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Computers in Human Behavior 37

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Dates:2014
Volume:37
Publisher:Elsevier
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Papers:46
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-08 Volume 37

CHB 2014-08 Volume 37

The network effect on information dissemination on social network sites BIBAKFull-Text 1-8
  Pin Luarn; Jen-Chieh Yang; Yu-Ping Chiu
Interconnections between people on social network sites enhance the process of information dissemination and amplify the influence of that information. This study designed a Facebook application to examine the influence of peoples' network on information dissemination. The results showed that both network degree and network cluster significantly affected information dissemination frequency. In other words, people with more connections and with high clustered connections might exert a greater influence on their information dissemination process. The findings of this study have useful implications for the theory of network effect, as well as useful references and suggestions for marketers.
Keywords: Social network sites; Information dissemination; Facebook; Network effect
An experiment investigating the links among online dating profile attractiveness, ideal endorsement, and romantic media BIBAKFull-Text 9-17
  Veronica Hefner; Julie Kahn
This study was the first-ever experiment to test how ideal expressions in hypothetical online dating profiles and exposure to romantic media are related to profile attractiveness, romantic beliefs, and endorsement of ideal partner characteristics. The sample contained 249 undergraduate students from a small, southwestern university. The study is a one-way experiment, with five manipulations and one control group. Results revealed that exposure to the conditions featuring any ideal content produced stronger endorsement of romantic beliefs, but not ideal partner characteristics. Consuming romantic media predicted stronger endorsement of romantic beliefs and higher ratings of profile attractiveness. Results support the heuristic processing model of cultivation.
Keywords: Online dating; Romantic media; Romantic beliefs; Attraction; Cultivation
Brand followers' retweeting behavior on Twitter: How brand relationships influence brand electronic word-of-mouth BIBAKFull-Text 18-25
  Eunice Kim; Yongjun Sung; Hamsu Kang
Twitter, the popular microblogging site, has received increasing attention as a unique communication tool that facilitates electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). To gain greater insight into this potential, this study investigates how consumers' relationships with brands influence their engagement in retweeting brand messages on Twitter. Data from a survey of 315 Korean consumers who currently follow brands on Twitter show that those who retweet brand messages outscore those who do not on brand identification, brand trust, community commitment, community membership intention, Twitter usage frequency, and total number of postings.
Keywords: Twitter; Electronic word-of-mouth; Social media; Brand relationships; Online brand community
Developing a benefits counseling website for Veterans using Motivational Interviewing techniques BIBAKFull-Text 26-30
  Kristin L. Serowik; Karen Ablondi; Anne C. Black; Marc I. Rosen
Understanding Veterans' narrated experience as they navigate a web-based intervention is important because it can inform the content, layout and format of these therapies. Using the "Think Aloud" method, twenty-five Veterans of military service expressed thoughts and reactions while navigating through a web-based Motivational Interviewing intervention. The intervention encouraged Veterans applying for Compensation for military-related psychiatric conditions to engage in work related activities. They then completed quantitative ratings of the site. Overall, the site was rated highly, and ratings were in the neutral range as to whether internet delivery of the material was preferable to in-person counseling. Comments revealed the complexity of adapting Motivational Interviewing for a web-based intervention. The intervention provided reflections and non-judgmental statements to Veterans accustomed to more directive statements, and receiving reflections from a computer-therapist evoked mixed responses. Veterans answered questions with intuitive formats quickly, and usually did not read directions concerning how to answer questions. Veterans felt frustrated by the lack of support throughout the Compensation process. They advocated for further development of this web-based intervention as a support for people awaiting their claim determination.
Keywords: Web-based; Veterans; Motivational Interviewing; Think-aloud; Website development
A case study of Augmented Reality simulation system application in a chemistry course BIBAKFull-Text 31-40
  Su Cai; Xu Wang; Feng-Kuang Chiang
The comprehension of micro-worlds has always been the focus and the challenge of chemistry learning. Junior high school students' imaginative abilities are not yet mature. As a result, they are not able to visualize microstructures correctly during the beginning stage of chemistry learning. This study targeted "the composition of substances" segment of junior high school chemistry classes and, furthermore, involved the design and development of a set of inquiry-based Augmented Reality learning tools. Students could control, combine and interact with a 3D model of micro-particles using markers and conduct a series of inquiry-based experiments. The AR tool was tested in practice at a junior high school in Shenzhen, China. Through data analysis and discussion, we conclude that (a) the AR tool has a significant supplemental learning effect as a computer-assisted learning tool; (b) the AR tool is more effective for low-achieving students than high-achieving ones; (c) students generally have positive attitudes toward this software; and (d) students' learning attitudes are positively correlated with their evaluation of the software.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Chemistry learning; Inquiry-based learning
The influence of disposition and social ties on trust in new virtual teammates BIBAKFull-Text 41-48
  Eric Weilin Kuo; Lori Foster Thompson
With the increased presence of social media tools such as LinkedIn and Facebook, social network information is now commonplace. Social media websites prominently display the social distance or so-called "degrees of separation" among users, effectively allowing people to view their shared social ties with others, including prospective teammates they have not met. Through the presentation and manipulation of social network information, this longitudinal experiment investigated whether dispositional and relational variables contribute to "swift trust" among new virtual teammates. Data from 74 participants were collected to test a path analytic model predicting that social ties and propensity to trust influence perceptions of a new teammate's trustworthiness (ability, benevolence, and integrity) as well as the willingness to trust that new teammate when given the opportunity to do so. Path analysis indicated good model fit, but showed no significant evidence that social ties or propensity to trust affect perceived trustworthiness at the initial point of team engagement. Additionally, only one component of perceived trustworthiness (perceived ability) and propensity to trust were found to predict trusting behavior towards a new, unknown, teammate.
Keywords: Group membership; Social distance; Social media; Social networking; Swift trust; Virtual teams
Gender and texting: Masculinity, femininity, and gender role ideology BIBAKFull-Text 49-55
  Shirley Matile Ogletree; Joshua Fancher; Simran Gill
Texting, although one of the newer forms of computer-mediated communication, has become very popular, especially among teens. This research, using self-report measures, explored college students' perceptions of texting, including texting's leading to relationship conflict and interfering with classes, as well as how attitudes towards texting were related to masculinity, femininity, and gender-linked (traditional)/gender-transcendent (nontraditional) attitudes. Our participants (n = 183) more frequently used emoticons than abbreviations, especially vulgar abbreviations. Over 70% reported at least minimal texting interference with classes/college preparation, and over 60% indicated that their own or their significant other's texting contributed to relationship conflict. The only significant male-female difference was in sexually explicit messages received, but positive associations were found between more traditional gendered attitudes and texting interfering with studying/school, with relationship conflict, and, for men only, "sexting" and using vulgar abbreviations. Other findings included gender transcendence being negatively associated with the reported number of messages sent as well as being bothered by texting; femininity also predicted frequency of emoticon use. Our research suggests that individual differences in texting may be related to variables associated with gendered self-perceptions and traditional gender roles.
Keywords: Texting; Gender roles; Masculinity; Femininity
Reducing the influence of framing on internet consumers' decisions: The role of elaboration BIBAKFull-Text 56-63
  Fei-Fei Cheng; Chin-Shan Wu; Hsin-Hui Lin
The framing effect is one of the decision biases caused by the manner in which information is presented. However, greater research is required to determine how to eliminate the attribute framing effect. With additional knowledge regarding the factors that cause decision bias, an effective debiasing strategy can be designed. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine the debiasing effect of "elaboration" and "consider the opposite" to eliminate the framing effect using a laboratory experiment. The results suggest that both strategies are useful in debiasing the framing, but "consider the opposite" is more effective compared to "elaboration."
Keywords: Debias; Elaboration; Decision making; E-commerce; Experiment
Using narratives as tools for channeling participation in online communities BIBAKFull-Text 64-72
  Mariana Leyton Escobar; P. A. M. Kommers; Ardion Beldad
As online communities (OCs), each with unique characteristics and dynamics, proliferate on the Internet, the question of what makes some more successful than others, in terms of engagement and participation, certainly merits research attention. Scholars have argued that these communities use narratives to keep members engaged and to channel participation in their various activities, so this research aimed to evaluate if narratives play a significant role in this matter. Members of an OC were invited to participate in an online survey (n = 2028) and three hypotheses about sense of community, participation in culture formation and participation in community successes were tested. Results show that narratives play a significant role in participatory behavior. Specifically, it was found that narratives play two roles: first, as an amplifier of membership and shared values in the effects each of these have in participation; and second, as a mediator between both needs fulfillment and influence and shared emotional connection, and participation.
Keywords: Online communities; Culture; Participation; Narratives; YouTube; Nerdfighters
Stability and change in adolescents' task-specific achievement goals and implications for learning mathematics with intelligent tutors BIBAKFull-Text 73-80
  Matthew L. Bernacki; Vincent Aleven; Timothy J. Nokes-Malach
Individuals' achievement goals are known to influence learning behaviors and academic achievement. However, prior research also indicates that undergraduates' achievement goals for psychology coursework vary from assignment to assignment. The effect of stability of achievement goals on learning behaviors and outcomes has yet to be explored. This study examined how adolescents' achievement goals varied over mathematics units completed in an intelligent tutoring system, and whether strength or variability in achievement goals influenced behavior or achievement. At the group level, achievement goals correlated significantly from unit to unit; mean scores were not significantly different over time. However, individuals' goal scores changed reliably across units. No relationships were found between the strength of students' achievement goal scores and learning behaviors or performance. However, students with stable mastery approach goals achieved better grades than those with more variable mastery-approach goals. Students with stable performance-approach goals engaged in fewer help-seeking behaviors than those with variable performance approach goals.
Keywords: Achievement goals; Goal stability; Learning behaviors; Intelligent tutoring systems
Tablet as human: How intensity and stability of the user-tablet relationship influences users' impression formation of tablet computers BIBAKFull-Text 81-93
  Zongyuan Wang; Michelle R. Nelson
When can computers seem "human"? How do users form identity impressions of computers? In an examination of the ways in which users form impressions of their tablet computers, this study offers a new perspective by allowing users to verbalize their impressions of their products. Findings from in-depth interviews revealed two basic constructs that inform users' impression formation -- intensity and stability, which respectively foster social-contextualization and attribute association processes. This study contributes to impression formation and human-computer relationship literature in two aspects. The first is a novel methodological design that was humanistic in nature but was informed by social psychology; the second is a new construct "relationship intensity," which operates jointly with relationship stability in impression formation processes.
Keywords: Human-computer relationship; Relationship intensity; Relationship stability; Impression formation; Personification
It's only a computer: Virtual humans increase willingness to disclose BIBAKFull-Text 94-100
  Gale M. Lucas; Jonathan Gratch; Aisha King; Louis-Philippe Morency
Research has begun to explore the use of virtual humans (VHs) in clinical interviews (Bickmore, Gruber, & Picard, 2005). When designed as supportive and "safe" interaction partners, VHs may improve such screenings by increasing willingness to disclose information (Gratch, Wang, Gerten, & Fast, 2007). In health and mental health contexts, patients are often reluctant to respond honestly. In the context of health-screening interviews, we report a study in which participants interacted with a VH interviewer and were led to believe that the VH was controlled by either humans or automation. As predicted, compared to those who believed they were interacting with a human operator, participants who believed they were interacting with a computer reported lower fear of self-disclosure, lower impression management, displayed their sadness more intensely, and were rated by observers as more willing to disclose. These results suggest that automated VHs can help overcome a significant barrier to obtaining truthful patient information.
Keywords: Virtual humans; Computer-assisted assessment; Clinical interviews; Honest responding; Self-disclosure
Addicted to pillaging in cyberspace: Investigating the role of internet addiction in digital piracy BIBAKFull-Text 101-106
  Jordana N. Navarro; Catherine D. Marcum; George E. Higgins; Melissa L. Ricketts
The present exploratory study sought to address a gap in the current literature on problematic Internet use by investigating the relationship between Internet addiction and digital piracy. The main research question guiding this study was whether IA was correlated with digital piracy. The expectation was that IA would indeed be correlated with digital piracy and increase odds of perpetration. Secondly, taking into account that previous literature on both IA and digital piracy emphasizes the importance of online relationships (Acier & Kern, 2011; Fitzpatrick, 2008; Marcum, Higgins, Wolfe, & Ricketts, 2011), it was expected that deviant peer association would increase the odds of pirating. Finally, taking into account that previous research on both IA and digital piracy has largely shown that these problems affect a greater proportion of males (Andreou & Svoli, 2013; Gunter, Higgins, & Gealt, 2010; Hinduja, 2012; Lam, Peng, Mai, & Jing, 2009; Shaw & Black, 2008), it was expected that being male would increase the odds of pirating.
Keywords: Digital piracy; Internet; Cybercrime
Informational social support and online health information seeking: Examining the association between factors contributing to healthy eating behavior BIBAKFull-Text 107-116
  Christopher J. McKinley; Paul J. Wright
This study explores the nature of the relationship between informational social support and components of online health information seeking and how this process influences college students' healthy eating intentions. Results showed that social support was positively associated with online information seeking and more favorable impressions of nutrition/healthy diet information on the web. In addition, although social support was not associated with healthy eating intentions, all three information-seeking measures significantly predicted this outcome -- even after controlling for numerous health-related factors. Additional mediation tests showed that social support had an indirect impact on healthy eating intentions through use as well as through a multi-step process involving perceptions of online resources. Overall, these results suggest that by raising health consciousness, informational support may trigger online health information seeking leading to healthier lifestyle intentions.
Keywords: Information seeking; Social support; Healthy eating behavior
Problematic Internet use: Functions of use, cognitive absorption, and depression BIBAKFull-Text 117-123
  Bahadir Bozoglan; Veysel Demirer; Ismail Sahin
Although researchers have studied problematic Internet use for almost a decade, there is a dearth of quantitative models to describe this phenomenon. We aimed to create a structural equation model by which we explored the extent to which the functions of the Internet use, cognitive absorption, and depression affected and explained an individual's problematic Internet use. In 2011 and 2012 years, 244 high school students (117 boys and 127 girls) participated in this study to complete the Problematic Internet Use Scale, the Cognitive Absorption Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Internet Use Function Questionnaire. We found that the students' functions of Internet use, cognitive absorption, and depression explained the problematic Internet use to some extent.
Keywords: Problematic Internet use; Internet functions; Cognitive absorption; Depression
Building it better: Applying human-computer interaction and persuasive system design principles to a monetary limit tool improves responsible gambling BIBAKFull-Text 124-132
  Michael J. A. Wohl; Avi Parush; Hyoun (Andrew) S. Kim; Kristen Warren
In two studies, we aimed to improve the responsible gambling (RG) utility of monetary limit tools for non-disordered Electronic Gambling Machine (EGM) players -- the target population for such prevention-oriented RG tools. To this end, based on feedback from focus groups with non-disordered EGM players, we created a new monetary limit tool that incorporated EGM players' desired functionality coupled with design fundamentals of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Persuasive Systems Design (PSD; Study 1). We then tested the newly created HCI and PSD inspired tool and compared its RG utility (limit adherence) against a standard monetary limit tool (Study 2). Non-disordered EGM players were randomly assigned to experience the HCI and PSD inspired or the standard monetary tool prior to gambling in a virtual realty casino. As predicted, participants adhered to their pre-set monetary limits more (92%), when exposed to the HCI and PSD inspired pop-up tool than the standard monetary limit tool (62.2%). Improving RG tools through the use of HCI and PSD principles is discussed.
Keywords: Responsible gambling; Monetary limit; Pop-up; Human-computer interaction; Persuasive system design
Online shopping drivers and barriers for older adults: Age and gender differences BIBAKFull-Text 133-143
  Jiunn-Woei Lian; David C. Yen
The use of the Internet by older adults is growing at a substantial rate. They are becoming an increasingly important potential market for electronic commerce. However, previous researchers and practitioners have focused mainly on the youth market and paid less attention to issues related to the online behaviors of older consumers. To bridge the gap, the purpose of this study is to increase a better understanding of the drivers and barriers affecting older consumers' intention to shop online. To this end, this study is developed by integrating the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and innovation resistance theory. By comparing younger consumers with their older counterparts, in terms of gender the findings indicate that the major factors driving older adults toward online shopping are performance expectation and social influence which is the same with younger. On the other hand, the major barriers include value, risk, and tradition which is different from younger. Consequently, it is notable that older adults show no gender differences in regards to the drivers and barriers.
Keywords: Older adults; Online shopping; Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT); Innovation resistance theory
The public as active agents in social movement: Facebook and Gangjeong movement BIBAKFull-Text 144-151
  Ji won Kim; Yonghwan Kim; Joseph Jai-sung Yoo
This study content analyzed a South Korean social movement Facebook page to examine how activists and the public used it for the movement. Specifically, the study examined posts as well as comments that activists and the public made on a Facebook page related to the Gangjeong movement. The findings imply that activists and the public are more similar than different in terms of their use of messages posted and general comments. In fact, differences between activists and the public were more clearly found in posts than comments; by and large, activists preferred to use posts while the public were more active in writing comments compared to their posting frequency. Both groups frequently used hyperlinks as a method of providing information and developing coalitions. Furthermore, frame conflicts between activists and the public are less likely to appear as they tend to prefer particular types of frames. Taken together, the results indicate that members of the public have become active agents within the social media movement.
Keywords: Social movement; Civic engagement; Digital public; Social media; Content analysis
The roles of brand community and community engagement in building brand trust on social media BIBAKFull-Text 152-161
  Mohammad Reza Habibi; Michel Laroche; Marie-Odile Richard
Brand communities and social media often overlap. Social media is an ideal environment for building brand communities. However, there is limited research about the benefits and consequences of brand communities established on social media platforms. This study addresses this issue by developing a model depicting how consumers' relationship with the elements of a brand community based on social media (i.e. brand, product, company, and other consumers) influence brand trust. The findings include that three of the four relationships positively influence brand trust. However, customer-other customers' relationships negatively influence brand trust, which is counter intuitive and interesting. The prominent role of engagement in a brand community is also investigated in the model. Community engagement amplifies the strength of the relationships consumers make with the elements of brand community and it has a moderating effect in translating the effects of such relationships on brand trust. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Keywords: Brand community; Social media; Community engagement; Brand trust; Consumer centric model; Facebook
Capturing personality from Facebook photos and photo-related activities: How much exposure do you need? BIBAKFull-Text 162-170
  Azar Eftekhar; Chris Fullwood; Neil Morris
Photo-related activities are noticeably prevalent among social media users. On Facebook, users predominantly communicate visually and manage their self-presentation. Such online behaviours tend to mimic what would be expected of individuals' offline personalities. This study sought to address the link between Facebook users' photo-related activities and the Big Five personality traits by encoding basic Facebook visual features. Content analysis on the actual profiles (n = 115) and multiple regression analyses revealed many associations as a manifestation of users' characteristics. For instance, Neuroticism and Extraversion predicted more photo uploads. Conscientiousness was predictive of more self-generated albums and video uploads and Agreeableness predicted the average number of received 'likes' and 'comments' on profile pictures. Additionally, the Facebook experience in interaction with the personality factors was found to be influential on the type of photo-related activity and the level of photo participation of users. The findings provide evidence that Facebook users with various personality traits set up albums and upload photos differently. Given the uses and gratification model, users adapt the construction of their profiles and manage their interactions to gratify their psychological needs on Facebook.
Keywords: Facebook; Personality; Photo-participation; Photo-related activity; Uses and gratification; Visual presence
Teaching, learning and media use in today's lectures BIBAKFull-Text 171-182
  Vera Gehlen-Baum; Armin Weinberger
Lectures are designed to deliver new information to a large group of students. Apart from actual lecturing, lecturers may also encourage elaboration of learning material with advanced instructions, like advance organizer, summaries and repetitions as well as questions. Prerequisite to learning from lectures is that students focus on the lecture and cognitively process what is being presented. In today's lectures, mobile devices, (i.e. laptops and smartphones), may aid students to research additional information online or to take notes, but may also distract students. In this descriptive study, 86 students with 91 mobile devices out of five lectures were observed with respect to how they utilized mobile devices for lecture-related and -unrelated activities. Additionally, we observed 21 lecturers and coded their behavior. The results indicate that lecturing correlates only slightly with student activities. Students use media mostly in a lecture-unrelated way. Giving negative feedback seems to foster students' lecture-unrelated media use.
Keywords: Lectures; Advanced instruction; Lecture-related activity; Lecture-unrelated activity
Virtual ideals: The effect of video game play on male body image BIBAKFull-Text 183-188
  Zeely Sylvia; Teresa K. King; Brendan J. Morse
The perpetuation of unrealistic body ideals by popular media has been linked to negative body image and self-esteem; however, the influence of video games has remained largely unexamined despite their growing popularity as a media form, particularly among men. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether playing video games that emphasize an unrealistic male body ideal has a negative impact on body satisfaction. Participants played a highly realistic video game for 45 min and then completed questionnaires measuring muscularity concerns and body image. Men randomized to the experimental group played the game with a character of exaggerated muscularity, whereas those randomized to the control group played with a character of average build. Men in the muscular condition reported significantly lower body satisfaction than men in the control condition. Considering the wide-spread use of video games, as well as the increasing muscularity of the ideal male body in popular culture, this finding could have important implications for the psychological well-being of men who regularly play video games. Further research should assess whether this lowered body satisfaction is maintained and to determine if negative behavioral consequences emerge.
Keywords: Body image; Media influence; Male; Video gaming; Muscularity; Avatars
Status processes in human-computer interactions: Does gender matter? BIBAKFull-Text 189-195
  Marek N. Posard
This paper examines the conditions that cause status processes to emerge in groups of humans and computers. It presents the results from an experiment where participants worked on a gender-neutral task with a computerized partner described as being a man or woman. These participants evaluated the performance of their partner on a collective task and estimated the cost to purchase this machine. The gender descriptors of these machines did not affect the performance ratings by participants. These participants did estimate that male computers would cost significantly more money than female machines. The findings show how status characteristics shape user perceptions of their computers, which lack the human features that define these characteristics.
Keywords: Social psychology; Gender; Status characteristics theory; Sociology; Human-computer interactions
Exploring persistence in gaming: The role of self-determination and social identity BIBAKFull-Text 196-209
  Joyce L. D. Neys; Jeroen Jansz; Ed S. H. Tan
The question of why players of video games persist gaming in the face of what seems to be insufficient reward has not yet been properly answered. This paper approaches the issue by combining two general psychological theories: Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). A large scale survey (N = 7252) enabled a comparison of three groups which differed in terms of their Gamer Identity Strength (GIS), namely the degree to which players define gaming as part of their social identity. GIS is highest in Hardcore gamers and lower for Heavy and Casual gamers. GIS was positively, and uniformly, related with needs for Competence, Autonomy and Relatedness. Meanwhile, regulation was greater and more internal in the higher GIS groups. Finally, persistence was found to increase with GIS. The structure of needs and regulation modes underlying persistence was comparatively analyzed for the three groups; similarities between GIS groups were more frequent than differences. Most importantly, results indicated that Casual and Heavy gamers were motivated to continue to play as a result of both the feelings of enjoyment and a sense of connectedness. Hardcore gamers were more intrinsically motivated through enjoyment enhancing their levels of persistence accordingly.
Keywords: Video games; Motivation; Persistence; Self-determination theory; Social Identity Theory; Enjoyment
Does low self-control explain voluntary disclosure of personal information on the Internet? BIBAKFull-Text 210-215
  Szde Yu
In this study we explore the relationship between self-control and self-disclosure of personal information. As proposed by Gottfredson and Hirschi in self-control theory, low self-control is believed to lead to a variety of criminal behaviors as well as other risk-taking behaviors. Research suggests revealing personal information on the Internet to the public entails many risks. Our study found such self-disclosure can be adequately accounted for by low self-control. Although the dimensionality of self-control has been debated in the literature, our study found that self-control, either as a unidimensional or as a multidimensional measure, has a strong relationship with self-disclosure, even after controlling for age, gender, race, and education.
Keywords: Self-control; Self-disclosure; Facebook; Dimensionality
Playing a puzzle video game with changing requirements improves executive functions BIBAKFull-Text 216-228
  Adam C. Oei; Michael D. Patterson
Recent research suggests a causal link between action video game playing and enhanced attention and visual-perceptual skills. In contrast, evidence linking action video games and enhanced executive function is equivocal. We investigated whether action and non-action video games enhance executive function. Fifty-five inexperienced video game players played one of four different games: an action video game (Modern Combat), a physics-based puzzle game (Cut the Rope), a real-time strategy game (Starfront Collision), and a fast paced arcade game (Fruit Ninja) for 20 h. Three pre and post training tests of executive function were administered: a random task switching, a flanker, and a response inhibition task (Go/No-go). Only the group that trained on the physics-based puzzle game significantly improved in all three tasks relative to the pre-test. No training-related improvements were seen in other groups. These results suggest that playing a complex puzzle game that demands strategizing, reframing, and planning improves several aspects of executive function.
Keywords: Executive functions; Task-switching; Flanker; Inhibition; Video game training
The effects of Social Networking Site (SNS) use on college students' friendship and well-being BIBAKFull-Text 229-236
  Jin-Liang Wang; Linda A. Jackson; James Gaskin; Hai-Zhen Wang
The present study was conducted with two goals in mind: (1) to examine the influence of using different types of SNS use on users' well-being, and (2) to examine the mediating roles of online self-disclosure and friendship quality in the relationship between types of SNS use and well-being. Participants were from two large 4-year undergraduate universities in Southwestern China. The study was conducted during Spring semester, 2013, using advertisements that described the nature of the research and indicated that compensation for participation was ¥ 10 (about $1.5 U.S.). Of the 402 students approached, 337 completed the survey (i.e., response rate was 83.83%). Structural equation modeling showed that "social" type SNS use was positively related to users' well-being, whereas "entertainment" type SNS use was not. In addition, online self-disclosure was a significant predictor of users' friendship quality. However, there was an inverse relationship between "social" SNS use and online self-disclosure, and no relationship between friendship quality based on SNS use and well-being. It should be noted that generalizations of our findings should be made cautiously. The cross-section design and self-reported usage of SNS would also be limitations. Experimental and longitudinal studies should be conducted to provide stronger evidence of causal relations among variables examined in this study.
Keywords: Social Networking Sites (SNSs); Subjective well-being; Online self-disclosure; Friendship quality
The effects of trust and constructive controversy on student achievement and attitude in online cooperative learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 237-248
  Chang Woo Nam
This study investigated the effects of trust and constructive controversy on student achievement and attitude in online cooperative learning environments. Students in one university course were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups after they took part in a common initial workshop on general cooperative learning skills. The "trust" and the "constructive controversy" groups received subsequent associated skills training. The overall results indicated that after each group received the treatment during online cooperative group activities, the "trust" groups had significantly higher achievement than the "constructive controversy" groups. In addition, the "trust" groups had significantly more positive attitudes toward online cooperative learning than the "constructive controversy" groups. Specifically, using "trust" building strategies was significantly more effective than using "constructive controversy" strategies for improving the 'openness and sharing' and 'acceptance and support' components of student attitudes in online cooperative learning environments.
Keywords: Trust; Constructive controversy; Online cooperative learning
What's on the other side of the great firewall? Chinese Web users' motivations for bypassing the Internet censorship BIBAKFull-Text 249-257
  Qinghua Yang; Yu Liu
Firewall bypassing is referred to as the behaviors of Internet users who resort to any software or proxy to get access to the websites or online resources that are blocked by the Great Firewall (GFW). Under the uses and gratification framework, a web-based survey (N = 319) was conducted to explore Chinese Internet users' motivations of bypassing firewall in and outside Mainland China. The findings showed that Chinese Web users bypassed the firewall in China mainly for information and socializing, and bypassed outside China primarily for entertainment. Comparison between the motivations for bypassing GFW in and outside China was conducted among the participants who had experience in both cases. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Keywords: Great Firewall (GFW); Censorship; Users and gratifications (U&G); Motivations
Touch panel usability of elderly and children BIBAKFull-Text 258-269
  Hsien-Tsung Chang; Tsai-Hsuan Tsai; Ya-Ching Chang; Yi-Min Chang
The purpose of this study is to test the usability for the elderly, young adult and children using four different-sized touch panels and to provide suggestions for the elderly and children when using a touch panel. We set the subjects the tasks of dragging, rotating and scaling as quickly and as accurately as possible using different-sized touch panels. In addition to compare the operating performance values for different tasks for the three age groups, this study also recorded the subjects' hand movements. The results showed that the age and touch screen size had a significant effect on operating performance using the 4.3-in., 10.1-in., 23-in., and 42-in. touch panels. In addition, the average performance value on the touch panels using two hands was higher than the performance using one hand. Some useful and ergonomic interface design guidelines for the elderly and children were also proposed in this study.
Keywords: Touch panels; Usability; Children; Elderly; Fitts' law
The impact of age on website usability BIBAKFull-Text 270-282
  Nicole Wagner; Khaled Hassanein; Milena Head
As the general and working populations age in most developed nations, the study of website usability for older adults is becoming increasingly relevant. Website usability is concerned with both utilitarian (i.e. functional) and hedonic (i.e. pleasure-related) aspects. A new website usability model is proposed that considers the effects of age on website usability through cognitive antecedents that are most relevant to age-related effects. Specifically, spatial ability is the declining cognitive skill of particular interest in this research. A laboratory experiment was conducted where younger and older participants interacted with an experimental website. The results suggest that age has a pronounced impact on performance as a mediated effect through declining levels spatial ability and mental model accuracy as well as through a direct effect suggesting the presence of other objective and subjective changes associated with aging that could impact performance. Perceived disorientation was also examined within the proposed website usability model, revealing both expected and surprising findings.
Keywords: Website usability; Older adults; Mental model; Disorientation
Understanding mobile SNS continuance usage in China from the perspectives of social influence and privacy concern BIBAKFull-Text 283-289
  Tao Zhou; Hongxiu Li
Retaining users and facilitating continuance usage are crucial to the success of mobile social network services (SNS). This research examines the continuance usage of mobile SNS in China by integrating both the perspectives of social influence and privacy concern. Social influence includes three processes: compliance, identification and internalization, which are respectively represented by subjective norm, social identity, and group norm. The results indicate that these three factors and privacy concern have significant effects on continuance usage. The results suggest that service providers should address the issues of social influence and privacy concern to encourage mobile SNS continuance usage.
Keywords: Social network services; Social influence; Privacy concern; Group norm
Out of sight is not out of mind: The impact of restricting wireless mobile device use on anxiety levels among low, moderate and high users BIBAKFull-Text 290-297
  Nancy A. Cheever; Larry D. Rosen; L. Mark Carrier; Amber Chavez
Overuse of wireless mobile devices (WMDs) may be associated with a form of psychological dependency, of which a prominent feature may be anxiety arising from separation from these devices. College students, who are among the most avid consumers of WMDs, might be susceptible to the negative effects of WMD overuse. The present study examined anxiety in American college students when their WMDs were unexpectedly not available. Upon arrival, approximately one half of the 163 participants were randomly assigned to have their WMDs removed from their possession; the other half was allowed to keep their WMDs but were required to turn them off and place them out of sight. Participants were forced to sit quietly with no distractions during the study. The state portion of the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered three times, 20 min apart, beginning 10 min after the participants entered the room. The results showed that participants felt significantly more anxious over time. However, this pattern was evident only with heavy WMD users and with moderate WMD users whose devices were taken away. Dependency upon WMDs, mediated by an unhealthy connection to their constant use, may lead to increased anxiety when the device is absent.
Keywords: Anxiety; Smartphones; Mobile Phones; Wireless Mobile Devices; Dependence
Fostering group norm development and orientation while creating awareness contents for improving net-based collaborative problem solving BIBAKFull-Text 298-306
  Tanja Engelmann; Michail D. Kozlov; Richard Kolodziej; Roy B. Clariana
Empirical studies have demonstrated that being aware of the knowledge structures and of the underlying information of other group members improves computer-supported collaborative problem solving. While such studies used pre-made individual concept maps as awareness tools, empirical studies that used individual concept maps created by the group members themselves have not shown an advantage for group performance. An assumed reason is that individual members' concept maps differ too much structurally so that using them would need a lot of effort. This experimental study compares 20 triads whose members can observe the map creation process of the other members in their group with 20 triads without this possibility. The results demonstrated that access to the map creation process of the other group members while building one's own concept map led to a group norm of how to create such a map. As a result, group members created more structurally similar maps, which led, as in prior studies with pre-made maps, to improved group performance.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative problem solving; Knowledge and information awareness; Group awareness; Norm development; Norm orientation
Implicit and explicit training in the mitigation of cognitive bias through the use of a serious game BIBAKFull-Text 307-318
  Norah E. Dunbar; Claude H. Miller; Bradley J. Adame; Javier Elizondo; Scott N. Wilson; Brianna L. Lane; Abigail Allums Kauffman; Elena Bessarabova; Matthew L. Jensen; Sara K. Straub; Yu-Hao Lee; Judee K. Burgoon; Joseph J. Valacich; Jeffrey Jenkins; Jun Zhang
Heuristics can interfere with information processing and hinder decision-making when more systematic processes that might lead to better decisions are ignored. Based on the heuristic-systematic model (HSM) of information processing, a serious training game (called MACBETH) was designed to address and mitigate cognitive biases that interfere with the analysis of evidence and the generation of hypotheses. Two biases are the focus of this paper -- fundamental attribution error and confirmation bias. The efficacy of the serious game on knowledge and mitigation of biases was examined using an experiment in which participants (N = 703) either played the MACBETH game or watched an instructional video about the biases. Results demonstrate the game to be more effective than the video at mitigating cognitive biases when explicit training methods are combined with repetitive play. Moreover, explicit instruction within the game provided greater familiarity and knowledge of the biases relative to implicit instruction. Suggestions for game development for purposes of enhancing cognitive processing and bias mitigation based on the MACBETH game design are discussed.
Keywords: Video games; Cognitive biases; Training; Bias mitigation; Instructional testing
Can online buddies and bandwagon cues enhance user participation in online health communities? BIBAKFull-Text 319-333
  Hyang-Sook Kim; S. Shyam Sundar
Individuals are more likely to obtain information and support from online health communities than offer help to other users (Fox & Jones, 2009; Preece, Nonnecke, & Andrews, 2004). The current study attempts to resolve this problem of under-contribution by proposing two theory-based persuasive strategies -- a specific request in the form of an online buddy and collective community feedback in the form of bandwagon cues. A 2 (online buddy: absence vs. presence) by 2 (bandwagon cues: weak vs. strong) between-participants experiment tested the effects of these strategies on psychological outcomes, including perceived responsibility, social presence, sense of community, and perceived helpfulness, as well as their posting attitudes, posting intentions, and website attitudes, across two sessions. Contrary to expectations, we found that the assignment of online buddies in a health community forum leads to negative psychological and behavioral consequences, especially in the absence of strong community feedback. Furthermore, the online buddy feature interacts with bandwagon cues to activate different cognitive processes, leading to differential interpretation of the meanings of those bandwagon cues -- either as compliments (in the presence of online buddy) or as unreliable feedback (in the absence of online buddy). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Online communities; User participation; Online buddy; Bandwagon cues; Social facilitation; Sense of community
The interplay between users' intraorganizational social media use and social capital BIBAKFull-Text 334-341
  Yuan Sun; Rong-An Shang
The wide acceptance of social media by the public has caused companies try to use intraorganizational social media to increase employee work performance. However, simply implementing a platform is insufficient for success. Companies must encourage employees to use social media for work-related purposes. This study divided the use of intraorganizational social media into social- and work-related use and proposed a model based on the theory of social capital to explore the effects of social-related use on work-related use. The model was tested using a survey of users of intraorganizational microblog systems in China. The results indicate the relationships among two types of intraorganizational use and the dimensions of social capital, and that social-related use fosters work-related use directly and indirectly by enhancing social capital. These results facilitate an understanding of the value of social activities conducted using intraorganizational social media in organizations.
Keywords: Intraorganizational social media; Social capital; Work-related use; Social-related use; Microblog
Introduction to the special issue on Web-2.0 technologies in support of team-based learning for innovation BIBFull-Text 342-345
  Peter B. Sloep; Adriana J. Berlanga; Symeon Retalis
Designing and Enabling Spaces for collaborative knowledge creation and innovation: From managing to enabling innovation as socio-epistemological technology BIBAKFull-Text 346-359
  Markus F. Peschl; Thomas Fundneider
This paper is about designing spaces enabling processes of collaborative knowledge creation and innovation. It is a theoretical paper on the role of artifacts as enablers for creating new knowledge. We refer to these artifacts as Enabling Spaces comprising an architectural, technological (ICT), social, cognitive, organizational, cultural, as well as emotional dimension.
   The claim of this paper is that innovation is a highly challenging social and epistemological process which needs supporting (infra-)structures facilitating and enabling these processes. These processes have to take into account on various levels and domains in an integrated and interdisciplinary manner. It will be shown that innovation can no longer be understood as a mechanistic knowledge creation process. The concept of enabling will be developed as an alternative approach to innovation and will be applied as a design principle for Enabling Spaces. We will discuss the role of ICT in such an alternative approach to innovation. Finally, we will derive design principles for such highly interdisciplinary Enabling Spaces from these considerations.
Keywords: Enabling Space; Innovation; Participatory design
The contested ontology of affordances: Implications for researching technological affordances for collaborative knowledge production BIBAKFull-Text 360-368
  Gale Parchoma
Ontological debates on the nature of affordances muddy the waters for interpreting, comparing, and critiquing research on technological affordances. The widespread use of affordances has naturalised the term, often masking the import of its evolving social science definitions. Diversity in applications of affordances across disciplines has led to calls to abandon the term altogether. Following an abridged survey of ontological debates about their general and more specific technological nature, I examine a selection of thematically linked and often-cited papers on technological affordances. I compare those with evolving social science theories of affordances and with various conceptualizations of technical affordances. Implications are discussed of ontological debates around subject-object and directions of agency for research on technological affordances for collaborative learning and co-creation of new knowledge. A rationale is posited for including actor network theory-informed research practices as a route toward richer understanding of technological affordances among the mesh of meaning making, knowledge sharing, and creation practices in networked teams' activities. Such rationales may shed further light on the extent to which technological affordances interact as in situ enablers, restrictors, and regulators in the knowledge production activities of distributed collaborative teams.
Keywords: Affordance; Technological affordance; Collaborative learning; Inter-subjective knowledge production; Actor network theory; Web 2.0 research
Online versus face-to-face collaboration in the context of a computer-supported modeling task BIBAKFull-Text 369-376
  F. Siampou; V. Komis; N. Tselios
This paper examines the differences between online synchronous and offline face-to-face collaboration in the context of a computer-supported modeling task. A mathematical problem was designed and set to the participants to solve. Their modeling process using ModellingSpace, a collaborative computer-supported educational environment, was monitored. 16 ninth grade students participated in the study, all worked in groups of two. Eight groups worked online, the remaining 8 offline. The analysis focused on the identification of students' cognitive modeling strategies, their interactions and the learning gain for each type of collaboration. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted as well as two complementary coding schemes to better investigate the peers' interactions. The results obtained suggest that pairs who worked online emphasized analysis and synthesis; they also demonstrated a higher learning gain. Offline pairs needed the teacher's support and demonstrated stronger social interaction. Moreover, although the actions of offline dyads were more numerous, the dyads that worked online seemed to present more task-oriented actions. Participants in both groups mutually explored the problem, with few disagreements among them. Our findings could inform the design of learning programs and the facilitation of collaborative tasks.
Keywords: Face-to-face and online collaboration; Modeling; Problem-solving; ModellingSpace
Factors that influence cooperation in networks for innovation and learning BIBAKFull-Text 377-384
  Rory L. L. Sie; Marlies Bitter-Rijpkema; Slavi Stoyanov; Peter B. Sloep
Innovation networks and learning networks share the same cooperative intention, but they too often fail as members of the network do not know which partnerships are valuable. If one plans to build a support service that provides insight into the value of future cooperation, one first needs to know what contributes to effective and efficient cooperation. In addition to carrying out a literature review, we invoked the eDelphi method to answer this question. eDelphi is a method to solicit knowledge from experts anonymously and without geographical constraints. Observations from two eDelphi rounds are reported in this article. The first round focused on factor generation and determined which factors influence cooperation networks; it was conducted with two groups of six representative experts. Experts list open communication, a positive attitude, trust, keeping appointments, and personality as influential factors for cooperation networks. A team of four moderators categorised the factors in a second round, resulting in four core clusters: personal characteristics, diversity, effective cooperation, and managerial aspects. Interestingly the experts failed to list some factors that are mentioned in the literature. This finding is discussed.
Keywords: Cooperation; Networked innovation; Recommender systems; Coalition formation; Delphi method; Hierarchical cluster analysis
The Network Awareness Tool: A web 2.0 tool to visualize informal networked learning in organizations BIBAKFull-Text 385-394
  Bieke Schreurs; Maarten de Laat
Professionals often initiate informal learning in an effort to solve work-related problems. This paper focuses mainly on research methods for visualizing informal networked learning for teachers. Drawing upon Social Network Theory and Analysis and such notions as Social Capital, Networked Learning, and Communities of Practice we create a theoretical model to underpin the design of our web 2.0, Network Awareness Tool NAT.
   NAT address several problems connected with informal networked learning research in organizations, such as the informal learning paradox. Advanced Search and Signalling Features can overcome the problem of under-representation of the data. Authorship minimises the problem of unrealistic representation of data. Making use of user profiles and allowing them to (re)enter and improve data on both online and off-line (and combinations thereof) networked activities offers an alternative approach to the name/resource generating (Van der Gaag & Snijders, 2005) and position generating strategies (Lin, Fu, & Hsung, 2001) often used for collecting social network data. The implementation of a profile page, tags and ratings provides the opportunity to triangulate data on the needed multidimensional level, representing informal learning in the dimensions covered by the theoretical model. NAT could impact on our current understanding of informal networked learning.
Keywords: Informal learning; Web 2.0 technologies; Networked Learning; Social Network Analysis; Network Awareness Tool
Perceived enablers of 3D virtual environments for virtual team learning and innovation BIBAKFull-Text 395-401
  Petra M. Bosch-Sijtsema; Johanna Haapamäki
Virtual teams consist of geographically distributed employees working with a common goal using mostly technology for communication and collaboration. Virtual teams face a number of challenges, discussed in the literature in terms of communication through technology, difficulty in building trust, conveying social cues, and creating awareness, as well as cultural differences. These challenges impact collaboration, but also learning and innovation. This research focuses on how a social medium, the 3D virtual environment, is perceived to enable learning and innovation in virtual teams. We study this through a qualitative study based on interviews of distributed work managers' perception of VEs. The major findings are that VEs are perceived to create collaborative learning atmospheres for virtual teams in terms of enabling engagement, a shared context awareness, and support in social network building. Another finding is that VEs are perceived to enable team learning, knowledge development, and collaboration through persistence of content, information sharing, learning through role-plays and simulations, and visualization. Furthermore, VEs enable the development of co-created content as well as new ways of working in virtual teams.
Keywords: 3D virtual environments for work; Virtual teams; Learning; Knowledge development
LdShake support for team-based learning design BIBAKFull-Text 402-412
  Davinia Hernández-Leo; Pau Moreno; Jonathan Chacón; Josep Blat
Some educational innovation initiatives require practitioners to team up on the design of new learning activities. However, existing learning design tooling does not integrally support their tasks. Some tools enable authoring of designs, while other tools support sharing and commenting of learning design ideas, but none of them offers an integrated provision of technological features to support the work of design teams specifically. The requirements include team formation, the storage and retrieval of designs, and the promotion of interaction in the co-creation of designs. The LdShake platform has been conceived to enable sharing and co-editing of learning designs. This paper introduces LdShake's technological features and evaluates to what extent they support the aforementioned requirements. A first evaluation context is focused on learning design, while a second one is devoted to devising research ideas. The results obtained in the two contexts are complementary, pointing out distinct affordances and user behaviors (e.g., on browsing designs) that depend on the characteristics of each context, while also bringing to light the relevance of LdShake's social network related features. Overall, the design considerations proposed and the evaluation results obtained contribute toward an improved understanding of how to support networked teams.
Keywords: Networked teams; Learning and innovation; Sharing; Co-editing; Learning design; Research design
Supporting co-creation with software, the idSpace platform BIBAKFull-Text 413-422
  Peter Van Rosmalen; Jo Boon; Marlies Bitter-Rijpkema; Rory Sie; Peter Sloep
Innovation, in general, requires teamwork among specialist of different disciplines. The idSpace project developed ideas on how teams of collaborating innovators could best be supported. These ideas were embodied in a platform that the project developed. This idSpace platform allows its users to choose between various creativity techniques, pedagogical approaches and context-aware uses of stored information on projects, people and techniques. The platform follows a general process metaphor with specialised modules for specific parts, i.e. it starts with defining the problem to be addressed and through a sequence of steps concludes with a proposed solution. The platform was designed and developed by a multi-disciplinary team. It was evaluated through a realistic usage scenario which focused on the integral platform, from both an end-user and expert user perspective embodying a combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements on usability, general functionality and creativity aspects. This combination, as will be explained, proved to be a powerful way to prioritise and steer the further development of the platform.
Keywords: Evaluation design; Creativity; Usability; Creativity tools