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Computers in Human Behavior 35

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Dates:2014
Volume:35
Publisher:Elsevier
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Papers:64
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-06 Volume 35

CHB 2014-06 Volume 35

Sender credibility and deception detection BIBAKFull-Text 1-11
  Joey F. George; Patti Tilley; Gabriel Giordano
Recent research has demonstrated that the most important determinant of deception detection success was the perceived credibility of the sender. If so, then what accounts for differences in perceived sender credibility, especially when communication is conducted solely via computer-mediated communication modes where sender and receiver cannot see each other? We investigated the relationships between credibility, its antecedents, deception detection success, and the generation of false alarms. We conducted an experiment involving 74 pairs of undergraduate students. We found that the perceived credibility of the sender significantly affected both detection success and false alarms, such that the less credible the sender, the better the detection and the more false alarms generated. We also found significant relationships between three of the four antecedents and credibility: participants who were trained to detect cues to deception, who were motivated to find deception, and who communicated via e-mail were more likely to perceive senders as not credible, compared to participants who were not trained, not motivated, and who communicated via VOIP. Our findings have implications for both research and practice.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Deceptive communication; Deception detection; Credibility
Cyber victimization in middle school and relations to social emotional outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 12-21
  Christina F. Brown; Michelle Kilpatrick Demaray; Stephanie M. Secord
Cyber or electronic bullying is a growing problem among school-aged children and research on cyberbullying is still relatively young. The primary purposes of the current study were: (a) to investigate gender and grade level differences among cyber victims (b) to investigate the overlap between traditional victimization and cyber victimization and (c) to investigate the associations among cyber victimization and social emotional outcomes. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires on cyber victimization, traditional victimization, and social-emotional outcomes in a school-based sample of 106 middle school students. Results demonstrated that levels of cyber victimization did not differ by grade or by gender, cyber victimization and traditional victimization are distinct but related constructs, and relations between cyber victimization and social emotional outcomes varied by gender, with girls suffering more than boys. This study also confirmed that traditional bullying continues to be significantly related to a number of negative outcomes for all students. These findings, as well as implications and direction of future research, are discussed.
Keywords: Online victimization; Cyber victimization; Cyberbully; Gender differences; Adolescents
Effects of race, visual anonymity, and social category salience on online dating outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 22-32
  Saleem Alhabash; Kayla Hales; Jong-hwan Baek; Hyun Jung Oh
This study investigates the two facets of the social identity model of deindividuation (SIDE) within the context of online dating and racial stereotyping; visual anonymity and salience of social categorization cues. Experiment 1 (N = 23) employed a 2 (stereotypic attributes) × 2 (gender) × 12 (repetition) within-subject design where participants rated individuals as more attractive when their profiles were white-stereotypic compared to black-stereotypic. Experiment 2 (N = 178) employed a 2 (gender) × 2 (race) × 2 (stereotype congruence) × 3 (repetition) mixed-factorial design to investigate effects of stereotype congruence on evaluations of attractiveness, attitudes, and dating behavioral intentions (DBI). Heterosexual white participants (N = 126) had more favorable evaluations (attractiveness, attitudes, and DBI) of white profile owners with stereotype-congruent profiles than others. Findings are discussed in relation to models of computer-mediated communication and racial bias.
Keywords: Attitudes; Attractiveness; Dating behavioral intentions; Interracial online dating; SIDE; Stereotypes
College students' disclosure of location-related information on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 33-38
  Chen-Wei Chang; Gina Masullo Chen
This study drew on existing research and three behavioral intention models to develop the beginning of a new model to explain why college students share their locations on Facebook. Findings showed that students were more likely to disclose their location on Facebook if their friends did so, a concept called subjective norm. Results also showed that subjective norm had an indirect effect on whether people disclosed their location, mediated through people's attitude toward disclosure, while controlling for usefulness of disclosing. Collectively, this model explained 61% of the variance in why college students share locations on Facebook. Findings are discussed in relation to behavioral-intention models, and practical implications for social media companies are offered.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Facebook; Location-based services; Theory of reasoned action; Theory of planned behavior; Technology acceptance model
Exploring the links between pre-service teachers' beliefs and video-based reflection in wikis BIBAKFull-Text 39-53
  Young Hoan Cho; Yemin Huang
In teacher education, video has been used frequently for the development of competencies for effective teaching. However, few empirical studies have investigated reciprocal relationships between pre-service teachers' beliefs and video-based reflection activities. The present study investigated the influences of epistemological beliefs about mathematics on video-based reflection in wikis. Elementary school pre-service teachers had carried out reflective writing and questioning activities after watching a video clip about mathematics learning or instruction in wikis for six weeks. This study also explored the relationships between video-based reflection activities and the change of mathematical beliefs for teaching (MBT). Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected to examine the links between beliefs and reflection activities. This study found that epistemological beliefs partially influenced reflective writing and questioning activities in wikis. In addition, video-based reflection activities were beneficial for the beliefs of mathematical knowledge and students. This study also identified a few reflection and question categories that were closely related to the change of MBT. Lastly, implications of this study were discussed in regard to video-based reflection practices in teacher education.
Keywords: Teacher education; Beliefs; Mathematics; Video-based reflection; Wikis
Friending your way up the ladder: Connecting massive multiplayer online game behaviors with offline leadership BIBAKFull-Text 54-60
  Li Lu; Cuihua Shen; Dmitri Williams
In what ways do the online behaviors of wizards and ogres map to players' actual leadership status in the offline world? What can we learn from players' experience in Massively Multiplayer Online games (MMOGs) to advance our understanding of leadership, especially leadership in online settings (E-leadership)? As part of a larger agenda in the emerging field of empirically testing the "mapping" between the online and offline worlds, this study aims to tackle a central issue in the E-leadership literature: how have technology and technology mediated communications transformed leadership-diagnostic traits and behaviors? To answer this question, we surveyed over 18,000 players of a popular MMOG and also collected behavioral data of a subset of survey respondents over a four-month period. Motivated by leadership theories, we examined the connection between respondents' offline leadership status and their in-game relationship-oriented and task-related-behaviors. Our results indicate that individuals' relationship-oriented behaviors in the virtual world are particularly relevant to players' leadership status in voluntary organizations, while their task-oriented behaviors are marginally linked to offline leadership status in voluntary organizations, but not in companies.
Keywords: Leadership; E-leadership; MMOGs; Online games; Virtual worlds
Social media metrics: Third-person perceptions of health information BIBAKFull-Text 61-67
  Carmen D. Stavrositu; Jinhee Kim
The present study investigated the role of social media metrics (i.e., number of shares and comments) displayed alongside online news stories in shaping users' perceptions of the content and its influence. In a web-based experiment (N = 144), participants first read a cancer news story that displayed either a high or a low level of social media metrics, then reported their perceived story influence on the self and others, as well as their behavioral intentions. In the low social media metrics condition, the general story influence was perceived to be stronger for others than for the self, indicative of the "third-person effect." This effect, however, was diminished to insignificant levels in the high social media metrics condition. Further, social media metrics had an ultimate indirect effect on behavioral intentions via the third-person effect. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are provided in the end.
Keywords: Social media; User feedback; Online health; Health behaviors; Third-person perceptions
Exploring students' behaviors in a competition-driven educational game BIBAKFull-Text 68-74
  Zhi-Hong Chen
Educational mini-games, one of the applications of game-based learning, have been widely used to benefit student learning. However, few studies have examined the influence of competition-driven educational games on students' behaviors, which might offer insights into how to develop well-designed educational games. Thus, this study discusses a Pet-Master system, as an example of a competition-driven educational game, in an investigation of students' behaviors through both event-based and time-based analysis. Two empirical studies were conducted using the two types of analysis. The results of the event-based analysis indicated that the behaviors can be categorized into two parts: competition-driven and learning cycles. Evidence from the time-based analysis showed that the two behavior cycles appeared in an alternating way with a lower transition frequency. Based on the results we develop a design framework for competition-driven educational games, which illustrates the relationship among the social, learning, and gameplay dimensions. The framework and its application might serve to optimize learning outcomes and influence the way games are designed in order to maximize educational benefits in the future.
Keywords: Digital games; Competition; Learning behavior
Discovering determinants of users perception of mobile device functionality fit BIBAKFull-Text 75-84
  Arash Negahban; Chih-Hung Chung
In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the use of mobile devices. The ubiquitous and multifunctional nature of these devices with internet connectivity and personalization features make them a unique context to investigate what factors shape mobile users perception of their mobile device functionality fit with their needs. In order to answer this question, we proposed a research model in which we introduced multifunctional use and perceived device-functionality fit as two new constructs. The results of our study show that a significant portion of individuals' perceived device-functionality fit can be explained by their perceived enjoyment, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and symbolic value of the device. In terms of the theoretical contribution, our research suggests revamping the concept of device-functionality fit when it comes to mobile devices by accounting for both hedonic and utilitarian aspects of mobile devices. In terms of practical implications, our study highlights the importance of the social image that mobile devices create in the society for their users as well as the importance of look-and-feel aspects of mobile devices in shaping users perception of fit between functionalities of their mobile devices and their needs.
Keywords: Perceived mobile device-functionality fit; Multifunctional use; Multifunctionality; Mobile device; Smartphones
Exploring the effects of demographic factors, Internet usage and personality traits on Internet addiction in a sample of Italian university students BIBAKFull-Text 85-92
  Rocco Servidio
Despite increasing interest in Internet addiction disorder, especially among high school students, few investigations have been oriented towards exploring the potential risks associated with an overuse of the Internet for the university population. A sample of 190 Italian university students was selected to investigate the effects of demographic profile, Internet usage and the Big Five personality traits on Internet addiction. Results indicated that none of the enrolled students showed a high level of addiction, although moderate behavioural disorder was found. The multiple linear regression findings displayed that males were more inclined to use the Internet than females, and some students' behaviours were predictors of Internet addiction. Moreover, personality traits such as Agreeableness and Extraversion were negatively related to Internet addiction, whereas Openness was positively associated. These results highlight that several factors may predispose university students to developing problematic behaviour connected with an excessive use of the Internet.
Keywords: Internet addiction disorder; Internet usage; University students; Big Five; Personality traits
An experimental investigation of the influence of agentic and communal Facebook use on grandiose narcissism BIBAKFull-Text 93-98
  Robert S. Horton; Chelsea A. Reid; Jessica M. Barber; Josh Miracle; Jeffrey D. Green
Does activity on a social networking site (e.g., Facebook) increase grandiose narcissism? It was hypothesized that the type of activity (agentic vs. communal) might make a difference. In the first experiment, 88 males were randomly assigned to one of three computer activity conditions (agentic Facebook activity, communal Facebook activity, control computer activity). In the second experiment a larger and more diverse sample (N = 218) engaged in agentic, communal, or control activities either on a computer or not, in order to assess the impact of medium as well as thinking type. In both experiments, self-reported daily Facebook activity was correlated with narcissism. However, the experimental manipulation of agentic vs. communal Facebook use did not significantly increase state narcissism, as indicated by synthesizing the findings of the two experiments. The findings cast doubt on the notion that social networking site use promotes narcissism, though additional research on the topic is warranted.
Keywords: Facebook; Narcissism; Social networks
Gender, technology use and ownership, and media-based multitasking among middle school students BIBAKFull-Text 99-106
  Shelia R. Cotten; Daniel B. Shank; William A. Anderson
We propose and test a new explanation for why more girls than boys multitask with media. We argue that gender differences in technology use and ownership function as the proximal cause for these gender differences in media multitasking. Prior literature suggests different patterns of technology ownership, such as more girls owning MP3 players and cell phones and more boys owning gaming systems. Further, on average, girls spend more time listening to music and communicating over media, while boys spend more time playing games. Those with the highest levels of ownership and use of a specific type of media may be the most likely to multitask with that media. We test our argument with a sample of middle school students, a group underrepresented in multitasking studies. The data support our arguments with ownership and use partially explaining the greater percentage of girls that multitask with music and communication media. Contrary to our predictions, the percentage of boys and girls who multitask while gaming did not significantly differ. We discuss potential explanations and conclude with implications for future research on gender differences in multitasking, youth and multitasking, and technology and media multitasking.
Keywords: Gender; Multitasking; Media; Information and communication technology; Digital inequalities; Secondary education
To dwell among gamers: Investigating the relationship between social online game use and gaming-related friendships BIBAKFull-Text 107-115
  Emese Domahidi; Ruth Festl; Thorsten Quandt
Social online games are a mass phenomenon and, for most of the users, a social activity. Even though there are numerous studies on social online games they do not explicitly investigate the offline contacts of the gamers, which play a significant role for their social embeddedness. Regarding the online gaming-related contacts possible strong ties such as friendship relationships are often neglected. Additionally modality switching between the two spheres is not further investigated. In this paper, we strive to extend the research on the interrelation of social game use and the social embeddedness of social online gamers, as well as modality switching between the online and offline context. In doing so we provide new insights into the emergence and quality of gaming-related relationships.
   We collected information on everyday life as well as on gaming-related friendships from a representative sample of 2213 gamers and 287 non-gamers in Germany. Our results show that social online gamers do not differ significantly from other gamers or non-gamers regarding the number of their good friends. However, we found a significant impact of social online gaming frequency on the probability of meeting exclusively online friends. Different social motives played an important role for modality switching processes. Players with a pronounced motive to gain social capital and to play in a team had the highest probability to transform their social relations from online to offline context. We found that social online gamers are well integrated and use the game to spend time with old friends -- and to recruit new ones. Our results suggest that gaming-related ties might be very useful: especially modality switching between the two spheres might lead to strong ties and accordingly to additional bonding social capital.
Keywords: Social online gaming; Social embeddedness; Friendships; Social gaming motives; Modality switching
Facebook or Renren? A comparative study of social networking site use and social capital among Chinese international students in the United States BIBAKFull-Text 116-123
  Xiaoqian Li; Wenhong Chen
Social networking sites (SNSs) are important tools for college students to maintain and develop social capital. Yet, few studies on the social implications of using SNSs have focused on international students and their use of different social media platforms for social capital. This study aims to fill this gap by examining the implications of using host country and home country SNSs for social capital among Chinese international students in the United States. A survey of Chinese international students at a large public university (N = 210) reveals that both Facebook and Renren use are positively associated with bridging social capital but not with bonding social capital. Facebook use has a stronger relationship with bridging social capital than does Renren use. Yet, only Renren use has a significant and positive relationship with maintaining home country social capital. These results have practical implications for international students to develop different types of social capital through different social media platforms.
Keywords: Facebook; Renren; Social networking sites; Social capital; Chinese international students
Relational maintenance on social network sites: How Facebook communication predicts relational escalation BIBAKFull-Text 124-131
  Victoria Schwanda Sosik; Natalya N. Bazarova
Social network sites are popular communication tools that help people maintain relationships with their friends, yet there has been little research examining how people use these tools to enact relationship maintenance. By analyzing communication between individual friendships on a popular social network site, Facebook, this research examines types of maintenance behaviors enacted on the site, and how they predict relational escalation of Facebook friendships. Results show that most relationships go through a gradual rather than an extreme change and that these changes reflect both relational escalation and de-escalation. Temporal patterns -- more recent and more frequent communication -- predict relationship escalation, as does use of more different types of communication within Facebook, particularly private messages and photo tags. However, enactment of traditional relationship maintenance strategies as captured by the linguistic analysis of Facebook communication content using LIWC does not predict relationship escalation. These findings contribute to our theoretical understanding of the ways that the functionality of social network sites can help users engage in new types of relationship maintenance.
Keywords: Relationship maintenance behaviors; Relational stability and change; Social network sites; Facebook
Audience design in Twitter: Retweeting behavior between informational value and followers' interests BIBAKFull-Text 132-139
  Anja Rudat; Jürgen Buder; Friedrich W. Hesse
With the advent of Web 2.0 applications, practices of news spreading have changed. Now, not only journalists but also average Internet users are able to spread news. This paper examines criteria that influence the forwarding of information in microblogging systems such as Twitter. To test whether and how two different kinds of criteria (contextual criteria and message inherent-criteria) interact in influencing selection decisions of sharing information with others, a 2 × 2 × 2 laboratory experiment was conducted. Awareness information about one's audience (guiding vs. non-guiding), news topic (educational vs. non-educational), and informational value of the message (high vs. low) were systematically varied. It was hypothesized that participants who received guiding awareness information would show audience design (i.e., adapting communication behavior towards the audience) while disregarding informational value. In contrast, participants who received non-guiding awareness information would not show audience design, but would forward according to informational value. Results confirmed that participants indeed adapted their communication behavior to their audience's interests. However, participants still preferred messages with high informational value over messages with low informational value. Results are discussed and implications are drawn.
Keywords: Audience design; Experimental study; News value; Retweeting; Twitter; Web 2.0
Situational crisis communication and interactivity: Usage and effectiveness of Facebook for crisis management by Fortune 500 companies BIBAKFull-Text 140-147
  Eyun-Jung Ki; Elmie Nekmat
Through the lens of situational crisis communication theory (SCCT) and interactivity, this study examined the Facebook usage of Fortune 500 companies and the effectiveness with which these companies employed the platform for crisis management. Findings indicated that 'justification' and 'full apology' were the most commonly used crisis response strategies. Results also show instances where companies inappropriately match their responses to crisis situations. An analysis of 7080 messages further revealed a significant relationship between an organization's involvement in two-way communication and the overall positivity of audience tone in reaction to the organization in question and its handling of crises. Suggestions are provided for organizations intending to employ social media for crisis communication.
Keywords: Facebook; Social media; Crisis management
Sex role stereotyping is hard to kill: A field experiment measuring social responses to user characteristics and behavior in an online multiplayer first-person shooter game BIBAKFull-Text 148-156
  Adrienne Holz Ivory; Jesse Fox; T. Franklin Waddell; James D. Ivory
Sex role stereotyping by players in first-person shooter games and other online gaming environments may encourage a social environment that marginalizes and alienates female players. Consistent with the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE), the anonymity of online games may engender endorsement of group-consistent attitudes and amplification of social stereotyping, such as the adherence to gender norms predicted by expectations states theory. A 2 × 3 × 2 virtual field experiment (N = 520) in an online first-person shooter video game examined effects of a confederate players' sex, communication style, and skill on players' compliance with subsequent online friend requests. We found support for the hypothesis that, in general, women would gain more compliance with friend requests than men. We also found support for the hypothesis that women making positive utterances would gain more compliance with friend requests than women making negative utterances, whereas men making negative utterances would gain more compliance with friend requests than men making positive utterances. The hypothesis that player skill (i.e., game scores) would predict compliance with friend requests was not supported. Implications for male and female game players and computer-mediated communication in online gaming environments are discussed.
Keywords: Sex role stereotyping; Online video games; Expectation states theory; Social identity model of deindividuation effects; Computer-mediated communication
The influence of computer self-efficacy, metacognitive self-regulation and self-esteem on student engagement in online learning programs: Evidence from the virtual world of Second Life BIBAKFull-Text 157-170
  Nikolaos Pellas
While the widespread acceptance of social virtual words is being increased in the last years, little are known about how students' personal factors can affect their engagement in online learning courses. The current study proposed and empirically examined a conceptual model that aimed to fill this gap. The main purpose is to present an extensive empirical data of 305 novice or expert students (153 graduates and 152 postgraduates) who enrolled in online courses at university level which were held in Second Life. On this occasion it was tried to be investigated, measured and finally verified the effects of computer self-efficacy, metacognitive self-regulation and self-esteem that can predict the students' engagement as an overall multidimensional construct of factors (cognitive, emotional and behavioral). The results from the three-step hierarchical regression analysis revealed that computer self-efficacy, metacognitive self-regulation, and self-esteem in online courses were not only positively correlated with student's cognitive and emotional engagement factors, but were also negatively correlated with behavioral factors. Educational implications from these results can provide a more expedient and meritorious instructional quality format aimed at reinforcing users' engagement in Second Life for sequencing and pacing future-driven online courses.
Keywords: Second Life; Student's engagement; Self-efficacy; Metacognitive self-regulation; Self-esteem
The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for adolescents and young adults: Scale development and refinement BIBAKFull-Text 171-178
  Lauren A. Jelenchick; Jens Eickhoff; Dimitri A. Christakis; Richard L. Brown; Chong Zhang; Meghan Benson; Megan A. Moreno
Problematic Internet Use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n = 500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n = 214) was used to confirm the scale's reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population.
Keywords: Internet use; Problematic Internet Use; Screening; Concept mapping; Scale development; Psychometrics
Demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification BIBAKFull-Text 179-188
  Jonna Koivisto; Juho Hamari
In recent years, "gamification" has been proposed as a solution for engaging people in individually and socially sustainable behaviors, such as exercise, sustainable consumption, and education. This paper studies demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification in the context of exercise. On the basis of data gathered via an online survey (N = 195) from an exercise gamification service Fitocracy, we examine the effects of gender, age, and time using the service on social, hedonic, and utilitarian benefits and facilitating features of gamifying exercise. The results indicate that perceived enjoyment and usefulness of the gamification decline with use, suggesting that users might experience novelty effects from the service. The findings show that women report greater social benefits from the use of gamification. Further, ease of use of gamification is shown to decline with age. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Gamification; Social networking; Persuasive technology; Games for health; Gender; Demographics
The impact of disfluency, pacing, and students' need for cognition on learning with multimedia BIBAKFull-Text 189-198
  Tim Kühl; Alexander Eitel; Gregor Damnik; Hermann Körndle
In the current study, it was examined how learning with multimedia is affected by disfluency, pacing, and students' need for cognition. Contrasting hypotheses were derived regarding how reducing the audio quality of spoken text by integrating hissing (disfluent) would affect learning outcomes. According to cognitive load theory, a disfluent audio quality should hamper learning, while according to disfluency theory, a disfluent audio quality should foster learning, especially when learning is self-paced. Moreover, self-paced learning should be particularly beneficial for learners with a high need for cognition (NFC). The hypotheses were tested in a 2 × 2-design, with quality of spoken text (regular vs. disfluent) and pacing (system-paced vs. self-paced) as independent variables and NFC as continuous variable. Supporting cognitive load theory, disfluent text decreased performance in a transfer and pictorial test. There was no significant interaction between spoken text quality and pacing. However, in line with previous research, self-pacing led to longer learning times and increased performance in a retention and in a transfer test. Moreover, results revealed that self-pacing had beneficial effects on understanding particularly for learners with a high NFC. This suggests that whether self-pacing of a multimedia instruction fosters understanding depends on learners' specific cognitive prerequisites.
Keywords: Multimedia learning; Cognitive load; Disfluency; Segmenting principle; Need for cognition
Talk to me personally: Personalization of language style in computer-based learning BIBAKFull-Text 199-210
  Maria Reichelt; Frauke Kämmerer; Helmut M. Niegemann; Steffi Zander
The personalization principle is a design recommendation for computer-based learning which states that multimedia instruction using personalized language promotes learning better than those using formal language. Formal texts can be personalized by replacing impersonal articles with possessive pronouns or directly addressing learners (e.g. using the second person). The effectiveness of this recommendation has been tested primarily in high school or college student populations. Although computer-based learning is increasingly popular in continuing education settings, currently there are no empirical studies into the personalization principle. The present study investigates whether personalized material leads to positive motivational effects and increased learning outcomes for different target groups. German college students and participants in continuing education (N = 127) received either a personalized or formal version of a computer-based program concerning gestalt laws. Regardless of the target group, personalization effects were found for motivation and retention, but not for transfer. To gain further insight into how learners perceive the computer depending on language style, the think-aloud method was used. Based on these findings, already existing approaches to explain personalization effects are discussed in relation to new extracted factors (e.g. emotional aspects).
Keywords: Multimedia learning; Personalization effect; Target groups; Continuing education; Explanation approaches
From "information" to "knowing": Exploring the role of social media in contemporary news consumption BIBAKFull-Text 211-223
  Iryna Pentina; Monideepa Tarafdar
Using the conceptual lenses of information overload and sense making, this paper investigates the process of contemporary news consumption based on the qualitative content analysis of 112 interview transcripts from a diverse cross-section of US news consumers. We offer theoretical clarification of factors influencing news consumption and the role of social media in devising strategies for addressing information overload in order to facilitate news sense-making and the resulting civic knowledge formation. We provide news organizations with suggestions for appropriately designing offerings to compete in the era of new media and offer directions for future research in the domains of news, product, and brand information consumption.
Keywords: News consumption; Social media; Information overload; Sense making
Problematic Internet use in British adolescents: An exploration of the addictive symptomatology BIBAKFull-Text 224-233
  Olatz Lopez-Fernandez; M. Luisa Honrubia-Serrano; William Gibson; Mark D. Griffiths
Research into online addictions has increased substantially over the last decade, particularly amongst youth. This study adapted the Problematic Internet Entertainment Use Scale for Adolescents [PIEUSA] for use with a British population. The adapted scale was used to (i) validate the instrument for English-speaking adolescent samples, (ii) estimate the prevalence of adolescent online problem users and describe their profile, and (iii) assess the accuracy of the scale's classification of symptomatology. A survey was administered to 1097 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years. The results indicated that (i) reliability of the adapted scale was excellent; factor validity showed unidimensionality, and construct validity was adequate. The findings also indicated that (ii) prevalence of online problem users was 5.2% and that they were more likely to younger males that engaged in online gaming for more than two hours most days. The majority of online problem users displayed negative addictive symptoms, especially 'loss of control' and 'conflict'. The adapted scale showed (iii) very good sensitivity, specificity, and classification accuracy, and was able to clearly differentiate between problem and non-problem users. The results suggest certain differences between adolescent and adult online problem users based in the predominance of slightly different psychological components.
Keywords: Problematic Internet use; Internet gaming disorder; Internet addiction; Online gaming addiction; Adolescence; Symptoms
Learning from multiple representations: An examination of fixation patterns in a science simulation BIBAKFull-Text 234-242
  Paul A. O'Keefe; Susan M. Letourneau; Bruce D. Homer; Ruth N. Schwartz; Jan L. Plass
The present study examined how the integration of multiple representations in a multimedia simulation was associated with learning in high school students (N = 25). Using eye-tracking technology, we recorded fixations on different representations of the Ideal Gas Laws, as well as transitions between them, within a computer-based model that included a gas container with animated gas molecules, control sliders to adjust different gas variables, and a graph depicting the relations between the variables. As predicted, fixation transitions between conceptually related parts of the simulation were associated with different learning outcomes. Specifically, greater transition frequency between the gas container and the graph was related to better transfer, but not comprehension. In contrast, greater transition frequency between the control sliders and the graph was related to better comprehension, but not transfer. Furthermore, these learning outcomes were independent of learners' prior knowledge, as well as the frequency and duration of fixations on any individual simulation element. This research not only demonstrates the importance of employing multiple representations in multimedia learning environments, but also suggests that making conceptual connections between specific elements of those representations can have an association with the level at which the information is learned.
Keywords: Fixation patterns; Multimedia learning; Multiple representations; Simulations
Adoption of three new types of computers in Taiwan: Tablet PCs, netbooks, and smart phones BIBAKFull-Text 243-251
  Shu-Chu Sarrina Li
Tablet PCs, netbooks, and smart phones are similar to one another in that they possess the basic functions of computers, but they differ in what functions they emphasize. Rogers' diffusion of innovation model has been widely recognized as a powerful model for predicting technology adoption. This study adopted Rogers' model to examine the adoption intentions of the three new types of computers. A telephone survey was conducted to collect data. This study made 1757 telephone calls, from which 1100 valid calls were obtained, representing a response rate of 62.61%. The data analysis demonstrates that the findings are generally congruent with the predictions of Rogers' model. However, this study's results also reveal one limitation of Rogers' model, its pro-innovation bias, which explains why the diffusion of netbooks was incongruent with Rogers' model.
Keywords: Tablet PCs; Netbooks; Smart phones; Rogers' diffusion of innovation; Innovation attributes; Lifestyles
Does value matters in playing online game? An empirical study among massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) BIBAKFull-Text 252-266
  Sajad Rezaei; Seyedeh Sheyda Ghodsi
A few study examined the impact of value and aspects of behavioral intention in virtual environment. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of emotional value (VE), social value (VS), price-value for money (VP), performance-quality value (VQ) and repurchase intention (RI), willingness to pay a premium price (WTP) and word of mouth (WOM) among massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). A total of 228 valid questionnaires were collected from cybercafé customers in Klang Valley-Malaysia. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed using partial least squares (PLS) analysis to assess measurement and structural model for reflective construct. Our result reveals that there is a positive relationship between VP and RI, VQ and RI while there is no positive relationship between VE and RI, VS and RI. VE, VP and VQ value positively impact WOM but VS does not. VE and VP have positive while VQ and VS did not explain WTP. This study contributes to literature on the new phenomena of online game and is considered as few studies in examining value in Second Life setting. The practical and social implications of study are discussed along with research limitation and implication.
Keywords: PERVAL framework; Repurchase intention (RI); Willingness to pay a premium price (WTP); Word-of-mouth (WOM); Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs)
Drivers and effects of post-implementation learning on ERP usage BIBAKFull-Text 267-277
  Huey-Wen Chou; Hsiu-Hua Chang; Yu-Hsun Lin; Shyan-Bin Chou
Many organizations adopting enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are failing to achieve their anticipated business goals, the major reason being system under-utilization. It is imperative to understand the way users learn to use ERP systems effectively. This is especially important given the integrated and complex nature of the ERP system, which forces users to continually learn new skills after implementation. This study aims to explore the role played by post-implementation learning in ERP usage. Moreover, we identify social capital and post-training self-efficacy as antecedents to post-implementation learning. A survey method was employed to collect data from 659 ERP users. This study finds that post-implementation learning contributes to ERP usage, and that social capital and post-training self-efficacy are important antecedents to post-implementation learning. Our findings provide academics and practitioners with an understanding of how post-implementation learning can be manipulated to improve ERP usage.
Keywords: Post-implementation learning; Social capital; Post-training self-efficacy; ERP usage
Student acceptance of tablet devices in secondary education: A three-wave longitudinal cross-lagged case study BIBAFull-Text 278-286
  Cédric Courtois; Hannelore Montrieux; Frederik De Grove; Annelies Raes; Lieven De Marez; Tammy Schellens
As ICT is increasingly permeating all aspects of everyday life, it is apparent that education cannot leap behind. In this article we longitudinally investigate a much-debated obligatory full-scale implementation of tablet devices in a large secondary school. We adopt a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) approach to verify the dynamic nature of students' acceptance of the tablet as a learning tool at three waves of data collection, both at pre- and short and long-term post-adoption stages. The results clearly indicate the evolutionary nature of the acceptance process, challenging the adequacy of cross-sectional approaches to technology adoption. In the pre-adoption stage, attitude appears as a key uptake factor, whereas three months later, due to practical and technical constraints, the attention shifts to subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Finally, six months after introduction indicative traces of habituation appear, raising concerns on the suitability of the TPB in established post-adoption circumstances.
Do IT students prefer doctors who use IT? BIBAKFull-Text 287-294
  James R. Wolf
Several studies suggest that clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) reduce physician diagnostic errors, decrease medical costs, and improve the quality of patient care. However, despite the many potential benefits, physicians have been slow to adopt CDSSs and fail to use them when they are available. Some researchers have speculated that physicians are reluctant to adopt these diagnostic aids, in part, due to the widespread psychological bias that patients and peers feel against physicians who use them. This bias has been well documented among the general public. Many have assumed that this human-is-better attitude is limited to older and less computer savvy populations. We test this assumption with two vignette-based experiments. Our data suggest that, when it comes to physicians, even young participants with positive attitudes towards computers (i.e., IT students) have a human-is-better bias.
Keywords: Health information technology (HIT); Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs); Diagnostic aids; Human-is-better bias; Physician IS resistance
Knowledge sharing in interest online communities: A comparison of posters and lurkers BIBAKFull-Text 295-306
  Hui-Min Lai; Tsung Teng Chen
Online communities have become increasingly popular in recent years. However, despite a significant growth in the number of online communities, few have been successful in retaining members and motivating members to contribute knowledge. Few researchers have investigated the differences between posters and lurkers in terms of knowledge-sharing behavior. We propose that the driving factors of posters and lurkers are contextually different, and as such, a distinction between them is needed. By incorporating extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, as well as intra-community factors, we modeled and examined the differences in the driving factors of the two types of community members -- posters and lurkers -- and provide comparisons and discussions, thus advancing our understanding of knowledge-sharing behavior in interest communities. A multi-group analysis revealed that the poster group and the lurker group differ somewhat in the factors that motivate the knowledge-sharing intentions of the two groups. The most influential factors affecting the knowledge-sharing intentions of posters are intrinsic motivational factors (i.e., enjoyment in helping others and knowledge self-efficacy). On the other hand, the knowledge-sharing intentions of lurkers are affected by extrinsic motivational factors (i.e., reciprocity). Intra-community factors, such as perceived moderator's enthusiasm, offline activities, and enjoyability, also affect the knowledge-sharing intentions of posters and lurkers. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Online communities; Extrinsic motivation; Intrinsic motivation; Knowledge sharing; Posters; Lurkers
Extreme expression of sweating in 3D virtual human BIBAKFull-Text 307-314
  Ahmad Hoirul Basori; Ahmed Zuhair Qasim
Displaying extreme expressions such as scared until sweating is not easy task that can be accomplished in 3D games and facial animation simulation in real-time. Several difficulties faced by researches such as the complexity of simulation including physical properties of the muscles, emotions, properties of fluids and texture element. The next part is how to control the facial animation with one of the two sweating generators simultaneously. This research present techniques for generating extreme expression in 3D facial animation. The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is employed to describe and generate facial expressions. It breaks down facial actions into minor units known as Action Units (AUs). Facial expressions are generated by combining specific independent Action Units. The generated expressions cover sadness, anger, happy and fear. The first type of sweat is dropping sweat using particle system. The other type of sweat is texture based, when the sweat is stimulated the texture drop will flowing down around surface of the forehead area. The technique presented in this paper is believed able to give more realism to virtual human by providing features of extreme expression.
Keywords: 3-D modelling; Facial animation; Facial expression; Extreme expressions; Sweating
The moderating effect of gender on academic website impression BIBAKFull-Text 315-319
  Thiagarajan Ramakrishnan; Victor Prybutok; Daniel A. Peak
This study examines the moderating effect of gender differences on the relationship between website characteristics and the overall impression of two academic websites. Findings provide evidence that website quality characteristics of the website are more important to men and the website navigation characteristics are more important to women. Implications about building websites are relevant to both practitioners and academicians.
Keywords: Moderating effect; Gender; Academic website; Website characteristics
The effects of viewing violent movie via computer on aggressiveness among college students BIBAKFull-Text 320-325
  Zhang Qian; Da-Jun Zhang
Based on aggression theories and previous researches, we examined the effects of viewing violent movie via computer on aggressiveness among college students. A total of 108 (56% females) undergraduates participated in this study, with 54 distributed to violent movie group and 54 allocated to non-violent movie group. Results indicated that aggressiveness of violent movie group but not non-violent movie group is significantly strengthened. Moreover, aggressiveness of males but not females is significantly enhanced among violent movie group instead of non-violent movie group, and aggressiveness of viewers with high aggression (HA) but not low aggression (LA) is significantly enhanced among violent movie group instead of non-violent movie group. For males and viewers with HA, violent movie can significantly intensify aggressiveness, indicating that gender and aggressive level are responsible for aggressiveness among college students. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: College students; Violent movie; Aggressiveness; Computer
Explaining and predicting the adoption intention of mobile data services: A value-based approach BIBAKFull-Text 326-338
  Mutaz M. Al-Debei; Enas Al-Lozi
As mobile devices become more and more pervasive in our everyday life and their capabilities resemble more and more of those of desktop computers with the added advantage of mobility, examining intention for adoption seems relevant to consumers and mobile service providers alike. Existing research shows that despite this evolution on Mobile Data Services (MDS) development and use, the adoption of their full capabilities is yet to be realized. In this study we focus on the value consumers can potentially gain from using these services. We hypothesize that if we can examine the value that can be delivered to consumers through the use of MDS, then we can explain and predict consumers' intentions to use MDS. We also postulate that perceptions of consumers regarding the value that can be captured when using MDS is directly affected by technological, social, and informational influences. However, in this research, perceived value is used as a multidimensional construct that encapsulates utilitarian, hedonic, uniqueness, epistemic, and economic value dimensions. Our results show that utilitarian value is, according to previous studies, an important adoption factor. Additionally, economic value is also important and significant. Nevertheless, it seems that in our context, hedonic, uniqueness, and epistemic value dimensions are not as important for the use of mobile data services as utilitarian and economic value dimensions. The results of this study can be used by mobile service providers to get insights about consumers' needs and preferences in order to offer better and thus more popular services.
Keywords: Adoption intention; Mobile data services; Value dimensions; MDS; Value-based approach; Jordan
Improving learning from animated soccer scenes: Evidence for the expertise reversal effect BIBAKFull-Text 339-349
  Aïmen Khacharem; Bachir Zoudji; Ingrid A. E. Spanjers; Slava Kalyuga
In two experiments, we investigated how animation of play (soccer) should be designed in order to avoid the high cognitive load due to the fleeting nature of information. Using static pictures and altering the animation's presentation speed have been proposed as instructional strategies to reduce learners' cognitive load. In the first experiment, we tested the effect of static vs. animated presentations on learning. The results indicated that novices benefited more from the static presentation whereas experts benefited more from the animated presentation. The second experiment investigated the effect of low vs. normal vs. high levels of presentation speed on learning. The results showed that novices profited more from the low presentation speed while experts profited more from the normal and high presentation speeds. Thus both experiments demonstrated the occurrences of the expertise reversal effect. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of instructional strategies depends on levels of soccer players' expertise.
Keywords: Cognitive load theory; Instructional designs; Animations; Prior knowledge; Soccer
Understanding the perceived community value of Facebook users BIBAKFull-Text 350-358
  Maria R. Lee; David C. Yen; C. Y. Hsiao
With the growing popularity of social networking services (SNSs) such as Facebook, it has raised important interests about the perceived value implications of such usage. This study examines the usage by combining marketing and IS perspectives through an empirical survey of Facebook users. It was hypothesized that perceived value would be a key multidimensional determinant of behavioral intentions in SNSs. The study holds that the facets of social capital -- social interaction ties, trust, and shared vision -- and social network information sharing can create a perceived value (i.e., social, experiential, information, and transaction) in SNSs. Analyses conducted on results from a survey of university students (n = 402) suggest that trust, an element of the relational cluster, holds the strongest correlation with the sharing and pooling of resources by users over Facebook. Experiential value is found to be most significant, indicating that the interactions between users on Facebook occur mostly to fulfill a psychological need, such as sharing the useful information and receiving enthusiastic replies or praise. In addition, thanks to the emerging development of F-commerce, transaction value is positively affected.
Keywords: Facebook; Social capital; Perceived value; Social network services; Information sharing
Facebook's emotional consequences: Why Facebook causes a decrease in mood and why people still use it BIBAKFull-Text 359-363
  Christina Sagioglou; Tobias Greitemeyer
Facebook is the world's most popular online social network and used by more than one billion people. In three studies, we explored the hypothesis that Facebook activity negatively affects people's emotional state. A first study shows that the longer people are active on Facebook, the more negative is their mood afterwards. The second study provides causal evidence for this effect by showing that Facebook activity leads to a deterioration of mood compared to two different control conditions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that this effect is mediated by a feeling of not having done anything meaningful. With such negative outcomes for its users, the question arises as to why so many people continue to use Facebook on a daily basis. A third study suggests that this may be because people commit an affective forecasting error in that they expect to feel better after using Facebook, whereas, in fact, they feel worse.
Keywords: Facebook; Social psychology; Mood; Meaningful activity; Affective forecasting error
Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits BIBAKFull-Text 364-375
  L. D. Rosen; A. F. Lim; J. Felt; L. M. Carrier; N. A. Cheever; J. M. Lara-Ruiz; J. S. Mendoza; J. Rokkum
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill-being -- psychological issues, behavior problems, attention problems and physical health -- among children (aged 4-8), preteens (9-12), and teenagers (13-18) by having 1030 parents complete an online, anonymous survey about their own and their child's behaviors. Measures included daily technology use, daily food consumption, daily exercise, and health. Hypothesis 1, which posited that unhealthy eating would predict impaired ill-being, was partially supported, particularly for children and preteens. Hypothesis 2, which posited that reduced physical activity would predict diminished health levels, was partially supported for preteens and supported for teenagers. Hypothesis 3, that increased daily technology use would predict ill-being after factoring out eating habits and physical activity, was supported. For children and preteens, total media consumption predicted illbeing while for preteens specific technology uses, including video gaming and electronic communication, predicted ill-being. For teenagers, nearly every type of technological activity predicted poor health. Practical implications were discussed in terms of setting limits and boundaries on technology use and encouraging healthy eating and physical activity at home and at school.
Keywords: Media; Technology; Ill-being; Health; Video gaming; Screen time; Children; Preteens; Teenagers; Physical activity; Exercise; Electronic communication; Television; Obesity; Attention; Food consumption
Mobile communication for human needs: A comparison of smartphone use between the US and Korea BIBAKFull-Text 376-387
  Seok Kang; Jaemin Jung
This study deals with two studies that develop and compare a measure and model of hierarchical needs of smartphone use from US and Korean users. The first study examines the dimensionality of measure by conducting an exploratory factor analysis on 398 US and 331 Korean college students. Results identified five constructs of the smartphone basic needs (SBN) scale from the two samples: physiological, safety, belongingness, self-esteem, and self-actualization. The second study examines the relationships between the SBN and use behavior, which leads to life satisfaction. The relationship of the constructs was theoretically synthesized and tested. Results indicate that both samples believe that the smartphone fulfills the needs of safety and self-actualization that predict smartphone use and life satisfaction. Theoretical and cross-cultural implications are discussed.
Keywords: Smartphone; Hierarchical needs; Mobile communication; Deficiency needs; Growth needs
Gender differences in Facebook self-presentation: An international randomized study BIBAKFull-Text 388-399
  Sigal Tifferet; Iris Vilnai-Yavetz
Facebook is a popular social network that can be used for self-presentation. In the current study we examined gender differences in Facebook self-presentation by evaluating components of profile and cover photos. We used evolutionary psychology -- a theory which holds many assumptions regarding gender differences -- to draw hypotheses. In order to eliminate the pitfalls of self-reported data, we analyzed public data presented in Facebook pages of a random representative international sample of 500 Facebook users. As hypothesized, profile photos on Facebook differed according to gender. Males' photos accentuated status (using objects or formal clothing) and risk taking (outdoor settings), while females' photos accentuated familial relations (family photos) and emotional expression (eye contact, smile intensity and lack of sunglasses). Cover photos, however, did not show most of these gender differences, perhaps since they serve only as a supplement to the self-presentation that appears in the profile photos. These findings demonstrate that evolutionary theory rooted in the past can help us understand new social tools of the future.
Keywords: Facebook; Gender differences; Evolutionary psychology; Impression management; Images; Photo analysis
Kindergarten Social Assistive Robot (KindSAR) for children's geometric thinking and metacognitive development in preschool education: A pilot study BIBAKFull-Text 400-412
  Guy Keren; Marina Fridin
Kindergarten Social Assistive Robot (KindSAR) is an innovative tool promotes children's development through social interaction. This pilot study demonstrates how KindSAR can assist educational staff in the teaching of geometric thinking and in promoting the metacognitive development by engaging children in interactive play activities. Children's reactions and performances were video recorded for analysis. Most children exhibited positive interaction with the robot and a high level of enjoyment. Our results showed that their performances on geometric thinking and metacognitive tasks were improved while they "played" with the robot. To measure children's learning we have developed a novel measure of cognitive learning, which we call "velocity of learning". This study demonstrates the feasibility and expected benefits of incorporating KindSAR in preschool education.
Keywords: Architecture for educational technology system; Elementary education; Intelligent tutoring systems; Interactive learning environments; Interdisciplinary projects
A scenario-based approach for projecting user requirements for wireless proximal community networks BIBAKFull-Text 413-422
  Michael A. Horning; Harold R. Robinson; John M. Carroll
This study uses a scenario-based design approach to explore the implementation of software to be used on a proximal community Wi-Fi Network. A first step in any software engineering is a requirements analysis as way of identifying which stakeholders are likely to use the technology, how they will use it, and what their expectations for use might be. We implement a series of scenarios designed to test users' reactions to software that supports social, economic, and civic and cultural uses of a wireless community network in a downtown community setting. The findings suggest that economic activities have greater appeal to users in this context, than social and civic or cultural contexts. We also assess those characteristics of users that predict overall appeal of our software design. Among our findings we discover that individuals who use mobile technologies more often in interstitial spaces are more likely to find our scenarios appealing. We offer suggestions for future designs in this context.
Keywords: Scenario-based design; Wireless communications; Mobile devices; Wi-Fi Networks; Proximate community networks; Sense of community
MAM & U&G in Taiwan: Differences in the uses and gratifications of Facebook as a function of motivational reactivity BIBAKFull-Text 423-430
  Saleem Alhabash; Yi-hsuan Chiang; Kanni Huang
A cross-sectional survey of Taiwanese Facebook users (N = 3172) explored the relationship among motivational reactivity, the motivations, and intensity to use Facebook. Our findings showed differences in motivations to use Facebook as a function of motivational reactivity. Additionally, results showed that individual differences in motivational reactivity led to different patterns of relationship between motivations and intensity to use Facebook. Regression models for inactives, risk avoiders, and coactives showed that the motivation to use Facebook for entertainment was strongest in predicting intensity to use Facebook, while the model for risk takers showed that self-expression was strongest motivation to predict Facebook use intensity. Findings are discussed within the framework of uses and gratifications and other psychologically based media use and choice theories.
Keywords: Facebook; Motivational reactivity; Uses and gratifications; Motivations; Intensity to use Facebook
Affective mechanisms linking Internet use to learning performance in high school students: A moderated mediation study BIBAKFull-Text 431-443
  Li-Yueh Chen; Bo Hsiao; Ching-Chin Chern; Houn-Gee Chen
Although previous studies have concluded that Internet use can help students in learning and research, a number of empirical investigations have confirmed that Internet addiction or excessive Internet use has negative effect on students. Thus, if the Internet does not always benefit students, under which conditions can Internet use have positive effects? Since students' beliefs in their academic self-efficacy and their abilities to begin, continue, and complete their studies are as important as their academic successes and performances, this study hypothesizes that academic self-efficacy acts as a mediator for Internet use and academic performance. Based on Social cognitive theory, we argue that student academic performance will be mediated by academic self-efficacy with respect to Internet use. Two kinds of Internet use, general and professional, are considered to be antecedents of academic self-efficacy. Survey data from 212 twelfth-grade vocational high school students in Taiwan indicate that general Internet use has an indirect positive effect on student academic performance, which is also mediated through academic self-efficacy. In contrast, general Internet use has no significant direct impact on students learning performance. This study also shows that Internet anxiety moderates the relationship between academic self-efficacy and learning performance. In students with low Internet anxiety, the relationship is moderated, which results in enhanced learning performance.
Keywords: Internet use; Academic self-efficacy; Learning performance; Internet anxiety; Moderated mediation
Managing privacy boundaries together: Exploring individual and group privacy management strategies in Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 444-454
  Ralf De Wolf; Koen Willaert; Jo Pierson
Most research on privacy management within the context of social network sites (SNSs) treats users as individual owners of private information. Privacy, however, is beyond individual control and is also managed on a group level. This study applies the Communication Privacy Management theory (CPM) to explore the individual and group privacy management strategies in Facebook. We present a survey completed by 900 members of a youth organization regarding their online behaviors and membership. We found that women are more likely to employ individual privacy management strategies, while men are more likely to employ group privacy management strategies. For group privacy management, we found common bond and the role an individual is attributed within the youth organization to be the strongest predictors. The results generated from this study are a first but important step to illustrate the differences and similarities between individual and group privacy management. We argue that it is necessary to further study and understand group privacy to better approach users' privacy needs.
Keywords: Privacy; Social network sites; Communication Privacy Management theory (CPM); Facebook; Disclosure
Overcoming screen inferiority in learning and calibration BIBAKFull-Text 455-463
  Tirza Lauterman; Rakefet Ackerman
Metacognitive monitoring that accompanies a learning task reflects self-prediction of achievement at test. Well-calibrated monitoring is important because it is by this subjective assessment that people allocate their learning efforts. Previous studies that compared learning outcomes and calibration of monitoring when learning texts on screen and on paper have found screen inferiority: screen learners performed worse and were more overconfident about their success. However, learning from one's preferred medium was associated with attenuated overconfidence. The present study examined two methods for overcoming screen inferiority in these respects. First, practicing the study-test task allowed overcoming screen inferiority, but only among those who preferred reading from screens. Second, in-depth processing was encouraged by having participants generate keywords at a delay, before monitoring their knowledge and taking the test. This method eliminated screen inferiority even for the first-studied texts, but after practicing it, screen inferiority was re-exposed among those who preferred studying on paper. This study makes a practical contribution to educational practice by suggesting directions for overcoming screen inferiority. From a broader perspective, the study demonstrates that experience with the task and in-depth processing can attenuate overconfidence and that the effectiveness of learning-enhancing methods depends on the study context and learners' preferences.
Keywords: Reading comprehension; E-learning; Human-computer interaction; Metacognitive monitoring; Metacomprehension; Overconfidence
Antecedents of the adoption of the new mobile payment systems: The moderating effect of age BIBAKFull-Text 464-478
  Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas; Juan Sánchez-Fernández; Francisco Muñoz-Leiva
The purpose of this study was to propose and test an integrative theoretical model that allows one to determine the relative importance of certain factors (i.e. external influences, ease of use, attitude, usefulness, trust, risk) for the adoption of a new mobile payment system advertised on new electronic environments, as well as to analyze the eventual moderating effect of the age of the consumer in the use of this tool. The empirical results show that the proposed behavioral model was appropriately adjusted, thus proving that the age of the user introduces significant differences in the proposed relationships between influences from third parties and ease of use of the payment system, between the perceived trust in the system and its ease of use, as well as between trust and a favorable attitude towards its use.
Keywords: Mobile payment acceptance model; Technology acceptance; M-commerce; Moderating effect of age
To connect or promote?: An exploratory examination of Facebook pages dedicated to moms BIBAKFull-Text 479-482
  Renee Kaufmann; Marjorie M. Buckner
Mothers are increasingly using Facebook for a variety of communication functions. As an initial step toward understanding how mothers use Facebook, this exploratory study examines the types of messages mothers receive from Facebook pages solely designated for them. Using a content analysis, twelve Facebook pages and 526 administrators' posts were analyzed. The majority of pages identified purpose as conversational/ discussion starter, while the majority of administrators' posts were coded as informational/promotional. The discrepancies between the pages' and posts' purpose are considered. Directions for extending the research examining mothers and social networking sites are also suggested.
Keywords: Facebook pages; Mothers; Online communication; Purpose
Ignore your partners' current Facebook friends; beware the ones they add! BIBAKFull-Text 483-488
  Michelle Drouin; Daniel A. Miller; Jayson L. Dibble
In this study, we examined two behaviors that could evoke Facebook jealousy and cause relationship problems among romantic partners: (1) Facebook solicitation behaviors (i.e., making or accepting friend requests with romantic interests) while in the current relationship, and (2) having romantic interests on existing Facebook friends lists. In our sample of 148 undergraduates, those who had lower commitment to their partners were more likely to make and accept Facebook friend requests with romantic interests during their relationship. However, commitment was unrelated to the number of romantic alternatives contained on one's Facebook friends list or the frequency of Facebook solicitation while single. Additionally, attachment anxiety predicted Facebook solicitation behaviors, but this relationship was mediated by Facebook jealousy. Our findings confirm that Facebook is used to solicit connections with romantic interests both while single and during committed relationships; however, it is only those connections that are made during the relationship that are markers of lower commitment. Moreover, our study adds to a growing body of research that connects face-to-face relationship theories to the virtual environment.
Keywords: Social networking; Commitment; Facebook jealousy; Facebook solicitation; Attachment; Facebook friends
Does social network site use matter for mothers? Implications for bonding and bridging capital BIBAKFull-Text 489-495
  Juyoung Jang; Jodi Dworkin
Utilizing a national sample of mothers, we explored the impact of attitudes toward technology and comfort with technology on frequency of social network site use and number of social network site activities. We then extended that model to consider the implications of social network site use on bonding and bridging social capital. Path analysis revealed that mothers' age impacted their comfort with technology which was associated with their number of social network site activities. Frequency of social network site use was positively related to mothers' reports of bonding social capital. The number of social network site activities, on the other hand, was positively related to both bonding and bridging social capital. These associations varied by child age. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Parenting; Mothers; Social network sites; Social capital; Comfort with technology
"It's Not Who You Know, but Who You Add:" An investigation into the differential impact of friend adding and self-disclosure on interpersonal perceptions on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 496-505
  Anthony M. Limperos; Daniel J. Tamul; Julia K. Woolley; John S. W. Spinda; S. Shyam Sundar
This research seeks to understand how people perceive and respond to structural factors and different types of disclosure on Facebook when evaluating the profile of someone they have never met offline. Using a 2 × 3 × 2 between-subjects experimental design, this research explored the relationship between friend adding (add; no add), levels of self-disclosure (low, medium, high), and sex of the Facebook profile owner (male; female) on feelings of interpersonal liking, future behavioral intentions to interact, and homophily. Results indicated that friend adding and higher levels of self-disclosure led to greater feelings of interpersonal liking and homophily amongst both male and female participants. In addition, males tended to view other male profiles with moderate amounts of disclosure and female profiles with the highest amount of disclosure most favorably. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Social networking; Facebook; Technological affordances; Interpersonal perceptions; Relationships
Common voice: Analysis of behavior modification and content convergence in a popular online community BIBAFull-Text 506-515
  Jude P. Mikal; Ronald E. Rice; Robert G. Kent; Bert N. Uchino
This study analyzes images and associated commentary from an online image-sharing community (www.imgur.com). We hypothesize that, in the presence of overt communication of social rules, site content will reflect a somewhat consistent, content convergence irrespective of who comments, given that an individual's social identity, rather than their individual identity, will dominate their online interactions. We began with a random sample of 5000 images, and we grouped those images into six categories. We then randomly selected 10 images from each category, and conducted a close qualitative analysis of the micro-comments submitted in response to those images. Our results suggest that there is an overt communication of behavioral standards through explicit behavior correction by other site members. Content convergence can also be observed both in responses to a single image, and more broadly in comment similarity across images and even categories. Cultural norms and resulting content convergence suggests that individuals may come to see themselves as representatives of the site when they post -- and may modify their behavior accordingly. This may lead to the perception that a common voice appears throughout the site, which may have implications for the communication of social support over the Internet, and for more quantitative analyses.
Examining the impact of computer-mediated social networks on individual consumerism environmental behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 516-526
  Richelle L. Oakley; A. F. Salam
Researchers have begun to examine the impact that information technology (IT) can have on the environmental behavior of individuals, organizations, environments and markets. Computer-mediated social networks (CMSNs) create a multi-nodal social environment where individual behavior is virtually impacted, and subsequently, physically modified. Human-computer interaction researchers have begun to study the impact that IT has on environmental sustainability. Interest has arisen around the influence on non-verbal cues in impacting social norms and encouraging consistent environmentally conscious behavior. Extant research has not yet considered the social interactions that occur within a CMSN and how such interaction might further facilitate the adoption of environmental behaviors. Using survey results of 234 individuals, this study examines the impact that CMSNs have on environmental consumerism, where individuals purchasing and consumption habits take one's environmental impact into consideration.
Keywords: Sustainability; Computer-mediated social networks; Environmental consumerism
Relational dialectics and social networking sites: The role of Facebook in romantic relationship escalation, maintenance, conflict, and dissolution BIBAKFull-Text 527-534
  Jesse Fox; Jeremy L. Osborn; Katie M. Warber
Due to their prevalence and unique affordances, social networking sites such as Facebook have the potential to influence offline relationships. This study employed Baxter's (2011) refinement of relational dialectics theory to explore Facebook's role in emerging adults' romantic relationships. Data from ten focus groups revealed that Facebook contributes to and provides a forum for discursive struggles related to the integration-separation, expression-privacy, and stability-change dialectics. Romantic partners are able to connect with each other and integrate their social networks on Facebook, but some struggle to maintain privacy and independence. As such, SNSs can be a site of and trigger for romantic conflict. Participants' responses indicated that Facebook is interwoven with the experience of these dialectics due to its affordances, specifically the semi-public nature of relationship activities on Facebook and the shift in control over relational information from individuals to network members.
Keywords: Relational dialectics theory; Social networking sites; Romantic relationships; Facebook; Uncertainty reduction; Relationship dissolution
Private flirts, public friends: Understanding romantic jealousy responses to an ambiguous social network site message as a function of message access exclusivity BIBAKFull-Text 535-541
  Elizabeth L. Cohen; Nicholas D. Bowman; Katherine Borchert
Research indicates that social network site use can amplify romantic jealousy, but studies have yet to identify the causes a for these reactions. An experiment was conducted to examine how message exclusivity affects jealousy responses to a hypothetical scenario. A total of 191 undergraduates were randomly assigned to imagine their potential emotional and behavioral responses to an ambiguous message given by their partner to a romantic rival, either in a private Facebook message (high exclusivity) or posted publicly as a message on the rival's Facebook wall (low exclusivity). Those participants reading about high exclusivity messages reported more negative emotion and were more likely to imagine being confrontational. Threat perception and negative emotion both predicted confrontational behavior. There was an indirect effect of message access exclusivity on threat perception through negative emotion; there was no direct association between exclusivity and threat perception. This research has implications for the study of message processing on social network sites and the conceptualization of masspersonal communication.
Keywords: Social network site; Facebook; Jealousy; Emotion; Mass personal communication
"Love the Way You Lie": Sexting deception in romantic relationships BIBAKFull-Text 542-547
  Michelle Drouin; Elizabeth Tobin; Kara Wygant
In this study, we examined the prevalence of lying during sexting in a sample of 155 young adult college students. More than one third (37%) of those who had ever had a committed relationship and approximately half (48%) of active sexters (i.e., those who had ever sent a sexual text message) had lied to their committed partners during sexting about what they were wearing, doing, or both. Most people (67%) lied to serve their partner in some way (e.g., make it better for their partner) but some (33%) lied to serve themselves (e.g., they were bored). Additionally, lying during sexting was much more common among women than men: 45% of women and 24% of men had lied during sexting with committed partners. When attachment characteristics were considered, attachment avoidance predicted lying during sexting among active sexters, even after controlling for gender. Therefore, lying during sexting, just like pretending orgasm in a face-to-face context, is more likely to occur among those with insecure attachments to relationship partners. We discuss the similarities and differences between sexual deception in face-to-face and CMC contexts and propose future directions for this research.
Keywords: Sexting; Deception; Attachment; Gender; Computer-mediated communication
Social media as a vector for youth violence: A review of the literature BIBAKFull-Text 548-553
  Desmond Upton Patton; Jun Sung Hong; Megan Ranney; Sadiq Patel; Caitlin Kelley; Rob Eschmann; Tyreasa Washington
Homicide is the second leading cause of death for young people, and exposure to violence has a negative impact on youth mental health, academic performance, and relationships. We demonstrate that youth violence, including bullying, gang violence, and self-directed violence, increasingly occurs in the online space. We review the literature on violence and online social media, and show that while some forms of online violence are limited to Internet-based interactions, others are directly related to face-to-face acts of violence. Central to our purpose is uncovering the real-world consequences of these online events, and using this information to design effective prevention and intervention strategies. We discuss several limitations of the existing literature, including inconsistent definitions for some forms of online violence, and an overreliance on descriptive data. Finally, we acknowledge the constantly evolving landscape of online social media, and discuss implications for the future of social media and youth violence research.
Keywords: Youth violence; Social media; Gang violence; Cyber-suicide; Electronic dating aggression
Expressions of risk awareness and concern through Twitter: On the utility of using the medium as an indication of audience needs BIBAKFull-Text 554-559
  Kenneth A. Lachlan; Patric R. Spence; Xialing Lin
Twitter is increasingly gaining momentum as a trusted source for news and information. A significant body of research suggests that during crises and emergencies, people rely on the medium for timely updates and real time information. Simultaneously, Twitter content may be a useful tool for identifying specific audience needs and concerns. The current study quantitatively analyzed tweets related to Hurricane Sandy in the days leading up to landfall. Areas examined include expressions of risk awareness and concern, and the ways in which these statements differ across age, sex, ethnicity, and language group. The findings are discussed in terms of the ways in which emergency managers may be able to use the systematic analysis of Twitter content in identifying audience needs.
Keywords: Twitter; Social media; Emergency management; Risk communication; Crisis communication
The potential for social media use in K-12 physical and health education BIBAKFull-Text 560-564
  Matt J. Vollum
This paper did a review of the literature on social interaction in education, social media and social interaction, and the use of social media in personal/community health and physical education programs in order to set a research agenda for the use of social media in K-12 physical and health education. The findings were that social interaction can positively impact education and that social media can enhance the social interaction in the educational setting. It also showed how current health/wellness programs outside of the K-12 system are already using social media. There is a need for research on social media in K-12 settings in order to find if it can have an impact in creating healthy and informed decision makers in K-12 physical and health education.
Keywords: Social media; Pedagogy; Physical education; Health education; Online education; Social interaction
Institutional boundaries and trust of virtual teams in collaborative design: An experimental study in a virtual world environment BIBAKFull-Text 565-577
  Shu Z. Schiller; Brian E. Mennecke; Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah; Andy Luse
Members of virtual teams often collaborate within and across institutional boundaries. This research investigates the effects of boundary spanning conditions on the development of team trust and team satisfaction. Two hundred and eighty-two participants carried out a collaborative design task over several weeks in a virtual world, Second Life. Multigroup structural equation modeling was used to examine our research model, which compares individual level measurement between two boundary spanning team conditions. The results indicate that trusting beliefs have a positive impact on team trust, which in turn, influences team satisfaction. Further, we found that, compared to cross-boundary teams, within-boundary teams exhibited not only higher trusting beliefs and higher satisfaction with the collaboration process but also a stronger relationship between team trust and team satisfaction. These results suggest that trust and group theories need to be interpreted in light of institutional affiliation and contextual variables. An important practical implication is that trust can be fostered in a virtual world environment and collaboration on complex tasks can be carried out effectively in virtual worlds. However, within-boundary virtual teams are preferred over cross-boundary virtual teams if satisfaction with the collaboration process is of the highest priority.
Keywords: Trust; Satisfaction; Virtual team; Boundary spanning; Virtual world
Understanding the users' continuous adoption of 3D social virtual world in China: A comparative case study BIBAKFull-Text 578-585
  Xi Zhang; Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos; Xiaojiong Wang; Weiguang Wang; Yongqiang Sun; Jinghuai She
Internet-based 3D social virtual world (SVW) is a special social media with 3D interface, open-ended, immersive, and collaborative nature, which has attracted interest among researchers and practitioners alike. This Chinese 3D SVW market developed for nearly 8 years, from 2005 to 2013. After the initiation stage (05-09), some new tendencies occurred in the maintenance stage (09-13). Some local SVWs (e.g., HiPiHi) held advantages in attracting users in the early stage but failed in the maintenance stage, but other companies (e.g., Uworld) attracted users' continuous adoption and commitment in long-term competition. Based on customer commitment theory and diffusion of innovation theory, we established a theoretical framework to explain how virtual world strategies impact on short-term and long-term customer commitment. Based on qualitative data (e.g., longitude observation and third-party report), this research compares two major competitors' strategies in Chinese virtual world market (i.e., HiPiHi and Uworld), and analyzes how their strategies succeeded or failed to attract users' long-term commitment. The findings suggest there is a "S-curve" for adoption rate of SVW users, and there is a "critical timeframe" for persuading users' continuous adoptions. Social virtual worlds should try to encourage users to reduce personalization and learning cost in the short-term, after which they can then change the "vicious circle" to "virtuous circle."
Keywords: Social virtual world market; China; Users' continuous adoption; Commitment theory; Comparative case study
Corrigendum to "Why smartphone advertising attracts customers: A model of Web advertising, flow, and personalization" [Comput. Hum. Behav. 33 (2014) 256-269] BIBFull-Text 586
  Yoo Jung Kim; JinYoung Han