypothesized relationships. This article closes with some theoretical and managerial implications, as well as recognition of important limitations.
Keywords: Advergaming; Brand fit; Brand value; Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM); Mobile device; Social networking site
Migrating from WCAG 1.0 to WCAG 2.0 -- A comparative study based on Web Content Accessibility Guidelines in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 87-96
  Shing-Han Li; David C. Yen; Wen-Hui Lu; Tsun-Lin Lin
The primary purpose of this research was to explore a comparative analysis of the "Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)" standard in Taiwan and the international WCAG standards (WCAG 1.0/WCAG 2.0). The WCAG in Taiwan was established by the Research, Development and Evaluation Commission (RDEC), Executive Yuan in 2002. The WCAG 1.0 was established by the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI, an organization that created the Web Content Accessibility system) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and became a W3C standard on May 5, 1999. The WCAG 2.0 became a W3C standard on December 11, 2008.
   The WCAG in Taiwan was established based on the contents of the WCAG 1.0. However, as the WCAG 2.0 was announced in 2008, check standards based on the WCAG 1.0 were facing revision in all aspects. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing and comparing the differences between the WCAG 2.0 and the WCAG standards in Taiwan. Utilizing "human check" based on the WCAG 2.0 standard, this study assessed disabilities-related websites conforming to the WCAG standard in Taiwan. Results suggested that migrating from WCAG in Taiwan (based on WCAG 1.0) to WCAG 2.0 does not require a full range revision of webpage design. Suggestions given to disabilities-related websites in Taiwan for developing and providing more complete web accessibility included: (1) websites without accessible design should directly follow the WCAG 2.0 standard in developing web accessibility; (2) future promotion of web accessibility should include all educational institutes and related associations/organizations.
   For future studies, the resource availability for the disabled and the government achievement in web accessibility after WCAG 2.0 is implemented in Taiwan are topics worth of investigation. Expert opinions and user feedbacks should be included to reflect the actual needs of people with disabilities.
Keywords: Web accessibility; Web Content Accessibility; Web Content Accessibility Guidelines; WCAG; WCAG1.0; WCAG2.0
My avatar and me -- Gender and personality predictors of avatar-self discrepancy BIBAKFull-Text 97-106
  Robert Andrew Dunn; Rosanna E. Guadagno
This study examined the influence of gender, the Big 5 personality factors, and self-esteem on virtual self-representation in the form of avatar-self discrepancy. To examine this, participants designed characters to play in a video game, spent 20 min playing the video game, and then had their actual pictures taken. Our results indicated that, consistent with predictions, men and women generally selected self-representations consistent with ideal male and female bodies. This finding was pronounced for men and women high in agreeableness. Conversely, some results contradicted the normative prescriptions often associated with self-presentation. For instance, men did not build taller avatars than did women. Men who were high in openness to new experiences were more likely to select avatars with skin tone variations. Introverts -- both male and female -- and women high in neuroticism were more likely to build attractive avatars. Moreover, those with low self-esteem were more likely to select lighter skin tones than those with high self-esteem. Thus, the effects of gender and personality have considerable implications for online self-presentation and self-representation.
Keywords: Self-presentation; Avatar selection; Gender; Personality; Self-esteem
Make new friends or keep the old: Gender and personality differences in social networking use BIBAKFull-Text 107-112
  Nicole L. Muscanell; Rosanna E. Guadagno
The present study examined the influence of gender and personality on individuals' use of online social networking websites such as Facebook and MySpace. Participants were 238 undergraduate students who reported being members of Facebook, MySpace, or both. Based on prior research examining online behavior, we expected that gender and scores on the Big Five personality scale would moderate online social networking behavior. The results supported our predictions. Specifically, men reported using social networking sites for forming new relationships while women reported using them more for relationship maintenance. Furthermore, women low in agreeableness reported using instant messaging features of social networking sites more often than women high in agreeableness, whereas men low in openness reported playing more games on social networking sites compared to men high in openness. Overall, these results indicate the importance of examining individual differences in online behavior.
Keywords: Gender; Personality; Individual differences; Social networking; Internet; Five factor model
All the news that's fit to post: A profile of news use on social networking sites BIBAKFull-Text 113-119
  Carroll J. Glynn; Michael E. Huge; Lindsay H. Hoffman
Facebook and other social networking sites (SNSs) are altering the way individuals communicate. These online environments allow users to keep up with friends, network with colleagues, and share their personal views and observations with others. Previous work describes typical social networking site users as young, extroverted, and technologically savvy. Little research exists, however, on the emerging role of news in the social network environment. With over 500 million global Facebook users, both print and television based media outlets are making concerted efforts to become part of this important and increasingly ubiquitous virtual world. The present study uses a sample of students, faculty, and staff from a large university to investigate the factors that are related to news use on Facebook. Findings indicate that while news use is still a minor component of overall social network site activity, certain key variables, such as gender and life satisfaction, have a significant impact on how Facebook is used for news-related purposes. Future implications for news in the social networking world are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Internet; Political communication; News use; Media; Social networking; Demographic patterns
Effects of sense of direction on Internet skill and cognitive maps of the Web BIBAKFull-Text 120-128
  Ikuo Suzuki
The relationship of sense of direction in the real world to Internet use, as well as to cognitive maps of the Internet, was investigated. In Study 1, 28 participants were asked to draw a sketch map of the Internet. They also completed a questionnaire containing scales for measuring Internet usage, knowledge, and skill, and completed the Sense of Direction Questionnaire (SDQ-S), which is composed of two scales, awareness of orientation and memory for usual spatial behavior. In Study 2, 48 participants performed a modified sketch map task and completed the same questionnaires. Awareness of orientation improved the Internet skills of novices but not of experts. In addition, awareness of orientation affected the structure of the cognitive maps of the Internet. These results suggest that sense of direction in the real world influence skill with the Web for novice users.
Keywords: Internet; Sense of direction; Web skills; Cognitive map; Sketch map
Mobile payment services adoption across time: An empirical study of the effects of behavioral beliefs, social influences, and personal traits BIBAKFull-Text 129-142
  Shuiqing Yang; Yaobin Lu; Sumeet Gupta; Yuzhi Cao; Rui Zhang
Mobile payment is an emerging and important application of mobile commerce. The adoption and use of mobile payment services are critical for both service providers and investors to profit from such an innovation. The present study attempts to identify the determinants of pre-adoption of mobile payment services and explore the temporal evolution of these determinants across the pre-adoption and post-adoption stages from a holistic perspective including behavioral beliefs, social influences, and personal traits. A research model that reflects the characteristics and usage contexts of mobile payment services is developed and empirically tested by using structural equation modeling on datasets consisting of 483 potential adopters and 156 current users of a mobile payment service in China. Our findings show that behavioral beliefs in combination with social influences and personal traits are all important determinants for mobile payment services adoption and use, but their impacts on behavioral intention do vary across in different stages. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are presented.
Keywords: Social influences; Personal traits; Behavioral beliefs; Mobile payment services; Potential adopters; Current users
Why we believe the computer when it lies BIBAKFull-Text 143-152
  Mladen Pecujlija; Dubravko Culibrk
A survey was conducted on the sample of 60 future engineers in order to determine whether inadequate computer feedback changes the supposed success in problem solving and whether personality traits are also in the function of this change. The research results showed that personality traits fail to influence the formation of beliefs on success. Results also showed that the situation of inadequate feedback results in the changes in beliefs, on the success in problem solving and that the change is in the function of personality traits and established experience-based behavior strategies. In this situation respondents do not form any strategy for attitude conservation, but inadequate computer feedback significantly reduces estimation of their success regardless to the fact that the objective achievement is not reduced.
Keywords: Persuasion; Self-estimation; Personality traits; Attitude; Big Five
The immorality of illegal downloading: The role of anticipated guilt and general emotions BIBAKFull-Text 153-159
  Xiao Wang; Steven R. McClung
To extend previous cognition-based illegal downloading research, this project postulates that anticipated guilt, general emotions, attitudes, and norms collectively determine intentions to download digital files illegally. Our findings indicate that college students were more likely to download if they had more favorable attitudes, perceived greater social approval, and perceived more control over illegal downloading. More importantly, this study reveals that college students generally felt a low level of anticipated guilt toward illegal downloading. Anticipated guilt was a significant, negative predictor of intentions to download among those who engaged in illegal downloading in the previous 6 months, but not among those did not. General anticipated emotions predicted intentions to download among the whole sample. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Computers; Illegal digital downloading; Peer-to-peer file sharing; The theory of planned behavior; Guilt; Emotions; Attitudes
Evaluation of a workplace technology for mental health assessment: A meaning-making process BIBAKFull-Text 160-165
  Ramesh Farzanfar; Danielle Finkelstein
This paper describes the results of a summative evaluation conducted to explore the usability and acceptability of an automated telephone-based technology, designed and developed as a screening tool for mental health disorders in the workplace. The system screens employees for symptoms and subsequently provides educational information and referrals to improve mental health and enhance productivity. The qualitative evaluation was a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT). We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 individuals who participated in the RCT and had used the system. A phenomenological theoretical framework was utilized to analyze the narrative data. Results indicated that participants had mostly positive experience with the system and perceived it as a confidential program that allowed them to reflect on their symptoms without inhibition, fear of judgment or embarrassment. We also learned that asking mere questions about mental health symptoms can be a positive, instructive and possibly a restorative experience. There is a likelihood that for many participants, exposure to questions about their emotional and mental distress validated their feelings about their symptoms and was sufficiently compelling to promote help-seeking behavior. This evaluation study demonstrates that computers can be utilized in the workplace as effective screening and educational tools to improve employees' mental health.
Keywords: Automated workplace mental health screening; Human-computer interaction; Qualitative evaluation; Computers and behavior change
What is beautiful is good, even online: Correlations between photo attractiveness and text attractiveness in men's online dating profiles BIBAKFull-Text 166-170
  Rebecca J. Brand; Abigail Bonatsos; Rebecca D'Orazio; Hilary DeShong
Attractive people are considered by others to have many positive qualities and in the case of social skills and intelligence, these attributions are often true. In internet dating, individuals with attractive profile photos are viewed more favorably overall, but no research has yet established whether they indeed have more positive qualities. We addressed this issue by having 50 women independently rate 100 photos and free-written texts taken from males' profiles on a popular dating website. Photos rated as physically attractive had profile texts that were rated as more attractive, even though photos and texts were rated by different judges. Perceived confidence seemed to play a mediating role, suggesting that attractive men write appealing texts because they are aware of their high mate value. Thus, contrary to popular belief, the internet does not seem to "level the playing field."
Keywords: Internet dating; Physical attractiveness stereotype; Good genes; Self-fulfilling prophecy
Why do women write personal blogs? Satisfying needs for self-disclosure and affiliation tell part of the story BIBAKFull-Text 171-180
  Gina Masullo Chen
Hierarchical OLS regression of survey results from a random sample of 312 women bloggers reveals a statistically significant positive relationship between need for self-disclosure and seeing blogging as a way to express one's own voice, mediated by need for affiliation and time spent blogging. In essence, women with a strong need to self-disclose information about themselves are more likely than other women to say they blog to express their own voice in the blogosphere, compared with blogging to connect with other people or to gain influence in the blogosphere. In contrast, for women who blog to connect with other people or gain influence in the blogosphere, the strongest predictors is time spent blogging, not needs that motivated them to blog. Results are discussed in relation to need theory.
Keywords: Blogging; Self-disclosure; Affiliation; Needs; Women; Computer-mediated communication
Video lecture format, student technological efficacy, and social presence in online courses BIBAKFull-Text 181-186
  Alendra Lyons; Stephen Reysen; Lindsey Pierce
Online platforms are frequently used as an alternative environment for individuals to meet and engage in a variety of activities, like attending courses online. We examined the effect of adding social presence cues in online video lectures and technological efficacy on college students' perceived learning, class social presence, and perception that the videos aided learning. Participants rated their technological efficacy and completed an online class with video lectures that either included the video (image) of the instructor or not. The interaction between technological efficacy and video manipulation predicted lower ratings of perceived learning, social presence, and video usefulness, particularly for students with lower technological efficacy. A mediated-moderation analysis showed that, the interaction between person (efficacy) and media (instructor image in video vs. no image) predicted greater perceived learning through the mediators of perceived usefulness of videos, class interactivity, and felt comfort in the class.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Social presence; Video lecture; Online education; Student learning
Too much face and not enough books: The relationship between multiple indices of Facebook use and academic performance BIBAKFull-Text 187-198
  Reynol Junco
Because of the social media platform's widespread adoption by college students, there is a great deal of interest in how Facebook use is related to academic performance. A small number of prior studies have examined the relationship between Facebook use and college grade point average (GPA); however, these studies have been limited by their measures, sampling designs and failure to include prior academic ability as a control variable. For instance, previous studies used non-continuous measures of time spent on Facebook and self-reported GPA. This paper fills a gap in the literature by using a large sample (N = 1839) of college students to examine the relationship among multiple measures of frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and time spent preparing for class and actual overall GPA. Hierarchical (blocked) linear regression analyses revealed that time spent on Facebook was strongly and significantly negatively related to overall GPA, while only weakly related to time spent preparing for class. Furthermore, using Facebook for collecting and sharing information was positively predictive of the outcome variables while using Facebook for socializing was negatively predictive.
Keywords: Facebook; Academic performance; Grade point average; Hierarchical linear regression; Student engagement
A social network as information: The effect of system generated reports of connectedness on credibility on Twitter BIBAKFull-Text 199-206
  David Westerman; Patric R. Spence; Brandon Van Der Heide
Social media have gained increased usage rapidly for a variety of reasons. News and information is one such reason. The current study examines how system-generated cues available in social media impact perceptions of a source's credibility. Participants were asked to view one of six mock Twitter.com pages that varied both the number of followers and the ratio between followers and follows on the page and report their perceived source credibility. Data indicate that curvilinear effects for number of followers exist, such that having too many or too few connections results in lower judgments of expertise and trustworthiness. Having a narrow gap between the number of followers and follows also led to increased judgments of competence. Implications of these findings are discussed, along with limitations of the current study and directions for future research.
Keywords: Social media; News; Online credibility; System-generated cues; Computer-mediated communication
Learning with personalized recommender systems: A psychological view BIBAKFull-Text 207-216
  Jürgen Buder; Christina Schwind
This paper explores the potentials of recommender systems for learning from a psychological point of view. It is argued that main features of recommender systems (collective responsibility, collective intelligence, user control, guidance, personalization) fit very well to principles in the learning sciences. However, recommender systems should not be transferred from commercial to educational contexts on a one-to-one basis, but rather need adaptations in order to facilitate learning. Potential adaptations are discussed both with regard to learners as recipients of information and learners as producers of data. Moreover, it is distinguished between system-centered adaptations that enable proper functioning in educational contexts, and social adaptations that address typical information processing biases. Implications for the design of educational recommender systems and for research on educational recommender systems are discussed.
Keywords: Recommender systems; Learning
Rash impulsivity, vengefulness, virtual-self and amplification of ethical relativism on cyber-smearing against corporations BIBAKFull-Text 217-225
  Michael Workman
Office outbursts are often associated with impulsive reactions to something that is said or done that aggravates an individual by offending his or her beliefs, expectations, sensibilities, or principles. Vengefulness is linked to needs for retribution (until satisfied) for a perceived offense. An unsettled issue is whether these antecedents are also manifested in electronic expressions known as cyber smearing. Free speech by constitution and legislation in the US, UK, EU have been held as a cherished value and basic right, but the rights to free speech are not unlimited and in fact are legally constrained to varying degrees regarding issues such as related to privacy, defamation, and harassment. Cyber smearing is a campaign waged to damage the credibility or reputation of others over the Internet. Using a randomized study we investigated rash impulsivity, vengefulness, and anonymous identity (a virtual self), as factors contributing to cyber smearing, and we found that when people who lack self-control and have tendencies to seek revenge especially when shrouded in anonymity of virtual self and concomitantly have high tendencies toward cyber smearing. We also found that those who hold the view in which ethical standards are situational and relative amplifies these cyber smearing behaviors.
Keywords: Cyber smear; Online behavior; Impulsivity; Vengefulness; Vindictiveness; Ethics
The changing face of bullying: An empirical comparison between traditional and internet bullying and victimization BIBAKFull-Text 226-232
  Danielle M. Law; Jennifer D. Shapka; Shelley Hymel; Brent F. Olson; Terry Waterhouse
Electronic aggression, or cyberbullying, is a relatively new phenomenon. As such, consistency in how the construct is defined and operationalized has not yet been achieved, inhibiting a thorough understanding of the construct and how it relates to developmental outcomes. In a series of two studies, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFAs and CFAs respectively) were used to examine whether electronic aggression can be measured using items similar to that used for measuring traditional bullying, and whether adolescents respond to questions about electronic aggression in the same way they do for traditional bullying. For Study I (n = 17 551; 49% female), adolescents in grades 8-12 were asked to what extent they had experience with physical, verbal, social, and cyberbullying as a bully and victim. EFA and CFA results revealed that adolescents distinguished between the roles they play (bully, victim) in a bullying situation but not forms of bullying (physical, verbal, social, cyber). To examine this further, Study II (n = 733; 62% female), asked adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 to respond to questions about their experience sending (bully), receiving (victim), and/or seeing (witness) specific online aggressive acts. EFA and CFA results revealed that adolescents did not differentiate between bullies, victims, and witnesses; rather, they made distinctions among the methods used for the aggressive act (i.e. sending mean messages or posting embarrassing pictures). In general, it appears that adolescents differentiated themselves as individuals who participated in specific mode of online aggression, rather than as individuals who played a particular role in online aggression. This distinction is discussed in terms of policy and educational implications.
Keywords: Internet aggression; Cyberbullying; Bullying; Aggression
Action diversity in a simulation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict BIBAKFull-Text 233-240
  Cleotilde Gonzalez; Ronit Kampf; Jolie M. Martin
This article explores the strategies used by Israeli students to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in the interactive computer game, PeaceMaker. Students played PeaceMaker in the roles of both the Israeli Prime Minister and the Palestinian President in random order. Students must take actions satisfying constituents on both sides of the conflict in order to win the game. The diversity of actions taken in each role was measured. Several hypotheses test the degree to which Israeli students, depending on which role they played and their own demographic variables, exploited a consistent set of actions or explored a more diverse range of actions across three main types: construction, political, and security. The results show that (1) greater action diversity increases success in both roles, (2) Israeli students engaged in less diverse actions when playing the Israeli role than when playing the Palestinian role, (3) students' religiosity and political Hawkishness negatively predicted action diversity when playing the Palestinian role, and (4) action diversity mediates the relationship between a student's background knowledge about the conflict and success in the Israeli role. The significance of these findings for understanding attitudes about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict are discussed, including implications for conflict resolution more generally.
Keywords: Action diversity; Conflict resolution; Dynamic decision making; PeaceMaker; Exploration
Anthropomorphism of computers: Is it mindful or mindless? BIBAKFull-Text 241-250
  Youjeong Kim; S. Shyam Sundar
In analyzing the human tendency to treat computers as social actors (CASA), researchers tend to rule out the anthropomorphism explanation because anthropomorphism is understood to be "a sincere, conscious belief" that computers are human and/or deserving of human attributions. But, does anthropomorphism have to be necessarily mindful? Could it not also be a mindless tendency, especially given that most of us have somewhat long associations with our computers and have built human-like bonds with them? We examined these questions empirically by investigating whether the user tendency to treat computers as human beings is conscious (mindful) or non-conscious (mindless). We manipulated two variables (presence/absence of human-like agent and the low/high interactivity) on a health website and experimentally investigated whether they serve as anthropomorphic cues to trigger mindful attributions of human-ness to the website or mindless evaluations of the site in human terms. We found evidence for mindless anthropomorphism, with implications for user judgments of credibility of information on the site.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism; Interactivity; Human-like agent; Social presence; Information credibility
Does survey format influence self-disclosure on sensitive question items? BIBAKFull-Text 251-256
  Kristina Kays; Kathleen Gathercoal; William Buhrow
Although there are advantages for use of internet based survey research over other formats, there remains in question whether survey mode influences the data measurement equivalency. While most research exploring survey format finds little or no difference in measurement equivalency, the interaction of sensitive topics and survey modality is not fully understood. Additionally, research suggests gender differences in item response on sensitive topics. The present study examined archival data from a college health survey using both online and paper-pencil survey formats. The interaction was evaluated between gender, survey format, and item sensitivity level. Results indicate that question topic sensitivity has a large effect on missing data, and survey format has a moderate effect. These findings have necessary implications for survey design and outcome interpretations.
Keywords: Survey format; Gender; Sensitive items; Self-disclosure; Item non-response
Going to town: Visualized perspectives and navigation through virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 257-266
  Tad T. Brunyé; Aaron Gardony; Caroline R. Mahoney; Holly A. Taylor
Two experiments examined how spatial learning perspectives support navigation through virtual urban environments. Participants briefly learned the overall layout of a virtual desktop environment, and then were taken on a simulated journey ending at a starting location within the environment. In Experiment 1, during the journey participants watched simulated video feeds either from the front of the vehicle (route perspective), above the vehicle (survey perspective), both feeds simultaneously, or no video at all. Participants then navigated between ten successive landmarks, and we measured indices of spatial and temporal efficiency, and heading error. Results indicated that the route perspective supported a restricted range of local navigation whereas the survey perspective better supported far-space navigation. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the survey perspective also better supports navigation around unexpected detours. Results are discussed with regard to theories of spatial memory and the design of computer-supported spatial visualization technologies.
Keywords: Spatial cognition; Spatial perspectives; Navigation; Spatial visualizations
The influence of personality on Facebook usage, wall postings, and regret BIBAKFull-Text 267-274
  Kelly Moore; James C. McElroy
The Five Factor Model of personality has been used extensively in the management and psychology fields to predict attitudes and behaviors. Only recently have researchers begun to examine the role of psychological factors in influencing an individual's use of technology platforms, such as Facebook. This study uses both a survey of Facebook users and actual Facebook data to uncover why some individuals are more involved in Facebook than others. 219 undergraduate students participated in a survey that assessed their personality and their reported usage of Facebook. Of these, 143 voluntarily befriended the investigator, which gave her access to their actual Facebook sites and objective data on their number of friends, photos, and wall postings. Results showed personality to explain significant amounts of variance over and above gender and Facebook experience in terms of actual number of Facebook friends, the nature of their wall postings and on their level of regret for inappropriate Facebook content.
Keywords: Facebook; Personality; Five Factor Model (FFM)
How do learners respond to pedagogical agents that deliver social-oriented non-task messages? Impact on student learning, perceptions, and experiences BIBAKFull-Text 275-283
  George Veletsianos
In this paper, I investigate the impact of non-task pedagogical agent behavior on learning outcomes, perceptions of agents' interaction ability, and learner experiences. Quasi-experimental results indicate that while the addition of non-task comments to an on-task tutorial may increase learning and perceptions of the agent's ability to interact with learners, this increase is not statistically significant. Further addition of non-task comments however, harms learning and perceptions of the agent's ability to interact with learners in statistically significant ways. Qualitative results reveal that on-task interactions are efficient but impersonal, while non-task interactions were memorable, but distracting. Implications include the potential for non-task interactions to create an uncanny valley effect for agent behavior.
Keywords: Pedagogical agents; Non-task interactions; Off-task interactions; Learner experience; Human-computer interaction; Uncanny valley effect

CHB 2012-03 Volume 28 Issue 2

Are there optimal levels of arousal to memory? Effects of arousal, centrality, and familiarity on brand memory in video games BIBAKFull-Text 285-291
  Eui Jun Jeong; Frank A. Biocca
Using a modified first-person shooter game, Counter Strike 2, this study tested (1) if the Yerkes-Dodson law could be applied to the relationship between physiological arousal (skin conductance) and brand memory in the new interactive technology setting; (2) if central and familiar ads are better recognized; and (3) if there are any interaction effects among arousal, centrality, and familiarity on brand memory. A pre-test was conducted to estimate the cut-off points of arousal into three levels (low, medium, and high) in the identical setting. Through within-subject analysis, a total of 550 cases were categorized into the three levels of arousal and analyzed. The results showed the highest recognition scores at the medium level of arousal, and no significant difference between the medium and high levels of arousal in brand memory. The participants remembered better centrally located brands than peripheral brands. Familiarity also had a positive relationship with the levels of arousal. Particularly, the recognition scores for centrally located brands increased with the levels of arousal, but no difference was found for peripheral brands. Findings and implications were discussed.
Keywords: Arousal; Memory; Games; Yerkes-Dodson law; Centrality; Familiarity
Is that deal worth my money? The effect of relative and referent thinking on starting price under different promotion programs using hotel coupons in online auctions BIBAKFull-Text 292-299
  Austin Rong-Da Liang; Houn-Gee Chen
Developments in information technology have made shopping at home much easier and have created a so-called "Otaku economy" that is an increasing focus for tourism and hotel business managers. A related development is the increase in the popularity and value of online auction channels. Scholars thus argue that it is important to examine what factors influence consumers' bidding behavior in this new context. One issue is what initial bidding price and a promotion program must offer to attract customers to join an auction when they will be using a complex online auction mechanism. This study used a 2 × 2 between-subjects design and the principles of relative and referent thinking to examine the influence of the starting price (whether the starting price deviates from the reference price) and the promotion program (price vs. non-price) on consumers' online bidding for hotel coupons. The results of the analysis indicate the following. First, starting price is positively related to end price. Second, the relative thinking effect holds when the actual price is the same as the sellers' reference price (i.e., when the starting price is higher). In this context, consumers prefer price promotion programs, and hence, their willingness to pay through bidding will increase. Finally, the referent thinking effect holds when the actual price deviates from the seller's reference price (i.e., when the starting price is low). In this context, consumers prefer non-price promotion programs, and their willingness to pay through bidding will increase. The academic and managerial implications of this research are discussed in the conclusion.
Keywords: Relative thinking; Referent thinking; Sales promotion program; Start/reference price; Bidding behavior in online auctions
Do websites influence the nature of voting intentions? The case of two national elections in Greece BIBAKFull-Text 300-307
  Savvas Papagiannidis; Constantinos K. Coursaris; Michael Bourlakis
This paper aims to contribute to the growing body of research on online political marketing by investigating the use of websites as a marketing tool in the 2007 and 2009 general elections in Greece. The two main research objectives are firstly to establish the key factors affecting voters' trust when it comes to using politicians' websites and secondly to examine whether and to what extent the influence of trust-building factors changes over-time, as the online environment matures. The key findings of this research are that users tend to visit the websites of favoured candidates, which reinforces their positive perceptions of them, while as far as the websites themselves and their content and the services provided are concerned there is still room for improvement.
Keywords: Political marketing; Online marketing; Websites; Trustworthiness; National elections; Greece
An observational study of undergraduate students' adoption of (mobile) note-taking software BIBAKFull-Text 308-317
  Astrid Schepman; Paul Rodway; Carol Beattie; Jordana Lambert
Mobile learning is increasing in popularity, but not all university students have mobile devices to support it. Our study investigated cross-platform software that has the potential to allow education practitioners to provide mobile support to their students' learning, while offering similar functionality to non-mobile users via more traditional computing platforms. Undergraduate students were trained in the use of multi-platform cloud-based note-taking software (Evernote), and used the software in independent study for 8 weeks. Data show adoption for a range of functions, particularly gathering and managing information, organisation and planning, and the recording of ideas. Multimedia functions were also adopted innovatively by some students. Use for reflection was rare. Non-adopters were in a minority, giving low utility appraisals and difficulty in changing habits as reasons. Subjective evaluations and recommendations showed that a majority of students felt positive about the software and found it quick and easy to use. Mobile and non-mobile users only differed on the number of locations in which they used the software, and the proportion of notes classified as ideas, both being higher in mobile users. The data provide decision support for education practitioners who wish to provide mobile learning to their students alongside traditional platforms.
Keywords: Mobile learning; m-Learning; Cloud computing; Note taking; Portfolio; Idea generation
Spatial proximity to others determines how humans inhabit virtual worlds BIBAKFull-Text 318-323
  Anna M. Lomanowska; Matthieu J. Guitton
Highly immersive three-dimensional virtual worlds have emerged as a popular medium for human social interactions. These environments enable multimodal sensory engagement and provide an immersive graphical representation of physical space where users can interact via avatars. However, when compared to two-dimensional virtual settings such as chats, virtual worlds impose constraints on social interactions due to the physical distance between individuals. Using the popular platform of Second Life as a model, we examined how humans manage this interindividual distance in virtual worlds. Taking advantage of methods developed in population ecology, we investigated how avatars are distributed in relation to each other to populate a virtual world. Our results revealed a striking dichotomy in the spatial relationships between avatars. Considerable aggregation, largely independent of population density, was observed alongside surprisingly marked physical isolation. These findings demonstrate that the spatial proximity to others determines how humans inhabit virtual worlds.
Keywords: Avatars; Interpersonal distance; Second Life; Social density; Spatial distribution; Virtual environments
Enterprise knowledge management model based on China's practice and case study BIBAKFull-Text 324-330
  Jingyuan Zhao; Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos; Zhongying Qi
This study analyzes the situation of enterprise knowledge management in China based on the survey and data in terms of knowledge management recognition, knowledge management stages, knowledge management applications, integration of knowledge, motivation and effect of knowledge management, and finds that the enterprise knowledge management in China is still at the initial stage, therefore it is significant to establish a general knowledge management model for China's enterprises. This study develops a framework of general knowledge management model from the perspective of organizational competitive advantages, and further discusses the application of enterprise knowledge management model through the case of Landray.
Keywords: Knowledge management; Management model; China; Landray
News sharing in social media: The effect of gratifications and prior experience BIBAKFull-Text 331-339
  Chei Sian Lee; Long Ma
Recent events indicate that sharing news in social media has become a phenomenon of increasing social, economic and political importance because individuals can now participate in news production and diffusion in large global virtual communities. Yet, knowledge about factors influencing news sharing in social media remains limited. Drawing from the uses and gratifications (U&G) and social cognitive theories (SCT), this study explored the influences of information seeking, socializing, entertainment, status seeking and prior social media sharing experience on news sharing intention. A survey was designed and administered to 203 students in a large local university. Results from structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis revealed that respondents who were driven by gratifications of information seeking, socializing, and status seeking were more likely to share news in social media platforms. Prior experience with social media was also a significant determinant of news sharing intention. Implications and directions for future work are discussed.
Keywords: Social media; News sharing; Gratifications; Motivations; Experience
The effects of mathematics instruction using spatial temporal cognition on teacher efficacy and instructional practices BIBAKFull-Text 340-349
  Natalie A. Tran; Stephanie Schneider; Lauren Duran; AnneMarie Conley; Lindsey Richland; Margaret Burchinal; Teomara Rutherford; Melissa Kibrick; Keara Osborne; Andrew Coulson; Fran Antenore; Abby Daniels; Michael E. Martinez
This paper examined the effects of an instructional approach known as Spatial Temporal Mathematics (ST Math) on teacher beliefs about mathematics teaching. Participants were 339 elementary teachers teaching grades 2-5 who were randomly assigned to a control or treatment group. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the effects of the intervention on self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and instructional practices using scientific reasoning. While the treatment did not yield significant effects in teacher outcomes, our secondary analysis indicated that time on ST Math and the integration of ST Math into daily instructions were positively associated with teacher efficacy and instructional practices using scientific reasoning. Implications of the results on teacher beliefs about mathematics teaching are discussed.
Keywords: Computer-based instruction; Teacher efficacy; Elementary mathematics
Effects of a collaborative annotation method on students' learning and learning-related motivation and affect BIBAKFull-Text 350-359
  Selen Razon; Jeannine Turner; Tristan E. Johnson; Guler Arsal; Gershon Tenenbaum
Two studies tested the effectiveness of a web-based collaborative annotation system (Hy-Lighter) for learning comprehension, and learning-related affect and motivation. In an undergraduate course setting, students (N = 27) in study 1, (1) highlighted and annotated selected articles, and (2) highlighted and annotated selected articles and reviewed peer highlights and annotations. In a graduate course setting, students (N = 40) in study 2, (1) highlighted and annotated selected articles, and (2) highlighted and annotated selected articles and reviewed peer highlights and annotations. Control groups in both studies read a hard copy of the articles -- without using HyLighter and engaging in its associated annotation practices. The main dependent variables included: (a) performance on quizzes, and (b) a number of affective and motivational variables related to reading assignments and academic success. Although not statistically significant, summative assessment scores were higher for students using HyLigther relative to the ones exposed to conventional instruction. HyLighter use also seemed to be associated with more positive affect in undergraduate students relative to their graduate counterparts. Somewhat equivocal findings between the two studies were attributed to the differential implementation of the software in and outside of the classroom. Recommendations for optimal use and desired outcomes were advanced.
Keywords: Web 2.0; Social annotation; Small group collaboration; Learning technology; Metacognition; Critical-thinking
An empirical analysis of the determinants of 3G adoption in China BIBAKFull-Text 360-369
  Alain Yee-Loong Chong; Keng-Boon Ooi; Binshan Lin; HaiJun Bao
The main aim of this study is to examine the factors that affect Chinese consumers' intention to adopt 3G. This study has extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by incorporating the determinants of perceived usefulness, cost, trust, and demographic profiles of Chinese consumers. Data is collected from Chinese consumers via self-administered questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the research model proposed. Our result showed that social influence, service quality and perceived ease of use have a direct and significant relationship with perceived usefulness of 3G, and this in turn affects the consumers' decision to adopt 3G. Contrary to existing TAM research, perceived ease of use was not found to have a direct and significant influence with Chinese consumers' intention to adopt 3G. Our study also revealed that those with higher educational level are more likely to adopt 3G. Based on the findings, this research is able to propose several practical recommendations to 3G providers in China, such as enhancing the variety of services provided through collaborations with mobile software and content developers. Furthermore, 3G providers can focus on promoting 3G through services such as "Friends and Family" packages as Chinese consumers' 3G adoption decisions is influenced by their social network. In terms of theoretical contributions, this study has answered many calls from past researchers to investigate the determinants of perceived usefulness. This research was also conducted in China, which is one of the largest telecommunication markets in the world.
Keywords: 3G; Adoption; China; TAM; Consumer behavior; Structural equation modeling
Information technology use and creativity: Findings from the Children and Technology Project BIBAKFull-Text 370-376
  Linda A. Jackson; Edward A. Witt; Alexander Ivan Games; Hiram E. Fitzgerald; Alexander von Eye; Yong Zhao
This research examined relationships between children's information technology (IT) use and their creativity. Four types of information technology were considered: computer use, Internet use, videogame playing and cell phone use. A multidimensional measure of creativity was developed based on Torrance's (1987, 1995) test of creative thinking. Participants were 491 12-year olds; 53% were female, 34% were African American and 66% were Caucasian American. Results indicated that videogame playing predicted of all measures of creativity. Regardless of gender or race, greater videogame playing was associated with greater creativity. Type of videogame (e.g., violent, interpersonal) was unrelated to videogame effects on creativity. Gender but not race differences were obtained in the amount and type of videogame playing, but not in creativity. Implications of the findings for future research to test the causal relationship between videogame playing and creativity and to identify mediator and moderator variables are discussed.
Keywords: Videogames; Creativity; Children; Technology use
Access, utility, imperfection: The impact of videoconferencing on perceptions of social presence BIBAKFull-Text 377-383
  Robert J. Lowden; Carol Hostetter
The intent of the research study was to identify relationships between the use of videoconferencing in meetings and what perceptions of social presence may exist related to age, gender, and usage compared to face-to-face meetings. Employees from a large Midwestern University Information Technology division who utilize videoconferencing to facilitate meetings as an alternative to face-to-face meetings were surveyed to assess experiences, perceptions, and satisfaction. Female and male employees (N = 157), ranging in age from 18 to over 50 years of age, provided the frequency of usage, and responded to questions related to perceptions of social presence. Quantitative analysis of the resulting data supported the hypothesis that one of the independent variables, gender, had a positive impact on perceptions of social presence. Brief interviews further elucidated the quantitative findings. While videoconferencing seems to have drawbacks, accessibility, flexibility, and utility are important aspects that are clear from participants' perceptions of videoconferencing.
Keywords: Social presence; Videoconferencing; Video; Meetings
The temporal communication behaviors of global software development student teams BIBAKFull-Text 384-392
  Kathleen Swigger; Matthew Hoyt; Fatma Cemile Serçe; Victor Lopez; Ferda Nur Alpaslan
This paper examines the global software development process by using content analysis techniques, as described in an earlier study (Serce et al., 2011), to determine time-variant patterns of communication behaviors among student teams engaged in a global software development project. Data gathered from two software development projects involving students in the US, Panama, and Turkey were used to determine how globally distributed team behavior is temporally patterned in complex ways. A formal, quantitative methodology for time variant analysis of the transcripts of global software student teams based on content analysis is established. Results from the analysis suggest a positive correlation between a team's temporal communication patterns and project outcomes as well as a relationship between variations in communication behaviors and different phases of the software development cycle. The research also found that the temporal variations in communication behaviors between software phases were similar for the two projects. Such findings are intended to strengthen the case for developing new temporal measures for analyzing groups and teams.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Computer supported collaborative learning; Computer mediated communication; Temporal factors; Collaborative behavior; Distributed learning
An exploration of cognitive ability contamination in the Implicit Association Test methodology BIBAKFull-Text 393-399
  Natalie A. Wright; Adam W. Meade
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between scores on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and cognitive ability. This relationship was investigated by examining the relationship between two different IATs, a cognitive ability test, and learning outcomes following a short training module. Results demonstrated that IATs scored with the D scoring algorithm were not significantly related to cognitive ability test scores, and were not related to post-training learning outcomes. However, IATs scored with the conventional scoring algorithm were significantly negatively related to cognitive ability, and the two IATs used in the study were significantly correlated with one another regardless of which scoring method was used.
Keywords: Implicit Association Test; Cognitive ability; Learning outcomes
Sense of virtual community: A follow up on its measurement BIBAKFull-Text 400-404
  Dagmar Abfalter; Melanie E. Zaglia; Julia Mueller
Understanding the dynamics of virtual communities has become an important issue for research. One concept that explains the participation in online communities is a sense of virtual community (SOVC), which is based on the offline equivalent sense of community (SOC) and describes a "spirit of belonging together". Although these two concepts are similar, their measurement is problematic. Inspired by earlier studies, which investigated whether traditional SOC measures are appropriate for measuring SOVC, we adopted the SOC index 2 (SCI2) recently developed by Chavis et al. in a virtual setting. Our aim was to determine whether the refined SOC measurement is more suitable for virtual communities than their forerunners. We tested the SCI2 in a popular German community on 312 respondents. Our results showed that a thorough measure of SOVC still needs further refinement. We also discuss possibilities for improvement.
Keywords: Sense of community; Virtual community; Online community
Developing methods for understanding social behavior in a 3D virtual learning environment BIBAKFull-Text 405-413
  Matthew Schmidt; James M. Laffey; Carla T. Schmidt; Xianhui Wang; Janine Stichter
This paper presents a case study of developing and implementing methods to capture, code and comprehend reciprocal social interactions in a three-dimensional virtual learning environment (3D VLE). The environment, iSocial, is being developed to help youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) develop social competencies. The approach to identifying, classifying and coding behavior in the 3D VLE uses an adaptation of reciprocal interaction coding methods traditionally used in single-subject research with individuals with ASD. These adaptations consider the unique characteristics of the 3D VLE technology and the nature and context of learning in this type of environment. A description of the coding methods employed is provided. Selected results are presented to illustrate how this methodology can offer detailed descriptions of learning and social interaction behavior in context. Such results demonstrate the potential of this approach for building new knowledge about how learning takes place and progresses in a 3D VLE and for making data-driven design decisions for improving the learning experience in the online social context.
Keywords: Three-dimensional virtual learning environments (3D VLE); Multi-user virtual learning environments (MUVEs); Autism spectrum disorders; All-views analysis; Social competency curriculum
Social compensation or rich-get-richer? The role of social competence in college students' use of the Internet to find a partner BIBAKFull-Text 414-419
  Meredith E. M. Poley; Shanhong Luo
Online dating continues to grow rapidly in popularity every day, yet the role of social competence in online dating behavior remains unclear. This study was designed to expand previous research and conduct a comprehensive investigation on how social competence is associated with college students' online dating behaviors, perceptions, and attitudes. Two hypotheses were tested: The social compensation hypothesis (SCH) -- socially incompetent individuals would engage in more online dating, and the rich-get-richer hypothesis (RGRH) -- socially competent individuals would use online dating more than their incompetent counterparts. The results showed that incompetent individuals, despite their ability to see benefits in online dating, did not show a favorable attitude towards online dating. They indicated a more frequent use of and a stronger preference for face-to-face dating compared to online dating, which contradicted the SCH. There were weak associations between competence traits and online dating behavior. Socially competent individuals perceived less benefit and showed less interest in online dating, which disconfirmed the RGRH.
Keywords: Online dating; Face to face dating; Anxiety; Social competence; Social compensation; Rich-get-richer
How to build an appropriate information ethics code for enterprises in Chinese cultural society BIBAKFull-Text 420-433
  Christina Ling-hsing Chang
Information ethics codes play a vital role in clarifying the responsibilities of MIS (management information systems) professionals and providing them with a point of reference when dealing with ethical issues. In view of the important 21st Century role played by China, particularly Mainland China, which represents a hugely significant market to all global enterprises, it is hoped that this study will assist the business world in understanding the culture in which Chinese business is conducted, and will facilitate the building of a suitable information ethics code in the future. Academically, this paper aims to explain how Confucian ethics and the guanxi1Guanxi: literally means "relationships," and stands for any type of relationship. In the Chinese business world, however, it is also understood as the network of relationships among various parties that cooperate together and support one another. The Chinese businessmen's mentality is very much one of "You scratch my back, I'll scratch yours." In essence, this boils down to exchanging favors, which are expected to be done regularly and voluntarily. Therefore, it is an important concept to understand if one is to function effectively in Chinese society. 1 culture perspective affect MIS professionals' ethical dilemmas and reactive processes. Specifically, it examines the reactive processes of MIS professionals in CHSyst (pseudonym) in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Mainland China. In practice, this study provides a good reference for enterprises such as the above that wish to find the most appropriate way to create an ethics code suitable for a Chinese company context to prevent Chinese MIS professionals from behaving unethically in their workplace. Such a code will serve to reduce the negative consequences of unethical conduct for the organization.
Keywords: Information ethics code; Confucian ethics and guanxi culture perspective; MIS professional
Effects of anonymity, invisibility, and lack of eye-contact on toxic online disinhibition BIBAKFull-Text 434-443
  Noam Lapidot-Lefler; Azy Barak
The present research studied the impact of three typical online communication factors on inducing the toxic online disinhibition effect: anonymity, invisibility, and lack of eye-contact. Using an experimental design with 142 participants, we examined the extent to which these factors lead to flaming behaviors, the typical products of online disinhibition. Random pairs of participants were presented with a dilemma for discussion and a common solution through online chat. The effects were measured using participants' self-reports, expert judges' ratings of chat transcripts, and textual analyses of participants' conversations. A 2 × 2 × 2 (anonymity/non-anonymity × visibility/invisibility × eye-contact/lack of eye-contact) MANOVA was employed to analyze the findings. The results suggested that of the three independent variables, lack of eye-contact was the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition. Consequently, it appears that previous studies might have defined the concept of anonymity too broadly by not addressing other online communication factors, especially lack of eye-contact, that impact disinhibition. The findings are explained in the context of an online sense of unidentifiability, which apparently requires a more refined view of the components that create a personal sense of anonymity.
Keywords: Online communication; Disinhibition; Anonymity; Invisibility; Eye-contact
Texting, sexting, and attachment in college students' romantic relationships BIBAKFull-Text 444-449
  Michelle Drouin; Carly Landgraff
In this study, we explored how texting and sexting practices are related to attachment in college students' (n = 744) committed romantic relationships. Participants completed a survey containing questions about their texting and sexting practices and attachment styles with relationship partners. Results showed that texting and sexting are relatively common in young adult romantic relationships, and texting and sexting are both significantly related to attachment style. However, whereas text messaging was more common among those with secure attachments (i.e., those with less attachment avoidance), sexting (both texts and pictures) was more common among those with insecure attachments, particularly those with higher attachment avoidance. Whereas anxious attachment predicted variance in sending sex text messages only, attachment avoidance contributed unique variance in sending both sex texts and pictures. This relationship was moderated by gender -- avoidant men were more likely than avoidant women to send sex text and picture messages to relationship partners.
Keywords: Sexting; Texting; Attachment; Relationships; Young adults; College
The immersive impact of meta-media in a virtual world BIBAKFull-Text 450-455
  Matthieu J. Guitton
With the increasing importance of virtual settings, we observe a complexification of the media used by members of the virtual communities. Using as the model the Star Wars Role-Play community of the virtual environment of Second Life, and a related news-styled blog, the "Galactic News Network", we analysed here the impact of this media complexification on immersion process. Specifically, we analysed how meta-media can act on virtual community behavior, and on the immersive potential of the virtual world. We combined "out-of-world" analysis of the blog, and "in-world" qualitative and quantitative evaluation of meta-media-related social activities. Our results demonstrate that meta-media strongly contribute to reinforce the immersive potential of the virtual setting via several mechanisms: by increasing three parameters of the virtual world (cohesion, coherence, and commitment), by increasing the social density of the virtual community, and by acting on the perceived time factor. The combined "in-world" and "out-of-world" action of the meta-media increases the possibilities of inter-individual connections. The combination of 2D asynchronous media and 3D instantaneous virtual settings in a homogeneous and coherent immersive environment reinforces the immersive potential of the virtual world. Thus, meta-media seem to be a factor of long-term stabilization of social structures in virtual environments.
Keywords: Avatar; Blog; Social interactions; Social density; Star Wars; Virtual community
Did IT consulting firms gain when their clients were breached? BIBAKFull-Text 456-464
  Jengchung V. Chen; Hung-Chih Li; David C. Yen; Kenneth Vincent Bata
Despite all the research investigating the impact of data and information technology (IT) breaches to the market value of the breached firms, few studies explore the effects of breach events on the stock price of consulting firms that supplies the know-how and infrastructure to create, implement and maintain those information systems that were hacked. Information transfer theory and capital market expectation suggest that as more data breaches occur every year, investors, clients and customers may well look beyond the faults of the individual firms, and place some responsibility on the shoulders of these IT providers. In this study, we investigated a total of 83 breach events affecting a wide range of US firms in various industries in year 2006 and 2007. We found that the market value of the IT consulting firms is positively associated with the disclosure of IT security breaches. The IT consulting firms realized an average abnormal return of 4.01% during the 2-day period after the announcement. Using the event-study method and Ordinary Least Squares Regression to calculate and analyze these firms' abnormal returns, we found evidence that as the number of breached records increased, the IT consulting firms tended to suffer negative returns. In addition, the observed impact was more salient for breaches that affect technology intensive firms than retailing or other firms. In other words, generally speaking, the IT consulting firms have similar experiences with the attacked firms.
Keywords: Event study; Data breaches; Abnormal returns; IT consulting
Meeting online contacts in real life among adolescents: The predictive role of psychosocial wellbeing and internet-specific parenting BIBAKFull-Text 465-472
  Annette Van den Heuvel; Regina J. J. M. van den Eijnden; Antonius J. van Rooij; Dike van de Mheen
Meeting online contacts in real life (IRL) has been associated with several risks, particularly for adolescents. This study aims to gain more insight into the prevalence of adolescents' real life meetings with online contacts and the prevalence of telling parents about these real life meetings. In addition, the predictive role of adolescents' psychosocial wellbeing and parents' internet-specific parenting on meeting online contacts IRL was examined, and the predictive role of internet-specific parenting on parental knowledge about these meetings. Longitudinal data were collected among 1796 adolescents who participated in two measurements of the Dutch Monitor Internet and Youth. The results show that about 17% of the adolescents had real life encounters with online contacts and that about 30% of the parents of these youngsters was not aware about it. Low self-esteem increased the probability of future meetings with online contacts, whereas feelings of loneliness reduced this chance. Moreover, parental rules about the content of internet use and parental reactions to excessive internet use, may help to prevent future meetings with online contacts in real life. Parents' awareness about these encounters was only cross-sectionally positively related to frequency and high quality of parent-child communication about internet.
Keywords: Internet; Adolescents; Online contacts; Psychosocial well-being; Parenting; Risks
Affective impact of navigational and signaling aids to e-learning BIBAKFull-Text 473-483
  Eunmo Sung; Richard E. Mayer
College students had 30 min to study a 17-frame online lesson on distance learning that included navigational aids (for showing the learner's location in the lesson), signaling aids (for highlighting the important content), both aids, or no aids. On a 30-item usability survey consisting of 8 usability scales, students who received navigational aids produced significantly higher mean ratings on each of the 8 usability scales -- ease of use, satisfaction of use, awareness of lesson structure, awareness of lesson length, awareness of location, ease of navigation, lesson comprehension, and lesson learning -- with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.50 to d = 1.35. Students who received signaling aids produced significantly higher ratings on 4 of the 8 usability scales -- ease of use, satisfaction of use, lesson comprehension, and lesson learning with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.39 to d = 2.15. Results help to clarify the mechanism underlying previous findings showing that students learned more from e-lessons that contained navigational aids. In the present study, there was a significant positive correlation between usability rating and recall test score for 5 of the 8 usability scales (particularly for ease of use), indicating partial support for the prediction that learners' satisfaction with an e-learning system is related to their learning outcome. Results support the predictions of the emotional design hypothesis and have implications for the design of e-learning interfaces.
Keywords: e-Readers; e-Lessons; Navigational aids; Signaling aids; Usability
Understanding users' motivations to engage in virtual worlds: A multipurpose model and empirical testing BIBAKFull-Text 484-495
  Tibert Verhagen; Frans Feldberg; Bart van den Hooff; Selmar Meents; Jani Merikivi
Despite the growth and commercial potential of virtual worlds, relatively little is known about what drives users' motivations to engage in virtual worlds. This paper proposes and empirically tests a conceptual model aimed at filling this research gap. Given the multipurpose nature of virtual words the model integrates extrinsic and intrinsic motivation as behavioral determinants. By making use of the literature on information system value and motivation theory four important system-specific virtual world characteristics (economic value, ease of use, escapism, visual attractiveness) are added as motivational drivers. Using structural equation modeling on a sample of 846 users of the virtual world Second Life the hypotheses were tested. The results support the model; they confirm the role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation as behavioral determinants and show how and to what extent the four system-specific elements function as motivational basis. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Virtual worlds; Multipurpose information systems; Information system value; Motivation theory; Extrinsic motivation; Intrinsic motivation
Internet use and depression among older adults BIBAKFull-Text 496-499
  Shelia R. Cotten; George Ford; Sherry Ford; Timothy M. Hale
The findings regarding the impact of Internet use on well-being are mixed and studies are often criticized due to small samples and lack of consistency in measurement. Fewer studies have examined this issue among older adults. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Internet use and depression among retired Americans age 50 years or older. Using data from the Health and Retirement Survey, the study estimates the relationship between Internet use and depression through combined use of regression and propensity score methodologies. All empirical methods indicate a positive contribution of Internet use to mental well-being of retired older adults (~50 years), reducing depression categorization by approximately 20-28%.
Keywords: Internet use; Depression; Older adults; Well-being
A thematic analysis of patient communication in Parkinson's disease online support group discussion forums BIBAKFull-Text 500-506
  Angelica Attard; Neil S. Coulson
Online support groups have become a popular source of information, advice and support for individuals living with a range of health conditions. However, research has not commonly focused on patients living with Parkinson's disease and their use of online support groups. Thus, the aim of this study was to gain an insight into the positive and negative aspects of online communication through an analysis of messages exchanged within Parkinson's disease discussion forums. Data was collected from four forums and analysed using data-driven thematic analysis. The results revealed that participation in the forums allowed patients to share experiences and knowledge, form friendships, as well as helping them cope with the challenges of living with Parkinson's disease. Conversely, a lack of replies, the experience of Parkinson's disease symptoms, a lack of personal information, fragility of online relationships, misunderstandings and disagreements, all appeared to compromise the online experience. Practical implications and future research recommendations are proposed.
Keywords: Parkinson's disease; Online support groups; Patient interaction; Thematic analysis
Improving retention rate and response quality in Web-based surveys BIBAKFull-Text 507-514
  Juan Sánchez-Fernández; Francisco Muñoz-Leiva; Francisco Javier Montoro-Ríos
This study centers on three parameters that can influence responses to Web-based surveys: personalization, the periodicity of follow-up mailings and incentives based on prize draws. The results show the need to send a lower number of reminders with personalized e-mail messages when the aim is for respondents to complete the full questionnaire. In contrast, the use of post-incentives based on prize draws was not found to have a significant effect on retention rate when used alone or in combination with personalized messages and/or a lower number of reminders. Moreover, none of the above factors, except personalization, improves response quality when used separately or in conjunction.
Keywords: Web-based surveys; Response quality; Personalization of invitations; Follow-up mailings; Post-incentives based on prize draws; Retention rate
Improving Information Problem Solving skills in Secondary Education through embedded instruction BIBAKFull-Text 515-526
  Esther Argelagós; Manoli Pifarré
This empirical study consists in an investigation of the effects, on the development of Information Problem Solving (IPS) skills, of a long-term embedded, structured and supported instruction in Secondary Education. Forty secondary students of 7th and 8th grades (13-15 years old) participated in the 2-year IPS instruction designed in this study. Twenty of them participated in the IPS instruction, and the remaining twenty were the control group. All the students were pre- and post-tested in their regular classrooms, and their IPS process and performance were logged by means of screen capture software, to warrant their ecological validity. The IPS constituent skills, the web search sub-skills and the answers given by each participant were analyzed. The main findings of our study suggested that experimental students showed a more expert pattern than the control students regarding the constituent skill 'defining the problem' and the following two web search sub-skills: 'search terms' typed in a search engine, and 'selected results' from a SERP. In addition, scores of task performance were statistically better in experimental students than in control group students. The paper contributes to the discussion of how well-designed and well-embedded scaffolds could be designed in instructional programs in order to guarantee the development and efficiency of the students' IPS skills by using net information better and participating fully in the global knowledge society.
Keywords: Information Problem Solving; Inquiry instruction; Embedded instruction; Scaffolds; Script and support; Secondary Education
The effect of nonhuman's external regulation on children's responses to detect children with developmental problems (DP) associated with the natural development of self-regulation during learning tasks BIBAKFull-Text 527-539
  Adel M. Agina; Piet A. M. Kommers; Michael M. Steehouder
The present study sought to examine the effect of the nonhuman's external regulation on children's responses during learning tasks to detect children with developmental problems (DP) associated with the natural development process of self-regulation. The material was an isolated, computer-based learning system that acts as a standalone learning environment and used by 100 preschool children, which were randomly selected from ten preschools without revising their medical files. Participants were classified by the system itself during learning progression in three essential groups based on Aginian's zone of children regulation (ZCR), which is "the equilibrium point in the self-regulation's development process that controls the child to be either a self-Vygotskyian's learner, self-Piagetian's learner, or self-Aginian's learner during learning tasks" (Agina, Kommers, & Steehouder, 2011d). The results showed that the preschool children can spontaneously do diagnostic tests during learning tasks and the nonhuman external regulator was able to analysis children's responses that, in turn, used for detecting those children with DP. This result was practically confirmed by revising all children's medical files that matched the final judgment of the nonhuman external regulator. However, the results confirmed that the natural development of self-regulation was fluctuated among three paradoxical views (Vygotskyian vs. Piagetian vs. Aginian).
Keywords: Zone of proximal development (ZPD); Zone of children's motivation (ZCM); Zone of children's regulation (ZCR); Self-Vygotskyian's learner; Self-Piagetian's learner; Self-Aginian's learner
An approach to measuring influence and cognitive similarity in computer-mediated communication BIBAKFull-Text 540-551
  Paul Dwyer
While many explanations of influence have been proposed there is still debate over which is correct even though most are supported by empirical evidence. This uncertainty has been attributed to there being too little evidence of real-world influence networks, and an inability to separate influence from cognitive similarity, that is, a pre-existing like-mindedness, attitude or way of thinking shared among participants. This paper proposes theme resonance, a new metric for measuring both influence and cognitive similarity between and among participants in the same online conversation. Theme resonance is derived from two textual content analysis systems: Centering Resonance Analysis and qualitative thematic modeling. The use of theme resonance is demonstrated by constructing influence networks using online conversations in ten weblogs, allowing the propagation of new conversational themes to be traced from initiator though subsequent propagators. A method of separating influence from like-mindedness is also demonstrated. Depending on the metric chosen influence and its susceptibility were found both to be opposite ends of the same spectrum, and distinct attributes. In either case the majority of blog participants are close to the low end of each characteristic. However, those at the higher ends are shown to be easily and distinctly identified.
Keywords: Influence; Cognitive similarity; Discourse analysis; Language similarity
Evaluating the value of collaboration systems in collocated teams: A longitudinal analysis BIBAKFull-Text 552-560
  Khawaja A. Saeed
Distributed work structure has increased the importance of group work. Consequently, the usage of collaboration systems that support group work has increased exponentially. However, limited research exists on why collocated group members use collaborative system and how their perceptions about the system change from project initiation to project completion. The study proposes resource management support, coordination support, and evaluation support as key aspects based on which collocated users form beliefs about collaboration system value. Based on technology acceptance model and expectancy disconfirmation theory, we propose a model that examines the evolution of user beliefs from pre to post-adoption stage. Further, we argue that users may engage in different information processing strategies as part of the belief change process. The research model was examined based on longitudinal data collected from student groups working on a software application development project over a three month period. The results show that users deemed all features to be valuable at the pre-adoption stage. However, at the post-adoption stage evaluation support was the only factor that had a direct influence on collaboration system usefulness. While the impact of other support factors was mediated through the confirmation process. Further, users engaged in high information processing in revising their beliefs about collaboration system features, when they experienced a high level of dissonance. On the contrary, a dual information processing approach was visible in the context of support features that required adjustment or update to beliefs from pre to post-adoption stage. The study provides three core areas around which designers can structure collaboration system features to make it more useful. It also provides theoretical insights into the process through which user cognitions about collaboration system value change over time.
Keywords: Collaboration systems; Expectancy disconfirmation theory; IS usefulness; Information processing strategy; Longitudinal design
A tale of two sites: Twitter vs. Facebook and the personality predictors of social media usage BIBAKFull-Text 561-569
  David John Hughes; Moss Rowe; Mark Batey; Andrew Lee
Social networking sites (SNS) are quickly becoming one of the most popular tools for social interaction and information exchange. Previous research has shown a relationship between users' personality and SNS use. Using a general population sample (N = 300), this study furthers such investigations by examining the personality correlates (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Sociability and Need-for-Cognition) of social and informational use of the two largest SNS: Facebook and Twitter. Age and Gender were also examined. Results showed that personality was related to online socialising and information seeking/exchange, though not as influential as some previous research has suggested. In addition, a preference for Facebook or Twitter was associated with differences in personality. The results reveal differential relationships between personality and Facebook and Twitter usage.
Keywords: Social network sites; Facebook; Twitter; Personality; Need for cognition; Sociability
Forming relationship commitments to online communities: The role of social motivations BIBAKFull-Text 570-575
  Edward Shih-Tse Wang; Lily Shui-Lien Chen
Although administrators of online communities (OCs) may focus on improving their OCs through upgrading technology and enhancing the usability of their OCs to attract additional users, the level of OC participation may be associated with social motives. The purpose of this study is to understand how social motivations (that is, network externalities and social norms) affect members committed to OCs. This study tests the hypotheses on data collected from 396 undergraduate students. Data analyses show that network externalities and social norms directly influence social interaction ties, which subsequently results in commitment toward a community. Social norms also directly influence relationship commitments to a community. The results provide insights into how social motivations lead to commitment to an OC, reminding OC administrators to encourage member commitment to the OC from the perspective of social motivations.
Keywords: Online community; Social motives; Social interaction ties; Commitment
The effect of banner animation on fixation behavior and recall performance in search tasks BIBAKFull-Text 576-582
  K.-C. Hamborg; M. Bruns; F. Ollermann; K. Kaspar
Previous findings suggested that banner ads have little or no impact on perceptual behavior and memory performance in search tasks, but only in browsing paradigms. This assumption is not supported by the present eye-tracking study. It investigates whether task-related selective attention is disrupted depending on the animation intensity of banner ads when users are in a search mode as well as the impact of banner animation on perceptual and memory performance.
   We find that fixation frequency on banners increases with animation intensity. Moreover, a specific temporal course of fixation frequency on banners could be observed. However, the duration of fixations on a banner is independent of its animation intensity. Results also reveal that animation enhances the recall performance of banner content. The subject of advertisement, the position of the banner as well as writings and colors are recalled better when the banner is animated in contrast to a non-animated banner, whereby the animation intensity has no impact on banner related recall performance. Importantly, the performance in the actual information search task is not affected by banner animation. Moreover, animation intensity does not affect subjects' attitude towards the banner ad.
Keywords: Banner animation; Search task; Fixation behavior; Recall performance
Beyond basic study skills: The use of technology for success in college BIBAKFull-Text 583-590
  William H. Huffman; Ann Hergatt Huffman
Technology has become a fundamental component of both education and work. Yet regardless of perceived benefits, in many cases students do not use technology effectively. One challenge educators confront is how to motivate students to effectively use the technological mediums provided in their classes. The goal of the current study is twofold: to use the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to examine two motivators of behavior, ease of use and perceived need, and to assess how they affect students' likelihood of effectively using technology. Second, we evaluate how the match between expectations of the use of technology and the actual student use affect actual classroom performance. To test our hypotheses, college students (N = 384) in introductory psychology classes completed a survey. We also obtained the instructor's perceptions of the need for technology in their class and students' final class grades. Results showed that ease of use and perceived need of technology were related to the frequency of computer use and intentions to use technology. Additionally, findings suggested that technology use, specifically technology deemed important by the instructor, was related to academic success (i.e., final grade in class).
Keywords: Intentions to use technology; Computer use; Computer support; Computer anxiety
What type of information displayed on digital scheduling software facilitates reflective planning tasks for students? Contributions to the design of a school task management tool BIBAKFull-Text 591-607
  Elisabetta Zibetti; Aline Chevalier; Robin Eyraud
To facilitate an efficient homework planning strategy, scheduling software tools should take students' needs into consideration, in order to provide information that is useful for planning homework and that minimizes cognitive load.
   In order to contribute to the design of a time management interface that could support students in their interactions with the information they require to create their weekly schedule efficiently, we designed an experiment in which three groups of participants had to allocate 15 homework assignments within a constrained and realistic high-school student timetable. Three interfaces were developed. These interfaces varied in the number and kind of internalized and externalized information elements they displayed: (1) one interface displayed all the required information elements (i.e. the homework assignment title -- Math exercise, History quiz... -- the homework assignment deadline, and the time required to complete the homework -- the duration), (2) another interface displayed the deadline and duration (with the homework assignment title in a pop-up), and (3) the final interface displayed the homework assignment title and duration (with the deadline in a pop-up).
   The main results showed that internalizing information led to more in depth analysis of the problem, to more reflective and less reactive behavior, and to better performance in terms of efficiency and completion time for the whole planning task. More precisely, the condition that involved the externalization of the homework assignment title and the memorization of its temporal properties (the deadline) was the most efficient in terms of the time required to make decisions and to successfully complete the whole planning task (the construction of a homework schedule). Several explanatory factors are proposed for this: externalizing the assignment title might have supported working memory, facilitated information processing at a deeper level, facilitated decision-making, and promoted and enhanced planning.
Keywords: Problem-solving; Computer assisted homework scheduling; Planning strategy; Internalization vs. externalization of information
Just a game after all: Violent video game exposure and time spent playing effects on hostile feelings, depression, and visuospatial cognition BIBAKFull-Text 608-616
  Jose J. Valadez; Christopher J. Ferguson
Research in the domain of video game violence continues to be contentious and debated. Scholars have examined both positive and negative effects of violent games, although results thus far have been inconclusive and systematic internal validity problems have been identified with past research. The current study adds to this growing literature by examining the effects of video game violence exposure and time spent playing on depression, hostility, and visuospatial cognition. This study improves upon previous research by matching game conditions carefully on confounding variables identified as problems by other scholars. In a laboratory setting, 100 participants were randomly assigned into one of six conditions based on two independent variables (time spent playing and type of video game). Results indicated that neither randomized video game play nor time spent playing a video game had any effect on depression, hostility, or, visuospatial cognition. Effect size estimates were below levels for practical significance. These results suggest that both positive and negative influences of violence in video games may be limited in scope.
Keywords: Video games; Hostile feelings; Depression; Visuospatial cognition; Competitiveness
Effects of screen size, viewing angle, and players' immersion tendencies on game experience BIBAKFull-Text 617-623
  Jinghui Hou; Yujung Nam; Wei Peng; Kwan Min Lee
This study investigated the effects of viewing angle manipulated through screen size and the moderating role of players' immersion tendencies on presence experience in the context of computer game playing. Thirty participants played a third-person computer game, Tomb Raider 2, in two screen size conditions: a 12.7-in. and an 81-in. display. ANCOVA analyses showed that playing in front of a large screen led to a more favorable impression on the game character, a more positive mood change, and significantly higher feelings of both physical and self-presence, confirming previous research. Our findings also revealed that individuals' intrinsic immersion tendencies have a positive moderating effect on the sensation of physical and self-presence, above and beyond the influence of screen size. The results suggest that feeling of presence as well as overall game experience is determined by the interaction between technological factors and human influence.
Keywords: Screen size; Viewing angle; Immersion tendency; Physical presence; Self-presence; Computer games
Self-disclosure and student satisfaction with Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 624-630
  Whitney P. Special; Kirsten T. Li-Barber
The purpose of the current study was to extend existing research examining the specific motives for creating and maintaining Facebook, and to connect these motives to users' levels of self-disclosure and satisfaction with Facebook. Undergraduate students identified their reasons for using Facebook, privacy and self-disclosure settings, and satisfaction with Facebook's ability to meet these motivational needs. Results indicated that the most common motives for using Facebook were relationship maintenance, passing time, and entertainment, although gender differences in motives for creating a Facebook page were observed. Males and females also differed in the overall level of self-disclosure as well as the type of information presented on their Facebook pages. Levels of self-disclosure, but not privacy levels, were associated with greater levels of satisfaction with Facebook to meet certain motivational goals.
Keywords: Facebook; Internet; Social network site; Motivation; Self-disclosure; Satisfaction
A videosharing social networking intervention for young adult cancer survivors BIBAKFull-Text 631-641
  Margaret McLaughlin; Yujung Nam; Jessica Gould; Courtney Pade; Kathleen A. Meeske; Kathleen S. Ruccione; Janet Fulk
Clinicians interested in taking a proactive approach to healthy cancer survivorship might consider the use of a social networking and videosharing platform tailored specifically for young adult cancer survivors. This study examines six key factors that may influence a childhood cancer survivor's participation in a social networking and videosharing intervention program tailored to their needs: (1) the individual's social capital, defined as resources accessed by individuals through a broad range of social connections, (2) social support, (3) family interaction, (4) self-efficacy, (5) depression, and (6) self-reported quality of life. Fourteen healthy childhood cancer survivors participated in a social networking and videosharing intervention program, LIFECommunity, over a period of 6 months. Young adult cancer survivors with weak "bonding" social capital with other cancer survivors, little social support from friends and family, and lower family interaction participated in the social networking intervention more than those with stronger social capital and larger bases of support. The findings suggest that cancer survivors used the social network as a way to fulfill needs that were not being met in their "offline" lives. The study provides a deeper understanding of the factors that contribute to the success of social networking interventions for young cancer survivors.
Keywords: Cancer survivorship; Mobile social network; Social support; Social capital
Dating deception: Gender, online dating, and exaggerated self-presentation BIBAKFull-Text 642-647
  Rosanna E. Guadagno; Bradley M. Okdie; Sara A. Kruse
This study examined how differences in expectations about meeting impacted the degree of deceptive self-presentation individuals displayed within the context of dating. Participants filled out personality measures in one of four anticipated meeting conditions: face-to-face, email, no meeting, and a control condition with no pretense of dating. Results indicated that, compared to baseline measures, male participants increased the amount they self-presented when anticipating a future interaction with a prospective date. Specifically, male participants emphasized their positive characteristics more if the potential date was less salient (e.g., email meeting) compared to a more salient condition (e.g., face-to-face meeting) or the control conditions. Implications for self-presentation theory, online social interaction, and online dating research will be discussed.
Keywords: Self-presentation; Internet; Gender differences; Personality; Mate selection
The influence of virtual presence: Effects on experienced cognitive load and learning outcomes in educational computer games BIBAKFull-Text 648-658
  Claudia Schrader; Theo J. Bastiaens
Does the immersive design of an educational gaming environment affect learners' virtual presence and how much do they learn? Does virtual presence affect learning? This study tries to answer these questions by examining the differences in virtual presence and learning outcomes in two different computer-based multimedia environments: a gaming environment with high immersive design vs. hypertext learning environment with low immersive design. As the main focus, the effect of virtual presence on learning is also explained and tested. By identifying virtual presence as a variable that may determine learning, it is argued that computer gaming environments present a new challenge for researchers to investigate, particularly, the effects of virtual presence on the immersive design of games in order to help designers to predict which instructional configurations will maximize learning performance. In general, results revealed that the high-immersive gaming environment leads to the strongest form of virtual presence but also decreased learning. Although regression analyses indicate that virtual presence positively influences trivial- and non-trivial learning outcomes, learners who learned in a low-immersive environment outperformed the gaming group. A mediation analysis showed that the relation between virtual presence and non-trivial learning outcomes is partly mediated through increased cognitive load.
Keywords: Educational computer games; Game-based learning; Cognitive load
A longitudinal study of emoticon use in text messaging from smartphones BIBAKFull-Text 659-663
  Chad C. Tossell; Philip Kortum; Clayton Shepard; Laura H. Barg-Walkow; Ahmad Rahmati; Lin Zhong
Our goal in the present study was to understand how emoticons are used in text messaging and, in particular, how genders differed in the frequency and variety of emoticons used via this medium. Previous research has found small and sundry differences in emotive expression online suggesting that technology has closed the gender gap. However, the data collected in these studies were public. In this study, we collected real portions of private communications data from individuals' smartphones over a 6-month period. SMS messages, in general, were not used very much overall, with only 4% of all messages containing at least one emoticon. Still, differences between genders manifested in the amount and variety of emoticons used. Females sent more messages with emoticons; however, surprisingly, males used a more diverse range of emoticons.
Keywords: Emoticons; Gender; Text messaging; Smartphone; Emotion; Mediated communication
Are Cyberbullies really bullies? An investigation of reactive and proactive online aggression BIBAKFull-Text 664-672
  Danielle M. Law; Jennifer D. Shapka; José F. Domene; Monique H. Gagné
Cyberbullying, or online aggression, is an issue of increasing concern, however little research has been conducted on the motivations underlying this form of aggression. Using a mixed-method approach, by means of survey and interview data, we explored whether online aggressive acts were motivated by proactive (intentionally aggressing to obtain a resource or a goal), and/or reactive (aggression that occurs in reaction to provocation) reasons. Participants for the survey portion of the study included 733 adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18, while a subset of 15 adolescents participated in semi-structured interviews. Factor analysis revealed that, in contrast to traditional forms of bullying, adolescents do not identify themselves according to the role they played in an internet aggressive situation (i.e. bully, victim, witness), but according to the method of aggression they used (i.e. sending mean messages, posting embarrassing photos, and developing hostile websites). More interestingly, regression analyses demonstrated that motivations for aggressing online also varied according to method of aggression rather than role. For example, adolescents who chose to aggress by posting mean messages or posting embarrassing photos were more likely to do so for reactive reasons, while adolescents who spent time creating hostile websites did so for proactive reasons.
Keywords: Aggression; Bullying; Cyberbullying; Electronic aggression; Proactive/reactive aggression; Internet
Intelligence in the internet age: The emergence and evolution of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) BIBAKFull-Text 673-682
  Michael Glassman; Min Ju Kang
This paper introduces the concept of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) as an important component for understanding human problem solving in the 21st century. OSINT is in many ways the result of changing human-information relationships resulting from the emergence and growing dominance of the Internet and the World Wide Web in everyday life. This paper suggests that the Internet/Web changes the dynamic relationship between what Cattell and Horn have identified as the two general factors of human intelligence: crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence. The Internet/Web open up new possibilities for accessing information and transcending over-determined cultural intelligence in problem solving. This offers fluid intelligence, which often trails off in adulthood, a new vitality across the lifespan. But the diminishment of crystallized intelligence, and especially cultural intelligence, also presents a number of important problems in maintenance of cohesive, social cooperatives. The development of OSINT (using tools and ethos created by the Open Source movement of the last few decades) offers both a framework for reaching beyond the boundaries of traditional cultural intelligence and ways to create cooperative, open, problem solving communities. The Internet/Web will continue to create confusion and fear as we move deeper into this new age, but also presents extraordinary possibilities for augmenting human intellect if we can understand it and learn to harness its potential.
Keywords: Internet; Open source intelligence; Fluid intelligence; Crystallized intelligence
The effect of advertisement choice on attention BIBAKFull-Text 683-687
  Stephen C. Nettelhorst; Laura A. Brannon
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of advertisement choice on individuals' subsequent attention towards the advertisement. Participants in this study decided which type of advertisement to watch or they were not given a choice. Results of the study showed that advertisement choice significantly influenced female participants' subsequent attention towards the advertisement but not males'. This effect suggests that this marketing technique should be used in specific situations to target women predominately. These include marketing products predominately or universally used by females or during shows which are viewed by a large number of females.
Keywords: Advertisement choice; Sex differences; Attention; Selective exposure
Is there power in PowerPoint? A field test of the efficacy of PowerPoint on memory and recall of religious sermons BIBAKFull-Text 688-695
  Aaron A. Buchko; Kathleen J. Buchko; Joseph M. Meyer
The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of PowerPoint as an information communication tool would enhance recall of information presented in a non-classroom field setting. We examined the effect of PowerPoint on the recall of information presented in religious sermons. Three test conditions were examined: (1) PowerPoint slides containing words only, (2) slides containing visual images only, and (3) slides containing both words and visual images, along with a control condition in which information was presented without the use of the PowerPoint slides. In addition, we tested the type of information recall: information about the slides, information about the slide content, and general recall of information from the sermon. While there were limited differences in recall based on the treatment conditions and the type of information being recalled, overall the use of the PowerPoint slides did not appear to have a significant effect on subjects' ability to recall information. We conclude that greater effort must be made to understand the effects of PowerPoint presentations on human memory and cognition.
Keywords: PowerPoint; Memory; Recall; Field setting; Religious sermons
Differential impact of two types of metacognitive prompting provided during simulation-based training BIBAKFull-Text 696-702
  Logan Fiorella; Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt; Stephen Fiore
The purpose of the current study was to test the differential impact of two forms of metacognitive prompts on knowledge acquisition and application during simulation-based training. Participants in the experimental conditions were prompted to construct sentences by connecting declarative words (Words Group) or conceptual phrases (Phrases Group) related to the training material from two columns. Performance was then compared across conditions during an assessment scenario that did not include prompting. Overall, results provide support for the effectiveness of metacognitive prompting generally, when compared to the Control Group that did not receive prompting. Further, some support was found for providing word-based prompts over more conceptual phrase-based prompts, suggesting that the phrases may have distracted or overloaded learners. Implications for further investigation into the effects of different types of metacognitive support are discussed.
Keywords: Metacognitive prompting; Simulation-based training
Cross-validation study of methods and technologies to assess mental models in a complex problem solving situation BIBAKFull-Text 703-717
  Min Kyu Kim
This paper reports a cross-validation study aimed at identifying reliable and valid assessment methods and technologies for natural language (i.e., written text) responses to complex problem-solving scenarios. In order to investigate current assessment technologies for text-based responses to problem-solving scenarios (i.e., ALA-Reader and T-MITOCAR), this study compared the two best developed technologies to an alternative methodology. Comparisons amongst the three models (benchmark, ALA-Reader, and T-MITOCAR) provided two findings: (a) the benchmark model created the most descriptive concept maps; and (b) the ALA-Reader model had a higher correlation with the benchmark model than did T-MITOCAR's. The results imply that the benchmark model is a viable alternative to the two existing technologies and is worth exploring in a larger scale study.
Keywords: Assessment technology; Concept map; Mental models; Problem solving; Validation study
Recognizing and measuring self-regulated learning in a mobile learning environment BIBAKFull-Text 718-728
  Li Sha; Chee-Kit Looi; Wenli Chen; Peter Seow; Lung-Hsiang Wong
With the realization that more research is needed to explore external factors (e.g., pedagogy, parental involvement in the context of K-12 learning) and internal factors (e.g., prior knowledge, motivation) underlying student-centered mobile learning, the present study conceptually and empirically explores how the theories and methodologies of self-regulated learning (SRL) can help us analyze and understand the processes of mobile learning. The empirical data collected from two elementary science classes in Singapore indicates that the analytical SRL model of mobile learning proposed in this study can illuminate the relationships between three aspects of mobile learning: students' self-reports of psychological processes, patterns of online learning behavior in the mobile learning environment (MLE), and learning achievement. Statistical analyses produce three main findings. First, student motivation in this case can account for whether and to what degree the students can actively engage in mobile learning activities metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviorally. Second, the effect of students' self-reported motivation on their learning achievement is mediated by their behavioral engagement in a pre-designed activity in the MLE. Third, students' perception of parental autonomy support is not only associated with their motivation in school learning, but also associated with their actual behaviors in self-regulating their learning.
Keywords: Mobile learning; Self-regulated learning; Motivation and metacognition; Elementary science learning
The role of perceived organizational support, distributive justice and motivation in reactions to new information technology BIBAKFull-Text 729-738
  Jonathan I. Mitchell; Marylène Gagné; Anne Beaudry; Linda Dyer
Despite tremendous investments in information technology (IT), many technological interventions in organizations fail because employees do not fully accept and use IT. The present study explored how perceived organizational support and distributive justice affect employee reactions to new IT from a motivational point of view. Self-determination theory was used to understand how different motivational styles, varying in degree of self-determination, mediate the relationship of perceived organizational support and distributive justice with reactions to new IT. Results showed that perceived organizational support and distributive justice were associated with intrinsic and identified motivation to use the IT, but only POS was related to enjoyment and acceptance of the IT. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were both associated with IT usage, but IT usage was associated with enjoyment and acceptance only when people were intrinsically motivated. Intrinsic motivation also mediated the effects of POS on enjoyment and acceptance. Moreover, intrinsically motivated users were less likely to use a paper-based appointment booking alternative than those who were not. Implications for managing IT implementations are discussed.
Keywords: Self-determination theory; Information technology; Perceived organizational support; Motivation; IT acceptance and use; Enjoyment
Trait and symptom differences between factions in online gaming: The vulnerable side of evil BIBAKFull-Text 739-743
  Emily S. Orr; Craig Ross; R. Robert Orr
World of Warcraft (WoW) is a popular Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG) that requires gamers to play in one of two factions: the Horde or the Alliance. Although deemphasized in more recent versions of the game, the Horde has traditionally been considered the "evil" faction, whereas the Alliance has been considered the "good" faction. Researchers have identified differences between these two factions with respect to gameplay, although the mechanisms for these differences are unclear. The present study investigated whether faction-based differences extend to psychological traits and symptoms. The results indicated that members of the Horde obtained higher scores on measures of interpersonal dependency and three measures of problematic WoW use. Obsession with World of Warcraft was particularly salient in predicting faction membership, with higher scores on the obsession variable predicting membership to the Horde. Possible explanations for the observed differences are suggested, limitations are reviewed, and directions for future research are indicated.
Keywords: Gaming; Gamers; Faction; World of Warcraft; Personality traits; Psychological symptoms
To text or not to text? The importance of text messaging among college-aged youth BIBAKFull-Text 744-756
  Dorothy Skierkowski; Rebecca M. Wood
As the availability, affordability, and popularity of mobile phones has increased in the last decade, text messaging has become one of the primary means of communication among adolescent peer groups. As such, it can be speculated that mobile phones and text messaging have become an integral aspect of the culture of young people today. However, little research has of yet identified how people react to an absence of texting behavior. This study attempts to demonstrate the extent to which people have become reliant upon text messaging to maintain daily relationships with peers, as well as their own self-concept. Frequencies and patterns of alternative behaviors, non-compliance, and anxiety are measured during separate restriction periods among a group of high and low text users, ages 18-23. Results indicate that there was a significant difference between individuals identified as 'high' and 'low' text users, although regardless of this distinction, texting emerged as the preferred form of contact among peers within this cohort. A high degree of quantitatively and qualitatively reported anxiety during periods of restriction was also noted, suggesting that this behavior has become an integrated element of daily living for this group.
Keywords: Text messaging; College students; Mobile phones; Dependence; Social relations
Learning from playing with microworlds in policy making: An experimental evaluation in fisheries management BIBAKFull-Text 757-770
  Hendrik Stouten; Aimé Heene; Xavier Gellynck; Hans Polet
This study determines whether stakeholders learn from playing with microworlds. This is investigated through a case study of Belgian fisheries management. Policymakers, scientists and fishermen participated in a "before-after with control group"-experiment in which they played with a microworld that aims at gaining insight into the long-term effect of policy instruments on the Belgian fisheries system. The outcome of this experiment indicates that using the microworld did not result in learning outcomes (i.e., changes in participants' subjective knowledge, attitude and behavioural intention towards policy instruments). This however, contradicts all stakeholders' reports that they had learned from the microworld and that they had confidence in the microworld and perceived the microworld to be valid. Hence, three alternative explanations for these results are discussed: (1) methodological issues blocked the detection of learning outcomes, (2) the way in which the microworld was administered did not result in learning outcomes, or (3) participants have not "learned" anything new from the microworld. Finally, the paper ends with discussing guidelines and further steps in evaluating learning from microworlds.
Keywords: Microworld; Learning; Stakeholders; Experiment; Belgian fisheries

CHB 2012-05 Volume 28 Issue 3

Engagement in digital entertainment games: A systematic review BIBAKFull-Text 771-780
  Elizabeth A. Boyle; Thomas M. Connolly; Thomas Hainey; James M. Boyle
Since their introduction over 40 years ago, digital entertainment games have become one of the most popular leisure activities globally. While digital games clearly provide highly engaging activities, the nature of this engagement is not well understood. The current study aims to advance our understanding by reporting a systematic review of recent literature addressing engagement in computer games. The papers in the review comprise a sub-sample of papers relating to engagement in digital games that was selected from a broader literature search carried out on the outcomes and impacts of playing computer games. A diverse range of studies was identified that examined varied aspects of engagement in games including subjective experiences while playing games, the physiological concomitants of these experiences, motives for playing games, game usage and time spent playing games and the impact of playing on life satisfaction. A narrative review was carried out to capture these diverse aspects of engagement and to develop a more coherent understanding of engagement in computer games.
Keywords: Engagement; Enjoyment; Entertainment; Computer games; Flow; Motives
A systematic characterisation of expository animations BIBAKFull-Text 781-794
  Rolf Ploetzner; Richard Lowe
Despite the rapid and widespread adoption of animations in education, there is still no systematic account of the main characteristics of expository animations that have been targeted by educational research. A literature search and analysis was conducted to address this deficiency. First, overviews, reviews, and meta-analyses were analysed to extract an initial set of dimensions to characterise expository animations. Next, a representative set of descriptions of expository animations used in past research on learning from animation was retrieved from the research literature. The animations employed in the 44 investigations analysed covered 30 different topics in 14 different domains. The characterisation developed distinguishes attributes that are inherent characteristics of animations from attributes that are external supplements to animations. The potential advantages of the characterisation developed as a framework for future research on learning from animation are discussed.
Keywords: Expository animations; Animation design; Learning; Literature analysis
Content Management Systems: Enriched learning opportunities for all? BIBAKFull-Text 795-808
  Griet Lust; Norma A. Juarez Collazo; Jan Elen; Geraldine Clarebout
This article examines the popular claim of Content Management Systems (CMSs) that providing a rich toolset and leaving the use under learner control is beneficial to learning. By means of a literature review, the current contribution examines whether all students are capable of using CMS tools so that their learning is enhanced. In contrast to what is assumed, the study conceptualizes tool use as a complex self-regulation strategy that cannot be taken for granted. Specifically, the article reviews empirical studies in relation to three topics: (a) personal agency in tool use, (b) performance effects of tool use and (c) influencing tool use variables. Findings reveal that not every student profited from the CMS learning opportunities; in multiple studies students differed in their tool use, and these differences had significant performance effects. Hence, these findings suggest that the pedagogical claim CMSs make is problematic. Besides this accumulated corpus of knowledge, the review revealed serious limitations in the retrieved studies which could hamper our findings. As a consequence, the review establishes a need for further research into students' CMS tool use from an instructional design perspective. In addition to the theoretical framework, several directions for future research are given.
Keywords: State-of-the art review; Content Management Systems; Blended learning environments; Tool use; Learning
Narrowing gender-based performance gaps in virtual environment navigation BIBAKFull-Text 809-819
  Jon Martens; Pavlo D. Antonenko
Virtual environments provide a model of the world that can simulate real spaces or represent new, previously unexplored worlds. Effective navigation within these virtual worlds is a key to user satisfaction and goal achievement. Empirical research, however, shows large differences in navigation performance due to gender. This paper presents conceptual background on the nature of the gaps and how navigation tools might reduce them. Patterns of findings for empirical studies published after the year 2000 provide insight into the performance gaps and potential mechanisms for their reduction. Proven relationships between performance improvement and use of navigation tools are yet to be established, so user testing remains critical. Potential new research can provide additional understanding of the nature of performance by gathering user behavior and cognitive rationale data, further investigating gender differences in visuospatial working memory capacity, and applying metacognitive training approaches used in other navigable media such as hypermedia.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Individual differences; Performance; Wayfinding; Gender; Training
Exploring the use of video podcasts in education: A comprehensive review of the literature BIBAKFull-Text 820-831
  Robin H. Kay
The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review of research on video podcasts from 2002 to 2011 in order to guide future studies and educational practice. Fifty-three, peer-reviewed articles were selected from an extensive search of the literature. Key topics included the history and growth of video podcasts, types of podcasts, previous literature reviews, benefits and challenges of using video podcasts, methodological concerns, and suggestions for future research. Key benefits included positive affective and cognitive attitudes toward video podcasts, control over learning, improved study habits, and increased learning performance. Key challenges included a variety of technical problems, preference of some students for lectures, and reduced class attendance. Methodological concerns involved insufficient description of video podcasts examined, limited sample selection and description, and the absence of reliability and validity estimates for data collection tools. Suggestions for future research include focusing on the quality and design of video podcasts, pedagogical strategies, viewing patterns and impact on learning effectiveness, and in individual differences in video podcast use.
Keywords: Video podcast; Literature review; Attitude; Performance; Benefits; Challenges
The social side of gaming: How playing online computer games creates online and offline social support BIBAKFull-Text 832-839
  Sabine Trepte; Leonard Reinecke; Keno Juechems
Online gaming has gained millions of users around the globe, which have been shown to virtually connect, to befriend, and to accumulate online social capital. Today, as online gaming has become a major leisure time activity, it seems worthwhile asking for the underlying factors of online social capital acquisition and whether online social capital increases offline social support. In the present study, we proposed that the online game players' physical and social proximity as well as their mutual familiarity influence bridging and bonding social capital. Physical proximity was predicted to positively influence bonding social capital online. Social proximity and familiarity were hypothesized to foster both online bridging and bonding social capital. Additionally, we hypothesized that both social capital dimensions are positively related to offline social support. The hypotheses were tested with regard to members of e-sports clans. In an online survey, participants (N = 811) were recruited via the online portal of the Electronic Sports League (ESL) in several countries. The data confirmed all hypotheses, with the path model exhibiting an excellent fit. The results complement existing research by showing that online gaming may result in strong social ties, if gamers engage in online activities that continue beyond the game and extend these with offline activities.
Keywords: Bonding social capital; Bridging social capital; Social support; E-sports; Clan; Online game
The mediating effect of website quality on Internet searching behavior BIBAKFull-Text 840-848
  Li-An Ho; Tsung-Hsien Kuo; Binshan Lin
The study investigates the mediating effect of website quality on Internet searching behavior. The research model incorporates three dimensions, namely (1) Internet attitudes of the Internet users, (2) website quality, including the system quality, service quality and information quality, and (3) Internet searching behavior demonstrated by the general population of Internet users. A survey instrument was used to gather data to exam the relationships in the proposed model. The collected online surveys (n = 856) are used to test the relationships among the three dimensions expressed in the proposed structural equation model. The results show that website quality has a mediating effect on Internet searching behavior. It is also discovered that there is significant correlation between Internet attitudes and website quality. This study contributes empirical data to the predominantly theoretical literature on Internet searching behavior in general and Internet attitudes and website quality in particular. It is, to a certain extent, common sense that website quality has a positive impact on Internet searching behavior. This paper takes an important step forward by detailing how website quality affects the Internet searching behavior via enhancing the effect of users' Internet attitudes.
Keywords: Internet attitudes; Website quality; Internet searching behavior
Surveying the extent of involvement in online academic dishonesty (e-dishonesty) related practices among university students and the rationale students provide: One university's experience BIBAKFull-Text 849-860
  Serkan Sendag; Mesut Duran; M. Robert Fraser
This study reports data from a Midwestern university, investigating the extent of involvement in online academic dishonesty practices (e-dishonesty) among students and the rationale they provided. Involvement in and rationale for e-dishonesty was studied across individual variables including academic level, primary field of study, taking the university's academic integrity tutorial, and taking online and hybrid courses. A total of 1153 students participated in the study by completing a 44 item questionnaire. The findings indicate that the extent of involvement in e-dishonesty practices was significantly greater among freshmen than graduate students in most of the subscales of the survey. In addition, the primary field of study demonstrated a significant relationship between involvement in e-dishonesty and the rationale for e-dishonesty. Students in education and the social sciences reported of the least involvement in e-dishonesty; engineering and physical sciences the most. Completing the university's academic integrity tutorial did not significantly affect e-dishonesty practices while taking online or hybrid courses had some significant effect on e-dishonesty. The results highlight the need for early intervention concerning academic integrity followed by an ongoing and consistent effort throughout students' undergraduate and graduate experience.
Keywords: Computer ethics; Cyberethics; Online academic integrity; Media in education
Anonymity and roles associated with aggressive posts in an online forum BIBAKFull-Text 861-867
  Michael J. Moore; Tadashi Nakano; Akihiro Enomoto; Tatsuya Suda
Cyberbullying is a growing concern in online communications. Cyberbullying has negative impacts such as distress or suicide of a victim. One common type of cyberbullying attack utilizes aggressive forum posts to insult or threaten a victim. Automated tools to classify cyberbullying may aid in avoiding or reducing the negative impacts of cyberbullying. One approach to produce an automated tool is to identify features of forum posts which may be indicators of cyberbullying. One feature of a forum post is the role of the author of the forum post, such as a bully, victim, or defender. Another feature is whether the forum post insults or threatens an individual (e.g., contains insults directed at a victim). Attackers may use aggressive forum posts to attack someone and defenders may use aggressive forum posts to retaliate against attackers. Another feature is whether the communication is anonymous (e.g., sending forum posts with no identifier) since cyberbullies utilize anonymity to reduce the ability of the victim to defend themselves and to shield the cyberbully from social consequences. In this paper, forum posts were labeled in an online forum for these features. Text matching techniques had some success in identifying aggressiveness forum posts including both attacks and defends. Anonymity of forum posts (i.e., forum posts with no identifier) was identified as a criterion to distinguish attackers (more anonymous relative to non-aggressive communications) from defenders (less anonymous relative to non-aggressive communications).
Keywords: Online aggression; Cyberbully; Defender; Anonymity
Social metacognition and the creation of correct, new ideas: A statistical discourse analysis of online mathematics discussions BIBAKFull-Text 868-880
  Gaowei Chen; Ming Ming Chiu; Zhan Wang
During asynchronous, online mathematics discussions, new ideas and justifications (knowledge content) and evaluations and invitations to participate (social metacognition) can influence the likelihood of a correct, new idea (CNI) in the current message. Using statistical discourse analysis, we modeled 894 messages by 183 participants on 60 high school mathematics topics on a mathematics problem solving website not connected to any class or school. Results showed that CNIs, justifications, and social metacognition (correct evaluations and questions) in recent messages increased the likelihood of a CNI in the current message. Meanwhile, more experienced participants (who had posted more messages on the website) had more CNIs, and participants who initiated topics had fewer CNIs. Applied to practice, these results suggest that teachers can facilitate students' creation of CNIs by encouraging them to justify their ideas, evaluate one another's ideas carefully, and ask questions during online mathematics discussions.
Keywords: Online discussion; Correct; New idea; Statistical discourse analysis
Democracy in computer-mediated communication: Gender, communicative style, and amount of participation in professional listservs BIBAKFull-Text 881-888
  Mahmood Reza Atai; Fatemeh Chahkandi
This study examined the claim of democracy in computer-mediated communication with regard to amount of participation and communicative style of genders and the effect of topic of discussion on these aspects. To this aim, 300 randomly-chosen messages from two listservs (language testing and taxonomy) were coded for the number of female and male participants, frequency and length of messages, frequency of new topics, frequency of responses to each topic type and to the same and cross gender topics, stylistic features of females' and males' language, and frequency of flaming. For each aspect of analysis, χ² statistical test was applied to examine the significance of the differences between genders in and across the lists. The results indicated that given the amount of participation, the democracy claim was breached as male dominance and presence was more ubiquitous. However, the results supported the provision of a democratic platform as far as manner of participation is concerned since both genders presented common communicative needs and priorities and there was no support for differentiation of genders' communicative styles. The findings promise implications for EFL/ESL education.
Keywords: CMC; Communication style; Gender; Flaming; Listservs
The effect of online privacy policy on consumer privacy concern and trust BIBAKFull-Text 889-897
  Kuang-Wen Wu; Shaio Yan Huang; David C. Yen; Irina Popova
This study aims to investigate trust and privacy concerns related to the willingness to provide personal information online under the influence of cross-cultural effects. This study investigated the relationships among the content of online privacy statements, consumer trust, privacy concerns, and the moderating effect of different cultural backgrounds of the respondents. In specific, this study developed a proposed model based on Privacy-Trust-Behavioral Intention model. Further, a total of 500 participants participated in the survey, including 250 from Russia and 250 from Taiwan. The findings indicate a significant relationship between the content of privacy policies and privacy concern/trust; willingness to provide personal information and privacy concern/trust; privacy concern and trust. The cross-cultural effect on the relationships between the content of privacy policies and privacy concern/trust was also found significant.
Keywords: Trust; Privacy policy; Privacy concern; Personal information; Culture
Factors influencing intention to upload content on Wikipedia in South Korea: The effects of social norms and individual differences BIBAKFull-Text 898-905
  Namkee Park; Hyun Sook Oh; Naewon Kang
This study examined the roles of social norms and individual differences in influencing Internet users' intention to upload content on Wikipedia in South Korea. It also compared the impacts of these variables on the uploading intention between users and non-users of Wikipedia. Using data from a survey of college students (185 Wikipedia users and 158 non-users), the study found that the effect of social norms including descriptive norm and injunctive norm was smaller than expected, while that of individual differences -- self-efficacy, issue involvement, and ego involvement -- was more important in accounting for the intention to upload. Theoretical implications and limitations were discussed.
Keywords: Descriptive norms; Injunctive norms; Self-efficacy; Issue involvement; Ego involvement; Wikipedia
Computer-mediated persuasion in online reviews: Statistical versus narrative evidence BIBAKFull-Text 906-919
  Seoyeon Hong; Hee Sun Park
The current study examined the effects of online product reviews on individuals' credibility perceptions of the reviews and their attitudes about the product targeted in the reviews. Study 1 used a 2 (review type: statistical and narrative) × 2 (review valence: negative and positive) design, and study 2 used a 2 (statistical review valence: positive and negative) × 2 (narrative review valence: positive and negative) design. The findings of study 1 were consistent with those of study 2 and indicated that negative statistical reviews were perceived as more credible than negative narrative reviews, while the credibility of positive statistical reviews did not differ from that of positive narrative reviews. On the other hand, statistical reviews and narrative reviews did not differ in terms of affecting individuals' attitudes about the product. The current study also found that the vividness and valence of each review type had varying effects on review credibility and attitudes about the product. The implications of these and other findings are discussed in detail in the paper.
Keywords: Online review; Statistical evidence; Narrative evidence; Review valence; Credibility; Attitudes
Effects of cognitive style on digital jigsaw puzzle performance: A GridWare analysis BIBAKFull-Text 920-928
  Jon-Chao Hong; Ming-Yueh Hwang; Ker-Ping Tam; Yi-Hsuan Lai; Li-Chun Liu
Cognitive style, a personal characteristic that is a combination of cognitive controls such as field independence (FI) and field dependence (FD), may influence game performance. FI and FD were measured in 210 5th-grade students using a Group Embedded Figures Test. Students assembled digital jigsaw puzzles based on maps of Taiwan and Europe. Using principles of dynamic systems, game performance was analyzed using GridWare, and four types of game strategy were identified. The results showed that cognitive style, based on FI and the number of events, was able to predict digital jigsaw puzzle scores. Digital jigsaw puzzle scoring was positively correlated with FI. FI students achieved significantly higher scores than FD students. Practical implications and limitations were discussed.
Keywords: Cognitive style; Field independence; Field dependence; Game strategy; Digital jigsaw puzzle; GridWare
Impact of similarity between avatar and their users on their perceived identifiability: Evidence from virtual teams in Second Life platform BIBAKFull-Text 929-932
  Vishal Midha; Ankur Nandedkar
Research on the application of avatars in the virtual teams is growing. In this study, we examined the effect of perceived similarity of an avatar user with his/her avatar on the perceptions of his/her identifiability within a virtual team. The study utilized a sample of 124 users actively involved in Second Life, a virtual world platform. Results of structural equation modeling utilizing the partial least squares method corroborate the hypothesis. An important contribution of this research is to inform practitioners about the critical role that users' similarity with the avatar plays in enhancing their identifiability. We draw conclusions based on the result and identify some important avenues for future research.
Keywords: Identifiability; Similarity; Avatar; Virtual team
Factors influencing the continuance intention to the usage of Web 2.0: An empirical study BIBAKFull-Text 933-941
  Shih-Chih Chen; David C. Yen; Mark I. Hwang
New business models and applications have been continuously developed and popularized on the Internet. In recent years, a number of applications including blogs, Facebook, iGoogle, Plurk, Twitter, and YouTube known as Web 2.0 have become very popular. These aforementioned applications all have a strong social flavor. However, what social factors exert an influence onto their use is still unclear and remains as a research issue to be further investigated. This research studies four social factors and they are subjective norm, image, critical mass, and electronic word-of-mouth. A causal model of the satisfaction and continuance intention of Web 2.0 users as a function of these four social factors is proposed. Results indicate that user satisfaction with Web 2.0 applications significantly affects electronic word-of-mouth, which in turn significantly influences their continuance intention. In addition, subjective norm, image and critical mass all have a significant impact onto satisfaction, which in turn has an indirect significant influence on electronic word-of-mouth. Finally, all social factors have a significant direct impact on continuance intention. Finally, implications for service providers and researchers are discussed.
Keywords: Web 2.0; Subjective norm; Image; Critical mass; Electronic word-of-mouth; Satisfaction
The roles of intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators in promoting e-learning in the workplace: A case from South Korea BIBAKFull-Text 942-950
  Sun Joo Yoo; Seung-hyun Han; Wenhao Huang
Acceptance of e-learning by employees is critical to the successful implementation of e-learning in the workplace. To explain why employees might accept the e-learning technology, motivational factors must be considered. Although the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) has identified many variables to understand employees' motivation to use e-learning, current literature cannot conclude the roles of extrinsic and intrinsic motivators in the technology adoption process. Consequently, organizations often overestimate the effects of extrinsic motivators in promoting e-learning while ignoring employees' intrinsic motivation. To examine the effect difference between the two motivational factors, this study surveyed 261 employees in a food service company in South Korea with the UTAUT instrument. Upon analyzing 226 valid cases with LISREL, the findings revealed that intrinsic motivators (effort expectancy, attitudes, and anxiety) affected employees' intention to use e-learning in the workplace more strongly than did the extrinsic motivators (performance expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions). Furthermore, the effects of intrinsic motivators mediated the effect of extrinsic motivators. Implications of this study are important for both researchers and practitioners.
Keywords: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT); Extrinsic motivation; Intrinsic motivation; E-learning; Acceptance
An e-patient's End-user community (EUCY): The value added of social network applications BIBAKFull-Text 951-957
  Elaine R. Winston; B. Dawn Medlin; B. Adriana Romaniello
Decreasing revenues and increasing expenses has led many healthcare organizations to adopt newer technological applications in order to address the informational needs of their patients. One such adoption technique is to develop a more robust e-patient environment. Health care organizations may increase their effectiveness in meeting the needs of a growing e-patient population through the implementation of high-quality social networking applications such as Twitter. These applications may help to support and maintain a valuable and informed community. A literature review identifies three characteristics that have an impact on information exchange inherent to social networks: number of members, contact frequency, and type of knowledge. Data from a case study of a juvenile diabetic using Twitter helps to demonstrate these aforementioned characteristics. A framework is developed that may be used by health care organizations to better align social network objectives with expectations of an End user community (EUCY). Managerial implications of this study are discussed that can help information technology professionals as well as health administrators when implementing social networks.
Keywords: Social networking; Twitter; End-user community (EUCY); E-patient; Health information management
Digital movie piracy: A perspective on downloading behavior through social cognitive theory BIBAKFull-Text 958-967
  Ruud S. Jacobs; Ard Heuvelman; Maurice Tan; Oscar Peters
This study refined and specified a model based on the application (e.g. LaRose & Kim, 2007) of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) to analyze and compare the behavior and attitudes exhibited by movie downloaders and to compare the number of movies they consume. The model is tested against data obtained from college students and from attendees of a technological lifestyle forum in the Netherlands. After revisions, the model explained nearly 23% of the variance in the number of movies downloaded. The most important factors in this model were the drive to view many different and new movies, the social environment and perceived attitudes toward the behavior, and the degree to which downloading has embedded itself in the daily routine. Because the Dutch government and lobbyists are unclear about the current legislation in the Netherlands, a unique opportunity existed to study the impact of being aware of legislation on the behavior. The results also indicate an unexpected openness among the participants to an alternative film-distribution method in which both the producers and the consumers receive an honest deal. These findings suggest options for relieving the current political and social tensions associated with movie downloading without prosecuting an increasing portion of the population.
Keywords: Digital piracy; Movie downloading; Social cognitive theory; Structural equation modeling
Behavioral performance and visual attention in communication multitasking: A comparison between instant messaging and online voice chat BIBAKFull-Text 968-975
  Zheng Wang; Prabu David; Jatin Srivastava; Stacie Powers; Christine Brady; Jonathan D'Angelo; Jennifer Moreland
Participants carried out a visual pattern-matching task on a computer while communicating with a confederate either via instant messaging (IM) or online voice chat. Communicating with a confederate led to a 50% drop in visual pattern-matching performance in the IM condition and a 30% drop in the voice condition. Visual fixations on pattern-matching were fewer and shorter during the communication task and a greater loss of fixations was found in the IM condition than the voice condition. The results, examined within a threaded cognition framework, suggest that distributing the work between the audio and visual channels reduces performance degradation. Implications for media literacy and distracted-driving are discussed.
Keywords: Multitasking; Eye movement; Divided attention; Central bottleneck theory; Limited capacity of processing; Threaded cognition
Defining the virtual self: Personality, behavior, and the psychology of embodiment BIBAKFull-Text 976-983
  Michael P. McCreery; S. Kathleen Krach; P. G. Schrader; Randy Boone
Although researchers have discussed the existence of a virtual self, or embodiment of human characteristics within an avatar, little known about how the virtual self influences a player's behavior within a virtual environment. To better understand this relationship, World of Warcraft game players were asked to complete personality-rating scales for both themselves and their avatars. In addition, in-world behavior was recorded and then analyzed using a behavioral assessment checklist. Results suggested a relationship between personality and behavior within the domain of agreeableness. Based on these findings, the researchers discuss implications for the construct known as the virtual self, as well as the inclusion of psychological systems design into the overall game design process.
Keywords: Virtual self; Personality; Virtual environments; Avatar; Massively multiplayer online games
The effect of action video game experience on task-switching BIBAKFull-Text 984-994
  C. Shawn Green; Michael A. Sugarman; Katherine Medford; Elizabeth Klobusicky; Daphne Bavelier
There is now a substantial body of work demonstrating that action video game experience results in enhancements in a wide variety of perceptual skills. More recently, several groups have also demonstrated improvements in abilities that are more cognitive in nature, in particular, the ability to efficiently switch between tasks. We add to this body of work by demonstrating that the action video game player switch cost advantage generalizes to (1) vocal responses in addition to traditional manual responses, (2) tasks that are more cognitive rather than perceptual in nature, and (3) goal switches as well as motor switches. Finally, a training study establishes that the relationship between the reduction in switch cost and action game playing is causal.
Keywords: Action video games; Task-switching
The role of perceived social capital and flow experience in building users' continuance intention to social networking sites in China BIBAKFull-Text 995-1001
  Ya Ping Chang; Dong Hong Zhu
The long-term development of social networking sites (SNSs) relies on their users' continuance of use. This paper tested the role of perceived social capital and flow experience in driving users to continue using SNSs based on the expectation-confirmation model of information systems continuance. Using data from online surveys of social networking sites users in China, the proposed model was tested by using the Partial Least Squares (PLSs) technique. The results show that perceived bridging and bonding social capital have different role in building users' satisfaction and continuance intention: perceived bridging social capital has remarkable influence on users' satisfaction and continuance intention, but perceived bonding social capital has none. Flow experience has influence on users' satisfaction but none on continuance intention. In addition, gender has impact on users' continuance intention.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Continuance; Expectation-confirmation model; Social capital; Flow experience
Identifying the signs of fraudulent accounts using data mining techniques BIBAKFull-Text 1002-1013
  Shing-Han Li; David C. Yen; Wen-Hui Lu; Chiang Wang
In today's technological society there are various new means to commit fraud due to the advancement of media and communication networks. One typical fraud is the ATM phone scams. The commonality of ATM phone scams is basically to attract victims to use financial institutions or ATMs to transfer their money into fraudulent accounts. Regardless of the types of fraud used, fraudsters can only collect victims' money through fraudulent accounts. Therefore, it is very important to identify the signs of such fraudulent accounts and to detect fraudulent accounts based on these signs, in order to reduce victims' losses. This study applied Bayesian Classification and Association Rule to identify the signs of fraudulent accounts and the patterns of fraudulent transactions. Detection rules were developed based on the identified signs and applied to the design of a fraudulent account detection system. Empirical verification supported that this fraudulent account detection system can successfully identify fraudulent accounts in early stages and is able to provide reference for financial institutions.
Keywords: Fraud detection; Data mining; Dummy account; Fraudulent account; ATM phone scams
Automated computer-based feedback in expressive writing BIBAKFull-Text 1014-1018
  Mark Bond; James W. Pennebaker
Previous studies indicate that changing pronoun use can moderate the health benefits of expressive writing. Participants who change their pronoun use from essay to essay benefit more from the exercise. The current experiment attempted to improve the expressive writing paradigm by altering subjects' focus (specifically self- and other-related focus) through text-based instructions. The automated language-based system was simple to implement, and it successfully changed participants' pronoun use, but the intervention had no mood-related or subjective benefits. While the automated intervention system has promise in guiding people's natural writing, future research must address the broader question of the inherent links between language use and substantive psychological change.
Keywords: Expressive writing; Language; Pronouns; LIWC
Affect, cognition and reward: Predictors of privacy protection online BIBAKFull-Text 1019-1027
  Yong Jin Park; Scott W. Campbell; Nojin Kwak
This article examined the interplay between cognition and affect in Internet uses for privacy control. A survey of a national sample was conducted to empirically test the relationship between affective concern for and cognitive knowledge of information privacy online. We also tested for the interactive role of reward-seeking as a moderator among these relationships. Findings revealed that concern did not directly play a meaningful role in guiding users' protective behavior, whereas knowledge was found significant in moderating the role of concern. The interactive role of reward-seeking seems particularly salient in shaping the structure of the relationships. These findings suggest that the intersections between knowledge, reward, and concern can play out differently, depending on the levels of each. Policy implications in relation to users' cognitive, affective, and reward-seeking rationalities are offered, and future research considerations are discussed.
Keywords: Information control; Privacy protection; Internet surveillance; Knowledge
Distance, ambiguity and appropriation: Structures affording impression management in a collocated organization BIBAKFull-Text 1028-1035
  Jeremy Birnholtz; Graham Dixon; Jeffrey Hancock
Communication and collaboration technologies have recently given rise to unprecedented flexibility in work arrangements, including telecommuting and virtual teams with geographically distributed participants. Much research has consisted of comparing distant and collocated teams, arguing that distance constrains communication opportunities, but this effect can be countered somewhat with communication media. In an "always connected" world, however, traditional conceptualizations of distance may be less useful in that communication opportunities are virtually constant for both distant and collocated teams. Working from an adaptive structuration perspective, we argue for a more nuanced treatment of distance, looking at its more specific effects, such as regulating the probability of unexpected face-to-face encounters, and affecting individuals' control over the release of information. We show that even in a collocated setting, members of the organization we studied enacted structures that reflected the effects of distance on their behavior, but also reflected social constraints that enabled control over information flow, and the use of language to explain their behavior and maintain positive impressions.
Keywords: CMC; Adaptive structuration; Transparency; Ambiguity; Distance
Who wants to be "friend-rich"? Social compensatory friending on Facebook and the moderating role of public self-consciousness BIBAKFull-Text 1036-1043
  Jong-Eun Roselyn Lee; David Clark Moore; Eun-A Park; Sung Gwan Park
The present research aims to provide insight into social compensatory friending on social network sites by investigating the effects of self-esteem and self-consciousness on number of friends in the context of Facebook use. It was hypothesized that Facebook users low in self-esteem, when compared with high-self-esteem individuals, would engage in friending more actively and thereby accumulate a large number of friends as a way to compensate for the deficiency in self-esteem. We also hypothesized that the relationship between self-esteem and number of Facebook friends would vary depending on the levels of public self-consciousness. Data were collected from a college student sample in the United States (N = 234) based on an online cross-sectional survey. The results supported the hypothesis on social compensatory friending, demonstrating a negative association between self-esteem and number of Facebook friends. Furthermore, the data yielded support for the hypothesized moderating role of public self-consciousness in social compensatory friending: the negative association between self-esteem and number of Facebook friends was significant only for Facebook users who are high in public self-consciousness but not for those who are low in public self-consciousness. Implications for understanding social network site users' friending behavior in light of social compensation motives are discussed.
Keywords: Number of Facebook friends; Social network sites; Friending; Social compensation; Self-esteem; Public self-consciousness
Internet addiction among adolescents in Lebanon BIBAKFull-Text 1044-1053
  Nazir S. Hawi
Internet addiction has been a subject of research since 1996. In step with this trend, this study aims to illuminate Internet addiction in Lebanon based on research evidence. The timing of this study coincides with the growing rate of penetration of Internet service across the country and with current plans to improve this service. This study investigates Internet usage among adolescents, who are the most vulnerable to Internet addiction in the population. Permission to access schools to conduct this research was obtained from the Ministry of Education and Higher Education. A web-based questionnaire was completed by 833 intermediate and secondary students from public and private schools. The questionnaire included items on demographic information and Internet usage and an Arabic version of Young's Internet Addiction Test (YIAT). The results showed that 4.2% of the sample had significant problems. Furthermore, the more problematic Internet use (PIU) was, the less the Internet was used for information and research, and the more it was used for entertainment. PIU is driven by deficiency needs fuelled by the use of interactive applications. The more deficient the need, the greater the obsession with top-notch interactive applications, and the less frequent the usage of non-interactive applications.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Private schools; Public schools; Adolescents; Problematic Internet use
The role of self-construal in consumers' electronic word of mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites: A social cognitive approach BIBAKFull-Text 1054-1062
  Doohwang Lee; Hyuk Soo Kim; Jung Kyu Kim
The current study reconceptualized self-construal as a social cognitive indicator of self-observation that individuals employ for developing and maintaining social relationship with others. From the social cognitive perspective, this study investigated how consumers' self-construal can affect consumers' electronic word of mouth (eWOM) behavior through two cognitive factors (online community engagement self-efficacy and social outcome expectations) in the context of a social networking site. This study conducted an online experiment that directed 160 participants to visit a newly created online community. The results demonstrated that consumers' relational view became salient when the consumers' self-construal was primed to be interdependent rather than independent. Further, the results showed that such interdependent self-construal positively influenced consumers' eWOM behavioral intentions through their community engagement self-efficacy and their social outcome expectations.
Keywords: Online community; Social networking sites; Electronic word of mouth; Social cognitive theory
Modality and cueing in multimedia learning: Examining cognitive and perceptual explanations for the modality effect BIBAKFull-Text 1063-1071
  Steven M. Crooks; Jongpil Cheon; Fethi Inan; Fatih Ari; Raymond Flores
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of modality (written text vs. spoken text) and visual cueing (low cueing vs. high cueing) on the learning and mental effort of participants studying a computer-based static diagram at their own pace. Participants were randomly assigned to four versions of the computer-based materials formed into a 2 × 2 factorial design by crossing modality with cueing. The results revealed a reverse modality effect, wherein participants studying written text outperformed those studying spoken text on tests of free recall, matching, comprehension, and spatial recall, but not mental effort. Information cueing did not significantly affect either performance or mental effort. These findings are discussed in the context of two popular explanations of the modality effect: the cognitive resources explanation and the perceptual resources explanation. The results were best explained from a perceptual resources viewpoint.
Keywords: Multimedia learning; Visual cueing; Reverse modality effect
An empirical evaluation of multi-media based learning of a procedural task BIBAKFull-Text 1072-1081
  Doo Young Lee; Dong-Hee Shin
The present study investigated the effects of multi-media modules and their combinations on the learning of procedural tasks. In the experiment, 72 participants were classified as having either low- or high spatial ability based on their spatial ability test. They were randomly assigned to one of the six experimental conditions in a 2 × 3 factorial design with verbal modality (on-screen text procedure vs. auditory procedure) and the format of visual representation (static visual representation vs. static visual representation with motion cues vs. animated visual representation). After they completed their learning session, the ability to perform the procedural task was directly measured in a realistic setting. The results revealed that: (1) in the condition of static visual representation, the high spatial ability group outperformed the low spatial ability group, (2) for the low spatial ability participants, the animated visual representation group outperformed the static visual representation group, however, the static visual representation with motion cues group did not outperform the static visual representation group, (3) the use of animated visual representation helped participants with low spatial ability more than those with high spatial ability, and (4) a modality effect was found for the measure of satisfaction when viewing the animated visual representation. Since the participants with low spatial ability benefited from the use of animation, the results might support an idea that people are better able to retrieve the procedural information by viewing animated representation. The findings also might reflect a preference for the auditory mode of presentation with greater familiarity with the type of visual representation.
Keywords: Multi-media learning; Learning of procedural task; Visual representation; Static visualization; Animation; Spatial ability

CHB 2012-07 Volume 28 Issue 4

"Who vs. Whom AND Where Should We Go Through?": A reflection towards clarifying the effect of media and entertainment on children's development for future research BIBAKFull-Text 1083-1090
  Adel M. Agina
Despite the massive body of research on the effect of media and entertainment on children's development, especially through computer that clearly stands as the most interactive and appealing medium not only between children but also among people, the research, up to date, still lacks a true understanding of the powerful effect of the communication between children, generally all users, and the content of the entertainment. Thus, the present reflection paper was conducted towards clarifying the directions of the future research concerning the effect of media and entertainment on young children's development based on the literature's theoretical critiques. However, the present paper only paid attention to the most effective studies in the literature given the fact that many and many studies are just repeating what already available in the literature. The conclusion came up with two main directions of the future research on children's development, (1) media as a quasi-human's external regulator and (2) entertainment as a context of the learning process. Both directions yielded a new phase of learning (Self-Arousal Learning (SAL)) that the future research has to take it into account and consideration. The main topics of the SAL were stated as guidance for the main two directions of the future research.
Keywords: Media; Entertainment; Children's development; Self-Arousal Learning
Individual differences in response to cognitive training: Using a multi-modal, attentionally demanding game-based intervention for older adults BIBAKFull-Text 1091-1096
  Laura A. Whitlock; Anne Collins McLaughlin; Jason C. Allaire
The effectiveness of a game-based cognitive training intervention on multiple abilities was assessed in a sample of 39 older adults aged 60-77. The intervention task was chosen based on a cognitive task analysis designed to determine the attentional and multi-modal demands of the game. Improvements on a measure of attention were found for the intervention group compared to controls. Furthermore, for the intervention group only, initial ability scores predicted improvements on both tests of attention and spatial orientation. These results suggest cognitive training may be more effective for those initially lower in ability.
Keywords: Older adults; Cognitive ability; Intervention; Video games; Individual differences
Internet use and multitasking among older adolescents: An experience sampling approach BIBAKFull-Text 1097-1102
  Megan A. Moreno; Lauren Jelenchick; Rosalind Koff; Jens Eikoff; Cheryl Diermyer; Dimitri A. Christakis
Internet use is challenging for individuals to quantify and describe. Previous internet use studies have relied on self-report measures, which may be subject to recall bias. This studied aimed to assess college student internet use using a real-time methodology, experience sampling method (ESM). Undergraduate students participated in a 7-day ESM campaign using text message surveys sent at 6 random times each day. Survey questions evaluated current internet use time and activities. Analyses included hierarchical clustering analysis, multilevel and probability modeling. Among the 189 participants, mean age was 18.9 (SD = 0.9), 58.8% were female and most were Caucasian (90.5%). The modeled average total amount of daily internet time was 56 min, 95% CI [51, 62]. The correlation between self-reported internet use time and ESM data was 0.31 (p < 0.001). Over half of the time participants were on the internet they reported multitasking (56.5%, 95% CI [52.7%, 60.4%]). Study findings suggest that multitasking is frequent among college students, which may explain over-reported internet use.
Keywords: Adolescents; College students; Internet use; Multitasking; Experience sampling method
A pilot study using a computer-based rule following task to distinguish adolescents with and without a behavior disorder BIBAKFull-Text 1103-1108
  Jill Sartor Pierce; Cody Hostutler; T. Steuart Watson
The purposes of this pilot study were to: (a) determine if adolescents with a behavior disorder were less likely than adolescents without a behavior disorder to follow rules when the contingencies did not support doing so, and (b) explore the possibility that a computer-based rule-following task could be used as a measure to differentiate children with and without behavior disorders. Thirteen adolescents with a diagnosis of a behavior disorder (Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder) and thirteen adolescents without the diagnosis of a behavior disorder were exposed to a computer task in which the rule for earning points and the contingency for earning points did not match. A comparison between groups using a Mann-Whitney U analysis revealed that students with an EBD were significantly more likely to violate the rule, z = -3.724, p < .01. A discriminant analysis yielded a significant Wilks' Lambda (λ = .490, p < .0001), canonical correlation (Rc*sup2;2 = . 714 , p < .0001), and a correct classification rate of 82.7%. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of measuring rule-following and using the computer-based task as a screening tool to identify students who are in need of further assessment for behavior disorders.
Keywords: Computer-based assessment; Rule following; Behavior disorders; Adolescents; Screening instruments
An open source usability maturity model (OS-UMM) BIBAKFull-Text 1109-1121
  Arif Raza; Luiz Fernando Capretz; Faheem Ahmed
User satisfaction has always been a major factor in the success of software, regardless of whether it is closed proprietary or open source software (OSS). In open source projects, usability aspects cannot be improved unless there are ways to test and measure them. Hence, the increasing popularity of open source projects among novice and non-technical users necessitates a usability evaluation methodology. Consequently, this paper presents a usability maturity model specifically aimed at usability-related issues for open source projects. In particular, the model examines the degree of coordination between open source projects and their usability aspects. The measuring instrument of the model contains factors that have been selected from four of our empirical studies, which examine the perspectives of OSS users, developers, contributors and the industry. In addition to presenting the usability maturity model, this paper discusses assessment questionnaires, a rating methodology and two case studies.
Keywords: Open source software; Usability evaluation; Maturity model; Empirical analysis
Transactional distance revisited: Bridging face and empirical validity BIBAKFull-Text 1122-1129
  Lakshmi Goel; Pingying Zhang; Marjory Templeton
Implementation of e-learning, whether in academic institutions or in the corporate world, is fast growing. While there has been a plethora of research in the field of e-learning, most empirical results remain inconsistent. One problem with such inconsistencies is the lack of clear takeaways that can guide practitioners on the best practices of e-learning. In this paper, we propose an overarching theoretical framework based on Moore's transactional distance theory to examine e-learning. While this theory has existed for some time and has face validity, it has not received empirical support. We re-examine the core tenets of the theory, and test them in a manner that is ontologically consistent with the focus of the theory on learners' perceptions, thereby bridging the gap between the theory's face and empirical validity. We find strong support for the influence of transactional distance factors on our outcome of interest, i.e. individuals' intentions to return for another e-learning experience. Our results help us arrive at contributions to research and practice, which include suggestions to enhance the success of e-learning initiatives.
Keywords: e-Learning; Transactional distance theory; Dialog; e-Learning intention
Generating a learning stance through perspective-taking in a virtual environment BIBAKFull-Text 1130-1139
  Robb Lindgren
Emerging media technologies such as virtual environments present a unique opportunity to examine the effects of perspective-taking on processes of human learning. In these environments it is possible for learners to immerse themselves in a unique visual perspective -- such as that of a competent actor -- and experience the ways they allocate their attention as they perform critical tasks in a domain. This study investigates whether the opportunity to experience a first-person perspective of actions in a virtual world simulation benefits learning compared to a third-person, disembodied perspective of those same events. Measures of performance within the simulation and post-assessment activities including a diagramming task indicate significant advantages for participants who received the first-person perspective. These participants had a better memory for the important tasks and task-related elements of the simulation; they committed fewer errors and exhibited less help-seeking behavior than participants with a third-person perspective. Results are described in terms of a virtual environment's ability to generate a learning stance through person-centered perspective-taking, and potential implications for the design of instructional computer technologies are discussed.
Keywords: Perspective-taking; Learning; Virtual environments; Computer simulations
The effect of nonhuman's external regulation on young children's self-regulation to regulate their own process of learning BIBAKFull-Text 1140-1152
  Adel M. Agina
The present study sought to examine the effect of nonhuman's external regulation on children's self-regulation to regulate their own process of learning and to what extent did children succeed in terms of application when they talk and think while act alone with nonhuman's external regulator. The Aginian's methodology (Agina, Kommers, & Steehouder, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, 2011d, 2011e) that used an isolated, computer-based learning system and acts as a standalone learning environment with special set of tasks was used by hundred healthy preschool children. The results showed that young children were able to regulate their own process of learning and engage with their full free-will without the need of their real teacher's regulation. The conclusion provided evidence that the verbalization of thinking aloud should occur spontaneously by nature, the nonhuman's external regulation has a positive effect on young children's development when they act with their full free-will, and has a positive effect on their behavior either.
Keywords: Children's development; Self-regulation learning; Learning process; Aginian's studies
The role of metacognitive listening strategies awareness and podcast-use readiness in using podcasting for learning English as a foreign language BIBAKFull-Text 1153-1161
  Mehrak Rahimi; Maral Katal
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' metacognitive listening strategies awareness and podcast-use readiness in using podcasting technology for learning English as a foreign language. One hundred and forty-one EFL students completed Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ) that assessed their awareness and perceived use of listening strategies in five components including planning-evaluation, directed attention, person knowledge, mental translation, and problem solving. They also completed a questionnaire that assessed their readiness to use podcasting in terms of familiarity, attitude, and experience. Information on participants' frequency of podcast use for learning English, frequency of the internet use, and digital device ownership was also obtained. The result of the analysis revealed that podcasting use was significantly related to metacognitive listening strategies awareness in general and its entire components except mental translation strategies while the strongest correlation was found with problem solving strategies (r = .49, p < 0.01). Podcasting use was also found to be significantly related to perceived podcast-use readiness and internet use hours. Further, multiple regressions showed that perceived podcast-use readiness, problem solving, and person knowledge -- in order of power prediction -- were good predictors of podcasting use for learning English as a foreign language.
Keywords: Podcasting; EFL; Metacognition awareness; Listening strategies
Supporting problem-solving performance in a hypermedia learning environment: The role of students' prior knowledge and metacognitive skills BIBAKFull-Text 1162-1169
  Saniye Tugba Bulu; Susan Pedersen
This study investigated how students with different prior knowledge and metacognitive skills benefited from continuous and faded domain-general and domain-specific scaffolds. Students' scores on a multiple-choice pretest, inventory of metacognitive self-regulation, and solution forms were analyzed. Results indicated that while students with lower regulation of cognition and objectivity benefited more from the domain-general scaffolds than the domain-specific ones, students with lower prior knowledge, knowledge of cognition, and problem representation took advantage of both domain-general and domain-specific conditions. Moreover, while students with lower prior knowledge, regulation of cognition, and problem representation took advantage of both continuous and faded domain-general scaffolds, students with lower knowledge of cognition and objectivity benefited more from the domain-general continuous conditions. In addition, students with lower prior knowledge, knowledge of cognition, and objectivity might have difficulties when the domain-specific conditions are faded. On the other hand, results of the study suggested that scaffolds did not substantially benefit the students with higher prior knowledge and higher metacognitive skills.
Keywords: Problem-solving; Scaffolding; Prior knowledge; Metacognition; Hypermedia
Exploring different technological platforms for supporting co-located collaborative games in the classroom BIBAKFull-Text 1170-1177
  Alejandro Echeverría; Matías Améstica; Francisca Gil; Miguel Nussbaum; Enrique Barrios; Sandra Leclerc
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning is a pedagogical approach that can be used for deploying educational games in the classroom. However, there is no clear understanding as to which technological platforms are better suited for deploying co-located collaborative games, nor the general affordances that are required. In this work we explore two different technological platforms for developing collaborative games in the classroom: one based on augmented reality technology and the other based on multiple-mice technology. In both cases, the same game was introduced to teach electrostatics and the results were compared experimentally using a real class.
   The results of our experimental work showed that students significantly increased their conceptual understanding of electrostatics with both platforms. However, there were some important differences between platforms. While in the multiple-mice platform there were no gender differences, in the augmented reality platform boys significantly outperformed girls. In addition, the augmented reality platform was considerably more costly to deploy in a real world setting than the multiple-mice platform. These results suggest that, when co-located collaborative games are designed, careful consideration must be taken when selecting the technology to be used, something which can have effects that go beyond the effects of the games themselves.
Keywords: Learning games; Collaborative learning; Augmented reality
Internet financial reporting: The effects of information presentation format and content differences on investor decision making BIBAKFull-Text 1178-1185
  Andrea Seaton Kelton; Robin R. Pennington
Internet financial reporting provides investors with several options regarding which type of financial disclosures to view and the format in which to view these. However, research suggests that these options may result in unintended cognitive effects leading to less optimal decision making. Accordingly, this study examines the individual and joint impact of presentation format and information content on nonprofessional investors' decision making within the Internet financial reporting environment. Alternative presentation formats which vary in their navigational flexibility are studied to isolate the effects attributable to each format. Specifically, hyperlinked financial information is compared to paper-based financial information. The effects of information content differences are also examined by investigating whether an unaudited letter from a company's management differentially affects hyperlink and paper users' investment judgments.
   We conduct an experiment in which graduate business students, proxies for nonprofessional investors, make financial investment-related judgments and decisions. Our results show that hyperlink users used less effort on the investment task than users of paper-based information. Furthermore, the management letter influenced the paper-based users' forward-looking judgments more so than the hyperlink users. The findings have implications for academic research, financial disclosure regulation and information systems design.
Keywords: Hyperlinks; Presentation format; Cognitive overload
Implicit feedback techniques on recommender systems applied to electronic books BIBAKFull-Text 1186-1193
  Edward Rolando Núñez-Valdéz; Juan Manuel Cueva Lovelle; Oscar Sanjuán Martínez; Vicente García-Díaz; Patricia Ordoñez de Pablos; Carlos Enrique Montenegro Marín
The goal of this research is to define and capture a series of parameters that allowed us to perform a comparative analysis and find correlations between explicit and implicit feedback on recommender systems. Most of these systems require explicit actions from the users, such as rating, and commenting. In the context of electronic books this interaction may alter the patterns of reading and understanding of the users, as they are asked to stop reading and rate the content. By simulating the behavior of an electronic book reader we have improved the feedback process, by implicitly capturing, measuring, and classifying the information needed to discover user interests. In these times of information overload, we can now develop recommender systems that are mostly based on the user's behavior, by relying on the obtained results.
Keywords: Recommender system; eBook; Implicit feedback; Explicit feedback
The impact of forced use on customer adoption of self-service technologies BIBAKFull-Text 1194-1201
  Shunzhong Liu
Drawing upon researches in marketing and psychology, the present investigation examines empirically the intermediate psychological process that would explain how and why forced use affects satisfaction and behavioral intentions with self-service technologies. A non-internet self-service technology setting serviced as the study context. This study tested the research model and relevant hypotheses with survey responses collected from 290 users of self-service technology in China. Results indicate that technology anxiety and technology trust are the two intermediate psychological constructs through which forced use affects satisfaction and behavioral intentions with self-service technologies. This paper sheds some additional light on the relationship among forced use, technology anxiety, technology trust, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions in self-service technology setting.
Keywords: Forced use; Technology anxiety; Technology trust; Satisfaction; Behavioral intentions; Self-service technology
Impact of computer training courses on reduction of loneliness of older people in Finland and Slovenia BIBAKFull-Text 1202-1212
  Helena Bla un; Kaija Saranto; Sari Rissanen
Previous research has shown loneliness as a threat for the quality of life of older people; therefore the goal of the intervention in a quasi-experimental study was to evaluate and discuss the self-reported level of loneliness of older people in Finland and Slovenia before and after a computer intervention. Intervention in a quasi-experimental study was conducted among 58 older participants at the baseline (M = 72.4 years) and 45 older participants at the follow-up research study (M = 72.9 years). Inferential statistics showed a significant difference in the reduction of loneliness between the countries, and a decreased level of loneliness of older people after completing the computer training course. Although older people experience many age-related problems which may reduce their interest in learning information and communication technology (ICT) skills, it is important that they are computer-proficient, because computer engagement can reduce the level of loneliness of older people and in this way has a positive effect on their quality of life.
Keywords: Older people; Loneliness; Computer training course; Socialization; Health and well-being
The effect of nonhuman's external regulation on young children's creative thinking and thinking aloud verbalization during learning mathematical tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1213-1226
  Adel M. Agina
The present study was conducted to explore the effect of nonhuman's external regulation on children's natural development process of creative thinking, the degree of the manifested creative thinking, the influence of children's verbalization on their creative thinking, and the extent the stimulus material was usable for children during learning math tasks. The Aginian's methodology (Agina, Kommers, & Steehouder, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, 2011d, 2011e) that relied on an isolated, computer-based learning system that acts as a standalone learning environment, with special child-simple-calculator was used by 100 healthy preschool children. The results showed that children were fluctuated between negative and positive creative thinkers, children's verbalization has no effect on their creative thinking, and the relation between the children's verbalization of thinking aloud and their creative thinking is a reverse relationship. The usability analysis concluded that, fun is not a key element of the usability as it can only be a feature that could facilitate usability. The mathematical analysis showed that the computer, as a nonhuman external regulator, can integrate the net signed of children's creative thinking through embedding mathematics integration.
Keywords: Creative thinking; Positive creative thinking; Negative creative thinking; Thinking aloud (TA); Private speech (PS)
Making Instance-based Learning Theory usable and understandable: The Instance-based Learning Tool BIBAKFull-Text 1227-1240
  Varun Dutt; Cleotilde Gonzalez
This paper focuses on the creation and presentation of a user-friendly experience for developing computational models of human behavior. Although computational models of human behavior have enjoyed a rich history in cognitive psychology, they have lacked widespread impact, partly due to the technical knowledge and programming required in addition to the complexities of the modeling process. We describe a modeling tool called IBLTool that is a computational implementation of the Instance-based Learning Theory (IBLT). IBLT is a theory that represents how decisions are made from experience in dynamic tasks. The IBLTool makes IBLT usable and understandable to a wider community of cognitive and behavioral scientists. The tool uses graphical user interfaces that take a modeler step-by-step through several IBLT processes and help the modeler derive predictions of human behavior in a particular task. A task would connect and interact with the IBLTool and store the decision-making data while the tool collects statistical data from the execution of a model for the task. We explain the functioning of the IBLTool and demonstrate a concrete example of the design and execution of a model for the Iowa Gambling task. The example is intended to provide a concrete demonstration of the capabilities of the IBLTool.
Keywords: Instance-based Learning Theory (IBLT); Instance-based Learning Tool (IBLTool); Cognitive modeling; Decisions from experience; Iowa Gambling task (IGT); ACT-R
Plugged in but not connected: Individuals' views of and responses to online and in-person ostracism BIBAKFull-Text 1241-1253
  Kelly B. Filipkowski; Joshua M. Smyth
We conducted two studies to examine perceptions of, and reactions to, ostracism occurring either in-person or online. In study 1, participants read a vignette describing either in-person or online ostracism, then estimated their psychological and interpersonal responses as if they experienced such ostracism. Participants anticipated experiencing distress, and this was consistent across ostracism method. Ostracism method did predict negative affect (NA), with greater NA increases anticipated for in-person exclusion, compared to online. A significant interaction between gender and ostracism method predicted anticipated belonging. Males anticipated higher belonging in the in-person condition (relative to online); females anticipated more belonging in the online condition. In study 2, participants experienced in-person or online ostracism during a brief interaction with study confederates. Both conditions elicited similar reports of low inclusion, high exclusion, and significant decreases in positive and negative affect. Ostracism method qualified self-esteem (SE) results; chat room participants indicated an increase in SE following ostracism, whereas in-person participants reported a slight decrease. Males and females were similarly affected by both conditions. These studies demonstrate that online experiences of ostracism may be as meaningful as those experienced in person. Whether this finding generalizes to those with less technological familiarity should be examined further.
Keywords: Ostracism; Exclusion; Online communication; In-person communication; Gender; Technology
Effects of split attention revisited: A new display technology for troubleshooting tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1254-1261
  Markus Huff; Vera Bauhoff; Stephan Schwan
Knowledge acquisition processes benefit from presentations that depict related information -- like diagrams and formulas -- in an integrated way. In contrast, disconnecting interrelated information impairs learning. However, not every task is suitable for an integrated presentation. In the current study, 80 naïve college students were presented with a troubleshooting task preventing an integrated presentation format. We compared performance in a split screen setup depicting two images side-by side with performance in a vexing-image setup. The latter enables the presentation of two images such that participants are able to switch between them without moving the visual focus. Compared to the split screen condition in which participants have to shift their visual focus frequently, troubleshooting performance of correctly identified malfunctioning mechanical devices was higher in the vexing image mode. Thus, not the separation of external representations but re-orientation processes after switching the visual focus seems to be responsible for split attention effects.
Keywords: Split attention; Troubleshooting task
Who benefits from simulator training: Personality and heart rate variability in relation to situation awareness during navigation training BIBAKFull-Text 1262-1268
  Evelyn-Rose Saus; Bjørn Helge Johnsen; Jarle Eid; Julian F. Thayer
Objective This study tested the relationship between individual differences and Situation Awareness (SA) during training in a navigation simulator. Background Simulators have become an important tool in the training and education of maritime personnel with a view to improving decisions and performance. There are a few, inconclusive empirical studies that have focused on mapping personality characteristics and their link to the ability to generate and maintain SA during simulator training. Method Thirty-six first-year students from the Royal Norwegian Navy Officer Candidate School participated in the study. SA was measured using both subjective and observer ratings. Results The results indicated that low scores on Neuroticism and high scores on Extraversion and Conscientiousness (resilient personality type) predicted both subjective and observer-rated SA. Furthermore, participants with high SA were able to modulate their Heart Rate Variability (HRV), with suppression of HRV during navigation training as well showing recovery of HRV. Application The potential applications of this research include the assessment of personality differences as a tool in selecting navigators, and the use of HRV as an objective index of adaptability to environmental demands.
Keywords: Situation awareness; Training; Resilient personality type; Heart rate variability; Maritime personnel
Parent-adolescent communication, parental Internet use and Internet-specific norms and pathological Internet use among Chinese adolescents BIBAKFull-Text 1269-1275
  Qin-Xue Liu; Xiao-Yi Fang; Lin-Yuan Deng; Jin-Tao Zhang
Data were collected from 3556 Chinese junior and senior high school students to explore the associations between adolescent pathological Internet use (PIU) and parental variables, including parent-adolescent communication, parental Internet use and parental Internet-specific norms regarding adolescent Internet use. In particular, this study considered the different role of parental variables under two conditions: parental norms that were consistent or inconsistent with parents' Internet use behaviors. The participants were asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire that included all mentioned factors. The results revealed an 11% rate of adolescent PIU, and hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that parent-adolescent communication predicted PIU negatively under both conditions. When parental norms were consistent with their Internet use behaviors, parental norms predicted adolescent PIU negatively; conversely, when parental norms were inconsistent with their Internet use behaviors, parental behaviors predicted adolescent PIU positively. Implications for family-based prevention and the limitations of this study are discussed.
Keywords: Pathological Internet use; Parental Internet use behaviors; Internet-specific norms; Parent-child communication; Adolescents
The effect of multimedia discrepancies on metacognitive judgments BIBAKFull-Text 1276-1285
  Candice Burkett; Roger Azevedo
This study investigated undergraduate students' metacognitive judgments while learning about complex science topics using multimedia material (text and graph). A within-subjects design was used to examine the effect of discrepancies on study-time allocation, metacognitive judgments and inference generation. There were three types of discrepancies: none, text (between two ideas in the text) and text and graph (between the text and graph). Forty (N = 40) participants completed 12 trials where they were asked to provide six judgments: Ease of Learning judgments (EOLs), immediate and delayed Judgments of Learning (JOLs) for both text and graph and Retrospective Confidence Judgments (RCJs). Overall, participants provided significantly lower JOLs for content that contained discrepancies but RCJs remained high across conditions. Discrepancies did not influence study-time allocation, but did significantly influence inference scores. Overall, results suggest that participants' judgments are different for different aspects of multimedia content and may be based on the text.
Keywords: Metacognitive judgments; Judgment accuracy; Self-regulated learning; Metacognitive monitoring; Discrepancy detection; Multimedia
Impact of two types of partner, perceived or actual, in human-human and human-agent interaction BIBAKFull-Text 1286-1297
  Kazuhisa Miwa; Hitoshi Terai
Participants engaged in the Prisoner's dilemma game with a partner through a computer terminal. We define two types of partner: a perceived partner and an actual partner, and manipulated the two factors independently. A perceived partner means a partner with whom participants imagined themselves to be interacting; instruction given by an experimenter controls the image of the perceived partner. An actual partner can change its behavior. In one scenario participants actually interacted with a human partner, in another scenario their partner was either a mostly cooperating computer agent or a mostly defecting computer agent. Three experiments were performed. The result suggested that the participants' selection behavior was largely influenced by the instruction given about the partner by the experimenter and not influenced by the partner's actual behavior. The analysis of the participants' impressions of the partner showed that the effect of instruction about the partner disappeared. Individual likeability for a partner was very influenced by the partner's behavior; as the participants incurred more defect actions from the partner, individual likeability for the partner decreased. On the other hand, social likeability for a partner was not so influenced by the partner's behavior, but rather related to the participants' own behavior. The participants who made more defect actions rated their partner's social likeability lower.
Keywords: Social dilemma; Human-human interaction; Human-agent interaction; Prisoner's dilemma game; Media Equation
Online environmental community members' intention to participate in environmental activities: An application of the theory of planned behavior in the Chinese context BIBAKFull-Text 1298-1306
  Namkee Park; Aimei Yang
This study investigated the factors associated with online environmental community members' intention to participate in environmental activities in the Chinese context, employing the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Using data from a survey of community members (N = 211), structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the roles of subjective norm and self-efficacy in affecting intention to participate in environmental activities. Unlike other TPB studies, however, the study discovered that attitude was not significantly associated with intention. In addition, other relevant factors, including ego involvement, group identification, perceived salience of environmental problems, perceived popularity of environmental activities, and perceived interactivity of the community websites, were found to be associated with the intention of participation, either directly or indirectly. The theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Keywords: Online environmental communities; Theory of planned behavior; ENGOs; Environmental activities; China
Are there cultural differences in how we play? Examining cultural effects on playing social network games BIBAKFull-Text 1307-1314
  Yu-Hao Lee; Donghee Yvette Wohn
Digital games embedded in social network sites are one of the driving forces behind the expansion of digital gamer populations. Previous studies have observed different usage patterns between users in different ethnic groups and countries, suggesting that culture orientations may affect how people play and interact through social network games. This study examined how people's culture orientations affect usage patterns with measures of vertical and horizontal individualism-collectivism. The findings indicate that culture does not directly affect usage patterns. Instead, the effects on usage patterns are mediated by people's expected outcomes of playing social network games. Vertical culture orientations predicted social expected outcomes. Individualism predicted status expected outcomes, but in different directions on the dimensions of vertical or horizontalness. Vertical collectivism was the only culture orientation that indirectly predicted buying in-game products with real money. Implications for game designers and markers are discussed.
Keywords: Cultural effects; Collectivism; Expected outcomes; Individualism; Social network games
The effect of advertisement choice, sex, and need for cognition on attention BIBAKFull-Text 1315-1320
  Stephen C. Nettelhorst; Laura A. Brannon
A recent study showed that choice of advertisement content affected attention for female but not male viewers (Nettelhorst & Brannon, 2012). This study extended that work by assessing the effect of choice difficulty and the moderation of viewers' need for cognition (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) on attention. Participants were either allowed or not allowed to choose which advertisement to watch after watching a television skit. Next, participants watched an advertisement and rated their amount of attention towards it. Results showed that males were not influenced by the choice manipulation, but females had significantly greater attention after making the difficult choice. Similarly, high need for cognition individuals were not influenced by the choice manipulation, but low need for cognition individuals had significantly greater attention after making the difficult choice. These results suggest that choice in of itself is not a sufficient means of increasing viewer attention towards an advertisement. Instead the choice must be between options which are attractive to the viewer. In addition, advertisement choice should be an effective marketing tool particularly for female viewers or those with low need for cognition in general.
Keywords: Advertisement choice; Sex differences; Need for cognition; Attention; Selective exposure
Exploring regulatory processes during a computer-supported collaborative learning task using process mining BIBAKFull-Text 1321-1331
  Cornelia Schoor; Maria Bannert
The purpose of this study was to explore sequences of social regulatory processes during a computer-supported collaborative learning task and their relationship to group performance. Analogous to self-regulation during individual learning, we conceptualized social regulation both as individual and as collaborative activities of analyzing, planning, monitoring and evaluating cognitive and motivational aspects during collaborative learning. We analyzed the data of 42 participants working together in dyads. They had 90 min to develop a common handout on a statistical topic while communicating only via chat and common editor. The log files of chat and editor were coded regarding activities of social regulation. Results show that participants in dyads with higher group performance (N = 20) did not differ from participants with lower group performance (N = 22) in the frequencies of regulatory activities. In an exploratory way, we used process mining to identify process patterns for high versus low group performance dyads. The resulting models show clear parallels between high and low achieving dyads in a double loop of working on the task, monitoring, and coordinating. Moreover, there are no major differences in the process of high versus low achieving dyads. Both results are discussed with regard to theoretical and empirical issues. Furthermore, the method of process mining is discussed.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Social regulation; Research methods; Self-regulated learning; Process mining
Development of a computer game-based framework for cognitive behaviour identification by using Bayesian inference methods BIBAKFull-Text 1332-1341
  Ahmet Orun; Huseyin Seker
In this work a novel technique for cognitive behavioural data acquisition via computer/console games is introduced by which the user feels more relax than s/he is in a formal environment (e.g., labs and clinics) and has less disruption as s/he provides cognitive data sequence by playing a game. The method can be adapted into any game and is based on the assumption that in this way more efficient analysis of mind can be made to unveil the cognitive or mental characteristics of an individual. In experiments of the proposed work a commercial console game was utilised by different users to complete the tasks in which each game player followed his/her own optional scenarios of the game for a certain period of time. The attributes were then extracted from the behavioural video data sequence by visual inspection where each one corresponds to user's behavioural characteristics spotted throughout the game and then analysed by the Bayesian network utility. At the end of all the experiments, two types of results were obtained: semantic representation of behavioural attributes and classification of personal behavioural characteristics. The approach is proved to be a unique way and helped identify general and specific behavioural characteristics of the individuals and is likely to open new areas of applications.
Keywords: Bayesian networks; Cognitive behavioural analysis; Computer games
Loneliness and generalized problematic Internet use: Parents' perceived knowledge of adolescents' online activities as a moderator BIBAKFull-Text 1342-1347
  Rebecca P. Ang; Wan Har Chong; Stefanie Chye; Vivien S. Huan
This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parents' knowledge of their online activities as a moderator of the relationship between loneliness and generalized problematic Internet use (PIU). The purpose of this study was to address two gaps in research. First, previous research has only investigated these relationships from a main effects perspective; the present study extended research by examining generalized PIU from an interaction effects perspective. Second, it is timely to examine the relationship between loneliness and generalized PIU in an adolescent sample which has not been previously explored. A total of 1098 adolescents (49.2% male, 50.8% female) from Grade 8 and Grade 9 classes participated in this study. The key finding was that perceived parental knowledge was a moderator of the relationship between loneliness and generalized PIU; parental knowledge was better able to differentiate adolescents' level of generalized PIU at lower rather than at higher levels of loneliness. This moderator effect was stronger in magnitude for parents who had no awareness of their adolescents' online activities compared to parents who were in the know about their adolescents' online activities. These findings emphasize the importance of prevention and early intervention work with early adolescents and their parents with respect to adolescent loneliness and generalized PIU.
Keywords: Adolescents; Loneliness; Parental monitoring; Generalized problematic Internet use
Causal or spurious: Using propensity score matching to detangle the relationship between violent video games and violent behavior BIBAKFull-Text 1348-1355
  Whitney D. Gunter; Kevin Daly
Throughout the past decade, numerous states have passed legislation to prohibit the sale of violent video games to children, usually in conjunction with an argument that exposure to violent media increases violent behavior. However, the link between video games and violence is not yet fully understood. This study uses propensity score matching as a method to more adequately address the underlying issue of causality. Using a sample of 6567 8th grade students, these analyses test whether there is a causal link between playing violent video games and violence, non-violent deviance and substance use. Results indicate a substantial decrease in the relationship between video games and these outcomes when a matched sample is used. This suggests that the strength of evidence supporting a relationship has likely been overestimated using other methodologies.
Keywords: Video games; Violence; Propensity score matching; Media violence
Visualizing ideal self vs. actual self through avatars: Impact on preventive health outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 1356-1364
  Youjeong Kim; S. Shyam Sundar
The self-discrepancy between one's actual self and one's ideal self, which is associated with negative emotional states (e.g., depression) or unhealthy lifestyles (e.g., eating disorders), is mostly caused and intensified by exposure to unrealistic images of others (e.g., celebrities or magazine models). Drawing from regulatory focus theory, the current study examines whether creating self-resembling avatars, especially those that resemble our ideal selves, could counteract this negative effect of self-discrepancy. The results of a between-subject experiment (N = 95) indicated that user-created self-reflecting avatars made salient different mental images of their bodies based on whether they customized their avatars to look like their actual or ideal selves, and consequently influenced their perceptions toward their physical body through two different self-regulatory systems (i.e., promotion-focused and prevention-focused), with consequences for health outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Avatar creation; Desired self-resembling avatar; Actual self-resembling avatar; Self-discrepancy; Regulatory focus theory; Self-preservation
Getting closer and experiencing together: Antecedents and consequences of psychological distance in social media-enhanced real-time streaming video BIBAKFull-Text 1365-1378
  Seongtaek Lim; Sang Yun Cha; Chala Park; Inseong Lee; Jinwoo Kim
Social media services such as YouTube and Flickr have become online necessities for millions of users worldwide. Social media are online services that enable users to share contents, opinions, and perspectives that support communication with other users. Social media places an emphasis on the shared experience between users, which we call co-experience. However, the online characteristics of social media increase psychological distance between users, which, in turn, results in a decrease in the quality of co-experience. Hence, as the goal of this study, we theoretically modeled and empirically verified the antecedents and user experience-based consequences of psychological distance in a social media-enhanced real-time streaming video service. In order to reduce psychological distance, we introduced two system elements: inhabited space (the degree of being situated in context and in a meaningful place) and isomorph effects (the degree of preserving the structure of a user's actions). We constructed a social media-enhanced real-time streaming video service prototype and conducted a field experiment with actual social media users. The prototype, which streamed a live baseball game, enabled users to simultaneously view the game from remote locations and to interact with each other through cheering tools. The results indicate that inhabited space and isomorph effects reduce psychological distance between users, and this, in turn, enhances co-experience. This paper ends with theoretical as well as practical implications of the study.
Keywords: Social media-enhanced real-time streaming video; Psychological distance; Co-experience; Inhabited space; Isomorph effects
Influences of motives to play and time spent gaming on the negative consequences of adolescent online computer gaming BIBAKFull-Text 1379-1387
  Charlotta Hellström; Kent W. Nilsson; Jerzy Leppert; Cecilia Åslund
In this study we examined the relation between gaming-time, motives to play, and negative consequences due to playing MMORPGs. A total of 7757 Swedish adolescents (3872 boys and 3885 girls) between 13 and 18 years of age completed a questionnaire during class hours. Results indicated that time spent on gaming was associated with negative consequences. This relation was further explained by motives to play. Gaming for fun and social motives were associated with a reduced risk whereas gaming to escape, to gain status, or due to demands from others were associated with an increased risk of negative consequences. Motives to play should be considered as a prime indicator for negative consequences, even more than time spent gaming. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Adolescent; Behaviour problems; Computer games; Consequences; Motivation; Videogames
A digital revolution: Comparison of demographic profiles, attitudes and gambling behavior of Internet and non-Internet gamblers BIBAKFull-Text 1388-1398
  Sally Gainsbury; Robert Wood; Alex Russell; Nerilee Hing; Alex Blaszczynski
Internet gambling is one of the fastest growing sectors of e-commerce and rapidly growing as a mode of gambling. Although Internet gambling is characterized by high levels of customer choice, little is known about Internet gamblers or their engagement with Internet and non-Internet forms of gambling. Regulators are struggling to respond to Internet gambling given that little is known about the impact of this mode of gambling on the existing gambling market, who is gambling online and how. This paper presents one of the largest studies of Internet gambling; an online survey completed by 6682 Australian gamblers. Results show that Internet gamblers are a heterogeneous group, although there is a tendency for Internet gamblers to be male, have high incomes and be well educated. Internet gamblers have more positive attitudes towards gambling and are more highly involved gamblers, engaging in many different gambling activities in both online and offline forms. However, a proportion of Internet gamblers prefer the privacy and anonymity of Internet gambling and do not like land-based venues, suggesting that Internet gambling is creating a new market of gambling customers. Understanding the impact of this new mode of gamblers on existing gamblers and new players is important to contribute to the appropriate regulation of this activity.
Keywords: Online gambling; Internet; Wagering; Characteristics; Survey; Motivations
The effect of visual design and placement of intra-article navigation schemes on reading comprehension and website user perceptions BIBAKFull-Text 1399-1409
  Elisabeth Cuddihy; Jan H. Spyridakis
Multipage articles on websites require intra-article navigation schemes and, when well designed, such navigational schemes signal the topical structure of the article's contents. This study examines the effect of the visual design and placement of intra-article navigation schemes on website users' reading comprehension and user experience. Using an informational medical website, four treatments of an intra-article navigation scheme were varied in their level of visual distinctness from the site's other navigation devices and in their placement in the web page. Significant differences were found for reading comprehension and perceived knowledge gained. Reading comprehension was highest with an intra-article navigation scheme that was most visually distinct as an article table of contents and that replaced the site's navigation on the web page layout. Paradoxically, participants' perceptions of the amount of knowledge they gained were rated lowest for this condition. Suggestions for navigation design are presented.
Keywords: Hypertext learning; Navigation design; Content organizer; Comprehension; User experience
Internet pornography exposure and risky sexual behavior among adult males in the United States BIBAKFull-Text 1410-1416
  Paul J. Wright; Ashley K. Randall
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to pose a threat to the public health in the United States. Many sexual behaviors increase an individual's risk of STI contraction. Chief among these are having unprotected sex, having sex with multiple partners, and either paying for sex or having sex for pay. The present study used General Social Survey (GSS) data from 2000, 2002, and 2004 to explore the association between exposure to internet pornography and these STI risk behaviors among adult US males. After controlling for demographic and individual difference covariates, internet pornography consumption was positively associated with having sex with multiple partners, engaging in paid sex, and having had extramarital sex. Internet pornography consumption was unrelated to having unprotected sex. Subsequent GSSs have not asked participants about exposure to internet pornography. As the GSS is the only ongoing, full-probability, national survey assessing social beliefs and behaviors, the present report provides unique insight into the risky sexual behavior patterns of adult male internet pornography consumers in the United States.
Keywords: Internet pornography; Sexually explicit media; Sexual health; Sexually transmitted infections; Condoms; Risky sexual behavior
The psychology behind QR codes: User experience perspective BIBAKFull-Text 1417-1426
  Dong-Hee Shin; Jaemin Jung; Byeng-Hee Chang
QR codes, 2-D bar codes that can be read by special software on a smartphone, have been undergoing rapid development. This study examines how a Technology Acceptance Model could predict users' intentions to continue using QR codes by integrating interactivity and quality motivations as primary determining factors. Although studies have shown interactivity is important to users, not many study have analyzed the mediating influence of interactivity within interactive marketing context. Therefore, the original TAM was expanded to encompass user perceptions of interactivity and quality. The results of this study show that user intentions and behaviors are largely influenced by the perception of the quality of QR codes. In addition, the results of the model show that interactivity is a key behavioral antecedent to the use of QR codes. In the extended model, the moderating and mediating effects of the perceived interactivity on relationships among the variables were found to be significant. The new set of variables is QR code-specific, acting as factors that enhance attitudes and behavioral intentions. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of construction of a theory of interactivity and provision of practical insights into development of user-centered QR codes.
Keywords: QR code; Interactive marketing; Adoption; Mediating effects; Moderating effects
Cultural determinants of media choice for deception BIBAKFull-Text 1427-1438
  Christopher P. Furner; Joey F. George
In today's business environment, deception is commonplace (Blumberg, 1989; Ruane, Cerulo, et al., 1994). Historically, individuals were limited in their media options, however recent technological advances have given individuals more ways in which to communicate and deceive. The use of these new media change the communication dynamic substantially. Previous studies have found that deception detection differs across media, as media vary in their ability to transmit cues, convey emotion and reversibility, among others. Researchers are beginning to understand the dynamics between media characteristics, individual characteristics and media choice in a deceptive communication context.
   Not only is deception commonplace in today's multicultural business environment, communication participants can come from a variety of cultural backgrounds. Taking this into account, the current study seeks to use media synchrony theory to derive a model of media choice based on an individual's espoused national culture. In this study a scenario-based media choice task was given to subjects in the United States and China, and the results indicate that espoused national culture does influence media choice for deception. Specifically, individuals who scored highly on collectivism preferred to lie using text-based media, individuals who scored high on power distance preferred to lie using audio media and individuals who scored high on masculinity preferred to lie using visual media. Implications for research and practitioners are discussed.
Keywords: Media selection; Media synchrony; Espoused national culture; Deception
The impact of distractions on the usability and intention to use mobile devices for wireless data services BIBAKFull-Text 1439-1449
  Constantinos K. Coursaris; Khaled Hassanein; Milena M. Head; Nick Bontis
Mobile technology has quickly become ingrained in society due to the flexibility of anywhere/anytime usage. However, factors associated with and that impact mobility, mobile users, and mobile use of products and services are still poorly understood. For example, even though distractions are ever present during everyday use of mobile devices, the nature and extent to which user perceptions and performance are affected by their presence is unknown. An empirical study was undertaken to investigate the impact of distractions and confirmation of pre-trial expectations on usability and its subsequent effect on consumers' behavioral intention toward using a mobile device for wireless data services. Distractions were simulated in this study in the form of either user motion or environmental noise (i.e. background auditory and visual stimuli). A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis confirmed the impacts of distractions on efficiency and effectiveness, and in turn the users' satisfaction and behavioral intention to use a mobile device for wireless data services. Support was also obtained for a mediating effect of post-trial confirmation of expectations between perceived performance and satisfaction. Implications of these findings for theory, practice, and future research are outlined.
Keywords: Mobile; Usability; Distraction; Expectancy-confirmation theory; Satisfaction; Adoption
Contribution of Internet news use to reducing the influence of selective online exposure on political diversity BIBAKFull-Text 1450-1457
  Najin Jun
Research has recognized both selective and heterogeneous exposures on the Internet through online news and discussion. How online exposures through Internet news and discussion influence political diversity in individuals' everyday lives needs to be addressed. The current research examines the extent to which Internet news use alters the effect of selective online interaction on political diversity in individuals' social networks. Results show that while Internet news use has no direct relationship with political diversity in individuals' social networks, it nevertheless moderates the negative effect of selective online interaction and indirectly contributes to political diversity. The social structural aspect of political diversity in social networks is discussed in comparison to political discussion networks.
Keywords: The Internet; Internet news; Online discussion; Selective exposure; Political heterogeneity; Social network
Negative emotional and cognitive responses to being unfriended on Facebook: An exploratory study BIBAKFull-Text 1458-1464
  Jennifer L. Bevan; Jeanette Pfyl; Brett Barclay
We consider Facebook unfriending as a form of relationship termination with negative emotional and cognitive consequences. Specifically, ruminative and negative emotional responses are examined via an online survey of adult Facebook users who were unfriended. These responses were positively related to each other and to Facebook intensity. Rumination was positively predicted by using Facebook to connect with existing contacts and was more likely when the unfriender was a close partner. Participants also responded with greater rumination and negative emotion when they knew who unfriended them, when they thought they were unfriended for Facebook-related reasons, and when participants initiated the Facebook friend request. The contribution of these exploratory findings to our growing understanding of negative relational behaviors on Facebook are discussed.
Keywords: Facebook; Online relationships; Emotion; Cognition; Relationship termination
How to ameliorate negative effects of violent video games on cooperation: Play it cooperatively in a team BIBAKFull-Text 1465-1470
  Tobias Greitemeyer; Eva Traut-Mattausch; Silvia Osswald
The present research tests the idea that playing a team-player video game in which players work together as teammates and assist each other in achieving a common goal ameliorates the negative effects of violent video game play on cooperative behavior. In fact, two studies revealed that, relative to a single-player mode, playing a cooperative team-player violent video game increased cooperation in a decision dilemma task. Importantly, cooperative behavior generalized across targets in that the decision dilemma was played with a partner who was not the video game play partner. Mediation analyses revealed that cooperative team-play promoted feelings of cohesion, which activated trust norms, which in turn increased cooperative behavior.
Keywords: Violent video games; Cooperation; Video game context; Media effects; Trust
Is online trust and trust in social institutions associated with online disclosure of identifiable information online? BIBAKFull-Text 1471-1477
  Gustavo S. Mesch
This study investigated the association between trust in individuals, social institutions and online trust on the disclosure of personal identifiable information online. Using the Internet attributes approach that argues that some structural characteristics of the Internet such as lack of social cues and controllability are conducive to a disinhibitive behavior it was expected that face to face trust and online trust will not be associated. In addition, it was expected that from the three components of trust, online trust only will be associated with the disclosure of identifiable personal information online. A secondary analysis of the 2009 Pew and American Life of Internet users (n = 1698) survey was conducted. In contrast with the Internet attribute approach the effect of trust in individuals and institutions was indirectly associated with the disclosure of identifiable information online. Trust in individuals and institutions were found to be associated with online trust. However, online trust only, was found to be associated with the disclosure of personal identifiable information. While trust online encourages the disclosure of identifiable information, perception of privacy risks predicted refraining from posting identifiable information online. The results show a complex picture of the association of offline and online characteristics on online behavior.
Keywords: Online/offline information disclosure; Online and offline trust; Internet; Computer mediated communication; Interpersonal trust
The effects of constructing domain-specific representations on coordination processes and learning in a CSCL-environment BIBAKFull-Text 1478-1489
  Bert Slof; Gijsbert Erkens; Paul A. Kirschner
This study examined the effects of scripting learners' use of two types of representational tools (i.e., causal and simulation) on their online collaborative problem-solving. Scripting sequenced the phase-related part-task demands and made them explicit. This entailed (1) defining the problem and proposing multiple solutions (i.e., problem-solution) and (2) evaluating solutions and coming to a definitive solution (i.e., solution-evaluation). The causal tool was hypothesized to be best suited for problem solution and the simulation tool for solution evaluation. Teams of learners in four experimental conditions carried out the part-tasks in a predefined order, but differed in the tools they received. Teams in the causal-only and simulation-only conditions received either a causal or a simulation tool for both part-tasks. Teams in the causal-simulation and simulation-causal conditions received both tools in suited and unsuited order respectively. Results revealed that teams using the tool suited to each part-task constructed more task appropriate representations and were better able to share and negotiate knowledge. As a consequence, they performed better on the complex learning-task. Although all learners individually gained more domain knowledge, no differences were obtained between conditions.
Keywords: Complex learning-tasks; Coordination processes; Computer supported collaborative learning; External representations; Representational scripting
Phantom vibrations among undergraduates: Prevalence and associated psychological characteristics BIBAKFull-Text 1490-1496
  Michelle Drouin; Daren H. Kaiser; Daniel A. Miller
'Phantom vibration syndrome,' or perceived vibrations from a device that is not really vibrating, is a recent psychological phenomenon that has attracted the attention of the media and medical community. Most (89%) of the 290 undergraduates in our sample had experienced phantom vibrations, and they experienced them about once every two weeks, on average. However, few found them bothersome. Those higher in conscientiousness experienced phantom vibrations less frequently, and those who had strong reactions to text messages (higher in the emotional reaction subscale of text message dependence) were more bothered by phantom vibrations. These findings suggest that targeting individuals' emotional reactions to text messages might be helpful in combating the negative consequences of both text message dependency and phantom vibrations. However, because few young adults were bothered by these phantom vibrations or made attempts to stop them, interventions aimed at this population may be unnecessary.
Keywords: Phantom vibrations; Text message dependence; Psychological characteristics; Young adults; Undergraduates
Predicting social cues during online discussions: Effects of evaluations and knowledge content BIBAKFull-Text 1497-1509
  Gaowei Chen; Ming Ming Chiu; Zhan Wang
This study examined whether evaluations (agreements, disagreements), knowledge content (new ideas, justifications), or social cues (SCs) in recent messages affected a current message's positive or negative SC during asynchronous, online discussions. Using statistical discourse analysis, we modeled 894 messages by 183 participants on 60 high school mathematics topics (typically eight people posted per topic) on a mathematics problem solving website not connected to any class or school. Results showed that recent agreements increased the likelihood of positive SC, whereas justifications reduced it. Disagreements increased the likelihood of negative SC, whereas new ideas reduced it. Meanwhile, recent positive or negative SCs did not affect the likelihood of a subsequent SC. Together, these results suggest that judicious use of positive SCs rather than negative SCs during disagreements can help students both construct knowledge and maintain social relationships.
Keywords: Online discussion; Social cues; Positive social cues; Negative social cues; Statistical discourse analysis
Motives for Facebook use and expressing "true self" on the Internet BIBAKFull-Text 1510-1517
  Leman Pinar Tosun
A survey on 143 university students was conducted to examine what motives young adults have for Facebook use, which of those motives were endorsed more than the others, and how those motives were related to the tendency of expressing one's "true self" through Facebook use. According to the results, primary motive for Facebook use was to maintain long-distance relationships. This motive was followed by game-playing/entertainment, active forms of photo-related activities, organizing social activities, passive observations, establishing new friendships, and initiating and/or terminating romantic relationships. Another interesting result was that individuals' tendency for expressing one's true self on the Net had an influence on their Facebook use motives: The ones with high tendency to express their true self on the Internet reported to use Facebook for establishing new friendships and for initiating/terminating romantic relationships more than the individuals' with low and medium levels of the same tendency did.
Keywords: Facebook; "True self"; Theory of uses and gratifications
Understanding users' initial trust in mobile banking: An elaboration likelihood perspective BIBAKFull-Text 1518-1525
  Tao Zhou
Due to the high perceived risk, building users' initial trust is crucial to facilitating their adoption and usage of mobile banking. Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model (ELM), this research examined users' initial trust in mobile banking. The results indicated that initial trust develops along a dual route including the central route and peripheral route. Self-efficacy as the elaboration likelihood moderates the effects of central cues and peripheral cues on initial trust. Central cues include information quality and service quality, whereas peripheral cues include system quality, structural assurance and reputation. The results imply that service providers need to employ differentiated strategies to build users' initial trust in mobile banking.
Keywords: Initial trust; Mobile banking; Elaboration likelihood model; Self-efficacy
Mindful multitasking: The relationship between mindful flexibility and media multitasking BIBAKFull-Text 1526-1532
  Amanda Ie; Chiara S. Haller; Ellen J. Langer; Delphine S. Courvoisier
With the insatiable demand for and corresponding burgeoning of electronic devices enabling individuals to accomplish many things simultaneously, effective multitasking may be a necessity in today's world. The present study was concerned with the improvement of media multitasking by increasing mindful flexibility through a state mindfulness induction (Langer, 1989). Seventy-five participants were randomized into one of three state mindfulness induction groups (High Mindful, Low Mindful, No Treatment). Multitasking performance was assessed via a dual-task paradigm that involved composing an essay on a computer and solving anagrams sent via a browser-based chat program. Results revealed that higher trait mindfulness was related to greater tolerance of ambiguity, a greater tendency to adopt a Heuristic than Algorithmic thinking style, greater complexity in thinking style, greater positive affect, and less negative affect. Although the state mindfulness inductions did not differentially affect multitasking performance across the three groups, trait mindfulness predicted the performance of individuals in the No Treatment group. Overall, the study suggested that younger individuals and individuals who have a dispositional tendency to remain implicitly or explicitly aware of multiple perspectives of a situation are better at media multitasking.
Keywords: Media multitasking; Task switching; Mindfulness; Mindful flexibility; Cognitive flexibility; Creativity
Corrigendum to "Are there optimal levels of arousal to memory? Effects of arousal, centrality, and familiarity on brand memory in video games" [Comput. Human Behav. 28 (2012) 285-291] BIBFull-Text 1533
  Eui Jun Jeong; Frank A. Biocca

CHB 2012-09 Volume 28 Issue 5

Facebook and political engagement: A study of online political group membership and offline political engagement BIBAKFull-Text 1535-1546
  Meredith Conroy; Jessica T. Feezell; Mario Guerrero
In what ways do online groups help to foster political engagement among citizens? We employ a multi-method design incorporating content analysis of online political group pages and original survey research of university undergraduates (n = 455) to assess the relationship between online political group membership and political engagement -- measured through political knowledge and political participation surrounding the 2008 election. We find that participation in online political groups is strongly correlated with offline political participation, as a potential function of engaging members online. However, we fail to confirm that there is a corresponding positive relationship between participation in online political groups and political knowledge, likely due to low quality online group discussion.
Keywords: Political communication; Social media; Political participation; Facebook; Surveys
Research issues of Internet-integrated cognitive style BIBAKFull-Text 1547-1554
  Albert H. Huang; David C. Yen; Shin-Yuan Hung
Cognitive style was once a popular research topic in the field of decision support systems (DSS), but because of the lack of usable results, it has not received much attention from the research community in recent years. This paper argues that it can be both promising and worthwhile to revive research efforts into cognitive style in the modern decision-making environment. Several reasons are offered to support this argument: First, the decision-making environment is now more integrated with technology, particularly the Internet, making it more uniform and easier to define. Second, the potential benefit of such studies is greater because more people are using Internet-based technology to make decisions. Third, data on the cognitive behavior of decision makers are captured and available for analysis because of the close integration between technology and the decision-making process. Research questions are raised and potential variables are proposed and discussed.
Keywords: Cognitive style; Cognitive process; Internet; Decision support systems (DSS); Decision making
Does source matter? Examining source effects in online product reviews BIBAKFull-Text 1555-1563
  Xue Dou; Justin A. Walden; Seoyeon Lee; Ji Young Lee
Drawing on the literature about online source classification, source credibility, and attribution theory, this study examines how the source of a product review influences people's product judgments. Results from a between-subjects experiment suggest that the perceived source of a message (the visible source) impacts how people evaluate actual reviewer (the original source) and product. Reviews made by regular Internet users (visible sources) lead to greater trust in the actual reviewer (the original source), compared to product reviews from product makers. Results further indicate that visible sources play a crucial role in helping people judge the credibility of online reviews. Particularly, the identity of a visible source is used to consider the intention of original source of the message, which in turn determines message persuasiveness. The authors conclude that evaluating the intentions of online reviewers is a critical antecedent to forming opinions about online reviews and products.
Keywords: Source credibility; User generated content; eWOM; Online product reviews; YouTube
Information Systems Use: Construct conceptualization and scale development BIBAKFull-Text 1564-1574
  Jonghak Sun; James T. C. Teng
Information Systems Use (ISU) is an essential part of the human behaviors in utilizing computers in organizations. The construct has been widely used to measure IS adoption or IS success. However, few studies attempt to understand ISU in a job and organizational setting where employees use various types of IS for different tasks. To better understand ISU, it is necessary to contextualize the construct in users' overall work related activities. We classified the overall IS/IT use in an organization into three different types of IS; Information Reporting Systems (IRSs), Decision Support Systems (DSSs), and Group Support System (GSSs). Based on this classification, we developed four items for each type of ISU behaviors. The resulting ISU instrument was tested using a dataset of 231 responses collected in a survey. Both exploratory factor analysis and PLS are employed to successfully establish reliability, convergent/discriminate validity, and predictive validity. The contribution of this research is to provide better and more robust measurements for the ISU construct, which should help to lay a firmer foundation for further research on IS success.
Keywords: Information Systems Use; Information systems success; Construct development
Improving video-mediated communication with orchestration BIBAKFull-Text 1575-1579
  Martin Groen; Marian Ursu; Spiros Michalakopoulos; Manolis Falelakis; Epameinondas Gasparis
Video-mediated communication (VMC) has become a popular communication medium. However, research to date suggests that the inherent constraints of VMC impair effective and efficient communication and task performance. We propose that these negative findings could be attributed to how the technology was used and propose the novel concept of communication orchestration aimed at mitigating some of the signaled limitations. Orchestration is a selection process for displaying information that is deemed relevant for accomplishing an effective and efficient task performance and communicative experience. We report an experiment that confirmed this suggestion. The results indicate that orchestration could be an important novel feature to aid humans when communicating via VMC, but also suggest that there is potential for further improvements in orchestration.
Keywords: Video-mediated communication; Orchestration; Task performance; User experience; Videoconferencing; Communication
Effects of computer-based testing on test performance and testing motivation BIBAKFull-Text 1580-1586
  Yan Piaw Chua
Computer-based testing (CBT) is a green computing strategies used to reduce paper consumption. However, some scholars have questioned the effectiveness of CBT and suggested for conducting systematic studies on CBT to carefully check its reliability and validity before opting for it. Recently, some studies have evaluated the effectiveness of CBT by comparing it with paper-pencil testing (PPT), and the findings were inconsistent. Besides this, most of these studies have been conducted using quasi or basic experimental designs without identifying testing effects on test takers. The limitation of these design is testing effects might occur when a participant in the control or treatment group is tested at least twice on a same test, and it influences the outcomes of taking a posttest, therefore, the findings might be misinterpreted. This study employed a Solomon four-group experimental design (2 × 3 factorial design) on a group of student teachers (n = 140) to compare CBT and PPT on test performance (test scores), testing time and testing motivation. Results indicated that the CBT mode is more reliable in terms of internal and external validity. The CBT significantly reduced testing time and developed stronger self-efficacy, intrinsic and social testing motivation in the participants.
Keywords: Computer-based testing; Testing effects; Test performance; Testing time; Testing motivation
Conformity on the Internet -- The role of task difficulty and gender differences BIBAKFull-Text 1587-1595
  Michael Rosander; Oskar Eriksson
Conformity and the effects of social influence have been studied for a long time in face-to-face situations but have received less attention in contexts of computer-mediated communication (CMC) such as the Internet. The purpose of this study was to investigate conformity behavior in use of the Internet. The social context for the participants was the Internet communities from which they were recruited. Four hypotheses were tested by a survey containing knowledge and logic questions. Half the participants were subjected to conformity manipulations and the result showed a clear conformity to erroneous majority alternatives. Of the participants in the Conformity group (n = 477) 52.6% conformed at least once, with an average 13.0% of participants conforming on each critical question. The conformity increased with higher task difficulty, both subjective and objective. The fourth hypothesis, that women would conform to a higher degree than men, received no support. Instead, the results showed higher conformity for men on both difficult and logical questions. Reasons for conformity on the Internet such as turning to the group for guidance, avoiding social isolation and protecting one's self-esteem are discussed with reference to theory and earlier research.
Keywords: Conformity; Internet; CMC; Gender differences; Task difficulty; Social influence
Is beautiful really usable? Toward understanding the relation between usability, aesthetics, and affect in HCI BIBAKFull-Text 1596-1607
  Alexandre N. Tuch; Sandra P. Roth; Kasper Hornbæk; Klaus Opwis; Javier A. Bargas-Avila
This paper analyzes the relation between usability and aesthetics. In a laboratory study, 80 participants used one of four different versions of the same online shop, differing in interface-aesthetics (low vs. high) and interface-usability (low vs. high). Participants had to find specific items and rate the shop before and after usage on perceived aesthetics and perceived usability, which were assessed using four validated instruments. Results show that aesthetics does not affect perceived usability. In contrast, usability has an effect on post-use perceived aesthetics. Our findings show that the "what is beautiful is usable" notion, which assumes that aesthetics enhances the perception of usability can be reversed under certain conditions (here: strong usability manipulation combined with a medium to large aesthetics manipulation). Furthermore, our results indicate that the user's affective experience with the usability of the shop might serve as a mediator variable within the aesthetics-usability relation: The frustration of poor usability lowers ratings on perceived aesthetics. The significance of the results is discussed in context of the existing research on the relation between aesthetics and usability.
Keywords: Aesthetics; Beauty; Emotion; Interface design; Usability; User experience
Critical thinking in E-learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 1608-1617
  Raafat George Saadé; Danielle Morin; Jennifer D. E. Thomas
One of the primary aims of higher education in today's information technology enabled classroom is to make students more active in the learning process. The intended outcome of this increased IT-facilitated student engagement is to foster important skills such as critical thinking used in both academia and workplace environments. Critical thinking (CT) skills entails the ability(ies) of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation to achieve a logical understanding. Critical thinking in the classroom as well as in the workplace is a central theme; however, with the dramatic increase of IT usage the mechanisms by which critical thinking is fostered and used has changed. This article presents the work and results of critical thinking in a virtual learning environment. We therefore present a web-based course and we assess in which parts of the course, and to what extent, critical thinking was perceived to occur. The course contained two categories of learning modules namely resources and interactive components. Critical thinking was measured subjectively using the ART scale. Results indicate the significance of "interactivity" in what students perceived to be critical-thinking-oriented versus online material as a resource. Results and opportunities that virtual environments present to foster critical thinking are discussed.
Keywords: E-learning; Critical thinking; Assessment; Information technology
When graphics improve liking but not learning from online lessons BIBAKFull-Text 1618-1625
  Eunmo Sung; Richard E. Mayer
The multimedia principle states that adding graphics to text can improve student learning (Mayer, 2009), but all graphics are not equally effective. In the present study, students studied a short online lesson on distance education that contained instructive graphics (i.e., directly relevant to the instructional goal), seductive graphics (i.e., highly interesting but not directly relevant to the instructional goal), decorative graphics (i.e., neutral but not directly relevant to the instructional goal), or no graphics. Following instruction, students who received any kind of graphic produced significantly higher satisfaction ratings than the no graphics group, indicating that adding any kind of graphic greatly improves positive feelings. However, on a recall posttest, students who received instructive graphics performed significantly better than the other three groups, indicating that the relevance of graphics affects learning outcomes. The three kinds of graphics had similar effects on affective measures but different effects on cognitive measures. Thus, the multimedia effect is qualified by a version of the coherence principle: Adding relevant graphics to words helps learning but adding irrelevant graphics does not.
Keywords: Graphics; Seductive details; e-Learning; Web-based learning; Multimedia effect; Multimedia learning
Why do people post and read personal messages in public? The motivation of using personal blogs and its effects on users' loneliness, belonging, and well-being BIBAKFull-Text 1626-1633
  Younbo Jung; Hayeon Song; Peter Vorderer
The purpose of the current paper is to develop a theoretical model that identifies why people blog personal content and explains the effects of blogging in "real life." Data from an online survey are analyzed using maximum likelihood procedures in LISREL 8.75 to test the structural model. Among 531 respondents from Cyworld, a popular social network and blogging site in South Korea, a randomly selected group of 251 users was used to develop the model. The other group of 280 users was used to confirm the usefulness of the revised model. Results (N = 251; N = 280) showed that impression management and voyeuristic surveillance are two major psychological factors that motivate individuals to post and read messages on personal blogs. Results also showed evidence for blogging's real life consequences, measured by users' perceived social support, loneliness, belonging, and subjective well-being.
Keywords: Personal blog; Impression management; Voyeuristic surveillance; Social support; Subjective well-being; Anonymity
Involuntary postural responses of users as input to Attentive Computing Systems: An investigation on head movements BIBAKFull-Text 1634-1647
  Ahmet Cengizhan Dirican; Mehmet Göktürk
Automatic motor or involuntary postural behaviors of users have been receiving an increasing interest in recent years, as unobtrusive measures of cognitive states. In this paper, we investigate the involuntary postural responses of seated users derived from their cognitive changes as input for Attentive Computing Systems. The paper first introduces seated posture, its advantages for cognitive state assessment and connections with cognitive states and, related studies in order to provide a research background for this emerging area of research. We then focus on head posture of seated users and examine the involuntary head movements correlated with task engagement and changing task difficulty through an experiment conducted using a display-oriented cognitive task with changing difficulties. The experiment included 31 participants. Based on different measures, head response and speed, data gathered from user studies were analyzed. Repeated measures Analysis of Variances revealed that head response and speed could serve as cognitive engagement measures. The results indicated that participants get closer to a computer display and became more stationary when they were engaged in a task. The task difficulty analysis results, conversely, partially fulfilled our initial expectations. Head response and speed exhibited limited sensitive behaviors as task difficulties changed.
Keywords: Attentive Computing Systems; Cognitive state assessment; Involuntary; Seated posture; Head movements; Nonverbal communication
Modeling the Computing Based Testing domain extending IMS QTI: Framework, models and exemplary implementations BIBAKFull-Text 1648-1662
  Patricia Santos; Davinia Hernández-Leo; Mar Pérez-Sanagustín; Josep Blat
Using technology to create new types of questions is important, but also exploring new types of test representations or analyzing the most adequate technological device to support a specific assessment activity based on tests. This paper presents a conceptual model that defines and relates three dimensions to be considered for advancing on Computing-Based Testing (CBT): the Question-item, the Test and the Activity. The framework assists in the categorization and design of advanced CBT scenarios and opens a new domain for questions and tests supported by ICT. Besides, the paper proposes two models for the technological design and implementation of the Test and Question-item dimensions. The models represent an extension of the IMS Question and Test Interoperability standard. They are platform-independent models (PIMs) that formulate the elements that can be mapped to platform-specific models (PSMs) for implementing advanced CBT solutions. To show the relevance, value and usability of the contributions, the paper also describes the application of the framework and PIMs to design and implement three exemplary CBT scenarios with their corresponding CBT-PSMs. Within the global scope of the CBT conceptual model, the first scenario shows how question-items can be enriched with specific multimedia information (web maps). The second scenario illustrates another particular case of the CBT domain where a test can be augmented with real physical elements. And finally, the third scenario describes an implementation that combines advanced question-items and tests using virtual worlds.
Keywords: Computing-Based Testing; Authentic learning; Formative assessment; Modeling framework; Question and Test Interoperability
I became an attractive person in the virtual world: Users' identification with virtual communities and avatars BIBAKFull-Text 1663-1669
  Changsoo Kim; Sang-Gun Lee; Minchoel Kang
A number of studies have examined virtual worlds, which can facilitate knowledge sharing, education, and enjoyment, among others. However, no study has provided an insightful research model for evaluating virtual worlds. This study suggests that users' identification with virtual communities and avatars plays a critical role in the construction of attractive virtual worlds. The proposed model measures the level of the user's identification with virtual communities, through which the user builds his or her trust in other community members. In addition, the study suggests that users' identification with avatars is an important element of their satisfaction with virtual worlds. The results indicate that users' identification with virtual communities as well as avatars can enhance their efficacy and trust and thus facilitate their sustained use of virtual services. The results have important theoretical and practical implications.
Keywords: Virtual world; Community identification; Avatar identification; Self-efficacy; Collective efficacy
Age differences in information finding tasks: Performance and visual exploration strategy with different web page layouts BIBAKFull-Text 1670-1680
  Isabelle Etcheverry; Thierry Baccino; Patrice Terrier; Jean-Claude Marquié; Mustapha Mojahid
Recent research suggests that older Internet users seem to find it more difficult to locate navigation links than to find information content in web pages. One possibility is that older Internet users' visual exploration of web pages is more linear in nature, even when this type of processing is not appropriate for the task. In the current study, the eye movements of young and older Internet users were recorded using an ecological version of the web pages or a discursive version designed to induce a linear exploration. The older adults found more targets when performing content-oriented compared to navigation-oriented searches, thus replicating previous results. Moreover, they performed less well than young people only when required to locate navigation links and tended to outperform the younger participants in content-oriented searches. Although the type of search task and type of web page resulted in different visual strategies, little or no support was found for the hypothesis that older participants explore web pages in a more linear way in cases where this strategy was not appropriate. The main conclusion is that differences in visual exploration do not seem to mediate the specific difficulty older adults experience in navigation-oriented searches in web pages.
Keywords: Internet; Information search; Cognitive aging; Eye-movement
Living in the Hutt Space: Immersive process in the Star Wars Role-Play community of Second Life BIBAKFull-Text 1681-1691
  Matthieu J. Guitton
Immersive virtual settings are evolving to become new "spaces of life". Humans inhabit these different virtual worlds through their avatars, and tend to gather into communities. However, the behavioral factors underlying the cognitive process of immersion in virtual worlds are still far to be understood. We here investigated these factors using the Star Wars Role-Play community of the virtual setting of Second Life as a model. More specifically, our studies focused on the immersion process in the "Hutt Space", a portion of the Star Wars Galaxy ruled by the alien species of the Hutts, which combines the trademark aspects of Star Wars universe. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, we identified some of the factors which favor the immersion process. Our results suggest that the different behavioral factors contributing to the immersion process can be organized in three structuring dimensions: commitment, cohesion, and coherence. We also unveil a compensatory mechanism between appearance and behavioral factors in creation and maintenance of social groups in virtual worlds. Finally, we point out some of the behavioral aspects of the evolution from passive media engagement (spectators), to active media engagement (actors), and suggest a theoretical framework to investigate how human inhabit immersive virtual spaces.
Keywords: Avatar; Social interactions; Social density; Star Wars; Virtual community; Virtual worlds
Retain viewer's attention on banner ad by manipulating information type of the content BIBAKFull-Text 1692-1699
  Yu-Chen Hsieh; Kuo-Hsiang Chen; Min-Yuan Ma
The influence of phenomenon like Banner blindness and Habituation has weakened researchers' efforts to highlight the effect of adding salient visual features to ads. On the other hand, many studies discussed advertising attention on the basis of individual pages, neglecting the fact that most ads reside on one of a sequence of webpages that a viewer continuously reads. Therefore, our study discussed advertising attention from a different perspective, switching focus to the information type and their influence on attention in a sequence of webpages. This study, extended from our previous study, in which we found user attention to advertisement to drop sharply beyond the initial page, planned to investigate if it is possible to dishabituate users and enhance viewer's attention on banner ads by manipulating the information type of a sequence of content. We found that viewer's attention on ads can be prolonged on subsequent pages with a rudimentary stimulus variation to content order and without changing any visual design feature of the ad itself, which is prone to the crippling effects of banner blindness and habituation, and that the image-based content inserted between pages of text-based content plays an important role in raising overall attention to advertisement.
Keywords: Internet advertising; Habituation; Dishabituation; Attention inertia; Banner blindness
Individuals' personal network characteristics and patterns of Facebook use: A social network approach BIBAKFull-Text 1700-1707
  Namkee Park; Seungyoon Lee; Jang Hyun Kim
Using the theoretical framework of ego-centric networks, this study examines the associations between the characteristics of both Facebook-specific and pre-existing personal networks and patterns of Facebook use. With data from an ego-network survey of college students, the study discovered that various dimensions of Facebook-specific network characteristics, such as multiplexity, proximity, density, and heterogeneity in race, were positively associated with usage patterns, including time spent on Facebook, posting messages, posting photos, and lurking. In contrast, network characteristics of pre-existing relationships, such as density and heterogeneity in race, were negatively associated with Facebook usage patterns. Theoretical implications and limitations were discussed.
Keywords: Personal network structure; Facebook; Network characteristics; Patterns of use; Social network analysis
The effect of moderator's facilitative strategies on online synchronous discussions BIBAKFull-Text 1708-1716
  Ya-Hui Hsieh; Chin-Chung Tsai
Moderators play an important role within a computer supported collaborative learning environment, and thus facilitative strategies and communication technology are nowadays used to enhance students' learning. This study proposed facilitative strategies as a guide for students' learning, and explored the influence of these strategies on the students' online synchronous discussion. A total of 331 senior high school students from eight computer classes in northern Taiwan were recruited to participate in this study. They were randomly assigned into an experimental condition, with the moderators' facilitation to complete online learning tasks, and the control condition without moderators' support. To fulfill the goal of the research, four strategies -- helping students focus on the main topic, facilitating students' making argumentation, giving students positive feedback, and helping students sustain threaded discussion -- were adopted to facilitate the online synchronous discussion in the experimental condition. According to the results of the content analysis, four group discussion patterns were revealed, including collaboration, centralization, partial contribution, and non-interaction. The findings suggest that the moderator helped enhance the collaboration pattern and increase the online participation rate. In addition, it was found that the strategies of helping students focus on the main topic and giving students positive feedback were frequently employed.
Keywords: Online synchronous discussion; Moderator; Facilitative strategy; Interaction pattern
How oppositional loyalties resulting from producer-user collaborations reduce new product entry: Examples of online games BIBAKFull-Text 1717-1727
  Shu-Yu Yeh
Instead of technological lock-in effects, oppositional loyalty to a product may emerge from users' collaborations in the product, which grant consumers emotional experiences with the brand, encourage personal relationships, and provide emotional benefits. Therefore, consumers may limit their allocations of resources to competing new products because they devalue a new offering's relative product performance and its user and complementary networks. Prior rate of use enhances this devaluating effect, and prior experience deepens the negative effects. In contrast, users with minimal prior experience and low usage rates more easily accept new products. This study tests these predictions in a path analysis with data pertaining to an online game, collected from consumers in cybercafés; the 296 respondents across 191 cybercafés support the hypotheses.
Keywords: New products; Collaboration; Oppositional loyalty; User and complements network; Online games
Can we let computers change practice? Educators' interpretations of preschool tradition BIBAKFull-Text 1728-1737
  Mats G. Lindahl; Anne-Mari Folkesson
The introduction of ICT into preschool practice is generally lagging. However, there is a variation regarding use of new technology. Hence, the aim of this study is to analyze which are the possibilities and difficulties to embed computers into preschool practice.
   Data consists of naturalistic texts from 31 preschool teacher students revealing their experiences from trying to embed computers into practice. Analysis of data was guided by a framework adapted from Giddens' structuration theory, focussing on students' drawing on tradition and on knowledge claims when justifying their stances. Results show ambivalence to computer use. However, two groups of students emerged. One group embraced the new technology, whereas the other group conceived new technology as a threat to tradition. Depending on how activities are interpreted to fit into preschool tradition, using computers can or cannot be justified. Understanding tradition, as partially values and partially routines, provides possibilities to modify preschool practice to include computer activities. Knowledge claims, for example pertaining to developmental stimulation, can also be used as justifications for embedding computers into preschool practice. If, however, values appear to be threatened, tradition as well as knowledge claims can be used to justify protection against using computers in preschool practice.
Keywords: Attitude; Computer; Knowledge claim; Preschool; Tradition; Values
Five facets of social presence in online distance education BIBAKFull-Text 1738-1747
  Eunmo Sung; Richard E. Mayer
Social presence in online learning environments refers to the degree to which a learner feels personally connected with other students and the instructor in an online learning community. Based on a 19 item Online Social Presence Questionnaire (OSPQ) given to college students in two different online learning courses, a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses consistently revealed five factors representing facets of social presence in online learning environments: social respect (e.g. receiving timely responses), social sharing (e.g., sharing information or expressing beliefs), open mind (e.g., expressing agreement or receiving positive feedback), social identity (e.g., being called by name), and intimacy (e.g., sharing personal experiences). Together, the five factors accounted for 58% of the variance and were based on 19 items. Although much previous research focuses on cognitive aspects of learning in online environments, understanding the role of the learner's sense of presence may be particularly important in distance learning situations in which students and the instructor are physically separated.
Keywords: Distance learning; Social presence; Online courses; Online learning; Factor analysis
The impact of engagement with social networking sites (SNSs) on cognitive skills BIBAKFull-Text 1748-1754
  Tracy Packiam Alloway; Ross Geoffrey Alloway
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of social networking sites (SNSs) engagement on cognitive and social skills. We investigated the use of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube in a group of young adults and tested their working memory, attentional skills, and reported levels of social connectedness. Results showed that certain activities in Facebook (such as checking friends' status updates) and YouTube (telling a friend to watch a video) predicted working memory test performance. The findings also indicated that Active and Passive SNS users had qualitatively different profiles of attentional control. The Active SNS users were more accurate and had fewer misses of the target stimuli in the first block of trials. They also did not discriminate their attentional resources exclusively to the target stimuli and were less likely to ignore distractor stimuli. Their engagement with SNS appeared to be exploratory and they assigned similar weight to incoming streams of information. With respect to social connectedness, participants' self-reports were significantly related to Facebook use, but not Twitter or YouTube use, possibly as the result of greater opportunity to share personal content in the former SNS.
Keywords: Facebook; YouTube; Twitter attentional control; Working memory; Social connectedness
The effects of social media based brand communities on brand community markers, value creation practices, brand trust and brand loyalty BIBAKFull-Text 1755-1767
  Michel Laroche; Mohammad Reza Habibi; Marie-Odile Richard; Ramesh Sankaranarayanan
Social media based brand communities are communities initiated on the platform of social media. In this article, we explore whether brand communities based on social media (a special type of online brand communities) have positive effects on the main community elements and value creation practices in the communities as well as on brand trust and brand loyalty. A survey based empirical study with 441 respondents was conducted. The results of structural equation modeling show that brand communities established on social media have positive effects on community markers (i.e., shared consciousness, shared rituals and traditions, and obligations to society), which have positive effects on value creation practices (i.e., social networking, community engagement, impressions management, and brand use). Such communities could enhance brand loyalty through brand use and impression management practices. We show that brand trust has a full mediating role in converting value creation practices into brand loyalty. Implications for practice and future research opportunities are discussed.
Keywords: Brand community; Social media; Brand loyalty; Value creation practices; Community markers; Brand trust
Exploring the role of espoused values on e-service adoption: A comparative analysis of the US and Nigerian users BIBAKFull-Text 1768-1781
  Godwin J. Udo; Kallol K. Bagchi; Peeter J. Kirs
Technology adoption in developing and developed countries needs to be studied and contrasted in order to identify similar and unique factors which impact adoptions. Information technology acceptance and the influence of espoused values (EV) have been investigated in developed countries but such studies are rare for developing countries. The present study surveyed 201 Nigerians and 188 Americans using constructs based on accepted theories, with the aim of comparing the influence of national culture on the acceptance of e-services in each country. The combined data indicate that user satisfaction with e-services is affected by perceived usefulness and information/system quality (with R2 = 0.64). User satisfaction, in turn, affects users' behavioral intention to continue to use e-services (R2 = 0.50). EVs moderate the effect of perceived usefulness and information/system quality on satisfaction. In general, the moderating effects of EVs are more pronounced for Nigerian respondents than for US respondents, due to national cultural differences.
Keywords: Espoused values; TPB; TAM; ISSM; e-Services; Behavioral intention; National culture; Technology adoption
Gender and player characteristics in video game play of preadolescents BIBAKFull-Text 1782-1789
  Bruce D. Homer; Elizabeth O. Hayward; Jonathan Frye; Jan L. Plass
The present study explores the relation among different characteristics of preadolescents and their video game habits and preferences. Specifically, the predictive power of age, gender, and psychological adjustment on time spent playing video games and game preference was explored. Children ages 10-15 were given two surveys: a video game habits survey and the BASC-II self-report assessment of personality. Results confirm previous findings of significant gender differences in both time spent playing video games and game type preference. For preadolescents, males were found to spend more time overall playing video games, but for both males and females time spent playing increased with age. No relation was found between time spent playing video games and negative psychological adjustment, as assessed by the BASC-II. Game type preference was predicted by several psychological characteristics. For example, females' positive feelings about the self were associated with increased likelihood of electing First Person Shooters as a favored game type, and males' internalizing difficulties were associated with decreased likelihood of electing Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). The current findings confirm previous results with preadolescents, an under-studied age group, and lend novel insight into the psychological processes that contribute to video game preference.
Keywords: Video games; Psychological adjustment; Preadolescents; Gender; Game genres
Does online interactivity matter? Exploring the role of interactivity strategies in consumer decision making BIBAKFull-Text 1790-1804
  Yu-Hui Fang
Given that the Internet does not afford an opportunity to inspect products before purchase, some customers hesitate to shop online. Online interactivity can supplement online decision-making with added product information. Based on the theories of impression management and deception, this study focuses on sellers' online interactivity strategies (SOIS) and aims to explore the role of SOIS played in online purchase decision-making process. According to the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) paradigm, this study aims to understand how each component of SOIS affects transaction intention through consumer perceptions (perceived deception and perceived diagnosticity) and how this affect is moderated by product types (search goods and experience goods) in online marketplaces. Data collected from 475 respondents support most of our hypotheses. Product type positively moderates only the link between image creation and perceived deception. Implications for theory and practice are also discussed.
Keywords: Impression management; Perceived deception; Perceived diagnosticity; Stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) paradigm; Theory of deception; Transaction intention
A theoretical acceptance model for computer-based communication media: Nine field studies BIBAKFull-Text 1805-1815
  Pengzhu Zhang; Ting Li; Ruyi Ge; David C. Yen
This research study develops and tests a theoretical acceptance model to explain users' acceptance of computer-based communication media. The model, which is referred to as TAM_CCM, originated from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and conforms to the context of Computer-based Communication Media (CCM). It explains perceived usefulness and actual system use in terms of system characteristics (information process support and facilitating conditions), social influence (subjective norm and rules on media use), and user characteristics (experience and computer self efficacy). The model was tested using empirical data collected at nine organizations (N = 425), of which four had media rules and five had no similar rules. The TAM_CCM model was strongly supported accounting for 74% of the variance in usefulness perceptions and up to 74% of the variance in behavior intention to use. System characteristics (information process support), social influence (subjective norm and rules on media use), and user experience significantly influenced user acceptance of computer-based communication media. These advanced theory findings on computer-based communication media adoption and the research approach contribute to future research aimed at incorporating the TAM into specific contexts.
Keywords: Technology adoption; Technology acceptance model; Computer-base communication media; Computer-mediated communication; Social influence; Perceived usefulness
Taking reading comprehension exams on screen or on paper? A metacognitive analysis of learning texts under time pressure BIBAKFull-Text 1816-1828
  Rakefet Ackerman; Tirza Lauterman
People often attribute their reluctance to study texts on screen to technology-related factors rooted in hardware or software. However, previous studies have pointed to screen inferiority in the metacognitive regulation of learning. The study examined the effects of time pressure on learning texts on screen relative to paper among undergraduates who report only moderate paper preference. In Experiment 1, test scores on screen were lower than on paper under time pressure, with no difference under free regulation. In Experiment 2 the time condition was manipulated within participants to include time pressure, free regulation, and an interrupted condition where study was unexpectedly stopped after the time allotted under time pressure. No media effects were found under the interrupted study condition, although technology-related barriers should have taken their effect also in this condition. Paper learners who preferred this learning medium improved their scores when the time constraints were known in advance. No such adaptation was found on screen regardless of the medium preference. Beyond that, paper learning was more efficient and self-assessments of knowledge were better calibrated under most conditions. The results reinforce the inferiority of self-regulation of learning on screen and argue against technology-related factors as the main reason for this.
Keywords: Self-regulated learning; Digital literacy; Metacomprehension; Metacognitive monitoring and control; Time constraints; Study-time allocation
A dynamic longitudinal examination of social media use, needs, and gratifications among college students BIBAKFull-Text 1829-1839
  Zheng Wang; John M. Tchernev; Tyler Solloway
This study extends the U&G theoretical perspective to account for the situated, adaptive, and dynamic nature of mediated cognition and behavior. It specifies dynamic uses and gratifications of social media (compared to other media) in the everyday lives of college students using experience sampling data across 4 weeks. The study tests and quantifies reciprocal causal relationships between needs, social media use, and gratifications, as well as their self-sustaining endogenous (i.e., feedback) effects. Social media use is significantly driven by all four categories of needs examined (emotional, cognitive, social, and habitual), but only gratifies some of them. Ungratified needs accumulate over time and drive subsequent social media use. Interpersonal social environments also affect social media use. In particular, solitude and interpersonal support increase social media use, and moderate the effects of needs on social media use.
Keywords: Social media; Uses and gratifications; Dynamic reinforcement; Solitude; Social support; Experience sampling
Sensory realism and mediated aggression in video games BIBAKFull-Text 1840-1848
  Eui Jun Jeong; Frank A. Biocca; Corey J. Bohil
This study investigated whether sensory realism cues in violent games -- blood color (red vs. blue), screams of pain (on vs. off), and player perspective (first-person vs. third-person) -- affect players' physiological arousal (i.e., skin conductance levels), spatial presence (i.e., sense of being physically "there"), and state aggression in a popular violent game (Half-Life 2), controlling for users' prior game experiences. A path model (N = 160) was examined to see the mediation effects of arousal and presence between realism cues and state aggression. In line with the general aggression model, results showed that realistic blood color and screams increased arousal, but no effect was found for first-person perspective. Presence significantly affected users' state aggression. However, contrary to our expectation based on the excitation transfer theory, arousal did not show any significant effect on aggression. In addition, presence mediated the influence of realistic blood color on state aggression. In the effects of graphic realism of violence on user aggression, presence did a crucial role. Implications and future studies were discussed.
Keywords: Presence; Arousal; Aggression; Violence; Video games
Information systems user security: A structured model of the knowing-doing gap BIBAKFull-Text 1849-1858
  James Cox
The corporate information systems users often engage in risky behavior that can threaten the security and integrity of an organization by exposing sensitive information or weakening the existing technological perimeter security. This risky user behavior can be intentional or unintentional, but in either case can cause severe damage to an organization's reputation as well as potentially extending harm to the organization's clients and customers. Information systems users not following the corporate security policies, even though they know the policies, is known as user omissive behavior, also known as the knowing-doing gap. This research examines the information assurance understanding and security awareness at the user level by developing a structured model of the user knowing-doing gap. The model examines the role of organizational narcissism and its affect on user attitudes towards following the organization's information security policies and procedures. It also includes perceived threat as a factor affecting user attitudes towards following information security rules, as well as subjective norms and perceived behavior control consistent with the theory of planned behavior. This structured model provides a framework and description of user information security behavior and the knowing-doing gap.
Keywords: Attitude; Information security; Intention; Narcissism; Omissive behavior; Threat
Blogging privacy rule orientations, privacy management, and content deletion practices: The variability of online privacy management activity at different stages of social media use BIBAKFull-Text 1859-1872
  Jeffrey T. Child; Paul M. Haridakis; Sandra Petronio
The purpose of this study was to examine social media users' blogging privacy rule orientations, privacy management regulation, and content deletion practices as distinct types of activity occurring at different stages of the blogging process (before, during, and after blogging) that may aid in understanding the functioning of blogging disclosure activity overall. The study was guided by a complementary application of both the uses and gratifications perspective and communication privacy management (CPM) theory. A central tenet of both theories suggests that people are variably active in their communication behavior. We identified five discrete blogger privacy rule orientations explaining different online choice-making practices: the self-centric, the utilitarian, the planner, the protector, and the unworried orientations toward blogging. We also identified six different motives for deleting previously-posted information: conflict management, protection of personal identity/safety, fear of retribution, employment security, impression management, emotional regulation, and relational cleansing. Path analysis revealed several direct and indirect paths among bloggers' motives for deleting previously posted material and their level of disinhibition, blogging privacy rule orientations, amount of time blogging, and privacy management practices. As use of social media increases, exploring variations in privacy management regulation practices is critical.
Keywords: Communication privacy management (CPM) theory; Media use activity; Blogging; Social media; Uses and gratifications; Deletion motives
Characteristics and usage patterns of older people in a 3D online multi-user virtual environment BIBAKFull-Text 1873-1882
  Panote Siriaraya; Chee Siang Ang
3D online multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) have a lot of potential in supporting older people in their daily lives, yet little research has been conducted to explore how older people engage with this type of technology. This paper aims to investigate the characteristics, user groups and activity patterns (particularly social networks and gift giving behaviour) of older users within a 3D online multi-user virtual environment. Data from approximately 5000 online user profiles of older and younger users from a 3D MUVE, namely IMVU, was collected for analysis. Overall, we identified several distinct patterns of use (e.g. size of social ties, level of reciprocity, etc.) among older users when compared with younger users. We also found that despite the capabilities of 3D MUVEs to provide the users immersion in alternative realities, a feature well embraced by younger users in this study, older users seemed more interested in activities which serve as an extension to their physical life.
Keywords: Older people; Virtual communities; Multi-user virtual environment; Social interaction
Explicating multitasking with computers: Gratifications and situations BIBAKFull-Text 1883-1891
  Weiyu Zhang; Lingzi Zhang
This study tries to test the theory of uses and gratifications and the theory of situated action as explanations of multitasking in computer-mediated communication. Based on the data collected from an online survey (N = 234), we find that as hypothesized, different gratifications and situations are connected to different types of multitasking in different ways. In particular, multimedia and work-related multitasking are primarily driven by instrumental gratifications whereas affective gratifications contribute to multimedia and interaction type of multitasking. Situational factors have less powerful influence compared to gratifications. However, there are clear differences that discern types of computer multitasking along the situational dimension.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Gratification; Multitasking; Situation; Situated actionUses and gratifications
Dynamic tabletop interfaces for increasing creativity BIBAKFull-Text 1892-1901
  Lara Schmitt; Stéphanie Buisine; Jonathan Chaboissier; Améziane Aoussat; Frédéric Vernier
We designed a tabletop brainwriting interface to examine the effects of time pressure and social pressure on the creative performance. After positioning this study with regard to creativity research and human activity in dynamic environments, we present our interface and experiment. Thirty-two participants collaborated (by groups of four) on the tabletop brainwriting task under four conditions of time pressure and two conditions of social pressure. The results show that time pressure increased the quantity of ideas produced and, to some extent, increased the originality of ideas. However, it also deteriorated user experience. Besides, social pressure increased quantity of ideas as well as motivation, but decreased collaboration. We discuss the implications for creativity research and Human-Computer Interaction. Anyhow, our results suggest that the Press factor, operationalized by Time -- or Social-pressure, should be considered as a powerful lever to enhance the effectiveness of creative problem solving methods.
Keywords: Interactive tabletop; Creativity; Brainstorming; Time pressure; Social comparison
A meta-analysis of mobile commerce adoption and the moderating effect of culture BIBAKFull-Text 1902-1911
  Liyi Zhang; Jing Zhu; Qihua Liu
This research aims to discover the general factors that influence mobile commerce adoption. A meta-analysis of previous empirical studies on individuals' mobile commerce adoption behavior was conducted and the proposed mobile commerce adoption model was tested using structural equation modeling. Furthermore, moderator analysis was carried out using partition tests by dividing context into subgroups of eastern and western culture, to investigate the moderating effect of culture. Results confirm the proposed model, and moderator analysis indicates that culture does have specific moderating effects on mobile commerce adoption. The findings of this paper will yield theoretical and managerial implications for the future.
Keywords: Meta-analysis; Mobile commerce; Adoption; Moderator analysis
Post-adoption switching behavior for online service substitutes: A perspective of the push-pull-mooring framework BIBAKFull-Text 1912-1920
  Jung-Kuei Hsieh; Yi-Ching Hsieh; Hung-Chang Chiu; Yi-Chu Feng
The post-adoption behaviors of online service users are critical performance factors for online service providers. To fill an academic gap that persists regarding bloggers' switching behavior across online service substitutes, this empirical study investigates which factors affect bloggers who switch social network sites, in an attempt to understand specifically how push, pull, and mooring factors shape their switching intentions. The data to test the hypotheses come from an online survey of 319 bloggers, analyzed using partial least squares techniques. The results confirm positive influences of push and pull effects, a negative influence of mooring effects, and an interactive effect of push and mooring on switching intentions. The push-pull-mooring framework thus is a useful tool for comprehending the competing forces that influence the use of online service substitutes. In particular, perceptions of weak connections and writing anxiety push bloggers away, whereas relative enjoyment and usefulness pull bloggers to social network sites; switching cost and past experience also inhibit a change. These findings offer key insights and implications for the competitive strategy choices of online service providers.
Keywords: Switching behavior; Push-pull-mooring framework; Online service substitutes; Post-adoption behavior
A collaborative platform for cognitive decision making in the Knowledge Society BIBAKFull-Text 1921-1928
  José María Moreno-Jiménez; Juan Aguarón; Jesús Cardeñosa; María Teresa Escobar; José Luis Salazar; Adrián Toncovich; Alberto Turón
Two key aspects of the Knowledge Society are the interconnection between the actors involved in the decision making processes and the importance of the human factor, particularly the citizen's continuous learning and education. This paper presents a new module devoted to knowledge extraction and diffusion that has been incorporated into a previously developed decision making tool concerning the Internet and related with the multicriteria selection of a discrete number of alternatives (PRIOR-Web). Quantitative and qualitative procedures using data and text mining methods have been employed in the extraction of knowledge. Graphical visualisation tools have been incorporated in the diffusion stage of the methodological approach suggested when dealing with decision making in the Knowledge Society. The resulting collaborative platform is being used as the methodological support for the cognitive democracy known as e-cognocracy.
Keywords: Decision making; Knowledge Society; E-cognocracy; Knowledge extraction; Knowledge diffusion; Learning
The effect of social networking websites on positive self-views: An experimental investigation BIBAKFull-Text 1929-1933
  Brittany Gentile; Jean M. Twenge; Elise C. Freeman; W. Keith Campbell
Millions of people use social networking sites (SNSs), but it is unclear how these sites shape personality traits and identity. In Experiment 1, college students were randomly assigned to either edit their MySpace page or complete a control task online (interacting with Google Maps). Those who focused on their MySpace page scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) than a control group. In Experiment 2, those who focused on their Facebook page scored significantly higher in general self-esteem, but not narcissism, than a control group. Thus, spending time on SNSs profiles causes young people to endorse more positive self-views, although the specific form this takes depends on the site. Consistent with previous research, narcissism was associated with a larger number of SNSs "friends" in both experiments.
Keywords: Social networking; Personality; Identity
Examining cognitive function across the lifespan using a mobile application BIBAKFull-Text 1934-1946
  Hyunkyu Lee; Pauline L. Baniqued; Joshua Cosman; Sean Mullen; Edward McAuley; Joan Severson; Arthur F. Kramer
Many studies conducted in a laboratory or university setting are limited by funding, personnel, space, and time constraints. In the present study, we introduce a method of data collection using a mobile application that circumvents these typical experiment administration issues. Using the application, we examined cross-sectional age differences in cognitive function. We obtained data from more than 15,000 participants and replicated specific patterns of age-related differences in cognition. Using a subset of these participants, we also examined the processing speed account of age-related cognitive differences, and the association of exercise and leisure activity with cognitive function across the lifespan. We discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of data collection with a mobile application, and provide recommendations for the use of this method in research.
Keywords: Age-related difference; Exercise; Leisure activity; Mobile-application
The Five Factor Model of personality and employees' excessive use of technology BIBAKFull-Text 1947-1953
  John E. Buckner V; Christopher M. Castille; Tilman L. Sheets
Prior research has stressed the negative effects employee technology addiction, or excessive use, may have in the workplace. This study explored personality, through use of the Five Factor Model (FFM), and problem and pathological technology (Internet and text-messaging) use. Personality was found to predict certain aspects of technology use. Specifically, conscientiousness was negatively related to problem Internet use. However, the FFM did not add to the prediction of pathological Internet use or problem and pathological text-messaging use. These findings suggest that some dimensions of the FFM may be useful in explaining why certain employees may be predisposed to developing problem use tendencies. Implications of the current findings as well as limitations and future directions are discussed.
Keywords: Personality; Internet addiction; Text-message addiction; Excessive use; Technology
Combined cognitive behavioral therapy and bupropion for the treatment of problematic on-line game play in adolescents with major depressive disorder BIBAKFull-Text 1954-1959
  Sun Mi Kim; Doug Hyun Han; Young Sik Lee; Perry F. Renshaw
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in combination with bupropion for treatment of problematic on-line game play in adolescents with co-morbid major depressive disorder. Sixty-five depressed adolescents with excessive on-line game play were randomly assigned to a CBT group (CBT-Med group (N = 32)) or a clinical control group (Med group (N = 33)). Measures of severity of internet use, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction and school adaptation were assessed at baseline, after the 8 week intervention, and at the end of a 4 week follow-up post-treatment period. Young Internet Addiction Scale scores in the CBT-Med group were reduced compared to those of the Med group, but there was no significant difference in the change of depression scores between two groups. The mean anxiety scores in the CBT-Med group did not change while those in the Med group were increased. The mean life satisfaction scores in the CBT-Med group were increased compared to those of the Med group. CBT in combination with bupropion may be effective for the treatment of depressed adolescents with on-line game addiction, particularly in reducing on-line game play and anxiety, as well as in improving life satisfaction.
Keywords: Cognitive behavioral therapy; On-line game addiction; Major depressive disorder
Profiling the non-users: Examination of life-position indicators, sensation seeking, shyness, and loneliness among users and non-users of social network sites BIBAKFull-Text 1960-1965
  Pavica Sheldon
The aim of the current study is to explore if there are differences between users and non-users of social network sites in terms of their sensation seeking, life-position indicators, shyness, and loneliness. Using data from a survey of adults 19-76 years old, results revealed that compared to an average Facebook user, a non-user is significantly older and scores higher on shyness and loneliness, is less socially active, and less prone to sensation seeking activities. Facebook is not a substitute channel of communication for those who are shy and lonely and lack face-to-face interactions. This study extends our knowledge of digital divide, uses and gratifications theory, and social enhancement hypothesis.
Keywords: Facebook; Digital divide; Sensation seeking; Life satisfaction
Accomplishing authenticity in a labor-exposing space BIBAKFull-Text 1966-1973
  Jenny L. Davis
The present work, through an ethnographic study of MySpace (N = 96), examines the ways in which authenticity is accomplished within a labor-exposing space. To maintain authenticity, actors must make invisible the extensive labor of self-presentation. Certain online spaces, such as social network sites and personal interactive homepages, can be thought of as labor-exposing spaces, in that they give actors clear and explicit control over self-representations, making impressions of spontaneity difficult to accomplish (Davis, 2010; Gatson, 2011a; Marwick & boyd, 2010). I discuss and delineate several strategies used by participants to maintain authenticity on MySpace. I conclude that while the priorities of identity processes remain stable over time, the ways in which we accomplish identity are culturally, historically and materially contingent.
Keywords: PIH; Social network site; MySpace; Identity; Authenticity
Effects of attribute and valence of e-WOM on message adoption: Moderating roles of subjective knowledge and regulatory focus BIBAKFull-Text 1974-1984
  Kyung-Tag Lee; Dong-Mo Koo
The current study proposes a model to test whether online review valence and attributes have an effect on credibility, and whether regulatory focus and subjective knowledge have moderating effects. Three hundred nineteen university students participated in online experiments with a 2 (positive vs. negative review valence) by 2 (objective vs. subjective review attributes) between subject design. The experiment demonstrated that objective and negative online reviews have a significant positive and negative impact, respectively, on message credibility, which affects review adoption. The results also showed that the moderating effect produced by objective information and a consumer's subjective knowledge is supported. This study contributes to explaining the inconsistent results between review valence/attribute and credibility found in previous studies.
Keywords: Online review; Review valence; Review attribute; Subjective knowledge; Regulatory focus; Review credibility
How student's personality traits affect Computer Based Assessment Acceptance: Integrating BFI with CBAAM BIBAKFull-Text 1985-1996
  Vasileios Terzis; Christos N. Moridis; Anastasios A. Economides
Researchers in the Information Systems (IS) field have put considerable effort on identifying how personality affects technology acceptance. This study is a further step towards this direction within the context of Computer Based Assessment (CBA). Particularly, it investigates how the five personality factors affect the most important variables regarding CBA's acceptance. For this purpose, 117 participants were required to complete a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Big Five Inventory (BFI) questions in order to measure the five personality traits, and 23 items regarding student's perceptions. Partial Least Squares (PLS) was used to test the measurement and the structural model. Results underline that Neuroticism has significant negative effect on Perceived Usefulness and on Goal Expectancy, Agreeableness determines Social Influence and Perceived Ease of Use, Conscientiousness defines Perceived Ease of Use, while Extroversion and Openness explain Perceived Importance. Important implications of these results are discussed.
Keywords: BFI; Computer Based Assessment; TAM; Personality; Perceived Usefulness

CHB 2012-11 Volume 28 Issue 6

From a distance: Impression formation and impression accuracy among geographically distributed coworkers BIBAKFull-Text 1997-2006
  Aditya Johri
One critical and to date understudied social psychological construct with significant implications for technology-mediated distributed work is impression formation. Forming useful impressions of each other is crucial for coworkers to avoid mistrust, misattribution, and conflict, and thereby, work effectively and productively. In this theoretical review paper I systematically outline how elements of distributed and virtual work -- geographic dispersion, electronic dependence, heterogeneity, and dynamic structures -- shape coworkers' impression of each other by influencing information and motivation, the main moderators of impression formation. I develop a model of how the impression formation process acts in technology-mediated distributed work settings, draw propositions, and identify ways to mitigate the breakdown in impression formation among distributed coworkers. Finally, I conceptualize impression accuracy in terms of descriptive, predictive, and explanatory knowledge about others and discuss how it can be increased with positive outcomes for trust, attribution, knowledge sharing, and conflict resolution.
Keywords: Virtual work; Distributed work; Impression formation; Impression accuracy; Technology-mediation; Literature review
The effect of Internet use on adolescents' lifestyles: A national survey BIBAKFull-Text 2007-2013
  Ligang Wang; Jing Luo; Jing Luo; Wenbin Gao; Jie Kong
Computer and Internet technology continues to influence people's lives, especially those of adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the association between Internet use and adolescents' lifestyles. With data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in China in 2009, a model revealing the effects of Internet use on adolescents' lifestyles was established from a series of hierarchical regression analyses. The model shows that certain Internet habits, such as excessive online time, accessing the Internet in an Internet bar, and using the Internet for catharsis, are related to poor lifestyle habits in adolescents; however, using the Internet for purposes such as gaining knowledge and finding information positively predicts healthy lifestyles in adolescents. Implications regarding the relationship between Internet use and the lifestyles of adolescents are discussed.
Keywords: Internet use; Lifestyles; Adolescents
The roles of monitoring and cyberbystanders in reducing sexual abuse BIBAKFull-Text 2014-2022
  Marek Palasinski
Offering a fresh perspective on the bystander effect beyond the conventional 'street violence scenario', this paper examines men's time reactions to an online sex offence against minors. Study 1 shows that men advised of very high electronic monitoring take more time to intervene than men advised of very low electronic monitoring and non-monitoring, and when they are accompanied by strangers rather than acquaintances. Study 2 extends these findings by demonstrating that computerized surveillance, in contrast to user-assisted surveillance and non-surveillance, has a similar inhibitory effect. Drawing on these two studies, Study 3 suggests that the bystander effect also emerges under high monitoring and when the group size of unknown cyberbystanders is increased. Taken together, it appears that high surveillance and increased numbers of cyberbystanders, the factors unexamined jointly in previous research, inhibit intervention, although not in a linear way, and that the likely reasons for it are erosion of bystanders' social bonds, diffusion of personal responsibility and diminished sense of making a difference.
Keywords: Bystander effect; Internet; Sexual abuse; Surveillance
Digital games in the classroom? A contextual approach to teachers' adoption intention of digital games in formal education BIBAKFull-Text 2023-2033
  Frederik De Grove; Jeroen Bourgonjon; Jan Van Looy
Interest in using digital games for formal education has steadily increased in the past decades. When it comes to actual use, however, the uptake of games in the classroom remains limited. Using a contextual approach, the possible influence of factors on a school (N = 60) and teacher (N = 409) level are analyzed. Findings indicate that there is no effect of factors on the school level whereas on a teacher level, a model is tested, explaining 68% of the variance in behavioral intention, in which curriculum-relatedness and previous experience function as crucial determinants of the adoption intention. These findings add to previous research on adoption determinants related to digital games in formal education. Furthermore, they provide insight into the relations between different adoption determinants and their association with behavioral intention.
Keywords: Digital games; Education; Adoption; Teachers; Technology acceptance; Digital game-based learning
Predicting uptake of technology innovations in online family dispute resolution services: An application and extension of the UTAUT BIBAKFull-Text 2034-2045
  Tristan Casey; Elisabeth Wilson-Evered
Parental separation can be psychologically distressing for families -- particularly when conflict between parents is high. In Australia, reforms to Family Law legislation have introduced mandatory mediation, which has increased the need for community-based family dispute resolution (FDR) services. Providers have responded to these needs with innovative solutions, including online computer-assisted mediation technologies. We evaluated the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) within the context of an Australian online family dispute resolution (OFDR) system. The model was extended to include trust and personal web innovativeness, which we proposed would be implicated in the intentions of staff to use a family mediation service. A cross-sectional web-survey methodology was employed to collect data from 127 staff in the implementation organization. The measurement and structural models were evaluated with partial least squares (PLS) modeling and the results provided some support for our hypotheses. Specifically, the core UTAUT model was partially validated in this context. Moreover, effort expectancy mediated the effects of trust in technology on behavioral intention. Contrary to expectations, trust in the organization and innovativeness did not produce significant effects on intention. Practically, these results suggest that pre-contemplation technology acceptance research can have utility for change management and system design.
Keywords: ODR; UTAUT; Technology acceptance; PLS; Mediation; Divorce
Emotion understanding and performance during computer-supported collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 2046-2054
  Ulises Xolocotzin Eligio; Shaaron E. Ainsworth; Charles K. Crook
Individuals collaborating around and through computers benefit from receiving information that helps them understand one another, which is often termed awareness. This article explores what collaborators understand about each other's emotions and the potential benefits for performance that might come from raising this understanding. In Experiment 1 co-located collaborators judged each other's emotions after playing a game that required cooperative data collection and analysis. Their judgements were largely inaccurate and based on their own emotions, suggesting limited emotion understanding. Experiment 2 explored if this could be overcome by making collaborators aware of each other's emotions. Co-located and remote collaborators played a cooperative puzzle-solving game under conditions of awareness or no awareness. Awareness was manipulated by making collaborators share their self-reported emotions during key moments of their game play. Both remote and co-located collaborators improved their performance after sharing their emotions. However, unlike co-located collaborators, remote collaborators also improved their understanding of each other's emotions and experienced more positive affect. We conclude by discussing the content of collaborators' emotion understanding and the probable mechanisms underlying the observed effects of being made aware of a partner's emotions.
Keywords: Awareness; Affect; Computer games; Synchronous collaboration; Computer-supported communication; Remote and co-present
Virtual agents in retail web sites: Benefits of simulated social interaction for older users BIBAKFull-Text 2055-2066
  Veena Chattaraman; Wi-Suk Kwon; Juan E. Gilbert
This study investigates the benefits of simulated social interaction (social presence) through virtual agents for older users' experience in retail Web sites, particularly with respect to age-related barriers to the adoption of online retailing. In Study 1, through four focus group interviews, we identified six social-psychological barriers to the adoption of online shopping among older users (mean age of 73 years). These included barriers relating to perceived risks, trust, social support, familiarity, experience, and search. In Study 2, a laboratory experiment with older users (mean age of 69 years) demonstrated that embedding a virtual agent that serves search and navigational/procedural support functions in the online store leads to increased perceived social support, trust, and patronage intention for the online store. Mediational analyses further revealed that the effect of virtual agents: (1) on trust is mediated by perceived social support; and (2) on patronage intentions is mediated in part by trust and perceived risks. The study provides important implications on the design of virtual agents for older users of e-commerce applications, and on building online trust and e-service patronage through virtual agents.
Keywords: Virtual agents; Online retailing; Older users; Patronage intent; Social support; Trust
Examining priming and gender as a means to reduce risk in a social networking context: Can stories change disclosure and privacy setting use when personal profiles are constructed? BIBAKFull-Text 2067-2074
  Amanda Nosko; Eileen Wood; Miranda Kenney; Karin Archer; Domenica De Pasquale; Seija Molema; Lucia Zivcakova
The objective of this study was to examine whether content of Facebook profiles differed as a function of priming story and gender. Disclosure of personal information and the use of privacy settings when constructing Facebook profiles were assessed when participants were or were not provided with priming stories that would alert them to potential risks from information sharing on the Internet. Participants read one of three priming stories (anecdotal, legal or neutral), prior to constructing a profile for either a male or female. The anecdotal story described a stalking incident, while the legal story summarized a 'typical' online privacy statement. Previously established scoring tools were used to assess disclosure and privacy settings use (see Nosko, Wood, & Molema, 2010). Overall, gender was an important predictor for disclosure. Females disclosed less sensitive information than males after reading the anecdotal privacy story. Less disclosure also was found when participants constructed a profile for someone of the same gender. Disclosure of particular pieces of information also differed by gender of the discloser. Very few participants employed privacy settings. The impact for these outcomes is discussed in terms of their ability to potentially inhibit over-disclosure in personal profiles and to identify users who are at particular risk.
Keywords: Facebook; Social communication; Social networking; Disclosure; Privacy settings; Gender
Self direction and factors influencing technology use: Examining the relationships for the 21st century workplace BIBAKFull-Text 2075-2082
  Lila Holt; Ralph G. Brockett
Self-direction and technology use are both identified as increasingly important skills for the 21st century workforce. In an effort to define effective pedagogies for students entering the workplace, this study examines the relationship between selected factors of self-directed learning and factors influencing technology use. University seniors provided a sample representing new workforce entrants and the workplace of the immediate future. Examining self-direction using the PRO-model of self-direction and technology use through the lens of computer self-efficacy, 572 graduating seniors provided a look at their preparation for the workplace for self-direction and technology use. Results indicated a significant but very weak relationship between self-direction and technology use that accounted for less than 7% of the variance for any one factor examined. Based on these results, this study includes implications for practice as well as recommendations for future research.
Keywords: Self-direction; Technology use: recent college graduates; Pedagogies
Texting while driving on automatic: Considering the frequency-independent side of habit BIBAKFull-Text 2083-2090
  Joseph B. Bayer; Scott W. Campbell
This study tested the potential of the frequency-independent components of habit, or automaticity, to predict the rate of texting while driving. A survey of 441 college students at a large American university was conducted utilizing a frequency-independent version of the experimentally validated Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI; Orbell & Verplanken, 2010; Verplanken & Orbell, 2003). Controlling for gender, age, and driver confidence, analyses showed that automatic texting tendencies predicted both sending and reading texts while driving. The findings suggest that texting while driving behavior may be partially attributable to individuals doing so without awareness, control, attention, and intention regarding their own actions. The unique contribution of automaticity explained more variance than overall individual usage, and remained significant even after accounting for norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control. The results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing the level of automaticity from behavioral frequency in mobile communication research. Future applications and implications for research are discussed.
Keywords: Texting; Driving; Habit; Automaticity; Phones; Mobile
Students' self-presentation on Facebook: An examination of personality and self-construal factors BIBAKFull-Text 2091-2099
  Baiyun Chen; Justin Marcus
The present research seeks to extend existing theory on self-disclosure to the online arena in higher educational institutions and contribute to the knowledge base and understanding about the use of a popular social networking site (SNS), Facebook, by college students. We conducted a non-experimental study to investigate how university students (N = 463) use Facebook, and examined the roles that personality and culture play in disclosure of information in online SNS-based environments. Results showed that individuals do disclose differently online vs. in-person, and that both culture and personality matter. Specifically, it was found that collectivistic individuals low on extraversion and interacting in an online environment disclosed the least honest and the most audience-relevant information, as compared to others. Exploratory analyses also indicate that students use sites such as Facebook primarily to maintain existing personal relationships and selectively used privacy settings to control their self-presentation on SNSs. The findings of this study offer insight into understanding college students' self-disclosure on SNS, add to the literature on personality and self-disclosure, and shape future directions for research and practice on online self-presentation.
Keywords: Collectivism; Individualism; Facebook; Social media; Self-disclosure; Self-presentation
The influence of competition, cooperation, and player relationship in a motor performance centered computer game BIBAKFull-Text 2100-2106
  Wei Peng; Gary Hsieh
We conducted an experiment to study the effects of goal structure in multiplayer gaming (competition vs. cooperation) and relationship type between players (positive pre-existing relationship [friends] vs. no pre-existing relationship [strangers]) on player motivation (as indicated by perceived effort put into the task), goal commitment, and performance in playing a balloon popping game. The cooperative goal structure was found to lead to greater effort put into the game than the competitive goal structure. In addition, playing with friends resulted in a stronger commitment to the in-game goals than playing with strangers in the cooperative goal structure context, yet no difference was found between playing with friends and playing with strangers with regard to goal commitment in the competitive goal structure context. A moderated mediation relationship was found among the variables. Theoretical contributions to the current literature on goal structure and motivation, practical implications for exergame design, and directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Competition; Cooperation; Computer game; Motivation; Goal commitment; Player relationship
Write between the lines: Electronic outlining and the organization of text ideas BIBAKFull-Text 2107-2116
  M. J. R. de Smet; S. Brand-Gruwel; H. Broekkamp; P. A. Kirschner
Writing is an important, complex skill which could be enhanced through the effective use of writing tools that are incorporated in word processors. The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of (repeated) electronic outlining on the quality of students' writing products and perceived mental effort. The study also investigated how students appropriate and appreciate the outline tool. Data were collected from 58 ninth-grade students who wrote two argumentative texts about a topic they had previously discussed during several class sessions, meaning that ideas were generated and clustered beforehand. Students' writing products were scored for Total Text Structure, Structure Presentation, and Hierarchical Elaboration of Arguments. Results reveal that first-time tool-use had no significant effect on students' writing products and perceived mental effort. However, repeated use positively affected Structure Presentation and led to decreased perceived mental effort, but no significant effect was found on Total Text Structure and Hierarchical Elaboration of Arguments. Answers to a retrospective questionnaire showed that students quickly appropriated the tool with tool appreciation increasing with repeated use. This study suggests that in order to profit from electronic outlining, it is important to practice using the outline tool and to use it for complex tasks, requiring idea generation and organization.
Keywords: Electronic outlining; Outline tool; Argumentative writing; Text organization; Student writing; Writing process
Effect of online social networking on student academic performance BIBAKFull-Text 2117-2127
  Jomon Aliyas Paul; Hope M. Baker; Justin Daniel Cochran
Online social networks (OSNs) have permeated all generations of Internet users, becoming a prominent communications tool, particularly in the student community. Thus, academic institutions and faculty are increasingly using social networking sites, such as Facebook and LinkedIn, to connect with current and potential students and to deliver instructional content. This has led to a rise in questions about the impact of OSN on academic performance and the possibility of using it as an effective teaching tool. To learn more about the impact on academic performance, we conducted a survey of business students at a large state university. Survey results were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed a statistically significant negative relationship between time spent by students on OSN and their academic performance. The time spent on OSN was found to be heavily influenced by the attention span of the students. Specifically, we determined that the higher the attention span, the lower is the time spent on OSN. Further, attention span was found to be highly correlated with characteristics that predict or influence student behavior, such as their perceptions about society's view of social networking, their likes and dislikes of OSN, ease of use of OSN, etc.
Keywords: Online social networking; Theory of planned behavior; Twitter; Facebook; Structural equation modeling
The effects of avatar appearance on interviewer ratings in virtual employment interviews BIBAKFull-Text 2128-2133
  Tara Behrend; Steven Toaddy; Lori Foster Thompson; David J. Sharek
It is increasingly common for people engaging in computer-mediated interactions to be accompanied by a digital avatar that represents them. Little is known, however, about how these avatars influence others' impressions. We examine this question in the context of employment interviews. It is well known that attractive job candidates are afforded an advantage in traditional face-to-face job interviews. We investigate whether raters evaluating computer-mediated interviews will follow a similar pattern when a digital avatar represents the candidate. To investigate this question, we asked 374 raters to view an interview transcript that was accompanied by either a male or female avatar, applying for either a male or female gender-typed job. We found that candidates with more attractive avatars received more favorable interview ratings, regardless of job gender type. These findings support the notion that the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype influences interview ratings even in computer-mediated interviews; raters automatically apply the same heuristics to digital and non-digital faces.
Keywords: Virtual world; Computer-mediated interview; Attractiveness bias; Selection
Consumer processing of virtual experience in e-commerce: A test of an integrated framework BIBAKFull-Text 2134-2142
  Ki-Young Lee
This study combined discursive and imagery processing streams of research to propose an integrated model of virtual experience as it relates to the strength of brand attitude. The model assumes that both cognitive elaboration (representing the discursive process) and imagery vividness (reflecting the imagery process) are responsible for the effectiveness of virtual experience in the form of 3-D product visualization regarding attitude accessibility and attitude confidence. The results indicate that a brand attitude formed via an interactive 3-D product interface was more accessible and confident than via a static 2-D presentation. Imagery vividness contributed to creating a strong brand attitude. However, effects transmitted via cognitive elaboration were either negative (for accessibility) or nonsignificant (for confidence). Findings suggest that although the two processes are compensatory rather than complementary in the context of virtual experience, the imagery process dominates the discursive process. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Virtual experience; Imagery vividness; Cognitive elaboration; Attitude accessibility; Attitude confidence
The world's most intense online gaming culture: Addiction and high-engagement prevalence rates among South Korean adolescents and young adults BIBAKFull-Text 2143-2151
  Soonhwa Seok; Boaventura DaCosta
Failure to establish agreed-upon criteria by which to measure and identify online video game addiction has resulted in a lack of reliable evidence of the actual percentage of individuals who are pathologically dependent. Building upon prior research, the present study sought to better determine the magnitude of pathological online video game play using a distinction between core and peripheral criteria for behavioral addiction. Preferences and perceptions towards online video games and addiction were also examined to better understand players' habits. A questionnaire was administered to 1332 South Korean students across 11 high schools and 1 middle school in an area surrounding the capital of Seoul. Using a monothetic and a polythetic classification system, findings showed rates ranging between 1.7% and 25.5%, with a 2.7% addiction rate when distinguishing core from peripheral criteria. These results may suggest that online video game addiction rates in intense gaming cultures such as South Korea are not as high as otherwise believed. The findings will be of assistance to educators, policymakers, clinicians, and researchers in understanding the challenges in deriving meaningful video game addiction prevalence rates, and thus being able to better separate reality from conjecture with regard to the notion of pathological game play.
Keywords: Addiction; High engagement; Online video games; MMORPGs; South Korea; Adolescents
A model of the relationship between psychological characteristics, mobile phone addiction and use of mobile phones by Taiwanese university female students BIBAKFull-Text 2152-2159
  Fu-Yuan Hong; Shao-I. Chiu; Der-Hsiang Huang
While many researches have analyzed the psychological antecedents of mobile phone addiction and mobile phone usage behavior, their relationship with psychological characteristics remains mixed. We investigated the relationship between psychological characteristics, mobile phone addiction and use of mobile phones for 269 Taiwanese female university students who were administered Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, Lai's personality inventory, and a mobile phone usage questionnaire and mobile phone addiction scale. The result showing that: (1) social extraversion and anxiety have positive effects on mobile phone addiction, and self-esteem has negative effects on mobile phone addiction. (2) Mobile phone addiction has a positive predictive effect on mobile phone usage behavior. The results of this study identify personal psychological characteristics of Taiwanese female university students which can significantly predict mobile phone addiction; female university students with mobile phone addiction will make more phone calls and send more text messages. These results are discussed and suggestions for future research for school and university students are provided.
Keywords: Personality; Self-esteem; Social extraversion; Anxiety; Mobile phone addiction; Mobile phone usage behavior
The virtual malleable self and the virtual identity discrepancy model: Investigative frameworks for virtual possible selves and others in avatar-based identity construction and social interaction BIBAKFull-Text 2160-2168
  Seung-A. Annie Jin
This article introduces the novel model of "virtual identity discrepancy" as an investigative framework for computer-mediated self-representation and interpersonal communication in avatar-based virtual environments (VEs). Study 1 examined the roles of virtual self-discrepancy and self-presence in intrapersonal virtual identity construction. Study 2 explored the roles of virtual other-discrepancy, social presence, expectancy violation, and uncertainty reduction in animated avatar-to-avatar (AtA) virtual social interaction. Mediation analyses following a bootstrapping procedure indicated that self-presence mediates the relationship between virtual self-discrepancy and flow while social presence mediates the relationship between virtual other-discrepancy and flow. Furthermore, expectancy violation mediates the relationship between self-disclosure and trust in text-based chatting while uncertainty reduction mediates the relationship between nonverbal immediacy and flow in nonverbal communication between avatars.
Keywords: Avatars; Virtual self; Virtual identity; Flow; Possible selves; Self-discrepancy
Understanding moderating effects of collectivist cultural orientation on the knowledge sharing attitude by email BIBAKFull-Text 2169-2174
  Yujong Hwang
This paper investigates the moderating effects of collectivist cultural orientation introduced in the information systems and knowledge management (KM) literature to fully understand the important factors and relationships in knowledge sharing in the online learning environment. Social norms and collectivist cultural orientation are hypothesized as direct and moderating factors to the system users' (or learners') attitude toward sharing knowledge by email. An empirical test of large student samples (n = 566) with multiple cultural backgrounds in the most diverse university was implemented by PLS. The test confirmed that collectivist cultural orientation moderates the effects of social norms on the attitude toward sharing knowledge by email. Furthermore, the test results show that group norms are stronger than the instructor or classmate norms. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings for online learning and KM are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Online learning; Moderating effects; Collectivist cultural orientation; Knowledge management; Survey research; PLS
Using the uses and gratifications theory to understand gratifications sought through text messaging practices of male and female undergraduate students BIBAKFull-Text 2175-2181
  Melanie Grellhesl; Narissra M. Punyanunt-Carter
This study focused on the Uses and Gratification (U&G) Theory and analyzed the seven most highly sought gratifications using SMS text messaging and discovered current trends as to which uses and gratifications are most and least popular as well as significant differences between male and female texters when U&G is applied. A total of 513 college students who voluntarily participated in the study revealed that there were sex differences among specific uses and gratifications sought through text messaging.
Keywords: Texting; Uses; Gratifications; College students; Sex differences; SMS
The effects of individual differences and visual instructional aids on disorientation, learning performance and attitudes in a Hypermedia Learning System BIBAKFull-Text 2182-2198
  Rishi D. Ruttun; Robert D. Macredie
Research suggests that certain visual instructional aids can reduce levels of disorientation and increase learning performance in, and positive attitudes towards, HLS for learners with specific individual differences. However, existing studies have looked at only one or two individual differences at a time, and/or considered only a small number of visual instructional aids. No study has considered the impact of the three most commonly studied individual differences -- cognitive style, domain knowledge and computer experience -- on learning performance, disorientation and attitudes in a HLS incorporating a full range of visual instructional aids. The study reported here addresses this shortcoming, examining the effects of, and between, these three individual differences in relation to learning performance, disorientation and attitudes in two HLS versions: one that incorporated a full set of visual instructional aids and one that did not. Significant effects were found between the three individual differences with respect to disorientation, learning performance and attitudes in the HLS that provided no instructional aids, whereas no such effects were found for the other HLS version. Analysis of the results led to a set of HLS design guidelines, presented in the paper, and the development of an agenda for future research. Limitations of the study and their implications for the generalizability of the findings are also presented.
Keywords: Hypermedia learning; Individual differences; Visual support; Disorientation, learning performance; Attitudes
Recovery of online service: Perceived justice and transaction frequency BIBAKFull-Text 2199-2208
  Hsin Hsin Chang; Meng-Kuan Lai; Che-Hao Hsu
Recovery of online service is an issue in need of study. The current study empirically examines (1) the relationships among perceived justice, satisfaction with recovery of online service and repurchase intention of online service/failure encounters; and (2) the moderating effects of transaction frequency on these relationships. The current study collects 187 self-administered questionnaires to gather customers' perceptions of actual online service/failure encounters. Research findings demonstrate that distributive justice, interactional justice and procedural justice can positively lead to satisfaction with recovery of online service and repurchase intention toward online service. These results further show that customers with low transaction frequency tend to focus more on interactional justice to establish their satisfaction with recovery of online service. On the other hand, customers with high transaction frequency focus more on procedural justice.
Keywords: Recovery of online service; Service failure; Distributive justice; Interactional justice; Procedural justice; Transaction frequency
Examining learning from text and pictures for different task types: Does the multimedia effect differ for conceptual, causal, and procedural tasks? BIBAKFull-Text 2209-2218
  Erlijn van Genuchten; Katharina Scheiter; Anne Schüer
The multimedia effect (ME) is a well-researched effect in the field of learning and instruction. In this article, two views that explain the ME are compared. The outcome-oriented view focuses on the beneficial effect of text and pictures on mental representations, whereas the process-oriented view focuses on the beneficial effect of text and pictures for information processing. To contrast these views, the ME sizes for different task types were compared (i.e., conceptual, causal, procedural tasks). Whereas the outcome-oriented view predicts no differences in ME size, the process-oriented view predicts that the ME is largest in causal tasks, smaller in procedural tasks, and smallest in conceptual tasks. Sixty-five students learnt with text only or with text and pictures. Task type and information source (i.e., whether the text, picture, or text and picture provided the answer to a post-test question) were varied within subjects. The results showed that, in line with the process-oriented view, the ME was smaller for conceptual tasks than for procedural tasks. Contrary to the expectations, the ME was larger in procedural tasks than in causal tasks. Moreover, the pattern of results varied with information source. Research and practical implications are described, so that pictures can be deployed optimally.
Keywords: Learning with text and pictures; Multimedia effect; Conceptual, causal and procedural tasks; Static visualisations
Internet use and psychological well-being among college students: A latent profile approach BIBAKFull-Text 2219-2226
  Ssu-Kuang Chen
Studies of correlations between Internet use and psychological well-being (PW) have produced mixed results. The present study used a latent profile analysis to distinguish among populations in terms of PW profiles, and then used a multinomial logistic regression to determine how online entertainment, social use, problematic Internet use (PIU), and gender predicted each latent PW profile. The initial sample consisted of 757 Taiwanese college freshmen. Four ordered latent groups were established as follows: good PW, normative, minor-disadvantageous, and severe-disadvantageous. No latent PW profile stability was found in subsequent years: three groups (normative, minor-disadvantageous and severe-disadvantageous) emerged in Year 2, and only one group emerged in Year 3. The results indicate (a) no relationship between PW and online entertainment or gender, (b) greater PIU increased the likelihood of disadvantageous PW and decreased the probability of good PW, and (c) greater use of online resources for social purposes was related to increased probability of a participant being in the good PW group, but not associated with fewer PW problems.
Keywords: Internet use; Problematic Internet use; Psychological well-being; Latent profile analysis
A private versus a public space: Anonymity and buying decorative symbolic goods for avatars in a virtual world BIBAKFull-Text 2227-2235
  Rong-An Shang; Yu-Chen Chen; Sheng-Chieh Huang
The virtual world has become a new channel in which people can contact with others, and organizations can provide service to their customers. Selling symbolic virtual goods has also emerged as a new economy in the virtual world. Such symbolic goods cannot facilitate people to accomplish any specific tasks; people buy them simply to decorate their avatars. This study is based on the theories of symbolic consumption, self-presentation, and computer-mediated environment, to investigate why people buy decorative symbolic goods in the virtual world. The results show that people buy symbolic virtual goods for both emotional and social values. While user perceived social presence and telepresence affect both social and emotional value of symbolic goods, individual self-presentation motivation affects only social value. Besides, anonymous users in the virtual world show behaviors that differ with non-anonymous ones.
Keywords: Virtual goods; Symbolic consumption; Social presence; Telepresence; Self-presentation; Anonymity
In-class multitasking and academic performance BIBAKFull-Text 2236-2243
  Reynol Junco
The omnipresence of student-owned information and communication technologies (ICTs) in today's college classrooms presents educational opportunities but can also create learning problems. Specifically, multitasking with these technologies can interfere with the learning process. Indeed, research in cognitive science shows that there are clear performance decrements when trying to attend to two tasks at the same time. This study examines the frequency with which students multitask during class using a large sample (N = 1,839) and examines the relationship between multitasking and academic performance as measured by actual overall semester grade point average (GPA). Students reported frequently text messaging during class but reported multitasking with other ICTs to a lesser extent. Furthermore, only social technologies (Facebook and text messaging) were negatively related to GPA.
Keywords: Multitasking; Classroom; ICT use; Learning; Facebook; Texting
Identifying critical factors for corporate implementing virtualization technology BIBAKFull-Text 2244-2257
  Shing-Han Li; David C. Yen; Chung-Chiang Hu; Wen-Hui Lu; Yung-Chen Chiu
Virtualization technology has attracted great attention with its advantages of multiple platform operation and resultant cost and power reduction. This study investigated the key factors for corporations to implement virtualization information environment from the viewpoint of IT staffs. Through purposeful sampling, 400 effective questionnaires were collected from IT personnel currently working in the virtualization-related fields. From key factor analysis, seven influential factors were identified for corporations to implement virtualization. These seven factors include: (1) system quality, (2) information quality, (3) simplified management and maintenance, (4) integration of resources, (5) cost reduction, (6) ease of deployment, test and development, and (7) organizational consensus. Based on the obtained findings, suggestions for corporations and to IT system integrators were provided to the implementation of virtualization information environment. The scales developed in this study provide useful measures to study common factors of the implementation of virtualization information technology.
Keywords: Virtualization; Key factor analysis; Key successful factor; KSF
A framework for Chinese Power Games -- Political tactics in information systems development processes BIBAKFull-Text 2258-2273
  Christina Ling-hsing Chang
This paper explores the way one particular manager of the MIS department at TaiJen uses expert knowledge to adopt political tactics to achieve his goals of self-interest in information system development (ISD) processes. Based on qualitative data collected from TaiJen (pseudonym), the study interweaves Chinese Power Game: Face and Favor Theory and Confucian Relationalism into the different kinds of political tactics utilized by the MIS department manager. An appropriate categorization of political tactics is constructed based on two dimensions: "relatively strong/weak power" and "winning/losing position." Nine kinds of political tactics are grouped into four types: aggression, defense, strengthening and withdrawal, and the different tactics used by the manager of the MIS department on his supervisors, equals and subordinates are categorized on the basis of these types. In view of the important role played by Asia in the 21st Century, particularly by Chinese cultural societies, which represent a hugely significant market to all global enterprises, it is hoped that this study will assist the business world in understanding the culture that places emphasis on the conducting of business through interpersonal relationships.
Keywords: Information system development; Political tactics; Chinese Power Game; Confucian relationalism; Guanxi
Why people use Yelp.com: An exploration of uses and gratifications BIBAKFull-Text 2274-2279
  Amy Hicks; Stephen Comp; Jeannie Horovitz; Madeline Hovarter; Maya Miki; Jennifer L. Bevan
This study examines why individuals use the website Yelp.com from a uses and gratifications perspective. Male and female Yelp.com users who were 18 and over completed an online survey. The results of the study indicate that individuals overwhelmingly use Yelp.com for information-seeking purposes, followed by entertainment, convenience, interpersonal utility, and pass time. Further, there was an overall higher usage of each need for the readers and writers of restaurant reviews compared with readers only, suggesting more involvement for the reader and writer group. Frequency of Yelp.com usage and perceived influence of Yelp.com restaurant reviews were also positively related to the majority of motives. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.
Keywords: User-generated media; Yelp.com; Uses and gratifications
Reducing confirmation bias and evaluation bias: When are preference-inconsistent recommendations effective -- and when not? BIBAKFull-Text 2280-2290
  Christina Schwind; Jürgen Buder
When a diversity of viewpoints on controversial issues is available, learners prefer information that is consistent with their prior preferences. Following previous findings, preference-inconsistent recommendations can be used to overcome this bias. Two studies investigated the role of two potential moderators (prior knowledge; cooperation vs. competition) that impact the influence of recommendations on confirmation bias (the tendency to select more preference-consistent information) and evaluation bias (the tendency to evaluate preference-consistent information as better). In Study 1, preference-inconsistent recommendations reduced confirmation bias irrespective of prior knowledge, whereas evaluation bias was only reduced for participants with no prior knowledge. In Study 2, it was found that preference-inconsistent recommendations led to reduced confirmation bias under cooperation and under competition, whereas evaluation bias was only reduced under cooperation. Together, these studies showed that preference-inconsistent recommendations have the potential to trigger critical thinking patterns under favorable conditions. Future research and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Confirmation bias; Evaluation bias; Critical thinking; Recommendations
Improving problem solving ability in mathematics by using a mathematical model: A computerized approach BIBAKFull-Text 2291-2297
  Areti Panaoura
The present study investigates the improvement of students' mathematical performance by using a mathematical model through a computerized approach. We had developed an intervention program and 11 years students worked independently on a mathematical model in order to improve their self-representation in mathematics, to self-regulate their performance and consequently to improve their problem solving ability. The emphasis of using the specific model was on dividing the problem solving procedure into stages, the concentration on the students' cognitive processes at each stage and the self-regulation of those cognitive processes in order to overcome cognitive obstacles. The use of the computer offered the opportunity to give students general comments, hints and feedback without the involvement of their teachers. Students had to communicate with a cartoon animation presenting a human being who faced difficulties and cognitive obstacles during problem solving procedure. Three tools were constructed for pre- and post-test (self-representation, mathematical performance and self-regulation). There were administered to 255 students (11 years old), who constituted the experimental and the control group. Results confirmed that providing students with the opportunity to self-reflect on their learning behavior when they encounter obstacles in problem solving is one possible way to enhance students' self-regulation and consequently their mathematical performance.
Keywords: Mathematical model; Computerized approach; Self-regulation
How demanding is social media: Understanding social media diets as a function of perceived costs and benefits -- A rational actor perspective BIBAKFull-Text 2298-2305
  Nicholas David Bowman; David Keith Westerman; Christopher James Claus
Using the rational actor perspective as a guiding frame, this exploratory study examined individuals' social media diet (i.e., amount, frequency, and duration of use) as a function of task load and expected goal attainment. Surveys were distributed (N = 337) focusing on Twitter and Facebook usage for informational and relational purposes, respectfully. Increased task load -- conceptualized as a cognitive cost -- directly negatively influenced Twitter use but only indirectly influenced Facebook use as a function of perceived benefits. Across conditions, perceived self-efficacy was negatively associated with perceived task load and positively associated with goal attainment, and goal attainment was a significant correlate of increased social media usage. Interpreted, we see that a transparent technology such as Facebook has no cognitive costs associated with its use, while an opaque technology such as Twitter seems to have a salient cognitive cost element. Further, we found that older users of Facebook were more likely to judge the channel as more cognitively demanding and themselves as having lower self-efficacy in using it. Finally, results indicated that for both Facebook and Twitter, males perceived both channels as more cognitively demanding than females. Theoretical and practical explanations and applications for these findings are presented.
Keywords: Social media; Facebook; Twitter; Cognitive demand; Social media diet; Rational actor perspective
Measuring the flow experience of gamers: An evaluation of the DFS-2 BIBAKFull-Text 2306-2312
  Katelyn Procci; Allysa R. Singer; Katherine R. Levy; Clint Bowers
One element of growing interest in the video gaming literature is the flow state, which is a pleasing and engaging experience commonly reported by players of games. As such, there are many different measures and methods that seek to quantify the flow experience. The present work examined whether a common measure of flow, the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2), was valid to use in the gamer population. We initially collected data from 762 undergraduate students. Of these, 314 qualified as "gamers" and were included in our analysis. Participants completed the DFS-2 based on their personal gaming experiences and the data was subjected to factor analysis. We did not find the DFS-2 to be an adequate measure of flow for the game experience and that continued examination of the construct and measure refinement is necessary.
Keywords: Flow; Gaming; Measurement; Construct clarification
The relationships among the Big Five Personality factors, self-esteem, narcissism, and sensation-seeking to Chinese University students' uses of social networking sites (SNSs) BIBAKFull-Text 2313-2319
  Jin-Liang Wang; Linda A. Jackson; Da-Jun Zhang; Zhi-Qiang Su
It has been suggested that personality factors are related to an individuals' use of social networking sites (SNSs). The present research explores the relationships between the Big Five Personality factors, narcissism, self-esteem, and sensation seeking and individuals' use of specific features of SNS. Self-reports were collected from 265 SNS users from a university in China. Regression analyses revealed that personality factors play an important role in how SNS are used. Specifically, extraverts are more likely to use the communicative function of SNS including status update, comment, and adding more friends. Neurotic are more likely to use the feature of status update as a way of self-expression. Agreeable individuals tend to make more comments on others' profiles. Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely to comment on others' profiles. Users scoring high on openness and sensation seeking are more likely to play online games on SNS. Narcissistic users are more likely to upload their attractive photos on SNS and tend to use update status more frequently for self-presentation. Gender also played an important role in predicting types of SNS use. Males reported more SNS friends and were more likely to play online games than were females, who were more likely to upload self-photos and update their status.
Keywords: Social networking site; Big Five Personality factors; Self-esteem; Narcissism; Sensation seeking
Putting the Cognitive Mediation Networks Theory to the test: Evaluation of a framework for understanding the digital age BIBAKFull-Text 2320-2330
  Bruno Campello de Souza; Alexandre Stamford da Silva; Auristela Maria da Silva; Antonio Roazzi; Silvania Lúcia da Silva Carrilho
The Cognitive Mediation Networks Theory (CMNT) is a novel approach to human intelligence that, among other things, attempts to understand the cognitive changes associated to the emergence and dissemination of information and communication technologies throughout the last few decades. The present paper aims to investigate a central claim of the model, which is that the greater interaction of individuals with the changes emanating from the Digital Revolution and its implications (Hyperculture) tends to, in and of itself, produce psychological changes that lead to enhanced Cognitive Performance. For that purpose, a total of 1291 Brazilian adults and adolescents were investigated by means of an especially prepared form and cognitive tests. The results obtained indicated that a greater degree of Hyperculture is positively associated to Cognitive Performance and Sociability, regardless of sex, age, income, and level of education. These findings, taken together with those from other studies, strongly support the predictions of the CMNT, which emerges in this paper as a valid model of human cognition, at least when applied to the impacts of the Digital Revolution.
Keywords: Cognition; Digital age; Hyperculture; Mediation; Flynn Effect
Understanding student attitudes of mobile phone features: Rethinking adoption through conjoint, cluster and SEM analyses BIBAKFull-Text 2331-2339
  Milena Head; Natalia Ziolkowski
Young adults have been labelled as one of the most important segments for mobile phones, however there is little empirical evidence to indicate how these young adults value the feature richness of their devices. This research presents a richer view of mobile phone user preferences and perceptions by applying methodologies from the marketing and information systems domains. Conjoint analysis provides insights into how students value various mobile phone applications and tools. Cluster analysis extracts salient and homogenous consumer segments from the conjoint analysis output. Structural equation modelling then explores how antecedents to attitude may differ by the elicited consumer segments.
Keywords: Mobile phone; Attitude; Segmentation; Conjoint analysis; Cluster analysis; SEM analysis
Connected scholars: Examining the role of social media in research practices of faculty using the UTAUT model BIBAKFull-Text 2340-2350
  Anatoliy Gruzd; Kathleen Staves; Amanda Wilk
Social media has become mainstream in recent years, and its adoption has skyrocketed. Following this trend among the general public, scholars are also increasingly adopting these tools for their professional work. The current study seeks to learn if, why and how scholars are using social media for communication and information dissemination, as well as validate and update the results of previous scholarship in this area. The study is based on the content analysis of 51 semi-structured interviews of scholars in the Information Science and Technology field. Unlike previous studies, the current work aims not only to highlight the specific social media tools used, but also discover factors that influence intention and use of social media by scholars. To achieve this, the paper uses the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), a widely adopted technology acceptance theory. This paper contributes new knowledge to methodological discussions as it is the first known study to employ UTAUT to interpret scholarly use of social media. It also offers recommendations about how UTAUT can be expanded to better fit examinations of social media use within scholarly practices.
Keywords: Social media adoption and use; UTAUT; Scholarly practices; Information dissemination and communication
Is cheating a human function? The roles of presence, state hostility, and enjoyment in an unfair video game BIBAKFull-Text 2351-2358
  J. J. De Simone; Tessa Verbruggen; Li-Hsiang Kuo; Bilge Mutlu
In sports and board games, when an opponent cheats, the other players typically greet it with disdain, anger, and disengagement. However, work has yet to fully address the role of the computer cheating in video games. In this study, participants played either a cheating or a non-cheating version of a modified open-source tower-defense game. Results indicate that when a computer competitor cheats, players perceive the opponent as being more human. Cheating also increases player aggravation and presence, but does not affect enjoyment of the experience. Additionally, players that firmly believed that their opponent was controlled by the computer exhibited significantly less state hostility compared to players that were less certain of the nature of their competitor. Game designers can integrate subtle levels of cheating into computer opponents without any real negative responses from the players. The results indicate that minor levels of cheating might also increase player engagement with video games.
Keywords: Video games; Effects; Cheating; Perception; Presence; Enjoyment; State Hostility
Who does what on Facebook? Age, sex, and relationship status as predictors of Facebook use BIBAKFull-Text 2359-2365
  Francis T. McAndrew; Hye Sun Jeong
Previous studies have focused on why people use Facebook and on the effects of "Facebooking" on well being. This study focused more on how people use Facebook. An international sample of 1,026 Facebook users (284 males, 735 females; mean age = 30.24) completed an online survey about their Facebook activity. Females, younger people, and those not currently in a committed relationship were the most active Facebook users, and there were many age-, sex-, and relationship-related main effects. Females spent more time on Facebook, had more Facebook friends, and were more likely to use profile pictures for impression management; women and older people engaged in more online family activity. Relationship status had an impact on the Facebook activity of males, but little effect on the activity of females. The results are interpreted within a framework generated by an evolutionary perspective and previous research on the psychology of gossip.
Keywords: Facebook; Social networking; Internet psychology; Sex differences; Age differences; Impression management
Information privacy concerns, antecedents and privacy measure use in social networking sites: Evidence from Malaysia BIBAKFull-Text 2366-2375
  Norshidah Mohamed; Ili Hawa Ahmad
The research aims at gaining insights into information privacy concerns, its antecedents and privacy measure use in social networking sites. The Social Cognitive, Protection Motivation theories and gender factor were used as a basis to develop and confirm a research model. Using a cross-sectional survey design and cluster sampling technique, four-hundred thirteen questionnaires were distributed to undergraduates at a public Malaysian university; three-hundred forty were included in analyses. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling technique. Results suggest that in order of importance only perceived severity, self-efficacy, perceived vulnerability, and gender are antecedents of information privacy concerns with social networking sites; response efficacy and rewards were not significant antecedents contrary to many past findings in the literature that used Social Cognitive and Protection Motivation Theory as a theoretical basis. Information privacy concerns explain privacy measure use in social networking sites. The implications of these results and study limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Social Cognitive Theory; Protection Motivation Theory; Information privacy; Self-efficacy; Social networking
Structure and function of maladaptive cognitions in Pathological Internet Use among Chinese adolescents BIBAKFull-Text 2376-2386
  Yujiao Mai; Jianping Hu; Zheng Yan; Shuangju Zhen; Shujun Wang; Wei Zhang
This study empirically investigated the structure and function of maladaptive cognitions related to Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among Chinese adolescents. To explore the structure of maladaptive cognitions, this study validated a Chinese Adolescents' Maladaptive Cognitions Scale (CAMCS) with two samples of adolescents (n1 = 293 and n2 = 609). The results of the exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that CAMCS included three distinct factors, namely, "social comfort," "distraction," and "self-realization." To examine the function of maladaptive cognitions, this study tested an updated cognitive-behavioral model in the third sample of 1059 adolescents. The results of structural equation model analyses verified both the direct effect of maladaptive cognitions on PIU and their mediating role in the relationships between distal factors (social anxiety and stressful life events) and PIU among Chinese adolescents. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings were discussed.
Keywords: Pathological Internet Use; Maladaptive cognitions; Self-realization; Mediator; Adolescents
The impact of Arab cultural values on online social networking: The case of Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 2387-2399
  Khaled Saleh Al Omoush; Saad Ghaleb Yaseen; Mohammad Atwah Alma'aitah
The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of cultural values on motivations and attitudes toward Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in the Arab world, and the factors affecting the continuity of membership value. Online questionnaire was used to collect data from the Arab Facebook members. Structural Equation Modeling, using EQS was conducted to analyze the data. The results indicated to a disparity in cultural impact on motivations and attitudes. At the time that Arab youth seek to liberate from all the kinds of restrictions to satisfy their human needs through joining SNSs, their attitudes are still influenced by the cultural values of Arab nation. The results also revealed a significant effect of members' motivations, attitudes, and usage on the continuity of Facebook membership value. The present study contributes to the continuing discussion about why and how people engage in SNSs from different nations' cultures, especially after the critical roles of SNSs in so-called Arab Spring.
Keywords: Social Networking Sites (SNSs); Facebook; Arab cultural values; Motivations; Freedom of speech and expression; Attitudes
The mediating effect of organizational culture and knowledge sharing on transformational leadership and Enterprise Resource Planning systems success: An empirical study in China BIBAKFull-Text 2400-2413
  Zhen Shao; Yuqiang Feng; Luning Liu
Senior leadership has been identified as a critical factor in fostering Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems success, however, the specific impact mechanism of transformational leadership on ERP success is still largely unknown. Based on organizational culture theory and knowledge based view, this study developed a theoretical model to explore the mediating effect of organizational culture and knowledge sharing on transformational leadership and ERP success. Data was collected from 115 IS executives and 413 ERP end users in 115 organizations in China. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis results suggest that transformational leadership is directly related with all the four types of organizational culture -- development culture, group culture, hierarchical culture and rational culture, and is indirectly related with knowledge sharing and ERP success. Specifically, development culture has direct impact on ERP success, while hierarchical culture, group and rational culture are indirectly related with ERP success, mediated by explicit and tacit knowledge sharing. The research findings can provide guidelines for the top executives to facilitate appropriate organizational culture, so as to foster ERP knowledge sharing and achieve business benefits with the assimilation of ERP systems.
Keywords: Transformational leadership; Organizational culture; Knowledge sharing; ERP success
The effects of personality traits, self-esteem, loneliness, and narcissism on Facebook use among university students BIBAKFull-Text 2414-2419
  Jason L. Skues; Ben Williams; Lisa Wise
This study examined the relationship between three of the "Big Five" traits (neuroticism, extraversion, and openness), self-esteem, loneliness and narcissism, and Facebook use. Participants were 393 first year undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who completed an online questionnaire. Negative binomial regression models showed that students with higher openness levels reported spending more time on Facebook and having more friends on Facebook. Interestingly, students with higher levels of loneliness reported having more Facebook friends. Extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and narcissism did not have significant associations with Facebook use. It was concluded that students who are high in openness use Facebook to connect with others in order to discuss a wide range of interests, whereas students who are high in loneliness use the site to compensate for their lack of offline relationships.
Keywords: Facebook; Psychological; Predictors; University students
Computer praise, attributional orientations, and games: A reexamination of the CASA theory relative to children BIBAKFull-Text 2420-2430
  Jeng-Yi Tzeng; Cheng-Te Chen
On the basis of psychology research on praise and attribution, this study investigated the effects of two types of computer praise (ability praise and effort praise) on 384 elementary school students who exhibited one of three types of attribution orientations (high ability attribution, effort attribution, and low internal attribution) while playing two computer-based games. The findings show that different types of computer praise, different attribution orientations, and different natures of games made a difference in the way the participants (1) appreciated the design of the program, (2) made self-serving attribution for their performance, (3) evaluated their performance, and (4) chose game-playing strategies. This research provides empirical evidence highlighting limitations in the CASAs (Computers As Social Actors) theory. Discretion is advised in the adoption of the claim that computer praise is a concern-free reinforcement of users' engagement in positive interactions with computers.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Praise; Attributional orientation; Computer game
Factors affecting online group buying intention and satisfaction: A social exchange theory perspective BIBAKFull-Text 2431-2444
  Wen-Lung Shiau; Margaret Meiling Luo
This study investigates factors that affect consumer continuous use intention toward online group buying and the degree that reciprocity and reputation of social exchange, trust, and vendor creativity affect consumer satisfaction and intention toward online purchasing. Data from 215 valid samples was obtained using an online survey. The research model is assessed using partial least squares (PLS) analysis. The results show that the intention to engage in online group buying is predicted collectively by consumer satisfaction, trust, and seller creativity. Consumer satisfaction with online group buying is predicted primarily by trust, followed by consumer reciprocity. The proposed research model explains 67.7% of variance for satisfaction and 39.7% of variance for intention to engage in online group buying. The results suggest that reciprocity, trust, satisfaction, and seller creativity provide considerable explanatory power for intention to engage in online group buying behavior.
Keywords: Online group buying; Social exchange theory (SET); Reciprocity; Reputation; Trust