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INT Tables of Contents: 09-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-415-115-215-315-4

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'15: Human-Computer Interaction, Part I 2015-09-14

Fullname:INTERACT 2015: 15th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part I
Editors:Julio Abascal; Simone Barbosa; Mirko Fetter; Tom Gross; Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler
Location:Bamberg, Germany
Dates:2015-Sep-14 to 2015-Sep-18
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9296
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-22701-6 hcibib: INT15-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-22700-9 (print), 978-3-319-22701-6 (online)
Papers:41
Pages:584
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'15: Human-Computer Interaction, Part II 2015-09-14

Fullname:INTERACT 2015: 15th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II
Editors:Julio Abascal; Simone Barbosa; Mirko Fetter; Tom Gross; Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler
Location:Bamberg, Germany
Dates:2015-Sep-14 to 2015-Sep-18
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9297
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-22668-2 hcibib: INT15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-22667-5 (print), 978-3-319-22668-2 (online)
Papers:47
Pages:636
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'15: Human-Computer Interaction, Part III 2015-09-14

Fullname:INTERACT 2015: 15th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III
Editors:Julio Abascal; Simone Barbosa; Mirko Fetter; Tom Gross; Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler
Location:Bamberg, Germany
Dates:2015-Sep-14 to 2015-Sep-18
Volume:3
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9298
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-22698-9 hcibib: INT15-3; ISBN: 978-3-319-22697-2 (print), 978-3-319-22698-9 (online)
Papers:43
Pages:638
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'15: Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV 2015-09-14

Fullname:INTERACT 2015: 15th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV
Editors:Julio Abascal; Simone Barbosa; Mirko Fetter; Tom Gross; Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler
Location:Bamberg, Germany
Dates:2015-Sep-14 to 2015-Sep-18
Volume:4
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9299
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-22723-8 hcibib: INT15-4; ISBN: 978-3-319-22722-1 (print), 978-3-319-22723-8 (online)
Papers:98
Pages:686
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. INT 2015-09-14 Volume 1
    1. Accessibility
    2. Accessible Interfaces for Blind People
    3. Accessible Interfaces for Older Adults
    4. Affective HCI and Emotions and Motivational Aspects
    5. Alternative Input
    6. Alternative Input Devices for People with Disabilities
    7. Interfaces for Cognitive Support
    8. Brain-Computer Interaction
    9. Cognitive Factors
  2. INT 2015-09-14 Volume 2
    1. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing
    2. End-User Development
    3. Evaluation Methods/Usability Evaluation
    4. Eye Tracking
    5. Gesture Interaction
    6. HCI and Security
    7. HCI for Developing Regions and Social Development
    8. HCI for Education
    9. HCI for Education: Empowered Children's Robotic Product Ideas
    10. HCI for Education
  3. INT 2015-09-14 Volume 3
    1. HCI for Global Software Development
    2. HCI in Healthcare
    3. HCI Studies
    4. Human-Robot Interaction
    5. Interactive Tabletops
    6. Mobile and Ubiquitous Interaction
    7. Multi-screen Visualization and Large Screens
    8. Participatory Design
    9. Pointing and Gesture Interaction
    10. Social Interaction
  4. INT 2015-09-14 Volume 4
    1. Tangible and Tactile Interaction
    2. Tools for Design
    3. Touch and Haptic
    4. User and Task Modelling
    5. Visualization
    6. Visualization 3D
    7. Visualization in Virtual Spaces
    8. Wearable Computing
    9. Demonstrations
    10. Interactive Posters
    11. Organizational Overview
    12. Panels
    13. Tutorials
    14. Workshops

INT 2015-09-14 Volume 1

Accessibility

Assisted Interaction Data Analysis of Web-Based User Studies BIBAKFull-Text 1-19
  Xabier Valencia; J. Eduardo Pérez; Unai Muñoz; Myriam Arrue; Julio Abascal
User behaviour analysis requires defining experimental sessions with numerous participants. In this context, the specification of experiments is a demanding task, as several issues have to be considered such as the type of experiment, the type and number of tasks, the definition of questionnaires and the user interaction data to be gathered. The analysis of collected data is also complex and often requires repeatedly examining recorded interaction videos. In order to deal with these tasks, we present a platform called RemoTest which assists researchers to specify and conduct experimental sessions as well as to gather and analyse the interaction data. This platform has been applied to define different formal user studies on the web and has assisted researchers in detecting the main interaction characteristics of different user profiles and settings.
Keywords: Web accessibility; User testing; User behaviour; Accessibility in use
Technology Acceptance Evaluation by Deaf Students Considering the Inclusive Education Context BIBAKFull-Text 20-37
  Soraia Silva Prietch; Lucia Vilela Leite Filgueiras
As a consequence of the National Policy on Special Education on the Perspective of Inclusive Education in Brazil, established in 2007, mainstream schools have begun receiving a greater number of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students that previously attended specialized schools. However, data point to the declining number of D/HH students enrolled from primary school to secondary school; i.e., there are reasons to believe that educational barriers are imposed on the means these students have of conquering a complete education. In this context, the goal of this work is to propose a technology acceptance model that takes into account constructs that involve aspects of the inclusive education context, as well as performing a pilot test on the interaction of 16 D/HH users with a mobile application, called SESSAI, to evaluate the model. SESSAI consists of a technology-mediated form of communication, which allows hearing persons and D/HH individuals to interact through an automatic recognition system. Among the constructs of the model, one of them refers to the potential educational barriers experienced by D/HH students in inclusive classrooms. With regard to research methodology, the study was developed in cycles of literature review and conduction of tests. The proposed model has shown positive results in capturing factors that influence technology acceptance given the domain specific context, since they incorporate aspects of pragmatic quality and hedonic quality (emotional user experience), and also considers issues related to perceived usefulness in minimizing potential educational barriers, future expectations, and facilitating conditions. We conclude that the model encompasses both users' personal motivation and context of use aspects, and it can be used for the purpose for which it was proposed. Further investigations need to be conducted in order to adjust the model questionnaire and to recruit a broader number of participants.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Technology-mediated communication; Country specific developments; Human-computer interaction; Media in education
Understanding Touch and Motion Gestures for Blind People on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 38-46
  Marco Romano; Andrea Bellucci; Ignacio Aedo
Considering users preferences and behaviour is a necessity to develop accessible interaction for blind people. Mainstream mobile devices are widely used by people with disabilities but, despite the growing interest of the research community around accessibility issues of touch interfaces, there is still much to understand about how best to design the interaction of blind people with mobile technologies. To this end, we conducted a preliminary elicitation study (8 participants) to understand how blind people perform touch and motion gestures for common tasks on a mobile phone. We found that blind people do not use motion gestures. We provide a discussion of our results according to the type of gestures performed.
Keywords: User-defined; Gestures; Blind; Accessibility; Touch screens
Virtual Buttons for Eyes-Free Interaction: A Study BIBAKFull-Text 47-54
  Jens Bauer; Achim Ebert
The touch screen of mobile devices, such as smart phones and tablets, is their primary input mechanism. While designed to be used in conjunction with its output capabilities, eyes-free interaction is also possible and useful on touch screens. One of the several possible techniques for eyes-free interaction is the virtual button method, where the screen is divided into a regular grid of buttons that can be pressed even without looking at the screen.
   This paper contains an exploratory study about influence factors on this interaction method. Results indicate, that not only the size of the buttons matter, but also the device orientation and user dependent factors, such as the age or general experience with touch screens. By involving small children in the evaluation we can see the validity of this approach even for the youngest users.
Keywords: Eyes-free; Evaluation; Virtual buttons; Mobile devices

Accessible Interfaces for Blind People

Comparing Concurrent and Retrospective Verbal Protocols for Blind and Sighted Users BIBAKFull-Text 55-71
  Andreas Savva; Helen Petrie; Christopher Power
Verbal protocols are widely used in user studies for evaluating websites. This study investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of concurrent and retrospective verbal protocols (CVP and RVP) for both blind and sighted participants, as well as participant workload and attitudes towards these methods. Eight blind and eight sighted participants undertook both protocols in a website evaluation. RVP was more effective as measured by problems encountered for both groups, although it was no more efficient than CVP. The severity of problems identified by both protocols was equivalent. As measured on the NASA TLX, participants found RVP found more demanding than CVP. Sighted participants found rating problems during CVP more disruptive than blind participants. These results show that RVP is a more useful protocol for practitioners and researchers even though it takes more time and is more demanding for participants. It is equally applicable for both blind and sighted participants.
Keywords: User evaluation; Think aloud protocol; Concurrent verbal protocol; Retrospective verbal protocol; Web accessibility; Web usability; Blind users
Exploring Map Orientation with Interactive Audio-Tactile Maps BIBAKFull-Text 72-79
  Alistair D. N. Edwards; Nazatul Naquiah Abd Hamid; Helen Petrie
Multi-modal interactive maps can provide a useful aid to navigation for blind people. We have been experimenting with such maps that present information in a tactile and auditory (speech) form, but with the novel feature that the map's orientation is tracked. This means that the map can be explored in a more ego-centric manner, as favoured by blind people. Results are encouraging, in that scores in an orientation task are better with the use of map rotation.
Keywords: Multi-modal maps; Blind people; Tactile; Speech; Rotation
Inclusive Production of Tactile Graphics BIBAKFull-Text 80-88
  Jens Bornschein; Denise Prescher; Gerhard Weber
In this article a collaborative workstation for creating audio-tactile graphics is presented. The system is based on a common open source office suite and supports a transcriber for tactile graphics with several tools. In addition the system allows a blind reviewer to get involved at every stage of the creation process. This is achieved through a refreshable two-dimensional tactile display. The blind participant can independently manipulate graphical objects and make annotations in parallel. As a result, a tandem team of a sighted graphic creator and a blind partner may create a tactile graphic with better quality.
Keywords: Tactile graphics; Blind users; Collaboration; Pin-matrix device
Navigation Problems in Blind-to-Blind Pedestrians Tele-assistance Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 89-109
  Jan Balata; Zdenek Mikovec; Ivo Maly
We raise a question whether it is possible to build a large-scale navigation system for blind pedestrians where a blind person navigates another blind person remotely by mobile phone. We have conducted an experiment, in which we observed blind people navigating each other in a city center in 19 sessions. We focused on problems in the navigator's attempts to direct the traveler to the destination. We observed 96 problems in total, classified them on the basis of the type of navigator or traveler activity and according to the location in which the problem occurred. Most of the problems occurred during the activities performed by the navigator. We extracted a set of guidelines based on analysis of navigation problems and successful navigation strategies. We have partially mapped the problem of tele-assistance navigation to POMDP based dialogue system.
Keywords: Visually impaired; Navigation; Tele-assistance; User study

Accessible Interfaces for Older Adults

Prototyping TV and Tablet Facebook Interfaces for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 110-128
  José Coelho; Fábio Rito; Nuno Luz; Carlos Duarte
With the daily problem of social isolation comes an aggravation of older adults' general health. Social Network Services like Facebook have the potential to ameliorate the social connectivity of this segment of the population. However, they are still not fully adopted by them, whether because of age-related limitations or the lack of appropriate technological skills. In this paper we argue that the development of SNSs based on technology already used by older adults, like Television, or technology which has proven to be more accessible to them, like Tablets, can improve the ability of older adults to use these systems. We report findings from a study composed of semi-structured interviews and focus groups which aimed at the development of two Facebook-based prototypes for TV and Tablet. Results show good receptiveness from older adults to perform social tasks on TV and Tablet-based applications, for interacting using alternative modalities like speech, or back-of-device tapping, and for the use of adaptation mechanisms. Informed by the study results the main contributions are the two prototypes, and a collection of recommendations regarding the design of TV and tablet based interfaces for this population.
Keywords: Facebook; Older adults; Social isolation; Tablet; Television; Semi-structured interviews; Focus groups; Participatory design; Prototyping
Socially Networked or Isolated? Differentiating Older Adults and the Role of Tablets and Television BIBAKFull-Text 129-146
  José Coelho; Carlos Duarte
Population is aging. With it comes social isolation which leads to drastic health degrading situations. Facebook has the potential to assist older adults in maintaining relationships. Still problems like unclear purposes, design complexity and privacy issues have contributed to a lower uptake. We conducted a study to understand how to draw Facebook closer to older adults, investigate the main difficulties and motivations towards its use and adoption, and inquire about the possibilities of using Tablet and Television as alternatives to the traditional PC for accessing this kind of services. Findings show correlations between self-belief in technical skills, motor limitations, and tablet use and the use of Facebook. It also shows that the complexity of Facebook's user interface limits its use by the older adults that use it and works as a barrier for its adoption by the seniors who still don't. We also identified distinct groups and distinct feelings about the use of Television as a vehicle for social interaction. We derived a set of recommendations to consider when designing solutions for tackling social isolation.
Keywords: Facebook; Older adults; Social isolation; Tablet; Television; Questionnaire
Using Photo Diaries to Elicit User Requirements from Older Adults: A Case Study on Mobility Barriers BIBAKFull-Text 147-164
  David Swallow; Helen Petrie; Christopher Power; Alistair D. N. Edwards
Older adults encounter numerous barriers to mobility, many of which are in the built environment. Technological solutions may enable them to mitigate these barriers and promote physical activity. To design appropriate technological solutions, it is crucial to understand the specific barriers to mobility older adults face from their perspectives. Photo diary studies allow older adults to autonomously document their experiences to support generation of user needs and requirements. We investigate the methodological appropriateness of photo diaries for exploring experiences of older adults and eliciting their requirements for new technologies. A photo diary study was conducted with 26 older adults, who were given disposable cameras to document things that affect their mobility. As well as presenting a selection of the mobility barriers identified in this study, the paper outlines a number of methodological issues relating to the use of photo diaries for eliciting the needs and requirements of older adults.
Keywords: Photo diaries; User study; Participatory design; Older adults; Mobility barriers; Built environment

Affective HCI and Emotions and Motivational Aspects

Design Criteria for Stimulating Emotions in Web Applications BIBAKFull-Text 165-182
  Giulio Mori; Fabio Paternò; Ferdinando Furci
This work aims to identify the main aspects of Web design responsible for eliciting specific emotions. For this purpose, we performed a user study with 40 participants testing a Web application designed by applying a set of criteria for stimulating various emotions. In particular, we considered six emotions (hate, anxiety, boredom, fun, serenity, love), and for each of them a specific set of design criteria was exploited. The purpose of the study was to reach a better understanding regarding what design techniques are most important to stimulate each emotion. We report on the results obtained and discuss their implications. Such results can inform the development of guidelines for Web applications able to stimulate users' emotions.
Keywords: Web guidelines; Emotions; Affective interfaces; Adaptable interfaces
Emotion Detection in Non-native English Speakers' Text-Only Messages by Native and Non-native Speakers BIBAKFull-Text 183-200
  Ari Hautasaari; Naomi Yamashita
When people from different language backgrounds communicate, they need to adopt a common shared language, such as English, to set up the conversation. In conversations conducted over text-only computer-mediated communication (CMC) mediums, mutual exchange of socio-emotional information is limited to the use of words, symbols and emoticons. Previous research suggests that when message receivers share the same native language with the authors, they are more accurate at detecting the emotional valence of messages based on these cues compared to non-native speaking receivers. But is this still true when the messages are written by non-native speakers? Moreover, what message properties influence the accuracy of emotional valence detection? In this paper, we report on an experiment where native English speakers and Japanese non-native English speakers rate the emotional valence of text-only messages written by Japanese non-native English speaking authors. We analyze how three message properties, grammatical correctness, fluency of language and use of symbols and emoticons, influence emotional valence detection for native and non-native speakers. Based on our results, we propose theoretical and practical implications for supporting multilingual socio-emotional communication in text-only CMC.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Text-only message; Non-native speaker; Emotion detection
Making Decisions About Digital Legacy with Google's Inactive Account Manager BIBAKFull-Text 201-209
  Raquel O. Prates; Mary Beth Rosson; Clarisse S. de Souza
As information systems become more integrated into everyday use, people generate and store significant data through their lifetimes. Only recently have researchers and companies started to pay attention to digital legacy issues. Google has been one of the first companies to support users in planning the future of their digital assets through Google Inactive Account Manager (IAM). In this work, we present a systematic analysis of IAM and discuss how it structures users' digital legacy decision space and deals with challenges regarding future impact of these decisions.
Keywords: Digital legacy; Anticipation; Configuration settings; Future impact
Shedding Lights on Human Values: An Approach to Engage Families with Energy Conservation BIBAFull-Text 210-218
  Janine Huizenga; Lara S. G. Piccolo; Meia Wippoo; Christoph Meili; Andrew Bullen
Changing behaviour related to energy conservation is not an emotionally neutral task. People have to deal with individual and group interests, contextual constraints, eventually trading-off between their values and effective actions in terms of savings. This paper presents a set of dynamics and artefacts for families to raise and share their energy awareness, and transform it into sustainable behaviour. This method based on human values was applied with 7 families to identify critical factors that must be in play when promoting energy conservation within a social group. Preliminary results confirmed that bringing families' values into discussion and establishing shared commitments and responsibilities are promising approaches for technology design with the purpose to raise awareness collectively and promote effective changes in behaviour towards protecting the natural environment.
Gamification of Online Surveys: Design Process, Case Study, and Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 219-236
  Johannes Harms; Stefan Biegler; Christoph Wimmer; Karin Kappel; Thomas Grechenig
Online surveys are an important means of data collection in marketing and research, but conventional survey designs are often perceived as dull and unengaging, resulting in negative respondent behavior. Gamification has been proposed to make online surveys more pleasant to fill and, consequently, to improve the quality of survey results. This work applied gamification to an existing survey targeted at teenagers and young adults. The gamified survey was evaluated in a study with 60 participants regarding the psychological and behavioral outcomes of gamification. Results indicate that gamification successfully increased the users' perceived fun, the average time spent, as well as their willingness to use and recommend the survey, without introducing a strong bias in survey results, albeit with a lower overall response rate.
Keywords: Gamification; Online surveys; Questionnaires; Evaluation
Mind the Gap! Comparing Retrospective and Concurrent Ratings of Emotion in User Experience Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 237-254
  Anders Bruun; Simon Ahm
User experience (UX) is typically measured retrospectively through subjective questionnaire ratings, yet we know little of how well these retrospective ratings reflect concurrent experiences of an entire event. UX entails a broad range of dimensions of which human emotion is considered to be crucial. This paper presents an empirical study of the discrepancy between concurrent and retrospective ratings of emotions. We induced two experimental conditions of varying pleasantness. Findings show the existence of a significant discrepancy between retrospective and concurrent ratings of emotions. In the most unpleasant condition we found retrospective ratings to be significantly overestimated compared to concurrent ratings. In the most pleasant condition we found retrospective ratings to correlate with the highest and final peaks of emotional arousal. This indicates that we cannot always rely on typical retrospective UX assessments to reflect concurrent experiences. Consequently, we discuss alternative methods of assessing UX, which have considerable implications for practice.
Keywords: User experience; Emotion; Memory-experience gap; Peak-end rule
Recognizing Emotions in Human Computer Interaction: Studying Stress Using Skin Conductance BIBAKFull-Text 255-262
  Alexandros Liapis; Christos Katsanos; Dimitris Sotiropoulos; Michalis Xenos; Nikos Karousos
This paper reports an experiment for stress recognition in human-computer interaction. Thirty-one healthy participants performed five stressful HCI tasks and their skin conductance signals were monitored. The selected tasks were most frequently listed as stressful by 15 typical computer users who were involved in pre-experiment interviews asking them to identify stressful cases of computer interaction. The collected skin conductance signals were analyzed using seven popular machine learning classifiers. The best stress recognition accuracy was achieved by the cubic support vector machine classifier both per task (on average 90.8%) and for all tasks (Mean=98.8%, SD=0.6%). This very high accuracy demonstrates the potentials of using physiological signals for stress recognition in the context of typical HCI tasks. In addition, the results allow us to move on a first integration of the specific stress recognition mechanism in PhysiOBS, a previously-proposed software tool that supports researchers and practitioners in user emotional experience evaluation.
Keywords: Users emotional experience evaluation; Physiological data; Skin response conductance; Physiological signal analysis
LEGO Pictorial Scales for Assessing Affective Response BIBAKFull-Text 263-280
  Mohammad Obaid; Andreas Dünser; Elena Moltchanova; Danielle Cummings; Johannes Wagner; Christoph Bartneck
This article presents the design and evaluation of novel types of pictorial scales for assessing emotional response based on LEGO Minifigures. We describe the creation of two pictorial scales (LEGO Face Scale and Stylized LEGO Face Scale) through the use of a semi-automatic process. We report on the results of two evaluation studies conducted to assess the validity of the proposed pictorial scales. The first study evaluated the rating of emotions expressed by other humans; the second focused on rating one's own emotional state when looking at expressive stimuli. We investigate the validity of the two pictorial scales by comparing them to ratings given on a conventional Likert Scale. Results show that assessing expressive faces using the proposed pictorial scales can differ from using a Likert scale; however, when rating one's own emotional state there is no difference. Finally, we assembled a physical version of the LEGO Face scale and discuss future work.
Keywords: LEGO minifigures; Evaluation; Pictorial; Emotion; Scale
The Influence of Motivation on Emotional Experience in E-commerce BIBAKFull-Text 281-288
  Samaneh Soleimani; Effie Lai-Chong Law
To explore the notion of User Experience in regard to motivation and affect in the context of e-commerce, a preliminary research model was developed. According to this model, customers' motivations influence their experience of using e-commerce systems. A pilot study with 12 participants was designed to evaluate this hypothesis. The results suggested that customers' emotional experiences were associated with their motivation to visit an e-commerce website. Our future research will investigate the validity of this model with more thorough evaluation methods.
Keywords: User experience; Emotion; Motivation; E-commerce
The Presenter Experience of Canvas Presentations BIBAKFull-Text 289-297
  Leonhard Lichtschlag; Philipp Wacker; Martina Ziefle; Jan Borchers
Most presentations are given with supporting visuals and driven by specialized presentation software. Today, this software either follows the classic slideware metaphor, presenting a series of discrete screens -- or it implements the more recent canvas presentation metaphor, using a zoomable free-form canvas to arrange information. Both paradigms were previously evaluated with presentation authors and audiences. In this paper, we extend our understanding to how they impact the presenter herself during delivery of a talk. In a lab study participants gave presentations with slideware and canvas tools, and we measured their emotional state through self-reporting. We find that a recommendation for a tool depends on the experience of the presenter or their spatial ability.
Keywords: Canvas presentations; Slideware; Zoomable user interfaces; Lab study
Using Online Reviews as Narratives to Evoke Designer's Empathy BIBAKFull-Text 298-315
  Christiane Grünloh; Åke Walldius; Gerhard Hartmann; Jan Gulliksen
Gathering health-related data is quite easy, but visualizing them in a meaningful way remains challenging, especially when the application domain is very complex. Research suggests that empathy can facilitate the design process and that narratives can help to create an empathic encounter between designers and the prospective users. We conducted an exploratory quasi-experiment in order to explore whether narratives in form of online reviews are able to evoke designer's empathy when developing an online platform for a direct-to-consumer genetic testing service. The results suggest that the narratives can help designers to engage with and take the perspective of the prospective user, who is then represented in more detail. Lacking narratives from real people leaves the designers to their own imagination, which can lead to the use of rather abstract stereotypes that do not enable an understanding of the user, but affect the subsequent design decisions.
Keywords: Human-Computer interaction; Empathy; Direct-to-consumer; Genetic testing; Health and wellbeing

Alternative Input

AirDisplay: Experimenting with Air Flow as a Communication Medium BIBAKFull-Text 316-323
  Omar Mowafi; Mohamed Khamis; Wael Abouelsaadat
This paper presents a psychophysical experiment using a multi-fan device to communicate information to the user via air intensity and direction. We describe the implementation of a prototype, the AirDisplay. We identify the most effective configuration at which users can discern different air patterns by manipulating the fans' speed, the distance between the fans, and the different air patterns. Experiment results support the use of air to communicate information.
Keywords: Non-contact haptic feedback; Air streams; Multi-fan device
Experiencing the Elements -- User Study with Natural Material Probes BIBAKFull-Text 324-331
  Jonna Häkkila; Yun He; Ashley Colley
In this paper, we present the first systematic user study exploring the user experience and perceptions towards different natural materials -- water, ice, stone, sand, fire, wind and soup bubbles. By trying out different materials, participants (n=16) expressed their associations and perceptions, rated different qualities of the materials, and described their impressions through product reaction cards. Our findings reveal for example that light weight and ease of movement are perceived as central qualities when inspiring and fun elements are sought for. This exploratory study shines light on user experiences with natural elements, and provides an experimental grounding for naturalistic tangible user interface design. Material qualities in tangible user interface design create a subtle, but critical part of the user experience.
Keywords: Material qualities; User experience; Tangible user interfaces; Design; User studies
PrintPut: Resistive and Capacitive Input Widgets for Interactive 3D Prints BIBAKFull-Text 332-339
  Jesse Burstyn; Nicholas Fellion; Paul Strohmeier; Roel Vertegaal
We introduce PrintPut, a method for 3D printing that embeds interactivity directly into printed objects. PrintPut uses conductive filament to offer an assortment of sensors that an industrial designer can easily incorporate into their 3D designs, including buttons, pressure sensors, sliders, touchpads, and flex sensors. PrintPut combines physical and interactive sketching into the same process: seamlessly integrating sensors onto the surfaces of 3D objects, without the need for external sensor hardware.
Keywords: 3D printing; Rapid prototyping; Printed sensors
ReservoirBench: An Interactive Educational Reservoir Engineering Workbench BIBAKFull-Text 340-348
  Sowmya Somanath; Allan Rocha; Hamidreza Hamdi; Ehud Sharlin; Mario Costa Sousa
ReservoirBench is an interactive workbench for educational geological science and engineering tasks. It is designed to facilitate education of novice audiences to teach them basic concepts of reservoir modeling and simulation workflow. Traditional training using lectures and software practice can lead to information overload, and retainability is questionable. As an alternative, we propose a physical workbench that is coupled with digital augmentation for the purpose of learning. We take advantage of the crucial role that spatiality and 3D representations play in petroleum reservoir modeling and allow basic domain concepts to be introduced and explored in a tangible and experiential manner. We describe the design of our prototype and reflect on the findings from our preliminary design critique.
Keywords: Physical user interface; Education; Design; Reservoir engineering
Shape-Change for Zoomable TUIs: Opportunities and Limits of a Resizable Slider BIBAKFull-Text 349-366
  Céline Coutrix; Cédric Masclet
Tangible sliders are successfully used as they do not need visual attention. However, users need to balance between opposite concerns: size and precision of the slider. We propose a resizable tangible slider to balance between these concerns. Users can resize the on-screen representation of the slider by resizing the tangible slider. Our aim is to benefit from both tangibility and flexible control, and balance between precision and minimum size. We measured the pointing performance of our prototype. We also assess the potential drawback (additional articulatory task for deformation) by evaluating the impact on precision of the additional articulatory task for deformation: for pursuing a target, we show that our resizable prototype supports better precision than its small counterpart as long as users do not need to resize it more often than around every 9 s.
Keywords: Resizable interfaces; Zoomable interfaces; Shape-changing interfaces; Tangible interaction; Distant interaction

Alternative Input Devices for People with Disabilities

Eyes and Keys: An Evaluation of Click Alternatives Combining Gaze and Keyboard BIBAKFull-Text 367-383
  Ken Neth Yeoh; Christof Lutteroth; Gerald Weber
With eye gaze tracking technology entering the consumer market, there is an increased interest in using it as an input device, similar to the mouse. This holds promise for situations where a typical desk space is not available. While gaze seems natural for pointing, it is inherently inaccurate, which makes the design of fast and accurate methods for clicking targets ("click alternatives") difficult. We investigate click alternatives that combine gaze with a standard keyboard ("gaze & key click alternatives") to achieve an experience where the user's hands can remain on the keyboard all the time. We propose three novel click alternatives ("Letter Assignment", "Offset Menu" and "Ray Selection") and present an experiment that compares them with a naive gaze pointing approach ("Gaze & Click") and the mouse. The experiment uses a randomized, realistic click task in a web browser to collect data about click times and click accuracy, as well as asking users for their preference. Our results indicate that eye gaze tracking is currently too inaccurate for the Gaze & Click approach to work reliably. While Letter Assignment and Offset Menu were usable and a large improvement, they were still significantly slower and less accurate than the mouse.
Keywords: Eye gaze tracking; Click alternative; Keyboard
Interactions Under the Desk: A Characterisation of Foot Movements for Input in a Seated Position BIBAKFull-Text 384-401
  Eduardo Velloso; Jason Alexander; Andreas Bulling; Hans Gellersen
We characterise foot movements as input for seated users. First, we built unconstrained foot pointing performance models in a seated desktop setting using ISO 9241-9-compliant Fitts's Law tasks. Second, we evaluated the effect of the foot and direction in one-dimensional tasks, finding no effect of the foot used, but a significant effect of the direction in which targets are distributed. Third, we compared one foot against two feet to control two variables, finding that while one foot is better suited for tasks with a spatial representation that matches its movement, there is little difference between the techniques when it does not. Fourth, we analysed the overhead caused by introducing a feet-controlled variable in a mouse task, finding the feet to be comparable to the scroll wheel. Our results show the feet are an effective method of enhancing our interaction with desktop systems and derive a series of design guidelines.
Keywords: Foot-based interfaces; Fitts' law; Interaction techniques
Life in the Fast Lane: Effect of Language and Calibration Accuracy on the Speed of Text Entry by Gaze BIBAKFull-Text 402-417
  Kari-Jouko Räihä
Numerous techniques have been developed for text entry by gaze, and similarly, a number of evaluations have been carried out to determine the efficiency of the solutions. However, the results of the published experiments are inconclusive, and it is unclear what causes the difference in their findings. Here we look particularly at the effect of the language used in the experiment. A study where participants entered text both in English and in Finnish does not show an effect of language structure: the entry rates were reasonably close to each other. The role of other explaining factors, such as calibration accuracy and experimental procedure, are discussed.
Keywords: Text entry; Gaze input; Performance; Entry speed; Error rate; Comparative evaluation; Longitudinal study

Interfaces for Cognitive Support

Cognitive Accessibility for Mentally Disabled Persons BIBAKFull-Text 418-435
  Stefan Johansson; Jan Gulliksen; Ann Lantz
The emergence of various digital channels, the development of different devices and the change in the way we communicate and carry out various types of services have quickly grown and continues to grow. This may offer both new opportunities for inclusion and risks for creating new barriers in the society. In a recent study we have explored the questions: Is the society digitally accessible for persons with mental disabilities? How do persons with mental disabilities cope with their situation? What are the benefits and obstacles they face? Based on the answers to these questions we wanted to explore if there is a digital divide between the citizens in general and the citizens with mental disabilities. And if so; what is the nature of this divide? Methods used in the study were Participatory action research oriented with data collection via research circles. In total over 100 persons participated. The results show that a digital divide is present. Persons with mental disabilities differ from citizens in general in how they have access to digital resources. The result also indicates that services and systems on a societal scale do not deliver the expected efficiency when it comes to supporting citizens with mental disabilities. And finally the results indicate that the special needs this group might have are often not identified in wider surveys on the citizen's use of Internet, digital services and use of different technical devices. Several of the participants describe this as being left outside and not fully participate in a society where digital presence is considered a prerequisite for a full citizenship.
Keywords: Mental disability; Mental problems; Cognitive accessibility; Digital society; Inclusion
Design and Evaluation of Mobile Learning Applications for Autistic Children in Pakistan BIBAKFull-Text 436-444
  Muneeb Imtiaz Ahmad; Suleman Shahid
In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of culturally specific mobile learning applications, designed as a tool to encourage social interaction in autistic children. These applications were designed for Pakistani children keep their cultural context in mind. We performed longitudinal evaluation (around eight weeks) of these applications at an autistic school in Pakistan. Our initial results, based on pre and post evaluation questionnaires and video analysis of social interactions, showed that the applications had a positive effect on the development of socio-emotional skills of children and were appreciated not only by children but also by the teachers.
Keywords: Culture; Autism; App; Tablet; Social skills
Exercises for German-Speaking Children with Dyslexia BIBAKFull-Text 445-452
  Maria Rauschenberger; Silke Füchsel; Luz Rello; Clara Bayarri; Jörg Thomaschewski
In this work-in-progress we present a computer-based method to design German reinforcement exercises for children with dyslexia. From different schools, we collected more than 1,000 errors written by children with dyslexia. Then, we created a classification of dyslexic errors in German and annotated the errors with different language specific features, such as phonetic and visual features. For the creation of the exercises we took into account the linguistic knowledge extracted from the analyses and designed more than 2,500 word exercises in German that have been integrated in a game available for iOS. The game and the resource of dyslexic errors are available online (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/dyseggxia/id534986729?mt=8) and they are, to the best of our knowledge, the first contributions of this kind for German.
Keywords: Dyslexia; iOS; Spelling; German; Children; Gamification
Serious Games for Cognitive Training in Ambient Assisted Living Environments A Technology Acceptance Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 453-471
  Jan Wittland; Philipp Brauner; Martina Ziefle
Two technology trends address the rising costs of healthcare systems in aging societies: Serious Games for Healthcare and Ambient Assisted Living Environments. Surprisingly, these concepts are rarely combined and the users' perception and use of Serious Games in Ambient Assisted Living environments is insufficiently understood. We present the evaluation of a serious game for stimulating cognitive abilities for elderly with regard to technology acceptance (based on the UTAUT2 model), performance and preference for an interaction device (tablet, table, wall). The results suggest that acceptance of serious games is independent of gender, technical expertise, gaming habits, and only weakly influenced by age. Determinants for acceptance are perceived fun and the feeling that the users can make playing the game a habit. Performance within the game is explained by age and previous gaming experience. All investigated interaction devices were rated as useful and easy to learn, although the wall-sized display had lower approval levels. The article concludes with guidelines for successfully introducing serious games for healthcare to residents in ambient assisted living environments.
Keywords: Serious games for healthcare; Ubiquitous computing; Ambient assisted living; Technology acceptance; Design for elderly

Brain-Computer Interaction

Continuous Mental Effort Evaluation During 3D Object Manipulation Tasks Based on Brain and Physiological Signals BIBAKFull-Text 472-487
  Dennis Wobrock; Jérémy Frey; Delphine Graeff; Jean-Baptiste de la Rivière; Julien Castet; Fabien Lotte
Designing 3D User Interfaces (UI) requires adequate evaluation tools to ensure good usability and user experience. While many evaluation tools are already available and widely used, existing approaches generally cannot provide continuous and objective measures of usability qualities during interaction without interrupting the user. In this paper, we propose to use brain (with ElectroEncephaloGraphy) and physiological (ElectroCardioGraphy, Galvanic Skin Response) signals to continuously assess the mental effort made by the user to perform 3D object manipulation tasks. We first show how this mental effort (a.k.a., mental workload) can be estimated from such signals, and then measure it on 8 participants during an actual 3D object manipulation task with an input device known as the CubTile. Our results suggest that monitoring workload enables us to continuously assess the 3DUI and/or interaction technique ease-of-use. Overall, this suggests that this new measure could become a useful addition to the repertoire of available evaluation tools, enabling a finer grain assessment of the ergonomic qualities of a given 3D user interface.
Keywords: 3D user interfaces; Evaluation; Passive Brain-Computer interfaces; Physiological signals; Electroencephalography; Mental workload
Continuous Tactile Feedback for Motor-Imagery Based Brain-Computer Interaction in a Multitasking Context BIBAKFull-Text 488-505
  Camille Jeunet; Chi Vi; Daniel Spelmezan; Bernard N'Kaoua; Fabien Lotte; Sriram Subramanian
Motor-Imagery based Brain Computer Interfaces (MI-BCIs) allow users to interact with computers by imagining limb movements. MI-BCIs are very promising for a wide range of applications as they offer a new and non-time locked modality of control. However, most MI-BCIs involve visual feedback to inform the user about the system's decisions, which makes them difficult to use when integrated with visual interactive tasks. This paper presents our design and evaluation of a tactile feedback glove for MI-BCIs, which provides a continuously updated tactile feedback. We first determined the best parameters for this tactile feedback and then tested it in a multitasking environment: at the same time users were performing the MI tasks, they were asked to count distracters. Our results suggest that, as compared to an equivalent visual feedback, the use of tactile feedback leads to a higher recognition accuracy of the MI-BCI tasks and fewer errors in counting distracters.
Keywords: Brain-Computer interaction; Tactile feedback; Multitasking
Towards Brain Computer Interfaces for Recreational Activities: Piloting a Drone BIBAKFull-Text 506-522
  Nataliya Kosmyna; Franck Tarpin-Bernard; Bertrand Rivet
Active Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) allow people to exert voluntary control over a computer system: brain signals are captured and imagined actions (movements, concepts) are recognized after a training phase (from 10 min to 2 months). BCIs are confined in labs, with only a few dozen people using them outside regularly (e.g. assistance for impairments). We propose a "Co-learning BCI" (CLBCI) that reduces the amount of training and makes BCIs more suitable for recreational applications. We replicate an existing experiment where the BCI controls a drone and compare CLBCI to their Operant Conditioning (OC) protocol over three durations of practice (1 day, 1 week, 1 month). We find that OC works at 80% after a month practice, but the performance is between 60 and 70% any earlier. In a week of practice, CLBCI reaches a performance of around 75%. We conclude that CLBCI is better suited for recreational use. OC should be reserved for users for whom performance is the main concern.
Keywords: Brain computer interface; Engagement; Replication; Drone

Cognitive Factors

A Human Cognitive Processing Perspective in Designing E-Commerce Checkout Processes BIBAKFull-Text 523-530
  Marios Belk; Panagiotis Germanakos; Argyris Constantinides; George Samaras
Designing a usable checkout process is of paramount importance for both E-Commerce and M-Commerce success. Aiming to understand human-computer interactions during checkout and improve the usability and user experience of checkout tasks, this research work investigates the relation among users' cognitive styles, and alternative checkout designs in terms of user preference and task performance. A controlled user study with 38 participants was conducted which entailed a psychometric-based survey for highlighting the users' cognitive styles, combined with a real usage scenario with two variations of checkout designs that were deployed on standard desktop computers and mobile touch-based devices. Results suggest that human cognitive differences could play an important role in designing E-Commerce and M-Commerce checkout processes, and particularly users' cognitive styles may affect the way users perceive and perform during such tasks.
Keywords: Human cognitive factors; E-Commerce; Usability; User study
Bilingual Reading Experiences: What They Could Be and How to Design for Them BIBAKFull-Text 531-549
  Clément Pillias; Pierre Cubaud
We introduce the idea of bilingual reading, where a document comes in two languages and the reader can choose at will on which language to focus during the reading. Between the complete ignorance of a language (where translation is the only option) and bilingualism (where translation is useless), there exists a variety of contexts of partial bilingualism where bilingual reading interfaces would prove highly useful. We first study through interviews and reviews how the bilingual reading experience is understood today. We provide an analysis framework and highlight design challenges for the design of bilingual reading appliances. We then describe a taxonomy of the different approaches available to address these challenges, analyze them in the light of our framework and show how they can be derived to sketch future bilingual reading interfaces.
Keywords: Bilingual reading; Mechanisms of reading; Nexus of attention; E-book; E-reader; Parallel text; Text morphing; Text animation
Dynamic Workload Adjustments in Human-Machine Systems Based on GSR Features BIBAKFull-Text 550-558
  Jianlong Zhou; Ju Young Jung; Fang Chen
Workload is found to be a critical factor driving human behavior in human-machine interactions in modern complex high-risk domains. This paper presents a dynamic workload adjustment feedback loop with a dynamic cognitive load (CL) adaptation model to control workload adjustment during human-machine interaction. In this model, physiological signals such as Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) are employed to obtain passive human sensing data. By analyzing the obtained sensing data in real-time, the task difficulty levels are adaptively adjusted to better fit the user during working time. The experimental results showed that SVM outperformed other methods in offline CL classifications, while Naïve Bayes outperformed other methods in online CL level classifications. The CL adaptation model 1 (average performance is 87.5%) outperformed the adaptation model 2 during the dynamic workload adjustment.
Keywords: Cognitive load; GSR; Dynamic adjustment; Machine learning
Text Touching Effects in Active Reading: The Impact of the Use of a Touch-Based Tablet Device BIBAKFull-Text 559-576
  Hirohito Shibata; Kentaro Takano; Shun'ichi Tano
This paper describes experiments examining the effect of touching interaction with text in active reading through evaluating the impact of the use of a touch-based tablet device. The first experiment compared the performance of proofreading when using paper and when using a touch-based tablet device. Results showed that participants detected more errors when reading from paper than when reading from the tablet device. During reading, when using paper, participants frequently performed the interaction of text touching, such as pointing to words and sliding their fingers or pens along sentences. This fact suggests that touching interaction with text plays an important role in proofreading tasks. To verify this hypothesis, we conducted a second experiment in which participants proofread documents with constrained interaction with paper. Results showed that they detected more errors when they were allowed to interact with text freely than when they were not allowed to interact with text. Considering these results, we discuss practical implications to effectively support active reading with a touch-based tablet device.
Keywords: Active reading; Proofreading; Touch-based tablet devices; Digital reading devices; Text touching; Pointing to text; Sliding a finger or a pen

INT 2015-09-14 Volume 2

Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing

EmbodiNet: Enriching Distributed Musical Collaboration Through Embodied Interactions BIBAFull-Text 1-19
  Dalia El-Shimy; Jeremy R. Cooperstock
This paper presents EmbodiNet, a novel system that augments distributed performance with dynamic, real-time, hands-free control over several aspects of the musicians' sound, enabling them to seamlessly change volume, affect reverb and adjust their mix. Musical performance is a demanding activity necessitating multiple levels of communication among its participants, as well as a certain degree of creativity, playfulness and spontaneity. As a result, distributed musical performance presents a challenging application area for the "same time/different place" category of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). In fact, musicians wishing to play together over a network are typically limited by tools that differ little from standard videoconferencing. Instead, we propose leveraging the technology inherent to the distributed context towards meaningfully augmenting collaborative performance. In order to do so without introducing new paradigms that may require learning or that may distract musicians from their primary task, we have designed and evaluated embodied controls that capitalize on existing interpersonal interactions. Further designed to restore the spatial properties of sound that are typically absent in the distributed context, and apply the notion of "shared space" found in CSCW research, EmbodiNet also helps confer a greater level of co-presence than standard distributed performance systems. This paper describes the implementation of EmbodiNet, along with the results of a long-term collaboration and experiment with a three-piece band. The long-term collaboration helped illustrate the benefits of augmenting an artistic form of distributed collaboration, and resulted in a system that not only helped enhance our users' sense of enjoyment and self-expression, but one that they would also likely use in the future.
Preference Elicitation and Negotiation in a Group Recommender System BIBAKFull-Text 20-37
  Jesús Omar Álvarez Márquez; Jürgen Ziegler
We present a novel approach to group recommender systems that better takes into account the social interaction in a group when formulating, discussing and negotiating the features of the item to be jointly selected. Our approach provides discussion support in a collaborative preference elicitation and negotiation process. Individual preferences are continuously aggregated and immediate feedback of the resulting recommendations is provided. We also support the last stage in the decision process when users collectively select the final item from the recommendation set. The prototype hotel recommender Hootle is developed following these concepts and tested in a user study. The results indicate a higher overall satisfaction with the system as well as a higher perceived recommendation quality when compared against a system version where no negotiation was possible. However, they also indicate that the negotiation-based approach may be more suitable for smaller groups, an aspect that will require further research.
Keywords: Group recommender system; Group preference elicitation; Negotiation; Decision making
The #selfiestation: Design and Use of a Kiosk for Taking Selfies in the Enterprise BIBAKFull-Text 38-46
  Casey Dugan; Sven Laumer; Thomas Erickson; Wendy Kellogg; Werner Geyer
This paper describes the design and use of the #selfiestation, a kiosk for taking selfies. Deployed in an office of a large enterprise, its use was studied through analysis of 821 photos taken by 336 users over 24 weeks and interviews with 10 users. The findings show high adoption amongst residents (81.5%); describe selfie usage patterns (funatics, communicators, check-ins, doppelgangers, and groupies); illustrate social photo-taking behavior (78.6% of users posed as part of groups, and those who did took almost four times as many photos); and raises questions for future investigations into flexibility in self-representation over time. Office residents seeing social and community-building value in selfies suggests that they have a place in the enterprise.
Keywords: Selfies; Faces; Social media; Enterprise; Self-representation
The LuminUs: Providing Musicians with Visual Feedback on the Gaze and Body Motion of Their Co-performers BIBAKFull-Text 47-54
  Evan Morgan; Hatice Gunes; Nick Bryan-Kinns
This paper describes the LuminUs -- a device that we designed in order to explore how new technologies could influence the inter-personal aspects of co-present musical collaborations. The LuminUs uses eye-tracking headsets and small wireless accelerometers to measure the gaze and body motion of each musician. A small light display then provides visual feedback to each musician, based either on the gaze or the body motion of their co-performer. We carried out an experiment with 15 pairs of music students in order to investigate how the LuminUs would influence their musical interactions. Preliminary results suggest that visual feedback provided by the LuminUs led to significantly increased glancing between the two musicians, whilst motion based feedback appeared to lead to a decrease in body motion for both participants.
Keywords: Musical interaction; Computer-supported cooperative work; Groupware; Eye-tracking; Social signals; Non-verbal communication
An Artifact Ecology in a Nutshell: A Distributed Cognition Perspective for Collaboration and Coordination BIBAKFull-Text 55-72
  Christina Vasiliou; Andri Ioannou; Panayiotis Zaphiris
An artifact ecology is an environment where multiple heterogeneous technologies co-exist and are interlinked as a unified system. To construct effective ecologies of artifacts for collaborative activities we need to acquire deep understanding of the complex interactions and interdependencies between users and tools. Researchers have identified Distributed Cognition (DC) as a powerful tool for understanding these interdependencies. In this study, DC, and particularly the DiCoT framework, were considered ideal for constructing this understanding for four student-groups during collaborative activities in an artifact ecology. Using DiCoT we analysed learners' behaviour and how the artifact ecology supported collaboration and cooperation. The cognitive system was described from three different perspectives -- physical layout, information flow and artifacts -- which (i) allowed an in-depth understanding of the interactions among learners and tools during collaborative activities and (ii) provided insights on how the affordances of the artifact ecology supported collaboration and coordination.
Keywords: Distributed cognition; DiCoT framework; Artifact ecology; Technology-rich workspace; HCI education; Collaboration; Coordination
Assessing a Collaborative Application for Comic Strips Composition BIBAKFull-Text 73-80
  Eleonora Mencarini; Gianluca Schiavo; Alessandro Cappelletti; Oliviero Stock; Massimo Zancanaro
In this paper we present the evaluation of an application for the collaborative composition of comics using a pre-defined set of images and sentences. This study is an intermediate step to guide the design of a tablet application for supporting collaborative storytelling between two authors from different cultures and speaking different languages. For this purpose, we assessed the effectiveness of a constrained-text approach for comic composition in which sentences are selected from a library rather than written by the authors. Our results show that the constrained-text approach provides a satisfying form of co-narration, stimulating the authors to stay on topic, while using the available narrative material. The findings of this study have implications for the future design of collaborative storytelling applications for multilingual and cross-cultural scenarios.
Keywords: Collaborative storytelling; Teenagers; Creativity support index; Multilingual communication
Augmenting Collaborative MOOC Video Viewing with Synchronized Textbook BIBAKFull-Text 81-88
  Nan Li; Lukasz Kidzinski; Pierre Dillenbourg
We designed BOOC, an application that synchronizes textbook content with MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) videos. The application leverages a tablet display split into two views to present lecture videos and textbook content simultaneously. The display of the book serves as peripheral contextual help for video viewing activities. A five-week user study with 6 groups of MOOC students in a blended on-campus course was conducted. Our study in this paper reports how textbooks are used in authentic MOOC study groups and further explores the effects of the book-mapping feature of the BOOC player in enhancing the collaborative MOOC learning experiences.
Keywords: MOOC; Peripheral display; Contextual help; Collaborative learning
EXCITE: EXploring Collaborative Interaction in Tracked Environments BIBAKFull-Text 89-97
  Nicolai Marquardt; Frederico Schardong; Anthony Tang
A central issue in designing collaborative multi-surface environments is evaluating the interaction techniques, tools, and applications that we design. We often analyse data from studies using inductive video analysis, but the volume of data makes this a time-consuming process. We designed EXCITE, which gives analysts the ability to analyse studies by quickly querying aspects of people's interactions with applications and devices around them using a declarative programmatic syntax. These queries provide simple, immediate visual access to matching incidents in the interaction stream, video data, and motion-capture data. The query language filters the volume of data that needs to be reviewed based on criteria such as application events, and proxemics events, such as distance or orientation between people and devices. This general approach allows analysts to provisionally develop theories about the use of multi-surface environments, and to evaluate them rapidly through video-based evidence.
Keywords: Interaction analysis; Collaborative interaction; Tracked environments
The Usefulness of Method-Resources for Evaluating a Collaborative Training Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 98-105
  Ebba Thora Hvannberg; Gyda Halldorsdottir; Jan Rudinsky
Voice communication is vital for collaboration between first responders and commanders during crisis management. To decrease cost, training can take place in a virtual environment instead of in a real one. It is non-trivial to build and evaluate a virtual environment for training complex command. To understand the method-resources required for evaluating a training simulator for crisis response, this paper presents a case study of applying several resources. Method-resources were analysed for usability problems and Mechanics of Collaboration (MOC). The results show that the Group Observational Technique and the MOC analysis are appropriate for analysing factors of collaboration and communication. The think-aloud technique, observers, experts in the domain and advanced task scenario were important resources. In only a few cases sound and video were necessary to analyse issues.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Collaboration; Evaluation; Crisis management; Verbal communication; Method-resources; Mechanics of collaboration

End-User Development

Flat Design vs Traditional Design: Comparative Experimental Study BIBAKFull-Text 106-114
  Ivan Burmistrov; Tatiana Zlokazova; Anna Izmalkova; Anna Leonova
In the past few years flat user interface design has become the predominating visual style of operating systems, websites and mobile apps. Although flat design has been widely criticized by HCI and usability experts, empirical research on flat design is still scarce. We present the results of an experimental comparative study of visual search effectiveness on traditional and flat designs. The following types of visual search tasks were examined: (1) search for a target word in text; (2) search for a target icon in a matrix of icons; (3) search for clickable objects on webpages. Time and accuracy parameters of the visual search, as well as oculomotor activity, were measured. The results show that a search in flat text mode (compared with the traditional mode) is associated with higher cognitive load. A search for flat icons takes twice as long as for realistic icons and is also characterized by higher cognitive load. Identifying clickable objects on flat web pages requires more time and is characterised by a significantly greater number of errors. Our results suggest replacing the flat style user interfaces with interfaces based on the design principles developed over decades of research and practice of HCI and usability engineering.
Keywords: Flat design; Usability; Visual search; Cognitive load; Eye-tracking
How to Organize the Annotation Systems in Human-Computer Environment: Study, Classification and Observations BIBAKFull-Text 115-133
  Anis Kalboussi; Nizar Omheni; Omar Mazhoud; Ahmed Hadj Kacem
The practice of annotation is a secular and omnipresent activity. We find the annotation in several areas such as learning, semantic web, social networks, digital library, bioinformatics, etc. Thus, since the year 1989 and with the emergence of information technology, several annotation systems have been developed in human-computer environment adapted for various contexts and for various roles. These ubiquitous annotation systems allow users to annotate with digital information several electronic resources such as: web pages, text files, databases, images, videos, etc. Even though this topic has already been partially studied by other researchers, the previous works have left some open issues. It concern essentially the lack of how to organize all the developed annotation systems according to formal criteria in order to facilitate to the users the choice of an annotation system in a well-defined context and according to unified requirements. This problem is mainly due to the fact that annotation systems have only been developed for specific purposes. As a result, there is only a fragmentary picture of these annotation tools in the literature. The aim of this article is to provide a unified and integrated picture of all the annotation systems in human-computer environment. Therefore, we present a classification of sixty annotation tools developed by industry and academia during the last twenty-five years. This organization of annotation tools is built on the basis of five generic criteria. Observations and discussion of open issues conclude this survey.
Keywords: Annotation system; Metadata; Annotation; Tag; Human-computer environment; Classification; Survey
Mini-Orb: A Personal Indoor Climate Preference Feedback Interface BIBAKFull-Text 134-149
  Markus Rittenbruch; Jared Donovan; Yasuhiro Santo
The control of environmental factors in open-office environments, such as lighting and temperature is becoming increasingly automated. This development means that office inhabitants are losing the ability to manually adjust environmental conditions according to their needs. In this paper we describe the design, use and evaluation of MiniOrb, a system that employs ambient and tangible interaction mechanisms to allow inhabitants of office environments to maintain awareness of environmental factors, report on their own subjectively perceived office comfort levels and see how these compare to group average preferences. The system is complemented by a mobile application, which enables users to see and set the same sensor values and preferences, but using a screen-based interface. We give an account of the system's design and outline the results of an in situ trial and user study. Our results show that devices that combine ambient and tangible interaction approaches are well suited to the task of recording indoor climate preferences and afford a rich set of possible interactions that can complement those enabled by more conventional screen-based interfaces.
Keywords: Ambient interface; Tangible interaction; Indoor climate; Individual control; Peripheral awareness
Prototyping the Self-Authored Video Interview: Challenges and Opportunities BIBAKFull-Text 150-158
  Stephen Snow; Markus Rittenbruch; Margot Brereton
Self-authored video -- where participants are in control of the creation of their own footage -- is a means of creating innovative design material and including all members of a family in design activities. This paper describes our adaptation to this process called Self Authored Video Interviews (SAVIs) that we created and prototyped to better understand how families engage with situated technology in the home. We find the methodology produces unique insights into family dynamics in the home, uncovering assumptions and tensions unlikely to be discovered using more conventional methods. The paper outlines a number of challenges and opportunities associated with the methodology, specifically, maximising the value of the insights gathered by appealing to children to champion the cause, and how to counter perceptions of the lingering presence of researchers.
Keywords: Self-Authored video; Electricity; Eco-feedback; Family dynamics

Evaluation Methods/Usability Evaluation

An Empirical Study of the Effects of Three Think-Aloud Protocols on Identification of Usability Problems BIBAKFull-Text 159-176
  Anders Bruun; Jan Stage
Think-aloud is a de facto standard in user-based usability evaluation to verbalize what a user is experiencing. Despite its qualities, it has been argued that thinking aloud affects the task solving process. This paper reports from an empirical study of the effect of three think-aloud protocols on the identified usability problems. The three protocols were traditional, active listening and coaching. The study involved 43 test subjects distributed on the three think-aloud conditions and a silent control condition in a between-subject design. The results show that the three think-aloud protocols facilitated identification of the double number of usability problems compared to the silent condition, while the problems identified by the three think-aloud protocol were comparable. Our results do not support the common emphasis on the Coaching protocol, while we have seen that the Traditional protocol performs surprisingly well.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; Thinking aloud; Verbalization; Think-aloud protocols; Empirical study
An Observational Study of How Experienced Programmers Annotate Program Code BIBAKFull-Text 177-194
  Craig J. Sutherland; Andrew Luxton-Reilly; Beryl Plimmer
This study investigates how and why experienced programmers annotate program code. Research has shown that marking up prose with a pen is an invaluable aid to reading for understanding. However program code is very different from prose: there are no studies on how programmers annotate code while reading. We asked experienced programmers to read code printed on paper and observed their annotation practices. We found the main reasons for annotating code are to assist with navigation and to record information for later use. Furthermore, we found annotation practices that are hard to replicate in current standard Integrated Development Environments. This suggests that support for digital ink annotations in programming tools may be useful for comprehending program code.
Keywords: Freeform annotation; Reading code; Understanding code; Observational study
Around-Device Interactions: A Usability Study of Frame Markers in Acquisition Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 195-202
  Fernando Garcia-Sanjuan; Alejandro Catala; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Javier Jaen
Digital tabletops present numerous benefits in face-to-face collaboration environments. However, their integration in real settings is complicated by cost and fixed location. In this respect, building table-like environments using several handheld devices such as tablets or smartphones provides a promising alternative but is limited to touch interaction only. We propose instead another kind of "around-device" interaction (ADI) technique using the built-in front camera of these devices and fiducial frame markers, which presents advantages including better awareness and less interference. This paper contributes a first step in exploring the potential of this interaction technique by conducting a usability test comparing several ergonomic factors that may have an effect on the very first operation of the interaction: the acquisition of the marker.
Keywords: Around-Device Interaction (ADI); Tablets; Fiducial markers; Frame markers; Multi-Display Environments (MDE); Usability study
On Applying Experience Sampling Method to A/B Testing of Mobile Applications: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 203-210
  Myunghee Lee; Gerard J. Kim
With the advent of mobile devices, the experience sampling method (ESM) is increasingly used as a convenient and effective way to capture user behaviors of, and evaluate mobile and environment-context dependent applications. Like any field based in situ testing methods, ESM is prone to biases from unreliable and unbalanced data, especially for A/B testing situations. Mitigating such effects can in turn incur significant costs in terms of the number of participants and sessions, and prolonged experimental time. In fact, ESM has rarely been applied to A/B testing nor do existing literatures reveal its operational details and difficulties. In this paper, as a step toward establishing concrete guidelines, we describe a case study of applying ESM to evaluating two competing interfaces for a mobile application. Based on the gathered data and direct interviews with the participants, we highlight the difficulties experienced and lessons learned. In addition, we make a proposal for a new ESM in which the experimental parameters are dynamically reconfigured based on the intermediate experimental results to overcome the aforementioned difficulties.
Keywords: Experience sampling method (ESM); A/B testing; Usability
Usability Aspects of the Inside-in Approach for Ancillary Search Tasks on the Web BIBAKFull-Text 211-230
  Marco Winckler; Ricardo Cava; Eric Barboni; Philippe Palanque; Carla Freitas
Given the huge amount of data available over the Web nowadays, search engines become essential tools helping users to find the information they are looking for. Nonetheless, search engines often return large sets of results which must be filtered by the users to find the suitable information items. However, in many cases, filtering is not enough, as the results returned by the engine require users to perform a secondary search to complement the current information thus featuring ancillary search tasks. Such ancillary search tasks create a nested context for user tasks that increases the articulatory distance between the users and their ultimate goal. In this paper, we analyze the interplay between such ancillary searches and other primary search tasks on the Web. Moreover, we describe the inside-in approach, which aims at reducing the articulatory distance between interleaved tasks by allowing users to perform ancillary search tasks without losing the context. The inside-in approach is illustrated by means of a case study based on ancillary searches of coauthors in a digital library, using an information visualization technique.
Keywords: Interaction gulfs; Web search; Ancillary queries; Nested user tasks
Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes BIBAKFull-Text 231-248
  Andrés Lucero
Affinity diagramming is a technique used to externalize, make sense of, and organize large amounts of unstructured, far-ranging, and seemingly dissimilar qualitative data. HCI and interaction design practitioners have adopted and used affinity diagrams for different purposes. This paper discusses our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade's experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating notes, clustering notes, walking the wall, and documentation. We draw examples from eight projects to illustrate our particular practices along these four stages, as well as to ground the discussion.
Keywords: Interaction design; KJ method; Evaluation; Analysis
What Users Prefer and Why: A User Study on Effective Presentation Styles of Opinion Summarization BIBAKFull-Text 249-264
  Xiaojun Yuan; Ning Sa; Grace Begany; Huahai Yang
Opinion Summarization research addresses how to help people in making appropriate decisions in an effective way. This paper aims to help users in their decision-making by providing them effective opinion presentation styles. We carried out two phases of experiments to systematically compare usefulness of different types of opinion summarization techniques. In the first crowd-sourced study, we recruited 46 turkers to generate high quality summary information. This first phase generated four styles of summaries: Tag Clouds, Aspect Oriented Sentiments, Paragraph Summary and Group Sample. In the follow-up second phase, 34 participants tested the four styles in a card sorting experiment. Each participant was given 32 cards with 8 per presentation styles and completed the task of grouping the cards into five categories in terms of the usefulness of the cards. Results indicated that participants preferred Aspect Oriented Sentiments the most and Tag cloud the least. Implications and hypotheses are discussed.
Keywords: Text summarization; Consumer decision making; User studies; User interface design
A Comparison of Five HSV Color Selection Interfaces for Mobile Painting Search BIBAKFull-Text 265-273
  Min Zhang; Guoping Qiu; Natasha Alechina; Sarah Atkinson
Color selection is a common task in a plethora of mobile applications. Although a variety of color palettes emerge, there are no design guidelines or studies of the use of color palette interfaces for drawing on touch-screen phone. We are particularly interested in drawing queries to search for paintings on mobile phone. In this paper, we classified the color palette interfaces into several categories. We report results of a systematic experiment with 41 participants using five different types of HSV color palettes for the task of drawing a painting to search on a mobile phone. We investigate which color palette(s) enable users to complete task faster, how good these resulting drawings were for searching, and what were user experiences. Users' drawing behavior is also discussed.
Keywords: Color palette interface; User study; Painting search; User interface design; Drawing-to-search; Mobile application
Computer-Related Attribution Styles: Typology and Data Collection Methods BIBAKFull-Text 274-291
  Adelka Niels; Monique Janneck
Attribution, i.e. the systematic ascription of causes to effects in situations of failure or success, has so far received little attention in HCI research. Based on a preliminary typology developed in pilot work, we conducted four empirical studies with a total of N=146 participants using different methods for data collection, including laboratory studies, a mobile diary study, and an online survey. Results show that several typical styles of attributing computer-related failure or success could be identified. Therefore, we propose a typology of six main attribution styles, which are depicted as personas to make them applicable for HCI practice. Methodical issues in computer-related attribution research and implication for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Attribution; Computer-related attitudes; Computer mastery; Computer failure; User types; Personas
Reciprocity in Rapid Ethnography BIBAKFull-Text 292-299
  Pieter Duysburgh; Karin Slegers
This paper responds to the discussion of a possible lack of reciprocity in applying ethnography in HCI research, sometimes referred to as 'rapid ethnography'. It contributes to the discussion by describing examples of how reciprocity can be achieved when applying rapid forms of ethnography. The paper suggests five approaches for HCI researchers to aim for reciprocity while doing research: (1) making participation fun for informants, (2) giving informants a voice, (3) allowing informants to exhibit their skills or strengths, (4) offering practical help and (5) providing self-knowledge. Each of these approaches comes with some risks, which are also explained in the paper. Reciprocity should be taken into consideration from the initial start of the research projects.
Keywords: Ethnography; Rapid ethnography; Reciprocity
Testing the Unknown -- Value of Usability Testing for Complex Professional Systems Development BIBAKFull-Text 300-314
  Kimmo Tarkkanen; Ville Harkke; Pekka Reijonen
To make an impact on the design in usability testing, the test tasks are essential ingredients for the early system development process. Complex design problems are not solved by focusing on the details of a prototype and setting the scope on what is already known by the design team. Instead, the design value of usability testing is increased by deliberately relinquishing the assumptions made and implemented into a design. In the development of complex systems, usability testing with extended scope and open-ended structure, as presented in this paper with three empirical cases, delivers not only specific knowledge about the user interactions with the system, but reveals issues that, despite rigorous user research efforts, have been overlooked in the preceding phases of system development. Therefore, we suggest applying open-ended usability test tasks for testing systems in complex settings such as in the development of health care systems.
Keywords: Usability testing; Test task; Design; Complex systems; Health care

Eye Tracking

An Empirical Investigation of Gaze Selection in Mid-Air Gestural 3D Manipulation BIBAKFull-Text 315-330
  Eduardo Velloso; Jayson Turner; Jason Alexander; Andreas Bulling; Hans Gellersen
In this work, we investigate gaze selection in the context of mid-air hand gestural manipulation of 3D rigid bodies on monoscopic displays. We present the results of a user study with 12 participants in which we compared the performance of Gaze, a Raycasting technique (2D Cursor) and a Virtual Hand technique (3D Cursor) to select objects in two 3D mid-air interaction tasks. Also, we compared selection confirmation times for Gaze selection when selection is followed by manipulation to when it is not. Our results show that gaze selection is faster and more preferred than 2D and 3D mid-air-controlled cursors, and is particularly well suited for tasks in which users constantly switch between several objects during the manipulation. Further, selection confirmation times are longer when selection is followed by manipulation than when it is not.
Keywords: 3D user interfaces; Eye tracking; Mid-air gestures
Four Eyes See More Than Two: Shared Gaze in the Car BIBAKFull-Text 331-348
  Sandra Trösterer; Magdalena Gärtner; Martin Wuchse; Bernhard Maurer; Axel Baumgartner; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Manfred Tscheligi
Purposeful collaboration of driver and front-seat passenger can help in demanding driving situations and therefore increase safety. The characteristics of the car, as a context, limit the collaboration possibilities of the driver and front-seat passenger, though. In this paper, we present an approach that supports successful collaboration of the driver and front-seat passenger with regard to the contextual specifics. By capturing the front-seat passenger's gaze and visualizing it for the driver, we create a collaborative space for information sharing in the car. We present the results from a study investigating the potentials of the co-driver's gaze as means to support the driver during a navigational task. Our results confirm that the co-driver's gaze can serve as helpful means to support the collaboration of driver and front-seat passenger in terms of perceived distraction and workload of the driver.
Keywords: Driving; Navigation; Collaboration; Shared gaze; Eye-tracking
Gaze+touch vs. Touch: What's the Trade-off When Using Gaze to Extend Touch to Remote Displays? BIBAKFull-Text 349-367
  Ken Pfeuffer; Jason Alexander; Hans Gellersen
Direct touch input is employed on many devices, but it is inherently restricted to displays that are reachable by the user. Gaze input as a mediator can extend touch to remote displays -- using gaze for remote selection, and touch for local manipulation -- but at what cost and benefit? In this paper, we investigate the potential trade-off with four experiments that empirically compare remote Gaze+touch to standard touch. Our experiments investigate dragging, rotation, and scaling tasks. Results indicate that Gaze+touch is, compared to touch, (1) equally fast and more accurate for rotation and scaling, (2) slower and less accurate for dragging, and (3) enables selection of smaller targets. Our participants confirm this trend, and are positive about the relaxed finger placement of Gaze+touch. Our experiments provide detailed performance characteristics to consider for the design of Gaze+touch interaction of remote displays. We further discuss insights into strengths and drawbacks in contrast to direct touch.
Keywords: Gaze interaction; Eye-tracking; Multitouch; Multimodal UI

Gesture Interaction

Gestu-Wan -- An Intelligible Mid-Air Gesture Guidance System for Walk-up-and-Use Displays BIBAKFull-Text 368-386
  Gustavo Rovelo; Donald Degraen; Davy Vanacken; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx
We present Gestu-Wan, an intelligible gesture guidance system designed to support mid-air gesture-based interaction for walk-up-and-use displays. Although gesture-based interfaces have become more prevalent, there is currently very little uniformity with regard to gesture sets and the way gestures can be executed. This leads to confusion, bad user experiences and users who rather avoid than engage in interaction using mid-air gesturing. Our approach improves the visibility of gesture-based interfaces and facilitates execution of mid-air gestures without prior training. We compare Gestu-Wan with a static gesture guide, which shows that it can help users with both performing complex gestures as well as understanding how the gesture recognizer works.
Keywords: Gesture guide; Mid-air gestures; Walk-up-and-use
Natural Interaction with Video Environments Using Gestures and a Mirror Image Avatar BIBAKFull-Text 387-394
  Christian Kray; Dennis Wilhelm; Thore Fechner; Morin Ostkmap
Video environments are a promising option for a variety of applications such as training, gaming, entertainment, remote collaboration, or user studies. Being able to interact with these environments enables further applications and extends existing application scenarios. In this paper, we propose a novel interaction technique that combines natural gestures with mirror images of the user to allow for immersive interaction with video environments. The technique enables movement inside the 3D space depicted by the video as well as the placement and manipulation of virtual objects within the 3D space. We describe a potential application scenario, where interactive public displays are placed inside a scene by one user and then experienced by another user. We also briefly report on a user study evaluating the gesture set we defined for controlling movement within the video.
Keywords: Gestural interaction; Mirror image; Avatar; Video
Sci-Fi Gestures Catalog BIBAKFull-Text 395-411
  Lucas S. Figueiredo; Mariana Pinheiro; Edvar Vilar Neto; Thiago Chaves; Veronica Teichrieb
In Science Fiction (Sci-Fi) movies, filmmakers try to anticipate trends and new forms of interaction. Metaphors are created allowing their characters to interact with futuristic devices and environments. These devices and metaphors should be target of research considering they have proven to be useful before. Moreover, the impact of the new interfaces on the audience may indicate their expectations regarding future gesture interactions. Thus, the first goal of this work is to collect and expose a compilation of gestural interactions in Sci-Fi movies, providing a catalog to researchers as resource to future discussions. The second goal is to classify the collected data according to a series of criteria. The catalog is also open to new content contribution, and fellow researchers are invited to provide additional entries of hand gesture scenes from any Sci-Fi title as well as suggestions about new classification criteria and amendments on the already provided content.
Keywords: Sci-Fi movies; Hand gestures; Gesture interaction; User experience
TV Interaction Beyond the Button Press BIBAKFull-Text 412-419
  Regina Bernhaupt; Antoine Desnos; Michael Pirker; Daniel Schwaiger
In order to enhance users' interactions with TV user interfaces we developed a prototypical multimodal interaction mechanism that combines tilting, pressing and puffing as input modalities for a novel interface. The interaction mechanism has been evaluated in an exploratory user experience and usability study that used a within subjects design investigating tilt as input mechanism to navigate through the 3D interface compared to tilt combined with pressure and breath input. Results of this first exploratory study indicate that while this uncommon and unfamiliar way to interact with a novel TV user interface impacts usability scores which were below average compared to traditional remote controls, the user interface approach in combination with the new interaction modalities resulted in above-average scores for the user experience dimension of hedonic quality. The findings are subsequently reflected and implications of using alternative input modalities for TV user interfaces are discussed.
Keywords: Remote control; Breath; 3D position; Gesture; TV; User interface; UI; User experience; Usability

HCI and Security

"I Agree": The Effects of Embedding Terms of Service Key Points in Online User Registration Form BIBAKFull-Text 420-427
  Matjaz Kljun; Jernej Vicic; Klen Copic Pucihar; Branko Kavšek
Terms of service (ToS) are becoming an ubiquitous part of online account creation. There is a general understanding that users rarely read them and do not particularly care about binding themselves into legally enforceable contracts with online service providers. Some services are trying to change this trend with presenting ToS section as key points on a ToS dedicated page. However, little is known how would such presentation of key points affect the continuation of user registration at the time of account creation. This paper provides an exploratory study in this area. We have offered users to participate in a draft for a prize in exchange for their names and email addresses. For this purpose we have created three registration forms: a standard form with ToS hiding behind a hyperlink and two with ToS key points presented at the time of account creation with different engagement requirements. Initial results suggest that ToS key points presented just as a list at the time of account creation is no more engaging than a form with ToS hidden behind a link. More text even made several users to complete the registration quicker than the users with the standard form. Moreover, different designs of the ToS key points list requiring different user engagement affect the interaction and reading of ToS key points, but the actual time spent on ToS is very low.
Keywords: Terms of service; Terms and condition; Privacy policy
Automatic Privacy Classification of Personal Photos BIBAKFull-Text 428-435
  Daniel Buschek; Moritz Bader; Emanuel von Zezschwitz; Alexander De Luca
Tagging photos with privacy-related labels, such as "myself", "friends" or "public", allows users to selectively display pictures appropriate in the current situation (e.g. on the bus) or for specific groups (e.g. in a social network). However, manual labelling is time-consuming or not feasible for large collections. Therefore, we present an approach to automatically assign photos to privacy classes. We further demonstrate a study method to gather relevant image data without violating participants' privacy. In a field study with 16 participants, each user assigned 150 personal photos to self-defined privacy classes. Based on this data, we show that a machine learning approach extracting easily available metadata and visual features can assign photos to user-defined privacy classes with a mean accuracy of 79.38%.
Keywords: Photos; Privacy; Classification; Images; Metadata
CipherCard: A Token-Based Approach Against Camera-Based Shoulder Surfing Attacks on Common Touchscreen Devices BIBAKFull-Text 436-454
  Teddy Seyed; Xing-Dong Yang; Anthony Tang; Saul Greenberg; Jiawei Gu; Bin Zhu; Xiang Cao
We present CipherCard, a physical token that defends against shoulder-surfing attacks on user authentication on capacitive touchscreen devices. When CipherCard is placed over a touchscreen's pin-pad, it remaps a user's touch point on the physical token to a different location on the pin-pad. It hence translates a visible user password into a different system password received by a touchscreen, but is hidden from observers as well as the user. CipherCard enhances authentication security through Two-Factor Authentication (TFA), in that both the correct user password and a specific card are needed for successful authentication. We explore the design space of CipherCard, and describe three implemented variations each with unique capabilities. Based on user feedback, we discuss the security and usability implications of CipherCard, and describe several avenues for continued exploration.
Keywords: Shoulder-surfing attack; Capacitive touchscreen; PIN entry; Security
Digital Signage Effectiveness in Retail Stores BIBAKFull-Text 455-462
  Mari Ervasti; Juha Häikiö; Minna Isomursu; Pekka Isomursu; Tiina Liuska
This paper presents results from a study on the effectiveness of digital signage in the retail environment. The goal of the study was to examine design parameters relevant to digital signage content design which could be used to create guidelines and templates for designing effective digital signage content. In this study, we focused on how video and animation affect the effectiveness of digital signage. When comparing still content with content enhanced with video or animation, no significant difference in effectiveness could be observed. This observation contradicts with earlier studies. Our study supports the views that the digital displays are currently most useful and effective to the younger generation, and that male customers consider digital displays in a store more useful than females do.
Keywords: Digital signage; User study; Retail store; Media management; Digital content design; User interfaces; User experience
Toward a Deeper Understanding of Data Analysis, Sensemaking, and Signature Discovery BIBAKFull-Text 463-478
  Sheriff Jolaoso; Russ Burtner; Alex Endert
Data analysts are tasked with the challenge of transforming an abundance of data into knowledge and insights. This complex cognitive process has been studied, and models created to describe how the process works in specific domains. Two popular models used for this generalization are the sensemaking and signature discovery models, which apply a cognitive and computational focus to describe the analytic process, respectively. This work seeks to deepen our understanding of the data analysis process in light of these two models. We present the results of interviews and observations of analysts and scientists in four domains (Biology, Cyber Security, Intelligence Analysis, and Data Science). Our results indicate that specific aspects of both models are exhibited in the analysts from our study, but neither describe the holistic analysis process.
Keywords: Analytic process; Sensemaking; Signature discovery; Visual analytics; Data analysis

HCI for Developing Regions and Social Development

HCI Practices in the Nigerian Software Industry BIBAKFull-Text 479-488
  Abiodun Ogunyemi; David Lamas; Emmanuel Rotimi Adagunodo; Isaias Barreto da Rosa
In this paper we explore the state of HCI practices in the Nigerian software industry. Our societies have evolved quickly into an information age, and the criticality of software and humans as components of socio-technical systems becomes more worthy to address. In Nigeria, the level of HCI practices is not yet known. We understand clearly, the role of software systems and services to strengthen information societies, and we decided to run a survey of the local software organizations. The results from the survey indicate some level of HCI awareness. Therefore, we conducted some semi-structured interviews in order to deepen our understanding of HCI practices in the industry. The results show there is a knowledge limit regarding HCI practices in the industry. We present a preliminary report of the results obtained from our studies of software organizations in Nigeria.
Keywords: HCI; Human-Centred design; Human-Centred software engineering; Usability; HCI education
Penan's Oroo' Short Message Signs (PO-SMS): Co-design of a Digital Jungle Sign Language Application BIBAKFull-Text 489-504
  Tariq Zaman; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus
Oroo', a very peculiar jungle sign language of the semi-nomadic Penan in Malaysia, Borneo Island, is at the virtue of extinction with recent changes in lifestyle. The youth inhabiting the rainforest are more drawn to technology than traditional forest activities needing cognizance of Oroo'. In partnership with community members of Long Lamai, as part of a long term collaboration, we launched into revitalizing Oroo' through digitalization. Complementing previous efforts of database, tangible and game developments, we postulate that a language can only be revitalized if integrated in daily use. Thus in this paper we present the co-design of the Penan's Oroo' Short Message Signs (PO-SMS) application, which extends current technology driven communication means. Following a community-based co-design approach, a group of local youth and elders have led the unique design of their own digital indigenous communication tool. Our research contributes directly to the INTERACT 2015 theme of "Connection.Tradition.Innovation".
Keywords: Indigenous language; Community-based Co-design; Oroo'; Local content creation
The Whodunit Challenge: Mobilizing the Crowd in India BIBAKFull-Text 505-521
  Aditya Vashistha; Rajan Vaish; Edward Cutrell; William Thies
While there has been a surge of interest in mobilizing the crowd to solve large-scale time-critical challenges, to date such work has focused on high-income countries and Internet-based solutions. In developing countries, approaches for crowd mobilization are often broader and more diverse, utilizing not only the Internet but also face-to-face and mobile communications. In this paper, we describe the Whodunit Challenge, the first social mobilization contest to be launched in India. The contest enabled participation via basic mobile phones and required rapid formation of large teams in order to solve a fictional mystery case. The challenge encompassed 7,700 participants in a single day and was won by a university team in about 5 h. To understand teams' strategies and experiences, we conducted 84 phone interviews. While the Internet was an important tool for most teams, in contrast to prior challenges we also found heavy reliance on personal networks and offline communication channels. We synthesize these findings and offer recommendations for future crowd mobilization challenges targeting low-income environments in developing countries.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing; Crowd mobilization; HCI4D; ICT4D; India
Wayfinding Behavior in India BIBAKFull-Text 522-530
  Naveed Ahmed
India is highly heterogeneous in the way cities are laid out; the way people use landmarks and how certain cultural aspects affect wayfinding. These factors influence the design of maps and navigation systems.
   Users from Mumbai and Rajasthan were interviewed to explore such implications and find design opportunities. These users had low education levels and needed to find addresses on a regular basis. The study was centered on the Indian context.
   People in India rarely use maps for navigation. They rely primarily on asking around and navigate using landmarks. The landmarks people use during this are prominent but sometimes highly volatile and ad hoc like cows and people sitting on street corners. Some of these landmarks may not necessarily always be popular. While inquiring about the route, people repeatedly seek reliable sources en route, to validate the information they have. Other findings during the study include people's preferences in using maps and concerns while seeking directions. Mental models of people also affect the way people navigate and exchange the wayfinding information. Some of these are very specific to the Indian context.
   In the end, we also discuss how these findings will affect the design of navigation and (culture-centric) wayfinding systems.
Keywords: Navigation; Wayfinding; India; Culture; Behavior

HCI for Education

Evaluating Digital Tabletop Collaborative Writing in the Classroom BIBAKFull-Text 531-548
  Philip Heslop; Anne Preston; Ahmed Kharrufa; Madeline Balaam; David Leat; Patrick Olivier
We present an evaluation of an "in the wild" classroom deployment of Co-located Collaborative Writing (CCW), an application for digital tabletops. CCW was adapted to the classroom setting across 8 SMART tables. Here, we describe the outcomes of the 6 week deployment with students aged 13-14, focussing on how CCW operated as a tool for learning within a classroom environment. We analyse video data and interaction logs to provide a group specific analysis in the classroom context. Using the group as the unit of analysis allows detailed tracking of the group's development over time as part of scheme of work planned by a teacher for the classroom. Through successful integration of multiple tabletops into the classroom, we show how the design of CCW supports students in learning how to collaboratively plan a piece of persuasive writing, and allows teachers to monitor progress and process of students. The study shows how the nature and quality of collaborative interactions changed over time, with decision points bringing students together to collaborate, and how the role of CCW matured from a scaffolding mechanism for planning, to a tool for implementing planning. The study also showed how the teacher's relationship with CCW changed, due to the designed visibility of groups' activities, and how lesson plans became more integrated utilizing the flexibility of the technology. These are key aspects that can enhance the adoption of such technologies by both students and teachers in the classroom.
Keywords: Digital tabletops; Collaborative learning; Multi-touch
Evaluating the Accuracy of Pre-kindergarten Children Multi-touch Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 549-556
  Vicente Nacher; Javier Jaen
The direct manipulation interaction style of multi-touch technology makes it ideal for pre-kindergarten children. Recent studies have shown that these challenging users are able to perform a set of basic multi-touch gestures. However, little is known about the accuracy that they can achieve. This paper evaluates the performance of pre-kindergarten children when accuracy is required in the termination phase of these gestures and points out that a mechanism for dynamically adapting the accuracy level could help children in their motor skills development.
Keywords: Multi-touch interaction; Gestures; Usability evaluation; Pre-kindergarten; Accuracy

HCI for Education: Empowered Children's Robotic Product Ideas

The 5-Step Plan BIBAKFull-Text 557-564
  Lara Lammer; Astrid Weiss; Markus Vincze
When children and adults work together as partners throughout the design process in a collaborative and elaborative manner, children come up with a wide range of creative and innovative ideas. The 5-step plan is a holistic approach that empowers children as robotic product designers. Researchers as well as educators can use the approach to introduce children with different interests to robotics and explore their interests, desires and needs regarding interactive technology like robots. In this paper, we describe the 5-step plan and present our findings on children's robotic product ideas from three case studies.
Keywords: Educational robotics; Robot design; Child-robot interaction

HCI for Education

Using IMUs to Identify Supervisors on Touch Devices BIBAKFull-Text 565-583
  Ahmed Kharrufa; James Nicholson; Paul Dunphy; Steve Hodges; Pam Briggs; Patrick Olivier
In addition to their popularity as personal devices, tablets, are becoming increasingly prevalent in work and public settings. In many of these application domains a supervisor user -- such as the teacher in a classroom -- oversees the function of one or more devices. Access to supervisory functions is typically controlled through the use of a passcode, but experience shows that keeping this passcode secret can be problematic. We introduce SwipeID, a method of identifying supervisor users across a set of touch-based devices by correlating data from a wrist-worn inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a corresponding touchscreen interaction. This approach naturally supports access at the time and point of contact and does not require any additional hardware on the client devices. We describe the design of our system and the challenge-response protocols we have considered. We then present an evaluation study to demonstrate feasibility. Finally we highlight the potential for our scheme to extend to different application domains and input devices.
Keywords: IMU; Association; Authentication; Touch interaction; UI design
Design and Usability Evaluation of Adaptive e-learning Systems Based on Learner Knowledge and Learning Style BIBAKFull-Text 584-591
  Mohammad Alshammari; Rachid Anane; Robert J. Hendley
Designing effective adaptive e-learning systems, from a usability perspective, represents a challenge because of the complexity of adaptivity in order to meet the diverse requirements of learners. Furthermore, there is a lack of well-designed experimental evaluation of adaptive e-learning systems in general, and of their usability in particular. The aim of this paper is the presentation of an adaptive e-learning system based on learner knowledge and learning style, and of the results of an initial experimental evaluation of the usability of its two modes of operation. This involves comparing the usability of an adaptive version of the system with the usability of a non-adaptive version, in a learning environment with 75 participants. The experiment produced significant results; they indicate that an adaptive e-learning system based on learner knowledge and learning style has a higher level of perceived usability than a non-adaptive e-learning system. This may also increase the level of satisfaction, engagement and motivation of learners and therefore enhance their learning.
Keywords: Usability; Adaptivity; Learning style; e-learning; Experimentation
How Does HCI Research Affect Education Programs? A Study in the Brazilian Context BIBAKFull-Text 592-610
  Isabela Gasparini; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa; Milene Selbach Silveira; Sílvia Amélia Bim; Clodis Boscarioli
This paper presents a comparative analysis based on two independent studies of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education and research in Brazil. The first study was conducted to understand how HCI has been taught in Brazil, via a survey responded by 114 educators and researchers in the country. The second study analyzed the scientific production of HCI in Brazil from a fifteen-year analysis of full papers published on the Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems (IHC). Our analysis is based on data-driven visual exploration, and it can help to get insights from the data and to identify how HCI research in Brazil relates to our education programs. We believe this kind of analysis can shed some light in the evolution of HCI in other countries.
Keywords: HCI education in Brazil; HCI research in Brazil
MindMiner: A Mixed-Initiative Interface for Interactive Distance Metric Learning BIBAKFull-Text 611-628
  Xiangmin Fan; Youming Liu; Nan Cao; Jason Hong; Jingtao Wang
We present MindMiner, a mixed-initiative interface for capturing subjective similarity measurements via a combination of new interaction techniques and machine learning algorithms. MindMiner collects qualitative, hard to express similarity measurements from users via active polling with uncertainty and example based visual constraint creation. MindMiner also formulates human prior knowledge into a set of inequalities and learns a quantitative similarity distance metric via convex optimization. In a 12-subject peer-review understanding task, we found MindMiner was easy to learn and use, and could capture users' implicit knowledge about writing performance and cluster target entities into groups that match subjects' mental models. We also found that MindMiner's constraint suggestions and uncertainty polling functions could improve both efficiency and the quality of clustering.
Keywords: Mixed-Initiative interface; Clustering; Visualization; Convex optimization; Intelligent user interfaces; Machine learning

INT 2015-09-14 Volume 3

HCI for Global Software Development

An Interactive Approach for Inspecting Software System Measurements BIBAKFull-Text 1-8
  Taimur Khan; Henning Barthel; Karsten Amrhein; Achim Ebert; Peter Liggesmeyer
In recent times, visual analysis has become increasingly important, especially in the area of software measurement, as most of the data from software measurement is multivariate. In this regard, standard software analysis tools are limited by their lack of ability to process huge collections of multidimensional data sets; current tools are designed to either support only well-known metrics or are too complicated to use for generating custom software metrics. Furthermore, the analyst requires extensive knowledge of the underlying data schemas and the relevant querying language. To address these shortcomings, we propose an interactive visual approach that focuses on visual elements, their configurations, and interconnectivity rather than a data ontology and querying language. In order to test and validate our methodology, we developed a prototype tool called VIMETRIK (Visual Specification of Metrics). Our preliminary evaluation study illustrates the intuitiveness and ease-of-use of our approach to understand software measurement and analysis data.
Keywords: Software comprehension; Software measurement; Interactive visual analysis; Visual query specification; Software visualization
Non-response, Social Exclusion, and False Acceptance: Gatekeeping Tactics and Usability Work in Free-Libre Open Source Software Development BIBAKFull-Text 9-26
  Mikko Rajanen; Netta Iivari; Arto Lanamäki
Usability is an important aspect of Free-Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS), but barriers exist for usability specialists' participation in such projects. Organizational boundary literature is interested in the tensions of online communities, including FLOSS communities. While this literature recognizes the importance of managing boundaries in online communities, little empirical research has been conducted on actual gatekeeping tactics project members perform against outsiders' contributions. Based on several years of engaged research with FLOSS projects, we characterize three gatekeeping tactics in FLOSS projects: non-response, social exclusion, and false acceptance. They all have hindered usability work. We also offer examples of usability specialists and their contributions succeeding in avoiding these gatekeeping tactics in FLOSS projects. This paper provides an important contribution to the boundary management literature through detailed examination of gatekeeping tactics in action, as well as to the Human Computer Interaction literature interested in contributing to FLOSS projects through usability work.
Keywords: Usability specialist; FLOSS; Boundary management; Gatekeeping
Task Allocation Between UX Specialists and Developers in Agile Software Development Projects BIBAKFull-Text 27-44
  Kati Kuusinen
Synchronizing efforts between developers and user experience (UX) specialists is one of the major challenges in agile UX work. In this paper, we report results of a study conducted over a release cycle of six agile software development projects in five companies, considering the task allocation and cooperation in the team. Team members (N=31), including product owners, UX specialists, and developers, reported weekly on the UX-related tasks they had contributed to and whether the UX specialist had participated. We identified three forms of cooperation: minimal, product owner -- UX specialist, and developer -- UX specialist. Our study suggests that for projects operating in the minimal cooperation mode, the collaboration concentrates on the user interface (UI) design, while other aspects of UX work are downplayed. At the same time, many UX-related tasks were successfully handled by developers alone. Therefore, to support UX work integration, we suggest a task-oriented integration approach for projects with minimal UX resources.
Keywords: User experience (UX); Agile development; Human-centered design (HCD); UX design work; Agile UX; Human-computer interaction (HCI)

HCI in Healthcare

Breathe with Touch: A Tactile Interface for Breathing Assistance System BIBAKFull-Text 45-52
  Bin Yu; Loe Feijs; Mathias Funk; Jun Hu
Breathing techniques have been widely used as an aid in stress-reduction and relaxation exercises. Most breathing assistance systems present breathing guidance in visual or auditory forms. In this study, we explored a tactile interface of a breathing assistance system by using a shape-changing airbag. We hypothesized that it would help users perform the breathing exercise more effectively and enhance their relaxing experience. The feasibility of the tactile interface was evaluated from three aspects: stress reduction, breathing training and interface usability. The results showed that for most participants, the overall heart rate variability were improved after breathing training. Moreover, "Breathe with Touch" brought users better satisfaction during the exercise. We discuss these results and future design implications for designing tactile interfaces for breathing guidance.
Keywords: Tactile interface; Biofeedback; Breathing assistance; Relaxation
Low-Income Parents' Values Involving the Use of Technology for Accessing Health Information BIBAKFull-Text 53-70
  David Muñoz; Rosa I. Arriaga
Technology is increasingly available to end users of low socioeconomic status (SES), yet little is known about how these users' values affect the interfaces they prefer when seeking information related to their child's health. We investigate low-SES parents' preferences when it comes to technology to track and learn about their child's developmental milestones using both qualitative and quantitative analyses. We follow the methods outlined by Value Sensitive Design (VSD) and found that the three most relevant values for information seeking are Convenience, Learning/Bonding and Trust. We also discuss how these values drive their technology preferences in tracking their child's developmental milestones. We also present a series of design principles for information communication technology for low-SES user groups that were derived directly from our qualitative research with 51 participants. We note that although working in this unique problem space necessitated following an abridged VSD paradigm our results align with the core set of values suggested by VSD.
Keywords: Value sensitive design; Public sector; Qualitative methods
Probing the Potential of Multimedia Artefacts to Support Communication of People with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 71-79
  Alina Huldtgren; Fabian Mertl; Anja Vormann; Chris Geiger
Communication between people with dementia and others becomes increasingly difficult as the disease progresses. Symptoms such as memory loss, speech impairments and limitations in higher cognitive functions affect people's abilities for communication and social interaction. At the same time, meaningful interactions with others are important for the quality of life of people with dementia. In this paper, we describe our work in designing technology probes and testing them with target users to understand how multimedia could be utilized to support the communication of people with dementia through memories.
Keywords: Dementia; Multimedia; Reminiscence; Communication
Smartphone-Based Gait Measurement Application for Exercise and Its Effects on the Lifestyle of Senior Citizens BIBAKFull-Text 80-98
  Takahiro Miura; Ken-ichiro Yabu; Atsushi Hiyama; Noriko Inamura; Michitaka Hirose; Tohru Ifukube
Population aging leads to more expensive social security and medical care in a society. In order to minimize national expenditure dedicated to providing support to the elderly, it is necessary to reduce the cost of treatment. Current prophylactic approaches mainly include training programs tailored towards seniors, who may be assisted by caregivers, for wellness maintenance and enhancement. However, these approaches are mainly administered by volunteers, who are often overburdened because of labor shortages. It is thus necessary to design and implement a system that enables seniors to maintain and improve their health by themselves. In this study, we propose and test a smartphone-based gait measurement application. Our results indicate that the mobile application can help motivate seniors to walk more regularly and improve their walking ability. Moreover, we found in our experiments that since our application helped improve our senior subjects' physical fitness, some of them became interested in participating in social activities and using new technologies as a consequence.
Keywords: Seniors; Smartphones; Walking; Changes in attitudes

HCI Studies

Swimming the Channels: An Analysis of Online Archival Reference Enquiries BIBAKFull-Text 99-115
  Joseph Pugh; Christopher Power
Archives of historical and cultural data, such as the UK's National Archives, receive huge volumes of enquiries from users. These have been seldom systematically studied, despite the obvious benefits to the organisations concerned and interaction designers. The literature looking at the spectrum of remote communications carried out by a modern archive is sparse. Similarly, there is a lack of information about the problems users are having with archival information systems, and no information on the distribution of problems or where in users' information seeking journeys they occur. This paper reports on a mixed-method study using content analysis and grounded theory to address these gaps in the literature. The results of the study indicate that users primarily are encountering problems knowing where to start looking or where to look next in their information seeking journeys. Further, these problems seem to create a deep anxiety or uncertainty in archive users which drives them to seek reassurance and guidance from human archivists, who will provide the type of disambiguation and support that current information systems do not. The paper closes with implications of this work on the future prioritisation of design practice and research in online archives.
Keywords: Archives; Reference enquiries; Content analysis; Grounded theory social media; Email; Information seeking
"Not Some Trumped Up Beef": Assessing Credibility of Online Restaurant Reviews BIBAKFull-Text 116-131
  Marina Kobayashi; Victoria Schwanda Sosik; David Huffaker
Online reviews, or electronic word of mouth (eWOM), are an essential source of information for people making decisions about products and services, however they are also susceptible to abuses such as spamming and defamation. Therefore when making decisions, readers must determine if reviews are credible. Yet relatively little research has investigated how people make credibility judgments of online reviews. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative results from a survey of 1,979 respondents, showing that attributes of the reviewer and review content influence credibility ratings. Especially important for judging credibility is the level of detail in the review, whether or not it is balanced in sentiment, and whether the reviewer demonstrates expertise. Our findings contribute to the understanding of how people judge eWOM credibility, and we suggest how eWOM platforms can be designed to coach reviewers to write better reviews and present reviews in a manner that facilitates credibility judgments.
Keywords: eWOM; Online review credibility; Online review platforms
An Empirical Investigation of the Practices and Challenges Specific to International User Studies BIBAKFull-Text 132-148
  Sabine Madsen; Lene Nielsen; Heidi Hautopp; Iben Jensen
In today's globalized world, it is increasingly important for companies to gain knowledge about international markets and to understand the differences and similarities between international users. As a result, international user studies have become more common. However, they still pose a challenge for most companies. In this paper, we present the results of an empirical investigation of how companies conduct international user studies. We describe the empirical findings in detail, with an emphasis on the practices and challenges that are specific to the process of doing international user studies. Key findings concern where, geographically, companies choose to collect data; the scope and scale of the studies; as well as the preferred data collection methods and employed control mechanisms. Our research shows that strategic/pragmatic considerations, perceived differences in national culture, and concerns about data quality shape and delimit the approach that companies take to international user studies.
Keywords: Design; International user studies; Application; Practice-study
Entity-Centric Visualization of Open Data BIBAKFull-Text 149-166
  Sajan Raj Ojha; Mladjan Jovanovic; Fausto Giunchiglia
The diversity, which is intrinsic to open data, affects intuitiveness and acceptance from the end users perspective. While the existing visualization techniques provide various ways to exploit open data in different domains, they still lack mechanisms to capture generality and flexibility across highly heterogeneous data representations that are crucial in the open data domain. We propose a novel visualization approach that exploits an entity-centric representation of open data. The key idea is that people intuitively perceive things as entities and categorize them according to their similarities and differences. The approach is supported by a UI architecture that allows aligning underlying open data described by the entities with a meaningful user experience. A preliminary user study shows the feasibility of our approach and its potential in turning the exploitation of open data catalogues into a positive user experience.
Keywords: HCI; Open data; Linked open data (LOD); Usability; User experience (UX); Visualization
Mindful Gaming: How Digital Games Can Improve Mindfulness BIBAKFull-Text 167-184
  Jacek Sliwinski; Mary Katsikitis; Christian Martyn Jones
In recent years, attention has increased around the delivery of mindfulness interventions by means of new technology such as via the smartphone [1]. However, less research has been devoted to investigating how digital games can enable and facilitate mindfulness training. This study demonstrates how mindfulness can be improved by using technology, in particular digital games. Based on the work of Bergomi et al. [2], mindfulness is defined as an inherent capacity in human beings that can be trained, which is explored within the structure of an eight-factor model. For each mindfulness factor identified by the research of Bergomi et al., appropriate games are presented together with research evidence showing their efficacy for mindfulness training. Effective games are disaggregated according to their mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics [3] to provide design recommendations for game developers.
Keywords: Mindfulness; Meditation; Games; Mobile applications
The Affordances of Broken Affordances BIBAKFull-Text 185-202
  Martin Gielsgaard Grünbaum; Jakob Grue Simonsen
We consider the use of physical and virtual objects having one or more affordances associated to simple interactions with them. Based on Kaptelinin and Nardi's notion of instrumental affordance, we investigate what it means to break an affordance, and the two ensuing questions we deem most important: how users may (i) achieve their goals in the presence of such broken affordances, and may (ii) repurpose or otherwise interact with artefacts with broken affordances. We argue that (A) thorough analyses of breakdowns of affordances and their associated signifiers and feedbacks have implication for design, particularly so for virtual artefacts, and that (B) there is a largely unexplored design space for designing, and redesigning objects with broken affordances, rather than broken or decayed objects.
Keywords: Affordances; Technology affordances; Mediated action; Breakdown; Design

Human-Robot Interaction

Deploying Robots in a Production Environment: A Study on Temporal Transitions of Workers' Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 203-220
  Daniela Wurhofer; Thomas Meneweger; Verena Fuchsberger; Manfred Tscheligi
Understanding a worker's perspective when introducing robots at humans' workplaces is crucial to improve human-robot interaction in production environments. Taking a temporal perspective on workers' experiences with robots, we explored expectations and general attitudes as well as actual feelings and reflections regarding the deployment of robots in a semiconductor factory. To evoke reports on workers' experiences, we applied a narrative interview technique with 10 workers. To characterize the temporal transition of workers' experiences, we distinguished between three phases in the deployment process: expectations before the deployment of the robots, familiarization with the robots, and experienced consequences of working with the robots. We present characteristic experiences of each phase and describe how these experiences change over time regarding the perceived functional value of the robots, work organization, feelings, social environment, and attitudes. Overall, our research contributes leverage points towards a more positive experience of workers when deploying robots in a factory.
Keywords: Temporality; Experience; Factory; Human-robot interaction
Finding Objects Faster in Dense Environments Using a Projection Augmented Robotic Arm BIBAKFull-Text 221-238
  Hind Gacem; Gilles Bailly; James Eagan; Eric Lecolinet
Locating an object in an unfamiliar and dense physical environment, such as a control room, supermarket, or warehouse, can be challenging. In this paper, we present the Projection-Augmented Arm (PAA), a motorized robotic arm augmented with a pico-projector to help users to localize targets in such environments. The arm moves and displays a projected spotlight on the target. We present the results of a study that shows that the PAA helps users to more quickly locate target objects in a dense environment. We further study the influence of the visibility of the projected spotlight while moving versus that of the physical movement of the projection arm on user performance and search strategy, finding that (1) information about the orientation of the arm has a stronger impact on performance than moving spotlight projected on the search space; (2) the orientation of the arm is useful (24% improvement) and especially when the target is behind the user (26% improvement); and (3) users' strategies relied mainly on the arm when it is visible.
Keywords: Guidance techniques; Augmented arm; Steerable pico-projector
It's Not the Way You Look, It's How You Move: Validating a General Scheme for Robot Affective Behaviour BIBAKFull-Text 239-258
  Jekaterina Novikova; Gang Ren; Leon Watts
In the emerging world of human-robot interaction, people and robots will work together to achieve joint objectives. This paper discusses the design and validation of a general scheme for creating emotionally expressive behaviours for robots, in order that people might better interpret how a robot collaborator is succeeding or failing in its work. It exemplifies a unified approach to creating robot behaviours for two very different robot forms, based on combinations of four groups of design parameters (approach/avoidance, energy, intensity and frequency). 59 people rated video clips of robots performing expressive behaviours both for emotional expressivity on Valence-Arousal-Dominance dimensions, and their judgement of the successfulness of the robots' work. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of expressive behaviour for facilitating human understanding of robot intentions and the design of cues for basic emotional states.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; Social robotics; Nonverbal communication; Artificial emotions; Body language

Interactive Tabletops

HoverSpace BIBAKFull-Text 259-277
  Paul Lubos; Oscar Ariza; Gerd Bruder; Florian Daiber; Frank Steinicke; Antonio Krüger
Recent developments in the area of stereoscopic displays and tracking technologies have paved the way to combine touch interaction on interactive surfaces with spatial interaction above the surface of a stereoscopic display. This holistic design space supports novel affordances and user experiences during touch interaction, but also induce challenges to the interaction design. In this paper we introduce the concept of hover interaction for such setups. Therefore, we analyze the non-visual volume above a virtual object, which is perceived as the corresponding hover space for that object. The results show that the users' perceptions of hover spaces can be categorized into two groups. Either users assume that the shape of the hover space is extruded and scaled towards their head, or along the normal vector of the interactive surface. We provide a corresponding model to determine the shapes of these hover spaces, and confirm the findings in a practical application. Finally, we discuss important implications for the development of future touch-sensitive interfaces.
Keywords: Hover space; Touch interaction; Stereoscopic displays; 3D interaction
In-Situ Occlusion Resolution for Hybrid Tabletop Environments BIBAKFull-Text 278-295
  Jan Riemann; Mohammadreza Khalilbeigi; Max Mühlhäuser
In this paper we explore the use of in situ occlusion resolution in mixed physical/digital tabletop scenarios. We propose the extension of back-projected tabletops with interactive top-projection to turn the physical object's surface into peripheral displays. These displays are used to resolve occlusion in situ without the need to use additional tabletop display space and keeping the spatial perception of the occluded objects. We contribute a visualization concept and a set of interaction techniques for in situ occlusion resolution and easy access to occluded objects. The techniques are implemented in a system named ProjecTop, which is evaluated in an quantitative user study. The study results highlight how top-projection can be beneficially used. We conclude with a set of design implications derived from the study's results.
Keywords: Interactive tabletops; Occlusion awareness; Hybrid interaction; Peripheral displays; Multitouch
MovemenTable: The Design of Moving Interactive Tabletops BIBAKFull-Text 296-314
  Kazuki Takashima; Yusuke Asari; Hitomi Yokoyama; Ehud Sharlin; Yoshifumi Kitamura
MovemenTable (MT) is an exploration of moving interactive tabletops which can physically move, gather together or depart according to people's dynamically varying interaction tasks and collaborative needs. We present the design and implementation of a set of MT prototypes and discuss a technique that allows MT to augment its visual content in order to provide motion cues to users. We outline a set of interaction scenarios using single and multiple MTs in public, social and collaborative settings and discuss four user studies based on these scenarios, assessing how people perceive MT movements, how these movements affect their interaction, and how synchronized movements of multiple MTs impacts people's collaborative interactions. Our findings confirm that MT's augmentation of its visual content was helpful in providing motion cues to users, and that MT's movement had significant effects on people's spatial behaviors during interaction, effects that peaked in collaborative scenarios with multiple MTs.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; Social interfaces; CSCW

Mobile and Ubiquitous Interaction

If You Are Happy and You Know It, Say "I'm Here": Investigating Parents' Location-Sharing Preferences BIBAKFull-Text 315-332
  Paolo Massa; Chiara Leonardi; Bruno Lepri; Fabio Pianesi; Massimo Zancanaro
A diary approach was used to explore location-sharing preferences of 126 parents with young children with the goal of investigating which elements play a role in their decision to share their location. During a 3-week user study, we daily collected parents' preferences of location sharing along with data related to the physical and social context, their interest in socializing with other parents and their emotional states. Our analysis points out several insights for this previously underexplored user group. In particular, our results suggest a relative greater importance of the context, both physical and social, with respect to individual traits such as personality, trust dispositions, and demographic characteristics. Moreover positive and negative emotions seem to influence the intention to share location information in a peculiar way: positive moods like happiness seem to encourage private sharing with selected people such as partner, relatives, friends and nearby parents, yet, when parents experience a negative mood, such as being worried, angry or sad, their intention to share publicly on the web is higher.
Keywords: Parents; Location sharing; Day reconstruction method
Navigation in Long Forms on Smartphones: Scrolling Worse than Tabs, Menus, and Collapsible Fieldsets BIBAKFull-Text 333-340
  Johannes Harms; Martina Kratky; Christoph Wimmer; Karin Kappel; Thomas Grechenig
Mobile applications provide increasingly complex functionality through form-based user interfaces, which requires effective solutions for navigation on small-screen devices. This paper contributes a comparative usability evaluation of four navigation design patterns: Scrolling, Tabs, Menus, and Collapsible Fieldsets. These patterns were evaluated in a case study on social network profile pages. Results show that memorability, usability, overview, and subjective preference were worse in Scrolling than in the other patterns. This indicates that designers of form-based user interfaces on small-screen devices should not rely on Scrolling to support navigation, but use other design patterns instead.
Keywords: Navigation; Mobile; Smartphone; Form design; Evaluation
Synchronising Live Second Screen Applications with TV Broadcasts Through User Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 341-349
  Pedro Centieiro; Teresa Romão; A. Eduardo Dias; Rui Neves Madeira
A common issue on live sports TV broadcasts happens when a viewer hears a neighbour screaming a goal before watching it on his TV. Similarly, viewers will also have a disruptive experience if a second screen application, designed to present information synchronised with the live TV broadcast, displays information beforehand. This paper presents a simple and universal synchronisation mechanism for second screen mobile applications, which does not rely on automatic content recognition, but rather on user feedback to help users achieve a pleasant and effective second screen experience. Results from user tests helped validate our approach, as users were able to synchronise a mobile application with a simulated live TV broadcast, with different delays.
Keywords: Second screen; Delays; Live TV broadcasts; User experience; Sports
UbiBeam: Exploring the Interaction Space for Home Deployed Projector-Camera Systems BIBAFull-Text 350-366
  Jan Gugenheimer; Pascal Knierim; Christian Winkler; Julian Seifert; Enrico Rukzio
Until now, research on projector-camera systems had only concentrated on user-interaction within a lab-environment. As a result of this, there are very limited insights into how such systems could be used in everyday life. It was therefore our aim to investigate requirements and use cases of home deployed projector-camera systems. To this purpose, we conducted an in-situ user study involving 22 diverse households. Several different categories were specified using a grounded theory approach; placement, projection surface, interaction modality and content/use cases. Based on the analysis of our results, we created UbiBeam; a projector-camera system designed for domestic use. The system has several different features including automatic focus adjustment with depth sensing which enables ordinary surfaces to be transformed into touch-sensitive information displays. We developed UbiBeam as an open source platform and provide construction plans, 3D-models and source code to the community. We encourage researchers to use it as a research platform and conduct more field studies on projector-camera systems.
Cue Now, Reflect Later: A Study of Delayed Reflection of Diary Events BIBAKFull-Text 367-375
  Ming Ki Chong; Jon Whittle; Umar Rashid; Chee Siang Ang
Diary studies require participants to record entries at the moment of events, but the process often distracts the participants and disrupts the flow of the events. In this work, we explore the notion of delayed reflection for diary studies. Users quickly denote cues of diary events and only reflect on the cues later when they are not busy. To minimize disruptions, we employed a squeeze gesture that is swift and discreet for denoting cues. We investigated the feasibility of delayed reflection and compared it against a conventional digital diary that requires users to reflect immediately at the time of entry. In a weeklong field study, we asked participants to record their daily experiences with both types of diaries. Our results show that users' preference is context-dependent. Delayed reflection is favored for use in contexts when interruptions are deemed inappropriate (e.g. in meetings or lectures) or when the users are mobile (e.g. walking). In contrast, the users prefer immediate reflection when they are alone, such as during leisure and downtime.
Keywords: Diary study; Delayed reflection; SqueezeDiary
Tick that Box: Interactive Paper Documents BIBAFull-Text 376-383
  Yomna Abdelrahman; Thomas Kubitza; Katrin Wolf; Norman Pohl; Albrecht Schmidt
Many documents are still printed on paper and their interaction is disconnected from the digital paper representation. Conductive ink allows to print documents with embedded electrical circuits. We developed several layouts to add interactive elements, such as tick boxes or signature fields, to paper documents. In this paper we propose several techniques to enhance classical paper documents by an additional layer of conductive ink. Through this layer the documents maintain their traditional properties and affordances but receive new interactive capabilities that transform them into smart documents. Attached tiny computing elements enable interaction with the paper, such as sensing selections on a form, detecting a signature, or traditional office equipment (e.g. paperclip). Additionally to the layout suggestions we show different ways how the computing unit can be connected to the document and how multi-page documents can be connected to a single computing unit.
Towards Deeper Understanding of User Experience with Ubiquitous Computing Systems: Systematic Literature Review and Design Framework BIBAKFull-Text 384-401
  Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Thomas Olsson; Jonna Häkkilä
Over the past decades, a plethora of innovative ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) systems have been constructed. The acceptance of the systems, however, depends on how users experience them in real contexts. While many of the ubicomp research projects include some form of user study, there is no overview of how user experience (UX) is approached in ubicomp research. To this end, we conducted a systematic literature review of ubicomp UX studies. Our findings reveal that users'experiences with ubicomp systems have often been investigated in rather lightweight ways, for example by addressing basic usability issues, collecting ratings by simple, predetermined scales, or producing descriptions of general experiences such as fun and trust. Based on the findings we argue that a deeper and more fine-grained understanding of user experience would help developing more successful ubicomp systems. We propose a ubicomp UX framework that can help design and evaluate ubicomp systems with a desirable set of target experiences.
Keywords: User experience; Ubiquitous computing; Literature review; UX design and evaluation framework
uCanvas: A Web Framework for Spontaneous Smartphone Interaction with Ubiquitous Displays BIBAKFull-Text 402-409
  Tilman Dingler; Tobias Bagg; Yves Grau; Niels Henze; Albrecht Schmidt
In recent years the presence of displays has become ubiquitous. They range from small-sized screens, such as smartphones or tablets to large screens as they are found in projection screens or public displays. Each display requires a unique modality of interaction, such as a dedicated input device, direct touch or does not provide any interaction at all. With the ubiquity of smartphones people carry with them a high-end interaction device that can connect to any web-connected screen. To allow quick access, we built uCanvas ("Ubiquitous Canvas"), a system to engage with interactive surfaces. In contrast to previous work no additional hardware is required, nor do users need to install any proprietary software. Our system runs on all current smartphones equipped with magnetometer and accelerometer, which is used to define a canvas and transmit cursor positions to a server connected to the display. To integrate interactive surfaces into applications, we created a lean Javascript library that allows publishers to specify interaction parameters (such as pointing, clicking, menu selection and text entry) by adding just a few lines of code. We built two example applications to evaluate the feasibility of the system and findings show that (1) interaction is intuitive and (2) easy to set up on the user side.
Keywords: Mobile interaction; Public display; Ubiquitous computing; Magnetometer; Pointing; Smart environments; Toolkit
Wireless Smartphone Mirroring in Video Calls BIBAKFull-Text 410-417
  Henrik Sørensen; Kenton O'Hara; Phil Gosset; Jesper Kjeldskov
While screen mirroring is an integral part of many video mediated collaborations, current systems are limited in their ability to include ad hoc screen mirroring from personal devices of collocated participants on each end of a video call. In this paper we introduce a system that addresses this limitation by enabling lightweight multi-user wireless smartphone mirroring within a video call. The system enables multiple smartphones to share both digital content as well as physical artefacts when mirroring the live view from the smartphone camera feed. We present a study of the system in use for a distributed design task. The findings explore how shared access to screen mirroring facilitates a fluid switching of floor control in the meeting and smooth interleaving of individual, sub group and full group shared activities. Further, the findings highlight the importance of smartphone mobility in enabling access to screen mirroring from the sites of individual work and sites of various physical artefacts and the significance of this for the dynamics of a video mediated collaboration.
Keywords: Screen mirroring; Video conferencing; Distributed collaboration; Collocated collaboration

Multi-screen Visualization and Large Screens

Disperse: Enabling Web-Based Visualization in Multi-screen and Multi-user Environments BIBAKFull-Text 418-435
  Megan Monroe; Casey Dugan
For visualization developers, the design and construction of effective applications can often feel like a war against screen space. Every now and then, developers are tasked with building a visualization that will live exclusively on a large, high-resolution display. More often than not, however, visualizations must be built to survive across the varying screen sizes of laptops, tablets, and phones. This may explain why many developers have flocked to the web, where stylesheets can easily be swapped and modified to tailor an application's look and feel to the current screen size. But that screen is defiantly singular. If developers want to tap into a more elaborate hardware ecosystem, they must take on the additional workload of server-side or device-specific coding. To this end, we introduce Disperse, a server-based framework that allows developers to encode multi-screen capabilities into web-based visualizations using a simple set of client-side mark-ups. The framework is intended primarily for authoring new visualizations, but can also be used to add multi-screen capabilities to existing visualizations. Disperse not only imposes minimal time and complexity overhead on the development and deployment of these visualizations, as we show through five case studies, but also allows multi-screen visualizations to be realized across any set of web-enabled devices.
Keywords: Visualization; Authoring; Multi-screen; Multi-user; Collaboration
Evaluation of Distance-Aware Bimanual Manipulation Techniques for Large High-Resolution Displays BIBAKFull-Text 436-454
  Anke Lehmann; Oliver Staadt
In this paper we present the approach of interaction scaling. It assists users during their current tasks by adjusting interactivity depending on the user's distance to large high-resolution displays. The mapping method of interaction scaling combines the calculation of a distance-adjusted mapping factor with a manual/automatic change of precision levels. In our user study we evaluated how different accuracies, user preferences and physical navigation affect the user performance of distance-aware manipulation techniques. We used symmetric/asymmetric bimanual manipulation techniques that were evaluated with interaction scaling and a direct mapping approach. Further, we differentiated between coarse-grained and fine-grained accuracy of manipulation tasks. The study identified that interaction scaling improves user performance for very precise manipulation tasks. The participants were able to manipulate objects more accurately with asymmetric technique than with symmetric technique. Most participants preferred a manual switching; however, the tasks could be solved equally well with automatic switching by half of them.
Keywords: Large display; Interaction technique; 2D manipulation; Distance; Mapping factor; Control-display gain; User study; Proximity
Should I Stay or Should I Go? Selecting Between Touch and Mid-Air Gestures for Large-Display Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 455-473
  Mikkel R. Jakobsen; Yvonne Jansen; Sebastian Boring; Kasper Hornbæk
Users can interact with large displays in many ways, including touch and mid-air gestures. However, it remains unclear how these ways compare and when users choose one over the other. In a first experiment, we compare touch and mid-air gestures to identify their relative performance for target acquisition. In a second experiment, participants choose freely between touch and mid-air gestures and we artificially require movement to simulate situations where mid-air is considered beneficial. Results from the first experiment show mid-air to be overall slower than touch depending on the task; in the second experiment, participants mostly chose touch in particular for selecting small targets and they rarely switched between mid-air and touch. Results also show that when faced with an increasing cost of using touch in the form of movement, participants chose mid-air over touch; touch remains as fast as mid-air on average.
Keywords: Large display; Mid-air; Touch; Freehand gestures; User study

Participatory Design

Funky-Design-Spaces: Interactive Environments for Creativity Inspired by Observing Designers Making Mood Boards BIBAKFull-Text 474-492
  Andrés Lucero
Research in surface computing has traditionally been driven by technology. A project that explored ways to provide support for professional users in their work with novel technology by focusing on people instead is presented. A co-design approach was applied by systematically involving end users (i.e., industrial designers) throughout the design process. In a series of activities with fifty designers, the creation of mood boards was identified as an important task for them, and studied in depth. The funky-design spaces vision of a holistic design studio housing interconnected tools that support the creation of mood boards was co-designed, brought to life in two prototypes, and evaluated with designers. The results suggest these environments could stimulate designers to break away from their desks and encourage collaboration with more people.
Keywords: Design practice; Creativity; Co-design; Tabletops; Displays
Kwento: Using a Participatory Approach to Design a Family Storytelling Application for Domestic Helpers BIBAKFull-Text 493-500
  Kakit Cheong; Alex Mitchell
The recording and sharing of family stories remains an important part of what it means to be a "family". While there is prior research into supporting storytelling for families living apart, there remains a gap in understanding and supporting family storytelling for migrant workers. To address this gap, we explored how technologies could be designed for domestic helpers. Nine domestic helpers were recruited and divided into three design teams. The participatory design sessions and cultural probe findings led to the design of Kwento, a prototype mobile application that uses prompts to encourage helpers to reflect upon their personal experiences.
Keywords: Family storytelling; Migrant workers; Participatory design; Cultural probes
Paper or Pixel? Comparing Paper- and Tool-Based Participatory Design Approaches BIBAKFull-Text 501-517
  Matthias Heintz; Effie Lai-Chong Law; Samaneh Soleimani
Traditionally, in participatory design (PD) workshops, pens and paper are often used by participants to provide their design ideas. However, using a software tool to gather their feedback can have certain advantages. While some attempts to develop such tools have been undertaken, the basic question whether the tool-based approach is better or worse than its paper-based counterpart in terms of the quality of feedback gathered is rarely explored. We aim to address this research question by conducting three PD workshops with the paper-based and tool-based approach. In addition to the findings about the comparability of the two approaches, one of our main contributions to the future research on this question is the development of the coding scheme CAt+. It enables systematic comparisons of PD data collected with different methods and aims to support designers and developers to exploit PD results.
Keywords: Participatory design; Paper-based; Tool-based; Coding scheme
Participatory Design in Practice BIBAKFull-Text 518-525
  Laura Cortés-Rico; Giovanny Piedrahita-Solórzano
This paper presents a project for the social development of ICTs, which used a participatory design approach and sought to have a high social impact on a community of craftswomen (embroiderers from Cartago, Colombia). Participating in this project implied active dialogue with the community to recognize the knowledge of each participant and achieve culturally relevant representations materialized in technological artifacts. We posit dialogue, representation and recognition as key elements for developing successful participatory design. In practice, this was achieved through an iterative, incremental and open-ended methodology, whose main feature was engagement by doing. This process of design allowed engineers to recognize the craftswomen's traditional knowledge and allowed craftswomen to be less afraid of technology. The main resultant artifact was a tangible user interface that facilitates dialogue between fashion designers and embroiderers in the process of designing new embroidery patterns. This and other artifacts that emerged from the activities and dialogues, the level of engagement of the participants, and the convergence points discovered between embroidery and technology, lead us to conclude that the process presented here can be replicated with other craft communities, to reinforce these communities and assist them in generating innovation in their processes and products.
Keywords: Participatory design; Crafts; Embroidery; Representation; Dialogue; Recognition; Tangible user interfaces and social technologies

Pointing and Gesture Interaction

Better Than You Think: Head Gestures for Mid Air Input BIBAKFull-Text 526-533
  Katrin Plaumann; Jan Ehlers; Florian Geiselhart; Gabriel Yuras; Anke Huckauf; Enrico Rukzio
This paper presents a systematical comparison of pointing gestures in the context of controlling home appliances in smart homes. The pointing gestures were conducted with head, hand, arm and a computer mouse serving as baseline. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report on such a systematical comparison of the mentioned modalities. Our results indicate that although being overall slower and more inaccurate than hand and arm gestures, head gestures are more suitable for mid air input than previous research indicated. We show that disadvantages like slowness and inaccuracy can be compensated by a larger target size. In addition, head gestures have the largest learning effect. Considering our results and the possibilities head gestures would provide in daily life, we recommend thinking of head gestures as a feasible input modality besides hand and arm gestures.
Keywords: Pointing gestures; Smart home; Head gestures; Comparative study
Enhancing Pinch-Drag-Flick Paradigm with Two New Gestures: Two-Finger-Tap for Tablets and Tap&Tap for Smartphones BIBAKFull-Text 534-551
  Alessio Bellino
The mobile versions of services such as Google Maps or Open Street Maps allow the exploration of maps on smartphones and tablets. The gestures used are the pinch to adjust the zoom level and the drag/flick to move the map. In this paper, two new gestures to adjust the zoom level of maps (but also of images and documents) are presented. Both gestures -- with slight differences -- allow the identification of a target area to zoom, which is enlarged automatically up to cover the whole map container. The proposed gestures are added to the traditional ones (drag, pinch and flick) without any overlap. Therefore, users do not need to change their regular practices. They have just two more options to control the zoom level. One of the most relevant and appreciated advantages has to do with the gesture for smartphones (Tap&Tap): this allows users to control the zoom level with just one hand. The traditional pinch gesture, instead, needs two hands. According to the test results on the new gestures in comparison with the traditional pinch, 30% of time is saved on tablets (Two-Finger-Tap gesture) whereas 14% on smartphones (Tap&Tap gesture).
Keywords: Zoom; Map; Touch; Smartphone; Tablet; Gesture
Estimating Production Time of Touchless Hand Drawing Gestures BIBAKFull-Text 552-569
  Orlando Erazo; José A. Pino; Pedro Antunes
Quantitative user models such as CLC, Isokoski's and KLM have been used to estimate the production time of mouse and pen interactions (pointing, clicking, selecting, drawing, writing). In this paper, we assess if these models can be adapted to estimate the production time of touchless hand gestures (air figures of letters and numbers). New parameters were added to the existing models with empirical values drawn from experiments with users. Two metrics were used to evaluate model quality: strength of the relationship between estimated and observed times, and percentage root mean square error. The obtained results support the hypothesis that CLC, Isokoski's and KLM can be adapted to touchless hand gestures. The paper contributes with model modifications and parameters required to estimate the production times of touchless hand gestures.
Keywords: Touchless hand gestures; Natural user interfaces; Predictive evaluation; User models
The Costs and Benefits of Combining Gaze and Hand Gestures for Remote Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 570-577
  Yanxia Zhang; Sophie Stellmach; Abigail Sellen; Andrew Blake
Gaze has been proposed as an ideal modality for supporting remote target selection. We explored the potential of integrating gaze with hand gestures for remote interaction on a large display in terms of user experience and preference. We conducted a lab study to compare interaction in a photo-sorting task using gesture only, or the combination of gaze plus gesture. Results from the study show that a combination of gaze and gesture input can lead to significantly faster selection, reduced hand fatigue and increased ease of use compared to using only hand input. People largely preferred the combination of gaze for target selection and hand gestures for manipulation. However, gaze can cause particular kinds of errors and can induce a cost due to switching modalities.
Keywords: Hand gestural interface; Gaze interaction; Mid-air gestures; Remote interaction; Large display; Smart living room

Social Interaction

Sharing Wishes on Public Displays: Using Technology to Create Social Places BIBAKFull-Text 578-595
  Vinicius Ferreira; Junia Anacleto; Andre Bueno
We present a public-display-and-mobile-based digital art installation named WishBoard that translates the essence of a chalk-and-wall based art installation called 'Before I Die' into a technological communal expression. Our studies show that public sharing of personal wishes leverage the connection inside a community, creating a feeling of neutral ground for gathering, giving a sense of third place independent of physical constrains, named thirdplaceness. The installation allows people to freely express their wishes, with certain personalization, and provides a public visualization of all shared wishes promoting face-to-face conversations. We conducted two deployments using our installation in a 'socially abandoned' space. Analyzing the shared wishes content and people's behavior when observing the wishes popping up on the public displays, we were able to notice the essential role that public displays combined to mobile devices interaction can play in creating a community meeting place when providing a way for self-expression.
Keywords: Self-expression; Socialization; ICT interactive installation; Art installation; Public display in social spaces; Wishboard; Thirdplaceness
Social Interaction Design Patterns for Urban Media Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 596-613
  Luke Hespanhol; Peter Dalsgaard
Media architecture has emerged as a relevant field of study within HCI since its inception at the turn of the century. While media architecture has the potential to radically affect the social space into which it is introduced, much research in the field was initially carried out through experimental installations in public spaces, often with higher emphasis on examining the properties of this novel type of interface, rather than examining the impact it had on the social context. In this paper, we look back at the field and analyze interactive urban media architecture covering a period of fifteen years of practice with a particular emphasis on how installations have influenced modes and patterns of social behaviour. We classify nine representative installations according to their physical layout, interaction strategies and types of interface. We focus on how these installations were perceived and used by their respective audiences and outline six modes of social interaction that unfold with these installations. From this analysis, we derive seven social interaction patterns, which represent different strategies for designing and employing media architecture to influence social interaction.
Keywords: Social interaction; Media architecture; Media façades; Urban HCI; Responsive environments; Proxemics
Thinking Like Disney: Supporting the Disney Method Using Ambient Feedback Based on Group Performance BIBAKFull-Text 614-621
  Sarah Tausch; Fabius Steinberger; Heinrich Hußmann
The Disney method is a collaborative creativity technique that uses three roles -- dreamer, realist and critic -- to facilitate the consideration of different perspectives on a topic. Especially for novices it is important to obtain guidance in applying this method. One way is providing groups with a trained moderator. However, feedback about the group's behavior might interrupt the flow of the idea finding process. We built and evaluated a system that provides ambient feedback to a group about the distribution of their statements among the three roles. Our preliminary field study indicates that groups supported by the system contribute more and roles are used in a more balanced way while the visualization does not disrupt the group work.
Keywords: Collaborative creativity; Disney method; Feedback; Group mirror; Tabletop display
Eery Space: Facilitating Virtual Meetings Through Remote Proxemics BIBAKFull-Text 622-629
  Maurício Sousa; Daniel Mendes; Alfredo Ferreira; João Madeiras Pereira; Joaquim Jorge
Virtual meetings have become increasingly common with modern video-conference and collaborative software. While they allow obvious savings in time and resources, current technologies add unproductive layers of protocol to the flow of communication between participants, rendering the interactions far from seamless. In this work we introduce Remote Proxemics, an extension of proxemics aimed at bringing the syntax of co-located proximal interactions to virtual meetings. We propose Eery Space, a shared virtual locus that results from merging multiple remote areas, where meeting participants' are located side-by-side as if they shared the same physical location. Eery Space promotes collaborative content creation and seamless mediation of communication channels based on virtual proximity. Results from user evaluation suggest that our approach is sufficient to initiate proximal exchanges regardless of their geolocation, while promoting smooth interactions between local and remote people alike.
Keywords: Remote Proxemics; Virtual meetings; Collaboration

INT 2015-09-14 Volume 4

Tangible and Tactile Interaction

Child or Adult? Inferring Smartphone Users' Age Group from Touch Measurements Alone BIBAKFull-Text 1-9
  Radu-Daniel Vatavu; Lisa Anthony; Quincy Brown
We present a technique that classifies users' age group, i.e., child or adult, from touch coordinates captured on touch-screen devices. Our technique delivered 86.5% accuracy (user-independent) on a dataset of 119 participants (89 children ages 3 to 6) when classifying each touch event one at a time and up to 99% accuracy when using a window of 7+ consecutive touches. Our results establish that it is possible to reliably classify a smartphone user on the fly as a child or an adult with high accuracy using only basic data about their touches, and will inform new, automatically adaptive interfaces for touch-screen devices.
Keywords: Touch input; Children; Adults; Age group; Tap time; Offset distance; Touch accuracy; Classifier; Bayes' rule; Touch-screen; Smartphone; Experiment
Designing of 2D Illusory Tactile Feedback for Hand-Held Tablets BIBAKFull-Text 10-17
  Youngsun Kim; Jaedong Lee; Gerard J. Kim
In this paper, we investigate whether the "out of body" tactile illusion can be extended or applied to a relatively large hand-held device such as a tablet for which the hands/fingers would not be in direct contact with the vibration motors. We derived guidelines for applying tactile illusion techniques in 2D space with regards to operational conditions such as the size of the device, holding position, minimally required vibration amplitudes, and the effects of matching visual feedback. For this purpose, a series of exploratory pilot experiments were first conducted in 1D space. Based on the results, a 2D illusory tactile rendering method was devised and tested for its effectiveness. We have found that for a tablet sized device (e.g. iPad mini and iPad), the illusory perception was possible with a rectilinear grid resolution of 5 × 7 (with a grid size of 2.5 cm) with matching visual feedback.
Keywords: Funneling; Illusory feedback; Vibro-tactile feedback; User experience; Mobile/Hand-held interaction
Need for Touch in Human Space Exploration: Towards the Design of a Morphing Haptic Glove -- ExoSkin BIBAKFull-Text 18-36
  Sue Ann Seah; Marianna Obrist; Anne Roudaut; Sriram Subramanian
The spacesuit, particularly the spacesuit glove, creates a barrier between astronauts and their environment. Motivated by the vision of facilitating full-body immersion for effortless space exploration, it is necessary to understand the sensory needs of astronauts during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). In this paper, we present the outcomes from a two-week field study performed at the Mars Desert Research Station, a facility where crews carry out Mars-simulated missions. We used a combination of methods (a haptic logbook, technology probes, and interviews) to investigate user needs for haptic feedback in EVAs in order to inform the design of a haptic glove. Our results contradict the common belief that a haptic technology should always convey as much information as possible, but should rather offer a controllable transfer. Based on these findings, we identified two main design requirements to enhance haptic feedback through the glove: (i) transfer of the shape and pressure features of haptic information and (ii) control of the amount of haptic information. We present the implementation of these design requirements in the form of the concept and first prototype of ExoSkin. ExoSkin is a morphing haptic feedback layer that augments spacesuit gloves by controlling the transfer of haptic information from the outside world onto the astronauts' skin.
Keywords: Space; Touch; Haptic feedback; Haptic glove; User experience; Extra-vehicular activities; Haptic jamming; Field study; Technology probes
Tactile Communication in Extreme Contexts: Exploring the Design Space Through Kiteboarding BIBAKFull-Text 37-54
  André Schmidt; Mads Kleemann; Timothy Merritt; Ted Selker
This paper uses kiteboarding as an experimental platform to find ways in which technologies could support communication needs in mentally and physically demanding contexts. A kite control bar with embedded sensors and actuators communicates instructions through voice or tactile cues to explore facilitating communication for control guidance. Tactile cues were shown to be productive in changing behavior. Voice, however, communicated planning models and directional guidance better than tactile cues. Still, voice may negatively impact experience. The experiments highlight the need for better ways for communication tools to support mental models.
Keywords: Tactile communication; Research through design; Extreme sports; Kiteboarding
Glass+Skin: An Empirical Evaluation of the Added Value of Finger Identification to Basic Single-Touch Interaction on Touch Screens BIBAKFull-Text 55-71
  Quentin Roy; Yves Guiard; Gilles Bailly; Éric Lecolinet; Olivier Rioul
The usability of small devices such as smartphones or interactive watches is often hampered by the limited size of command vocabularies. This paper is an attempt at better understanding how finger identification may help users invoke commands on touch screens, even without recourse to multi-touch input. We describe how finger identification can increase the size of input vocabularies under the constraint of limited real estate, and we discuss some visual cues to communicate this novel modality to novice users. We report a controlled experiment that evaluated, over a large range of input-vocabulary sizes, the efficiency of single-touch command selections with vs. without finger identification. We analyzed the data not only in terms of traditional time and error metrics, but also in terms of a throughput measure based on Shannon's theory, which we show offers a synthetic and parsimonious account of users' performance. The results show that the larger the input vocabulary needed by the designer, the more promising the identification of individual fingers.
Keywords: Input modality; Multitouch; Finger identification; Evaluation methodology; Throughput; Information theory
Physical Playlist: Bringing Back the Mix-Tape BIBAKFull-Text 72-78
  Daniel Burnett; Adrian Gradinar; Joel Porter; Mike Stead; Paul Coulton; Ian Forrester
To those of a certain age the concept of the mix-tape holds fond memories, and generally not of the musical content they contained, but rather the emotional and physical connection they represented with either its creator or recipient. They provided an embodiment of the time and effort it its creation and thus presented the same qualities of other handmade gifts. The advent of digital content, and particularly the mp3, for storage and streaming meant that audio content could be shared more quickly and easily than ever before. However, the creation of a digital playlist does not embody the same qualities present in a mix-tape and thus has not gained the same cultural significance. This research re-imagines the mix-tape for digital content as physical customizable jewellery that can once again embody values not generally attributed to digital content. Through a discussion of the design process and the results of preliminary evaluation, the potential benefits on the user experience of sharing digital content through physical objects have been highlighted.
Keywords: Tangible; Embodied; NFC; Customizable; Jewellery
Tangible Voting: A Technique for Interacting with Group Choices on a Tangible Tabletop BIBAKFull-Text 79-86
  Valérie Maquil; Eric Tobias; Thibaud Latour
The tangible tabletop has been exploited in many different application domains as one of the most popular setups of Tangible User Interfaces. Proposed interaction techniques are based on, for instance, direct manipulation, dual hand input, or physical actuation. This paper reports on the design and implementation of a new interaction technique to support multiple users in their specifying and manipulating individual choices on a tangible tabletop. The proposed tangible widget consists of both a physical enclosing with several separated zones, and a number of tokens that can be distributed in these zones to specify the individual choices of the group. We present the rationale used in design, the technical implementation, and report on the use of the interaction technique during workshops with children.
Keywords: Tangible User Interfaces; Tabletop interaction; Widgets; Interaction technique; Collaboration

Tools for Design

Dico: A Conceptual Model to Support the Design and Evaluation of Advanced Search Features for Exploratory Search BIBAKFull-Text 87-104
  Emanuel Felipe Duarte; Edson, Jr. Oliveira; Filipe Roseiro Côgo; Roberto Pereira
The design of models and tools to support Exploratory Search acquires more importance as the amount of information on the Web grows. The use of advanced search features is a viable approach for query exploration during Exploratory Search. However, the usage of advanced search features remains relatively low since Web search engines became popular, partially because of design decisions that ignore the complex and flexible nature of search activities. In this paper, we introduce Dico: a conceptual model for advanced search features for Exploratory Search, presenting and evaluating a set of guidelines created to support designers and evaluators to design better advanced search features, promoting its usage. Results from an evaluation activity with prospective designers indicated participants were able to make sense of Dico's guidelines, suggesting the guidelines as a promising artifact to support the evaluation of search engines.
Keywords: Design and evaluation guidelines; Information Seeking; Exploratory Search; Advanced search; Search user interfaces
Revealing Differences in Designers' and Users' Perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 105-122
  Sebastian Feuerstack; Bertram Wortelen
Monitoring complex systems includes scanning, aggregating and processing data from various sources. The design of graphical interfaces for monitoring tasks involves a fine-grained exploration of the importance and expected frequency of events that an operator needs to be informed about.
   The Human Efficiency Evaluator is a tool for the prediction of human behavior. We extended it to predict the distribution of operator's attention while monitoring interfaces. The prediction is based on the SEEV model. We show that our tool can be used by experts with different backgrounds to generate predictions following a structured, semi-automated process.
   In a qualitative study with subject matter experts, we analyzed different HMI designs for a navigation task in the maritime domain. We evaluated their modeling time, tested different prediction result visualizations, and investigated in the model differences between the subjects. Different to what we originally expected, the study revealed that the models created by the subjects substantially differ depending on their perspectives. Heat maps visualizing the predicted attention allocation were appreciated by the subjects and enabled them to argue about their perspective.
Keywords: Visual attention; HMI analysis; Monitoring task
Worth-Centered Design in Practice: Lessons from Experience and Research Agenda BIBAFull-Text 123-139
  Fatoumata Camara; Gaëlle Calvary
Worth-Centered Design (WCD) provides designers with six principles, five "D"s, a framework, and a set of tools, techniques, and methods for designing interactive systems that deliver worth. Despite its potential, WCD has not received much attention: the related literature is not intensive and the design methodology has not been investigated in many actual design settings. The community lacks of experience with WCD.
   This paper first compiles the state-of-the-art on WCD and then relates the worth-centered design of Cocoon, a mobile and context-aware application. It presents further insights about the notion of worth and provides the community with nine lessons from experience for informing future worth-centered designs. Worth maps appear as a treasure also for worth assessment over time, giving rise to the ARROW (Appreciations, Requirements and Rationale Of Worth) framework and research perspectives.

Touch and Haptic

Actuated Shear: Enabling Haptic Feedback on Rich Touch Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 140-147
  Bernhard Maurer; Roland Buchner; Martin Murer; Manfred Tscheligi
We present an approach of a shear force based touch interface that provides a way of actively changing the possible shear-based input (force tangential to a screens surface) by physically locking the corresponding axis of the device. This approach of actuated shear aims at using shear not only as input, but to create a new form of output modality that changes the input affordance of the device itself. It enables a new channel of incorporating physical information and constraints into touch-based interaction (i.e., by changing the input affordance of the device and using shear as a feedback mechanism). With this actuated shear approach, we create a coupling between the digital context created via touch and the actual physical input affordance of the device. Based on the implementation of a prototype, we discuss the design space of actively changing the input affordance of a shear-based touch device, sketch interaction ideas as well as future application scenarios and domains.
Keywords: Rich touch; Shear force; Actuated displays; Haptic feedback
Characterizing the Influence of Motion Parameters on Performance When Acquiring Moving Targets BIBAKFull-Text 148-155
  Alexandre Kouyoumdjian; Nicolas Férey; Patrick Bourdot; Stéphane Huot
Current pointing techniques provide no adequate way to select very small objects whose movements are fast and unpredictable, and theoretical tools -- such as Fitts' law -- do not model unpredictable motion. To inform the design of appropriate selection techniques, we studied how users performed when selecting moving objects in a 2D environment. We propose to characterize selection performance as a function of the predictability of the moving targets, based on three parameters: the speed (S) of the target, the frequency (F) at which the target changes direction, and the amplitude (A) of those direction changes. Our results show that for a given speed, selection is relatively easy when A and F are both low or high, and difficult otherwise.
Keywords: Pointing; Picking; Mobile targets; Selection
Comparing Fatigue When Using Large Horizontal and Vertical Multi-touch Interaction Displays BIBAKFull-Text 156-164
  Shiroq Al-Megren; Ahmed Kharrufa; Jonathan Hook; Amey Holden; Selina Sutton; Patrick Olivier
We report on a user study that compared muscle fatigue experienced when using a large multi-touch display in horizontal and vertical configurations over a one-hour period. Muscle fatigue is recognized as the reduction in a muscle's capacity to generate force or power output and was measured objectively and subjectively before and after a puzzle-solving task. While subjective measures showed a significant level of overall arm muscle fatigue after the task for both configurations, objective measures showed a significant level of muscle fatigue on the middle deltoids and the non-dominant extensor digitorum for the vertical configuration only. We discuss the design implications of these findings and suggest relevant future areas of investigation.
Keywords: Large displays; Interaction; Tabletops; Fatigue; Ergonomics
Touch, Movement and Vibration: User Perception of Vibrotactile Feedback for Touch and Mid-Air Gestures BIBAKFull-Text 165-172
  Christian Schönauer; Annette Mossel; Ionut-Alexandru Zaiti; Radu-Daniel Vatavu
Designing appropriate feedback for gesture interfaces is an important aspect of user experience and performance. We conduct the first investigation of users' perceptions of vibrotactile stimuli during touch and mid-air gesture input for smart devices. Furthermore, we explore perception of feedback that is decoupled from the smart device and delivered outside its operating range by an accessory wearable, i.e., feedback delivered at arm-level. Results show user perception of vibrotactile stimuli up to 80% accurate, which we use to recommend guidelines for practitioners to design new vibrotactile feedback techniques for smart devices.
Keywords: Gestures; Vibrotactile feedback; User perception; Mid-air gestures; Touch; Wearable; Design guidelines; Smartphone; Actuators; Interface design
Where to Start? Exploring the Efficiency of Translation Movements on Multitouch Devices BIBAKFull-Text 173-191
  Quan Nguyen; Michael Kipp
Predicting the efficiency of interaction techniques can be crucial for designing user interfaces. While models like Fitts' law make general predictions, there is little research on how efficiency varies under different conditions like in which screen region a movement starts and in which direction it is going, and whether the surface is horizontal or vertical. This study investigates these aspects with regard to translation movements on a touch screen, using an extended Fitts' law setup and considering arm kinematics. The results show that on horizontal displays translation is faster and causes less arm fatigue than on vertical ones. Also, on horizontal displays, we identified screen regions and movement directions that allow significantly faster movement compared to others. Finally, movements that employ shorter kinematic chains (e.g. just the wrist) are significantly faster than those that use longer ones (e.g. wrist, elbow, shoulder). We suggest adjustments to Fitts' original formulation. In the future, our findings can inform or partially automate positioning decisions in interaction design.
Keywords: Multitouch interaction techniques; Fitts' law; 2D translation

User and Task Modelling

Enhanced Task Modelling for Systematic Identification and Explicit Representation of Human Errors BIBAFull-Text 192-212
  Racim Fahssi; Célia Martinie; Philippe Palanque
Task models produced from task analysis, are a very important element of UCD approaches as they provide support for describing users goals and users activities, allowing human factors specialists to ensure and assess the effectiveness of interactive applications. As user errors are not part of a user goal they are usually omitted from tasks descriptions. However, in the field of Human Reliability Assessment, task descriptions (including task models) are central artefacts for the analysis of human errors. Several methods (such as HET, CREAM and HERT) require task models in order to systematically analyze all the potential errors and deviations that may occur. However, during this systematic analysis, potential human errors are gathered and recorded separately and not connected to the task models. Such non integration brings issues such as completeness (i.e. ensuring that all the potential human errors have been identified) or combined errors identification (i.e. identifying deviations resulting from a combination of errors). We argue that representing human errors explicitly and systematically within task models contributes to the design and evaluation of error-tolerant interactive system. However, as demonstrated in the paper, existing task modeling notations, even those used in the methods mentioned above, do not have a sufficient expressive power to allow systematic and precise description of potential human errors. Based on the analysis of existing human error classifications, we propose several extensions to existing task modelling techniques to represent explicitly all the types of human error and to support their systematic task-based identification. These extensions are integrated within the tool-supported notation called HAMSTERS and are illustrated on a case study from the avionics domain.
EvolutionWorks BIBAKFull-Text 213-230
  Jason Wilkins; Jaakko Järvi; Ajit Jain; Gaurav Kejriwal; Andruid Kerne; Vijay Gumudavelly
EvolutionWorks supports exploratory browsing of the academic paper citation network with an animated and zoom-able visualization that helps researchers explore the conceptual space that emerges from the relationships between academic papers. Metaphorically speaking, a researcher starts out with the seed of an idea that will grow into an unwieldy set of potentially useful papers that the researcher must prune into a final reading list. Accordingly, EvolutionWorks provides novel affordances to explore the citation network based on this seed-grow-prune model. First, kinetic layering represents abstract document properties as physical properties in a force-directed layout. Second, a unified layout shows the network graph and documents in a single view. Third, the focus-context-focus hop is a way to change focus from paper to paper that keeps researchers aware of the immediate context. Finally, if there is a tight cluster of papers, the system automatically creates cluster summary titles that are easier to read.
Keywords: Citation networks; Graph visualization; Information retrieval
Quantifying Object- and Command-Oriented Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 231-239
  Alix Goguey; Julie Wagner; Géry Casiez
In spite of previous work showing the importance of understanding users' strategies when performing tasks, i.e. the order in which users perform actions on objects using commands, HCI researchers evaluating and comparing interaction techniques remain mainly focused on performance (e.g. time, error rate). This can be explained to some extent by the difficulty to characterize such strategies. We propose metrics to quantify if an interaction technique introduces a rather object- or command-oriented task strategy, depending if users favor completing the actions on an object before moving to the next one or in contrast if they are reluctant to switch between commands. On an interactive surface, we compared Fixed Palette and Toolglass with two novel techniques that take advantage of finger identification technology, Fixed Palette using Finger Identification and Finger Palette. We evaluated our metrics with previous results on both existing techniques. With the novel techniques we found that (1) minimizing the required physical movement to switch tools does not necessarily lead to more object-oriented strategies and (2) increased cognitive load to access commands can lead to command-oriented strategies.
Keywords: Interaction sequence; Task strategy; Metric; Theory; Finger identification; Finger specific
Users, Bystanders and Agents: Participation Roles in Human-Agent Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 240-247
  Antonia L. Krummheuer
Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper critiques the view of an 'isolated user' and proposes a micro-sociological perspective on the participation roles in HAI. Two examples of an HAI in a public setting point out (1) the ways a variety of participants take part in the interaction, (2) how the construction of the participation roles influences the construction of the agent's identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs.
Keywords: Embodied conversational agent; Human-agent interaction; Participation role

Visualization

Augmented Happiness: Simple Color Changes Influence Users' Conceptual Choices BIBAKFull-Text 248-255
  Diana Löffler; Wolfgang Paier; Takashi Toriizuka; Mio Ikeda; Jörn Hurtienne
Color is a powerful visual property and is used to make interferences about the world. However, no theoretical framework is available that explains precisely where color associations come from and how they affect psychological functioning, making it difficult to predict how color affects human-computer interaction. This paper aims at closing this gap by suggesting an Embodied Cognition view on color, which assumes that the aggregate of our perceptual color experiences is part of the mental representation of tactile object attributes and thus systematically influences our abstract thinking via the process of metaphorical mapping. An empirical study is presented in which hues and saturation of objects were manipulated via Augmented Reality. Participants matched objects to abstract concepts, e.g., happiness. 83% of the participants' choices were correctly predicted, suggesting that color information is considered during the processing of abstract information. Eight color-to-abstract-concept mappings are recommended and possible areas of application are discussed.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Color; Embodied cognition; Conceptual metaphor
Investigating Representation Alternatives for Communicating Uncertainty to Non-experts BIBAKFull-Text 256-263
  Miriam Greis; Thorsten Ohler; Niels Henze; Albrecht Schmidt
Non-experts are confronted with uncertainty of predictions everyday when, e.g., using a navigation device or looking at the weather forecast. However, there are no standards for representing uncertain information and representations could be easily misleading. Thus, we selected twelve representations that provide different levels of uncertainty information. We compared the representations in an online survey with 90 participants where we asked participants to judge their support in decision-making, familiarity, easiness to understand, and visual appeal. We further evaluated the four most promising representations in a turn-based online game. Players had to make decisions in a farming scenario based on a displayed weather forecast. The results of the survey and the game indicate that a function graph of a probability distribution function is the best way to communicate uncertain information. Nevertheless, our results also show that presenting more uncertainty information does not necessarily lead to better decisions.
Keywords: Uncertainty; Representations; Visualizations; Non-experts
Proxemic Flow: Dynamic Peripheral Floor Visualizations for Revealing and Mediating Large Surface Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 264-281
  Jo Vermeulen; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx; Nicolai Marquardt; Jon Bird
Interactive large surfaces have recently become commonplace for interactions in public settings. The fact that people can engage with them and the spectrum of possible interactions, however, often remain invisible and can be confusing or ambiguous to passersby. In this paper, we explore the design of dynamic peripheral floor visualizations for revealing and mediating large surface interactions. Extending earlier work on interactive illuminated floors, we introduce a novel approach for leveraging floor displays in a secondary, assisting role to aid users in interacting with the primary display. We illustrate a series of visualizations with the illuminated floor of the Proxemic Flow system. In particular, we contribute a design space for peripheral floor visualizations that (a) provides peripheral information about tracking fidelity with personal halos, (b) makes interaction zones and borders explicit for easy opt-in and opt-out, and (c) gives cues inviting for spatial movement or possible next interaction steps through wave, trail, and footstep animations. We demonstrate our proposed techniques in the context of a large surface application and discuss important design considerations for assistive floor visualizations.
Keywords: Feedback; Proxemic interactions; Implicit interaction; Discoverability; Intelligibility; Spatial feedback
Self-Actuated Displays for Vertical Surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 282-299
  Patrick Bader; Valentin Schwind; Norman Pohl; Niels Henze; Katrin Wolf; Stefan Schneegass; Albrecht Schmidt
Most current devices are passive regarding their locations by being integrated in the environment or require to be carried when used in mobile scenarios. In this paper we present a novel type of self-actuated devices, which can be placed on vertical surfaces like whiteboards or walls. This enables vertical tangible interaction as well as the device interacting with the user through self-actuated movements. In this paper, we explore the application space for such devices by aggregating user-defined application ideas gathered in focus groups. Moreover, we implement and evaluate four interaction scenarios, discuss their usability and identify promising future use cases and improvements.
Keywords: Self-actuated; Display; Vertical surface; Mobile

Visualization 3D

3D-HUDD -- Developing a Prototyping Tool for 3D Head-Up Displays BIBAFull-Text 300-318
  Nora Broy; Matthias Nefzger; Florian Alt; Mariam Hassib; Albrecht Schmidt
The ability of head-up displays (HUDs) to present information within the usual viewpoint of the user has led to a quick adoption in domains where attention is crucial, such as in the car. As HUDs employ 3D technology, further opportunities emerge: information can be structured and positioned in 3D space thus allowing important information to be perceived more easily and information can be registered with objects in the visual scene to communicate a relationship. This allows novel user interfaces to be built. As of today, however, no prototyping tools exist, that allow 3D UIs for HUDs to be sketched and tested prior to development. To close this gap, we report on the design and development of the 3D Head-Up Display Designer (3D-HUDD). In addition, we present an evaluation of the tool with 24 participants, comparing different input modalities and depth management modes.
Design and Evaluation of Mirror Interface MIOSS to Overlay Remote 3D Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 319-326
  Ryo Ishii; Shiro Ozawa; Akira Kojima; Kazuhiro Otsuka; Yuki Hayashi; Yukiko I. Nakano
The MIOSS mirror interface can overlay two remote spaces, enabling users to feel as if they are in the same room and thereby to share 3D objects in the spaces. MIOSS imparts motion parallax through a mirror that adjusts to the viewpoint of the user, in addition to providing geometrical consistency in the occlusion, size, and positional relationships in the two remote spaces. Experimental evaluations of an implemented MIOSS system show that users can recognize the exact positions of shared objects in the partner's space via the mirror video.
Keywords: Mirror interface; Motion parallax; 3D modeling; Overlaid space
Improving Spatial Awareness for Human Trajectory Visualization in Space-Time Cubes BIBAKFull-Text 327-334
  Tiago Gonçalves; Ana Paula Afonso; Bruno Martins
With the increasing evolution of computer graphics, 3D visualizations have become more common and are nowadays seen as a promising way to represent complex types of information. In particular, space-time cubes (STC) have been proposed as an alternative to 2D maps for the visualization of spatio-temporal data, and they have become increasingly used to explore the dynamics and patterns of human movement. However, previous research has pointed out perceptual limitations that can condition the use of 3D views for decoding locations and spatial properties. We aim to address those issues by presenting a comparative study between three variants of the STC technique, with different methods to improve spatial awareness. Our results support that the use of a movable plane or an additional 2D map view improve users' accuracy when performing common tasks, and are preferred over simpler, yet less cluttered approaches. Additionally, it also supports the possible advantages of combining 2D and 3D views for human trajectory visualization.
Keywords: Spatio-temporal data; Trajectories; Information visualization; Visual analytics; Space-time cube; Usability
MStoryG: Exploring Serendipitous Storytelling Within High Anxiety Public Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 335-353
  Clinton Jorge; Valentina Nisi; Julian Hanna; Nuno Nunes; Miguel Caldeira; Amanda Marinho
The proliferation of interactive displays within public spaces has steered research towards exploring situated engagement, user interaction and user-generated content on public displays. However, user behaviors such as display blindness and display avoidance, social embarrassment and participation inequality are just some of the limiting factors restricting user commitment to interaction and participation. So-called "non-places", which include transportation terminals, are homogenized public spaces that seem to exist outside conventional notions of time and identity. These anonymous, fast-paced, high-anxiety spaces provide a significant challenge for designers hoping to engage the attention of passersby. Our study proposes to go beyond a traditional technology-centered approach and examine the relationship between individual, object, and space. We attempt to engage airport travelers in serendipitous interactive storytelling through reminiscence and nostalgia. We present our "in-the-wild" study at the baggage claim area of an international airport where 26 h of observations and 49 semi-structured interviews were collected.
Keywords: Pervasive display; Interactive storytelling; Airport installations; Public installations; Participation inequality

Visualization in Virtual Spaces

Estimating Visual Comfort in Stereoscopic Displays Using Electroencephalography: A Proof-of-Concept BIBAKFull-Text 354-362
  Jérémy Frey; Aurélien Appriou; Fabien Lotte; Martin Hachet
With stereoscopic displays, a too strong depth sensation could impede visual comfort and result in fatigue or pain. We used Electroencephalography (EEG), which records brain activity, to develop a novel brain-computer interface that monitors users' states in order to reduce visual strain. We present the first proof-of-concept system that discriminates comfortable conditions from uncomfortable ones during stereoscopic vision using EEG. It reacts within 1 s to depth variations, achieving 63% accuracy on average and 74% when 7 consecutive variations are measured. This study could lead to adaptive systems that automatically suit stereoscopic displays to users and viewing conditions.
Keywords: Stereoscopy; Comfort; EEG; Adaptive system; Evaluation
Exploring the Use of Virtual Environments in an Industrial Site Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 363-380
  Ashley Colley; Jani Väyrynen; Jonna Häkkilä
Virtual environments are becoming more commonly used in urban planning and the construction industry. In this paper, we investigate whether exploring a 3D model of a factory site can identify design problems related to human perception, such as exposing users to heights without sufficient protection. Problems of height and space are not easily identified during the normal design process, and are costly to correct. We present a user study (n=30) in which three different presentation formats, (1) CAVE, (2) Head Mounted Display (HMD), and (3) monitor display, are compared as methods to explore a virtual factory site. Our results indicate that HMD provides the most immersive experience and e.g. that the CAVE approach is problematic in cases where detailed navigation is required. We also identify that the use of heart rate monitoring when exploring the virtual environment can provide a useful indication of possible issues related to perceptions of the design.
Keywords: User studies; Virtual words; Head mounted displays; Immersion
Pointing in Spatial Augmented Reality from 2D Pointing Devices BIBAKFull-Text 381-389
  Renaud Gervais; Jérémy Frey; Martin Hachet
Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR) opens interesting perspectives for new generations of mixed reality applications. Compared to traditional human-computer interaction contexts, there is little work that studies user performance in SAR. In this paper, we present an experiment that compares pointing in SAR versus pointing in front of a screen, from standard pointing devices (mouse and graphics tablet). The results showed that the participants tend to interact in SAR in a way that is similar to the screen condition, without a big loss of performance.
Keywords: Spatial augmented reality; Pointing devices
The Comparison of Performance, Efficiency, and Task Solution Strategies in Real, Virtual and Dual Reality Environments BIBAKFull-Text 390-408
  Frederic Raber; Antonio Krüger; Gerrit Kahl
Using virtual models of a real environment to improve performance and design effective and efficient user interfaces has always been a matter of choice to provide control of complex environments. The concept of Dual Reality has gone one step further in synchronizing a real environment with its virtualization. So far, little is known about the design of effective Dual Reality interfaces. With this paper we want to shed light on this topic by comparing the strategies, performance and efficiency in a real, virtualized and a DR setting given a complex task. We propose a cost and efficiency measure for complex tasks, and have conducted an experiment based on a complex shelf planning task. Our results show that for certain tasks interacting with the virtual world yields better results, whereas the best effectivity can be observed in a Dual Reality setup. We discuss these results and present design guidelines for future Dual Reality interfaces.
Keywords: Immersion; Dual reality; Efficiency; Performance differences in real and virtual environments

Wearable Computing

Hard-to-Get-at Data from Difficult-to-Access Users BIBAKFull-Text 409-416
  Bob Fields; Andy Bardill; Lisa Marzano; Kate Herd
This paper reports on the development of a suite of tools to collect, analyze and visualize a diverse range of data from sufferers of mental ill health. The aim is to allow researchers and ultimately sufferers and clinicians to better understand 'individual signatures' of factors that indicate or identify episodes of ill health. The tools have been applied in a study working with clients of a mental health service that demonstrates their applicability and acceptability in developing a better understanding of the factors surrounding self-harm behavior.
Keywords: Apps; Wearable technology; Mental health; Visualization
Oh, What a Night! Effortless Sleep Monitoring at Home BIBAKFull-Text 417-424
  Bert Vandenberghe; David Geerts
As sleep is considered an important aspect of our health, a range of products that would benefit our sleep is brought to market. Like many of these products, smart wristbands or fitness trackers make promises to improve the user's quality of life by improving sleep quality. We performed a sensitizing diary study followed by a user experience evaluation comparing sleep-tracking features of the Fitbit Flex, Jawbone Up, Misfit Shine, and Polar Loop products with six users. We summarize their findings in three recommendations for sleep-tracking functionalities: find the right balance between automation and control, make data intelligible for users, and acknowledge the role of emotions. These design recommendations should make sleep trackers more transparent, and thus more usable and useful to the users in their endeavor to sleep well.
Keywords: Activity trackers; Sleep monitoring; User experience; Wearables
SkInteract: An On-body Interaction System Based on Skin-Texture Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 425-432
  Manuel Prätorius; Aaron Scherzinger; Klaus Hinrichs
In this paper we propose SkInteract, a system for on-body interaction utilizing the diverse texture of the human skin. We use an area fingerprint sensor to capture images and locate the corresponding area within a previously created map of the skin surface. In addition to the location of the sensor it is possible to calculate its orientation with respect to the reference map. This allows to assign arbitrary semantics to areas of the user's skin and to use the rotation as an additional input modality. In order to evaluate the feasibility of SkInteract a user study with a preliminary prototype was conducted. We propose two different interaction concepts which are based on either attaching a fixed sensor to a wearable device or using a moveable sensor, for instance attached to a pen, to perform on-body input.
Keywords: Mobile; Input; Sensors; Fingerprint; Skin; On-body; Smartring; Smartwatch; Biometrics
Towards a Model of Virtual Proxemics for Wearables BIBAKFull-Text 433-447
  Junia Anacleto; Sidney Fels
We present a Virtual Proxemics Model inspired by Hall's Proxemics Theory targeting wearable technology design and use. In Virtual Proxemics the degree of data control defines different levels of data spaces personal closeness including: Intimate, Personal, Social and Public in the same way Hall's proxemics defines these for physical distance from a person. This model is important for wearable technology design due to the design characteristics of wearables such as: attention-free, invisibility, closeness to the body, sensory linked, controllability and always-on that may compromise a wearer's ability to adequately control data either coming to them or being sent. We describe an experience with a wearable system, called 'The Cat in the Map.' In this system, when strangers accessed the wearer's Intimate data space, she became uncomfortable, consistent with the model. Likewise, when her intimate relations accessed the same data space, she enjoyed the experience. Thus, we see that Virtual Proxemics Model aligns with wearer's experience of data control that may be suitable for the design of automated data access control mechanisms.
Keywords: Wearables; Proxemics; Virtual proxemics; Control-based spaces
ZENse -- Supporting Everyday Emotional Reflection BIBAKFull-Text 448-455
  Christian Löw; Chalid Gad-El-Hak; Roman Ganhör; Hilda Tellioglu
Healthcare benefited greatly from the trend of self-quantification. However, emotional states and psychological health are more elusive and defy description by simple sensor data. In this paper we show how a user oriented design process resulted in ZENse, a wearable prototype for digitally supporting ideas of Positive Psychology, a psychological approach to help patients with mental disorders. A conducted user study shows promising results on the idea and the design. Despite it being only a small explorative study with healthy participants, we found that the prototype triggers situations and interactions that are known to have a beneficial effect on mental well-being.
Keywords: Quantified-self; Wearable; Emotion; Tracking; Self-reflection

Demonstrations

BlurtLine: A Design Exploration to Support Children with ADHD in Classrooms BIBAKFull-Text 456-460
  Dorothé Smit; Saskia Bakker
This paper presents BlurtLine, an interactive belt designed to support children with ADHD in regaining control over their impulsive speaking in class. Two exploratory evaluations of BlurtLine indicate that the design can indeed identify indicators of blurting and was experienced positively by a boy with ADHD and his mother and teachers.
Keywords: Research-through-design; ADHD; Blurting; Classroom; Interaction
Cooperation in Real-Time Using a Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 461-464
  Máté Köles; Károly Hercegfi; Balázs Péter Hámornik; Emma Lógó; Bálint Szabó; Anita Komlódi
Effective team interaction over great distances are already supported by many digital tools. However, cooperative manipulation of common objects is limited and most non-verbal information (gaze direction, facial expressions) can be transmitted only partially or are missing completely. The inclusion of these additional information sources can enrich cooperative problems solving situations. In our demonstration we highlight the capabilities of the Virtual Collaboration Arena to support such interactions. With the help of a volunteer from the audience in Bamberg we will present parts of an information management task solved cooperatively with another user seated in Budapest.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Cooperation; Problem solving
Diving into the Data Ocean BIBAKFull-Text 465-468
  Dieter Meiller
In this paper we present the concept for a novel user interface that simplifies the management of data and the search of information strongly: Instead of a reactive system, a proactive system is suggested. As a substitute of the desktop metaphor we propose to model data as active creatures that move inside the ecosystem computer: a Data Ocean. The concept can be used for different applications to manage objects with varying properties.
Keywords: Graphical user interface; Information visualization; Information retrieval; Internet of things
ETA Wizard App: Make Design and Evaluation of Accessible Electronic Travel Aids Easy BIBAKFull-Text 469-472
  Limin Zeng; Gerhard Weber; Alexander Fickel
To support designers and researchers a touch-screen based Wizard-of-Oz application is demonstrated. It can be used to develop electronic travel aids for blind and visually impaired people and allows evaluating audio and haptic user interfaces in an early development stage. A scenario for presentation of obstacles combines sonification and feedback from vibration of a tactile belt.
Keywords: Electronic travel aids; User-centered design; Auditory and haptic user interface; Wizard of Oz
Generating Narratives from Personal Digital Data: Using Sentiment, Themes, and Named Entities to Construct Stories BIBAKFull-Text 473-477
  Elaine Farrow; Thomas Dickinson; Matthew P. Aylett
As the quantity and variety of personal digital data shared on social media continues to grow, how can users make sense of it? There is growing interest among HCI researchers in using narrative techniques to support interpretation and understanding. This work describes our prototype application, ReelOut, which uses narrative techniques to allow users to understand their data as more than just a database. The online service extracts data from multiple social media sources and augments it with semantic information such as sentiment, themes, and named entities. The interactive editor automatically constructs a story by using unit selection to fit data units to a simple narrative structure. It allows the user to change the story interactively by rejecting certain units or selecting a new narrative target. Finally, images from the story can be exported as a video clip or a collage.
Keywords: Social media; Narrative; Triptych; Multi-media
Interactive Light Feedback: Illuminating Above-Device Gesture Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 478-481
  Euan Freeman; Stephen Brewster; Vuokko Lantz
In-air hand gestures allow users to interact with mobile phones without reaching out and touching them. Users need helpful and meaningful feedback while they gesture, although mobile phones have limited feedback capabilities because of their small screen sizes. Interactive light feedback illuminates the surface surrounding a mobile phone, giving users visual feedback over a larger area and without affecting on-screen content. We explore the design space for interactive light and our demonstration shows how we can use this output modality for gesture feedback.
Keywords: Above-device interaction; Gesture feedback; Gesture interaction; Interactive light feedback; Mobile devices
StoreAnt: A System to Support Finding Collaborative Systems Evaluation Methods BIBAKFull-Text 482-485
  Marcella Leandro Costa de Souza; Lidia Silva Ferreira; Raquel Oiliveira Prates; Marília Lyra Bergamo
This paper presents StoreAnt, a virtual repository tool containing information about collaborative systems evaluation methods. It supports researchers and practitioners in finding and comparing information about methods, and identifying methods that comply to specific criteria (e.g. how the data is collected). The system is functional but has not yet been deployed publicly. Hopefully it will provide the HCI and CSCW communities with a valuable support regarding collaborative systems evaluation methods.
Keywords: Collaborative systems evaluation methods; Repository; Groupware
TUIOFX-Toolkit Support for the Development of JavaFX Applications for Interactive Tabletops BIBAKFull-Text 486-489
  Mirko Fetter; David Bimamisa
TUIOFX is a novel toolkit for developing multi-touch, multi-user applications for interactive tabletops and surfaces. By seamlessly integrating with JavaFX, TUIOFX provides a low entry barrier for developing state-of-the-art applications with multi-user, multi-touch capabilities and allows the cross-platform deployment on various interactive tabletop and surface hardware.
Keywords: Multi-touch; Interactive tabletop; Toolkit; SDK; JavaFX

Interactive Posters

"I Was Here": Enabling Tourists to Leave Digital Graffiti or Marks on Historic Landmarks BIBAKFull-Text 490-494
  Matjaz Kljun; Klen Copic Pucihar
Since ancient times travellers and tourists were carving or writing their names and messages on historic landmarks. This behaviour has prevailed to this day as tourists try to leave their marks at places they visit. Such behaviour, today often seen as vandalism, is particularly problematic since the society tries to preserve historic landmarks while graffiti often leave indelible markings. One solution to this problem is to allow tourists to write digital graffiti projected on historic landmarks and other public surfaces as an additional tourist offer. Projecting digital information on walls does not leave permanent marks while still allows authors to "physically" mark the place they visited. In this paper we frame our vision and highlight the approach we plan to pursue within the context of this topic.
Keywords: Digital graffiti; Tourism; Projections
A Hybrid Approach for Visualizing Spatial and Non-spatial Data Types of Embedded Systems BIBAKFull-Text 495-498
  Ragaad AlTarawneh; Shah Rukh Humayoun; Achim Ebert
Due to the heterogeneity nature of embedded systems, visualizing them from different perspectives requires including different data sets about the underlying system. This opens the doors to think about integrating between the spatial and the non-spatial data sets in this domain. In this work, we present the SceneMan (Scene Manager) platform that integrates between the different data sets using a 2Dplus3D style to reflect the system from different perspectives. In this context, we visualize the non-spatial data using the normal 2D representation, which can be converted to a 3D representation in some cases such that the stereoscopic depth cue is used to encode some aspects about this data set. Additionally, we visualize the spatial data using 3D visualization techniques. This hybrid solution provides the possibility to bridge the gap between the 2D representations and the 3D visualizations.
Keywords: 3D visualization; Graph visualization; Stereoscopic depth; Integrating spatial data; Non-spatial data
A Multi-modal System for Public Speaking BIBAKFull-Text 499-501
  Fiona Dermody; Alistair Sutherland; Margaret Farren
A prototype has been developed for a digital system and multi-modal user interface to analyze social signals displayed during public speaking. User testing on the prototype has commenced to evaluate the most effective way to display real-time feedback to users on their speaking performance.
Keywords: Affective computing; Multi-modal interfaces; Social signal recognition; Human computer interaction
A Study on How to Express Non-manual Markers in the Electronic Dictionary of Japanese Sign Language BIBAKFull-Text 502-505
  Mina Terauchi; Yuji Nagashima
This paper reports on how we would express non-manual markers in NVSG element model. Sign language is a visual language for which there are no general methods of providing descriptions in text. That is why we are proposing a new NVSG element model that focuses on the linguistic structure of sign language. The NVSG element model defines four elements that describe sign language. Manual movements are expressed as N and V elements, and non-manual markers as S and G elements. We have mostly finalized the descriptive parameters for the N and V elements. Up until this point, we have described approximately 1,500 words using the NVSG element model. As a result of this process, we have achieved a greater visual understanding of the hierarchical structures of morphological elements per word. Such descriptions of non-manual markers also enable us to write sentences.
Keywords: Sign language; Morpheme; Non-manual markers; NVSG element model
Applying "Out of Body" Vibrotactile Illusion to Two-Finger Interaction for Perception of Object Dynamics BIBAKFull-Text 506-509
  Jaedong Lee; Youngsun Kim; Gerard J. Kim
Vibrotactile feedback is an effective and economical approach for enriching interactive feedback. However, its effects are mostly limited to providing supplementary alarms or conveying the sense of simple object presence or contact. We propose to apply the "out of body" tactile illusion for selecting and manipulating a virtual moving object while also being able to feel its dynamics using two fingers. We assessed the user experience (focusing on the perception of the dynamics of the selected object) of the proposed method by comparing it to the conventional contact-based method. Our results indicate that users were able to perceive the dynamic feedback, and preferred it over the conventional method.
Keywords: Out-of-body illusion; Illusory tactile sensation; Pinch interaction; Vibrotactile interaction
Designing IDA -- An Intelligent Driver Assistant for Smart City Parking in Singapore BIBAKFull-Text 510-513
  Andreea I. Niculescu; Mei Quin Lim; Seno A. Wibowo; Kheng Hui Yeo; Boon Pang Lim; Michael Popow; Dan Chia; Rafael E. Banchs
A current problem modern cities are facing is the increased traffic flow and heavily congested parking places. To reduce the time and traffic caused by finding available parking we propose IDA, an Intelligent Driver Assistant. The main objective of IDA is to help drivers to find suitable park places, to online monitor car park availability and to redirect drivers when the number of free available spots drops to a critical level. Unlike other parking applications, IDA uses speech to interact with the driver and becomes an active helper during the navigation process by adjusting dynamically the parking decisions based on the traffic situation. The paper presents the current work in progress, interaction design aspects, uses cases, as well as a first user feedback received during a public event where IDA was showcased.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction design; Speech recognition; Smart parking
Development of Usability-Criteria for the Selection Process of Document Management Systems BIBAKFull-Text 514-517
  Antje Heinicke; Christina Bröhl; Ioannis Dokas; Katrin Walbaum; Jennifer Bützler; Christopher Schlick
As the overload of digital information in the SMEs requires an adequate management, document management systems (DMS) increasingly gain significance since they enhance the automation of processes within documents' registration, classification, processing, archiving and forwarding. However, in current selection processes of DMS the usability aspect seems to be unconsidered. For this purpose criteria are developed that measure the usability of existing DMS and allow the selection of a DMS according to usability aspects.
Keywords: Document management; DMS; Usability; Software ergonomics; Selection criteria
Digital Co-design Applied to Healthcare Environments: A Comparative Study BIBAFull-Text 518-522
  Lei Shi; James MacKrill; Elisavet Dimitrokali; Carolyn Dawson; Rebecca Cain
Co-design approaches have been used by different sectors, to understand end-user perspectives. They have been diversified from traditional use in product development to sectors such as healthcare environments. They put emphasis on innovation with end-users where this is seen as a source of competitive advantage, and fits with the logic of end-user-led innovation. It does however ask the question of how to enable such approaches and if digital approaches are more useful than traditional paper-based methods. We propose a digital co-design tool for environment improvement that can potentially promote user involvement. This paper reports on a comparative study on co-designing a healthcare environment using the digital tool versus a traditional paper-based tool. Discussion centers on the benefits and drawbacks of proposed approach.
Dual Camera Magic Lens for Handheld AR Sketching BIBAKFull-Text 523-527
  Klen Copic Pucihar; Jens Grubert; Matjaz Kljun
One challenge of supporting in-situ sketching tasks with Magic Lenses on handheld Augmented Reality systems is to provide accurate and robust pose tracking without disrupting the sketching experience. Typical tracking approaches rely on the back-facing camera both for tracking and providing the view of the physical scene. This typically requires a fiducial to be in the scene which can disrupt the sketching experience on a blank sheet of paper. We address this challenge by proposing a Dual Camera Magic Lens approach. Specifically, we use the front facing camera for tracking while the back camera concurrently provides the view of the scene. Preliminary evaluation on a virtual tracing task with an off-the-shelf handheld device suggests that the Dual Camera Magic Lens approach has the potential to be both faster and lead to a higher perceived satisfaction compared to Magic Lens and Static Peephole interfaces.
Keywords: Magic-lens; Dual-camera; Sketching; Trace-drawing; Virtual-tracing
Enabling Naturalness and Humanness in Mobile Voice Assistants BIBAKFull-Text 528-532
  Sanjay Ghosh; Jatin Pherwani
Voice Assistant applications are preferred to be designed with some form of personalization to enhance user experience. However, the question remains that what is the kind of Voice Assistant that users would prefer. As part of this research we tried formalizing the notion of naturalness and humanlike in the context of voice assistants by defining its optimal personality, creating guidelines for natural dialogues and expressions. We decomposed the design problem into four aspects, communication style, personality, speech or dialogue, and appearance along with non-verbal gestures. To investigate on each of these four aspects, we performed four different user elicitation techniques.
Keywords: Voice interface; Natural language; Voice interactions
Estimation of Radius of Curvature of Lumbar Spine Using Bending Sensor for Low Back Pain Prevention BIBAKFull-Text 533-536
  Takakuni Iituka; Kyoko Shibata; Yoshio Inoue
Estimation of the disk load in order to prevent low back pain is useful. However, the conventional methods of measuring disc load are invasive and their use is limited due to measurement environments. This study proposes a new method of estimating the lumbar disc load to measure curvature of the lumbar portion and to estimate the lumbar disc load safely using a bending sensor. The radius curvature can be measured relatively easily and without damaging the body by using this method. The bending sensors are attached along vertebra end of five vertebras and the curvature of the lumbar portion is estimated by reading the change in output voltage. The lumbar disk load with static posture was estimated by proposed method. The result shows the same tendency as the previous method. The proposed method has a possibility of developing a new system using the biofeedback based on the lumbar disc load.
Keywords: Bending sensor; Herniated disk; Wearable sensing system; Radius of curvature
Evaluation of Dispatcher Requirements on Automated Customer Feedback in Public Transport BIBAKFull-Text 537-541
  Cindy Mayas; Stephan Hörold; Anselmo Stelzer; Frank Englert; Heidi Krömker
This paper presents a study to analyze fundamental requirements for dispatching systems in public transport, integrating the new technical possibilities of automated customer feedback. Dispatchers in German transport companies are surveyed on their acceptance and expectations, regarding the integration of automated customer feedback in their dispatching decisions. The results serve as a basis for the user-oriented development of dispatching and mobile information systems in public transport with bi-directional communication.
Keywords: Dispatching systems; Public transport; User requirements
Experiences of Teaching HCI to a Multidisciplinary Cohort of Computing and Design Students BIBAKFull-Text 542-545
  Omar Mubin; Abdullah Al Mahmud; Suleman Shahid
In this paper we present our initial insights on the redesign of an undergraduate unit on Human Computer Interaction to suit a mixed cohort of Computing and Design students. In order to address the diversity in student background we implemented an open brief project assessment. We summarise changes to the unit and present sample student projects that emerged from the unit as outcomes.
Keywords: HCI education; Design
Experiencing a Home Energy Management System: Finding Opportunities for Design BIBAKFull-Text 546-549
  Bingxin Ni; Abdullah Al Mahmud; David V. Keyson
This paper reports a study, which examines how people experience a Home Energy Management System (HEM). We conducted a probe study with six families in China for two weeks. From our study, we found that people had difficulty in understanding energy data, which were shown as graphs. Families with teenage children showed more interest in using the Home-Energy Management System. Overall, all the participants were fascinated by the remote monitoring and controlling of the appliances offered by the probe. Based on the findings, opportunities for designing HEMs for the target groups are discussed.
Keywords: Smart home control system; Home energy management system; Chinese context; User experience
Eye Strain from Switching Focus in Optical See-Through Displays BIBAKFull-Text 550-554
  Jaeun Yu; Gerard J. Kim
The optical see-through (OST) display is one of the key enabling devices for augmented reality. Despite the latest craze such as with the Google Glass, there are still many ergonomic problems associated with the OST displays. One of the already well known such problem is the "refocusing" problem, in which the user has to switch one's focus between the distant real world and see-through display up front. Such refocusing, for one, is bound to cause significant strain and fatigue to the eyes. However, there are not many studies, nor guidelines devoted to this issue. In this preliminary work, we ran experiments to measure the degree for eye strain and its pattern at different refocusing distances and durations (or number of focused targets). The findings should serve as one guideline in designing OST glass based interaction and applications.
Keywords: Optical see-through displays; Eye strain/fatigue; Usability; Augmented reality; Focus
First Impression Matters: Exploring the Mediating Effect of Previous Experience on the Perception of Beauty and Usability BIBAKFull-Text 555-558
  Suleman Shahid; Omar Mubin
This study investigated how the previous experience of a product possibly mediates the effect of beauty on usability. In an experiment 32 individuals, half with and half without experience, tested two different, but equally usable espresso machines. The results showed that previous experience had a considerable influence on the effect of beauty on usability.
Keywords: Usability; Beauty; Experience
Informing Costumers via Interactive Shelves BIBAKFull-Text 559-562
  Peter Rogelj
Consumers often need additional information to decide which products would best suit their needs. This information is in practice limited due to limited space, limits of human attention, large number of products, etc. On the other hand, any approach to provide any kind of information to the customer is effective only if it does not require excessive user involvement. As a solution to offer only relevant information with minimal customer engagement we propose our vision of interactive shelves. The general idea is to observe the customer interaction with the products in order to recognize and display relevant information. At the moment the observation of interaction is achieved by using passive infrared sensors (PIR) and ultrasound distance measuring sensors (US) to detect user grabbing or pointing to products. We are planning to enhance the current system with camera and gaze detection in the future.
Keywords: Interest recognition; Shopping shelves; Sensor integration
Intelligent Ankle-Foot Orthosis by Energy Regeneration for Controllable Damping During Gait in Real Time BIBAKFull-Text 563-568
  Kyoko Shibata; Yoshio Inoue; Hironobu Satoh
Many hemiplegia patients use the ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) to prevent foot-drop when they walk. However, it is difficult to walk smoothly because conventional AFOs have high rigidity. In order to support natural gait of hemiplegias, in this study, a technique to regenerate energy is applied, and a new self-powered semi-active AFO combining a DC motor and a step-up chopper circuit is developed. In this method, it is possible to drive a long time safely and the damping on an ankle joint can be controlled. From gait experiments, this study show that developed AFO can be rotated the ankle joint smoothly, be charged battery by regenerating energy loss during a gait, and prevent foot-drop. Hence developed AFO can be expected to have high gait improvement effect than the conventional type. Furthermore, developed AFO shows high electricity recovery (86.5%).
Keywords: Medical and welfare assistance; Ankle-foot orthosis; Semi-active damper; Energy regeneration
Interactive Check System for Facilitating Self-awareness of Dorm Students in Upper Secondary Education BIBAKFull-Text 569-572
  Shigenori Akamatsu; Masanobu Yoshida; Hironobu Satoh; Takumi Yamaguchi
We describe a new interactive system using a social learning platform to provide dormitory students with the ability to communicate with teachers/advisors in a timely manner to promote self-active awareness of the dormitory environment. Our system comprises tablet PCs, cloud computing services, and application and server software to enable collaboration over a high-speed wireless local area network that covers the campus, dormitory, and teachers' homes. The purpose of this system is to facilitate the self-recognition of behavioral problems, raise awareness, and encourage student initiative in a natural manner.
Keywords: Mental health; Wellbeing; Upper secondary education
Interactive Toys in the Home: A Parents Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 573-577
  Omar Mubin; Duncan Rutishauser; Mauricio Novoa; Derek Wainohu; Suleman Shahid
In our research we argue for the benefits of Learning through play. In this initial design case, we report on the general requirements of household educative and interactive toys and current usage practices via a focus group with parents. Our results indicate that the parents in our focus group held greatest importance to social and physical play and wished to reduce the dependency on electronic devices.
Keywords: Tangible interfaces; Learning through play
Learning Lessons from Controlled Studies to Investigate Users' Resilience Strategies BIBAKFull-Text 578-581
  Jonathan Day; George Buchanan; Stephann Makri
This work describes the development and implementation of a controlled study into the way users form and utilise resilience strategies to overcome threats to performance. Despite a carefully considered design, participants demonstrated creative and unanticipated strategies to overcome deliberately 'designed-in' challenges in our task, thus circumventing the errors and responses we had predicted. We discuss the variety of unanticipated resilience strategies we observed during the course of this study, as well as methodological lessons learned as a result. Furthermore, we describe a forthcoming study which seeks to build upon the initial investigation, utilising a revised task paradigm to address and overcome its limitations.
Keywords: Resilience strategies; Workarounds; Cognitive resilience
LightWatch: A Wearable Light Display for Personal Exertion BIBAKFull-Text 582-585
  Jutta Fortmann; Janko Timmermann; Bengt Lüers; Marius Wybrands; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
Wearable devices need to seamlessly integrate into everyday life and meet a user's aesthetic needs. In this paper, we present LightWatch, a wearable light display integrated into a common analogue wristwatch without interfering with the functionality of the watch itself. Input is enabled through a pressure-sensitive bezel mounted beneath the light display. LightWatch shall raise body awareness by enabling sensor-based measurement, adjustment and display of a user's personal exertion level. We see LightWatch as a promising approach for an unobtrusive everyday companion that can be used for various applications.
Keywords: Wristwatch; Digital jewellery; LED; Pressure sensitive; Heart rate
Perceptive Media -- Adaptive Storytelling for Digital Broadcast BIBAKFull-Text 586-589
  Adrian Gradinar; Daniel Burnett; Paul Coulton; Ian Forrester; Matt Watkins; Tom Scutt; Emma Murphy
Storytelling techniques within traditional broadcast media have not made major advances in recent years due to the linear and relatively rigid approach to narrative despite advances in the technology that delivers the content. This research proposes the concept of 'perceptive media' in which the content creators have at their disposal different tools and sensors to allow for the subtle adaption of the narrative without any direct interactions from the audience members. The concept is demonstrated through the creation of a 'perceptive radio' that is able to play specially designed content that adapts to the physical and social context in which the radio resides.
Keywords: Adaptive narrative; Digital storytelling; Context-aware media; Perceptive media; Perceptive radio
Redesigning Interaction in CODES BIBAKFull-Text 590-593
  Elisa Leo de Oliveira; Evandro Manara Miletto; Luciano Vargas Flores
Our research group is currently working on the user interface and interaction redesign of CODES, a system for collective music creation on the Web. Cooperative work over a piece of music in CODES follows a cyclic, prototyping approach, which brings some challenges for interaction design. This poster summarizes our redesign concept guidelines, the problems we identified through evaluation of the previous version, and our proposed solutions. The main issues addressed were task conformance, site structure and navigation, aesthetics, and simplicity.
Keywords: Music-making; Prototyping; CSCW; HCI; UI evaluation
Small Community Size of Private SNS for Bonding Relationship: Development of a Research Framework BIBAKFull-Text 594-598
  Hyeonjung Ahn; Sangwon Lee
Since SNS has become an important tool for social relationship and information sharing, numerous studies regarding SNS have been conducted in various domains of social science. Among many kinds of SNSs, we have focused on private SNS, which is especially appropriate for communicating with close acquaintances to bond relationship. Firstly, we investigate the difference of communication patterns between public SNS and private SNS to review and clarify key features of private SNS. To address the issues on ideal community size of private SNS, the present study examines some private SNSs limiting the number of friends. With these kinds of SNSs, we secondly clarify whether this function will be useful in managing the users' relationships for 'strong ties' with emotional closeness. As a preliminary study on private SNS, we suggest research framework based on other studies about research methods to analyze SNS usage patterns. Through online questionnaire survey, we expect to attain the results of the research questions regarding private SNS.
Keywords: Private SNS; Public SNS; Community size; Bonding relationship; Bridging relationship
Sushi Train Interface: Passive and Interactive Information Sharing BIBAKFull-Text 599-602
  Tomomi Takashina; Yuji Kokumai
We proposed sushi train interface as a novel information sharing method to have users notice everyday information in a natural manner. In the interface, information rails are projected on ceilings or walls, and information dishes go around on the rails. Users interact with the information rails using remote pointing devices. We constructed a prototype as a proof-of-concept and implemented pointing methods by a camera device and a smart laser pointer. The both methods are expected to be used for interacting information rails.
Keywords: Sushi train; Information sharing; Pointing method; Passive attitude; Smart laser pointer
Tangible Microscope with Intuitive Stage Control Interface BIBAKFull-Text 603-606
  Tomomi Takashina; Hitoshi Kawai; Yuji Kokumai
Control interfaces of microscope stage have been conservative because they historically precede compact mechanisms which can be used in dark rooms with the sense of fingertips. However, there is a trend of expanding frontier in microscope interaction. New kinds of interactions for microscope are proposed and the freedom of stage control increases by hexapod micropositioning. We propose a tangible microscope which has an intuitive stage control interface. The interface combines a tablet device and a hexapod stage. Because a stage is a plane, we virtually assume a stage is on one's palm. It is very intuitive that the stage moves in the same manner of palm's move. As a proof-of-concept, we constructed a prototype by regarding a tablet as a palm. We haven't any quantitative evaluation yet, but it is expected that the concept of tangible microscope brings a new sense of stage control to users.
Keywords: Microscope; Tangible interaction; Gesture by palm metaphor; Hexapod stage
Touch Skin: Proprioceptive Input for Small Screen Devices BIBAKFull-Text 607-610
  Changhyeon Lee; Jaedong Lee; Gerard J. Kim
The smart watch, increasingly gaining popularity, has limited input and output capabilities due to its size and thus mostly used as a surrogate device to the smart phone. In this poster, we propose "Touch Skin (TS)" that enlarges the interaction space of the smart watch using the hand (or skin) surface and proprioceptive sense. While the input interface is displayed on the small smart watch screen, the interaction is carried out by touching on the larger hand surface to which the input interface elements (e.g. graphical buttons and keys) are mapped. We hypothesize that even though the display and interaction surface are separated, the humans are nevertheless able to perform competently based on one's proprioceptive sense. While sensing for finger touch positions on the hand/skin surface remains to be a technical hurdle, we first explore whether our hypothesis is valid through an enactment study comparing the performance the Touch Skin input to that of the nominal smart phones.
Keywords: Touch screen; Proprioception; Smart watch
Towards In-Air Gesture Control of Household Appliances with Limited Displays BIBAKFull-Text 611-615
  Euan Freeman; Stephen Brewster; Vuokko Lantz
Recent technologies allow us to interact with our homes in novel ways, such as using in-air gestures for control. However, gestures require good feedback and small appliances, like lighting controls and thermostats, have limited, or no, display capabilities. Our research explores how other output types can be used to give users feedback about their gestures, instead, allowing small devices to give useful feedback. We describe the Gesture Thermostat, a gesture-controlled thermostat dial which gives multimodal gesture feedback.
Keywords: In-air gestures; Household devices; Multimodal feedback
Video-Conferencing in E-commerce Website: Effect on Perceived Service Quality and Trust BIBAKFull-Text 616-620
  Suleman Shahid; Abdullah Al Mahmud; Omar Mubin
This study investigates the effect of the presence of live video support in an e-commerce environment on online trust, perceived customer friendliness and perceived quality of service. Participants were asked to rent a car at a car rental website. They needed to find specific information, which was offered, in the form of live video, pre-recorded video or text. Results showed that presence of live video increases perceived support in finding information, perceived customer friendliness and perceived quality of service.
Keywords: E-commerce; Live video; Service quality

Organizational Overview

Contextual Interaction Design Research: Enabling HCI BIBAFull-Text 621-623
  Martin Murer; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Verena Fuchsberger; Manuel Giuliani; Katja Neureiter; Christiane Moser; Ilhan Aslan; Manfred Tscheligi
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has always been about humans, their needs and desires. Contemporary HCI thinking investigates interactions in everyday life and puts an emphasis on the emotional and experiential qualities of interactions. At the Center for Human-Computer Interaction we seek to bridge meandering strands in the field by following a guiding metaphor that shifts focus to what has always been the core quality of our research field: Enabling HCI, as a leitmotif, draws our attention to how each research activity may benefit desires, goals and objectives. Enabling expresses how human-computer interactions are always situated within someone's life, values, and needs; it emphasizes the power of thoughtful design to enable desired interactions and explore desirable futures and expresses how our research addresses the very essence of contextual qualities. This is facilitated through context-rich lab spaces that foster a maker culture for exploring novel forms of contextual interaction. Being an interdisciplinary research group that is rooted in the rich epistemological tradition of the field allows us to bridge boundaries between contemporary thinking and formerly prevalent domains, between established methodology and current research questions. In this paper we highlight how our organizational structure fosters this viewpoint on human-computer interactions.
Organisational Overview: Institute for Design and Assessment of Technology, Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) BIBAFull-Text 624-625
  Geraldine Fitzpatrick; H. Tellioglu; W. Zagler; M. Pohl; F. Güldenpfennig; O. Hödl; R. Ganhör; P. Mayer; C. Frauenberger
The Institute for Design & Assessment of Technology (IGW) is part of the Faculty of Informatics at the Vienna University of Technology and is historically comprised of two groups: Multidisciplinary Design and Human Computer Interaction, which also includes the Centre for Applied Assistive Technology. The institute is highly interdisciplinary, within a traditional computer science faculty. Members come from various backgrounds, enabling us to merge technical engineering and social sciences research with people-centred design. The Institute includes 35 employed faculty/researchers/students and over 10 associated PhD students, engaged in 30 projects funded by the EU and national funding agencies, and supported by administrative staff.
Technology Experience Research: A Framework for Experience Oriented Technology Development BIBAFull-Text 626-627
  Manfred Tscheligi; Sebastian Egger; Peter Fröhlich; Cristina Olaverri-Monreal; Georg Regal
The optimization as well as exploitation of various aspects of user experience is crucial for future technological innovation and adoption. As a consequence of individualization, industrialization and lifestyle orientation, user experience is becoming more and more a major paradigm in the industry as well as in research & technology organizations. This applies at the level of products (goods, services), at the level of (public) technical infrastructures as well as on the level of human oriented innovation cultures and approaches. Based on several years of experience in applied HCI research the Business Unit Technology Experience within the Innovation Systems Department at the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT) has been established as a horizontal unit to bridge between innovation in technological infrastructures and the diverse needs of users, costumers or diverse infrastructure contexts. Providing different viewpoints of technology experience and applied HCI thinking is a vehicle to facilitate improved levels of experiential quality.
Usability Testing Practice at MIMOS Usability Lab BIBAKFull-Text 628-629
  Norfarhana Abdollah; Ashok Sivaji; Masitah Ghazali
This paper presents one of our practices in conducting usability testing. Accredited with ISO/IEC 17025:2005 software testing laboratory, we consider ISO usability sub-characteristics as the metrics for the usability evaluation.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; User experience testing; Software testing

Panels

Design, Innovation and Respect in the Global South BIBAKFull-Text 630-632
  Jose Abdelnour-Nocera; Chris Csikszentmihályi; Torkil Clemmensen; Christian Sturm
The aim of this panel is to facilitate a discussion on the practice of interaction design in the Global South in the context of current global discourses on development, as particularly evidenced in the United Nations' post-2015 development agenda. The panel will generate a thought-provoking debate based on different experiences and cultural and political reflections on designing and innovating in the Global South.
Keywords: Interaction design; Innovation; Development; Global south
Interaction and Humans in Internet of Things BIBAKFull-Text 633-636
  Markku Turunen; Daniel Sonntag; Klaus-Peter Engelbrecht; Thomas Olsson; Dirk Schnelle-Walka; Andrés Lucero
Internet of Things is mainly about connected devices embedded in our everyday environment. Typically, 'interaction' in the context of IoT means interfaces which allow people to either monitor or configure IoT devices. Some examples include mobile applications and embedded touchscreens for control of various functions (e.g., heating, lights, and energy efficiency) in environments such as homes and offices. In some cases, humans are an explicit part of the scenario, such as in those cases where people are monitored (e.g., children and elderly) by IoT devices. Interaction in such applications is still quite straightforward, mainly consisting of traditional graphical interfaces, which often leads to clumsy co-existence of human and IoT devices. Thus, there is a need to investigate what kinds of interaction techniques could provide IoT to be more human oriented, what is the role of automation and interaction, and how human originated data can be used in IoT.
Keywords: IoT; Novel interaction means; Automation
Role of Conferences in Shaping the Field of HCI BIBAKFull-Text 637-639
  Jan Gulliksen; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa; Anirudha Joshi; Shaun Lawson; Philippe Palanque
The panel will discuss the role various conferences have played in developing the field of HCI in academic research and industrial practice. It is composed of people who have experience in organising HCI conferences in different parts of the world. It provides a platform to the participants to think and reflect about what they are doing when attending a conference, what their expectations are and how it impacts positively their knowledge, work and career.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Conferences

Tutorials

Design and Rapid Evaluation of Interactive Systems in Theory and Practice BIBAKFull-Text 640-641
  Jochen Denzinger; Tom Gross
In this half-day tutorial Jochen Denzinger, partner at the design studio ma ma Interactive System Design, and Tom Gross, full professor and chair of the Human-Computer Interaction at the University of Bamberg, present methodologies for understanding users, tasks, and contexts, for designing interactive systems beyond the desktop, and for evaluating them in novel domains.
Keywords: User centred design; Design thinking; Usability and user experience; Evaluation; Development processes; Cyber-Physical systems
How to Design and Build New Musical Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 642-643
  Sidney Fels; Michael Lyons
This half day course introduces the field of musical interface design and implementation. Participants will learn and practice key aspects of the theory and practice of designing original interactive music technology with case studies including augmented and sensor based instruments, audio-visual instruments, mobile, and networked music making. Digital technologies offer powerful opportunities for the creation and manipulation of sound, however the flexibility of these technologies implies a confusing array of choices for musical composers and performers. Some artists have faced this challenge by using computers directly to create new musical forms. However, most would agree the computer is not a musical instrument, in the same sense as traditional instruments, and it is natural to ask 'how to play the computer' in a way appropriate to human brains and bodies. To attempt to answer this question in the course, we draw from the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) [1, 2], which began as a workshop of CHI 2001 [3] and explore connections with the established field of human-computer interaction.
Keywords: New interfaces for musical expression; Digital musical instruments
Sketching User Experiences Tutorial BIBAFull-Text 644-646
  Nicolai Marquardt
When designing novel user interfaces, paper-pencil sketches can support the design thinking process and are valuable for communicating design ideas to others. In this hands-on tutorial we will demonstrate how to integrate sketching into researchers' and interaction designers' everyday practice -- with a particular focus on the design of novel user experiences. Participants will learn essential sketching strategies, apply these in practice during many hands-on exercises, and learn the various ways of using sketches as a tool during all stages of the HCI research and design process. Our emphasis is on quick, easy to learn, and easy to apply methods for generating and refining ideas.
Tutorial on Human Computer Interaction for Third Places -- THCI-3P BIBAKFull-Text 647-650
  Junia Anacleto; Sidney Fels; Roberto Calderon
Third places are places that are neither home nor work, where people voluntarily come together to socialize. Third places are essential to social life because they provide a common ground where different communities can meet, and they promote a sense of place. Emerging information and communication technologies (ICT) are changing the way we use such third places, altering how we interact with other people and how communities are formed. The goal of the first Tutorial on Human Computer Interaction in Third Places is to provide a forum where researchers can discuss the intersection between computing and third places. We aim to introduce the theoretical basis of third place concepts as well as methods, techniques and tools to support developing a research agenda and to initiate collaboration between researchers to better understand the roles of ICT in such places.
Keywords: Third place; Thirdplaceness; Pervasiveness; Ubiquitousness; Socialization
Tutorial: Modern Regression Techniques for HCI Researchers BIBAFull-Text 651-654
  Martin Schmettow
Despite a century of progress in statistics since the introduction of ANOVA and Pearson correlation, many researchers are still squeezing their precious data into the tight corset of those dated statistical models. This is particularly limiting in applied disciplines such as HCI, where impact factors can be numerous, heterogeneous and difficult to control experimentally. The proposed tutorial aims at liberating applied researchers from constraints and concerns associated with legacy statistics.
Working with Child Participants in Interaction Design BIBAKFull-Text 655-656
  Janet C. Read
This tutorial will introduce attendees to the challenges and benefits of working with child participants in interaction design and evaluation within the context of HCI. It will outline the most used methods and provide resources to participants so they will be able to carry out effective work with children from 4 to 16 in schools, homes and the outdoors. Delivered by an experienced member of the IFIP WP13.1 SIG in IDC, this tutorial will appeal to researchers and developers working with children and in the design of products for children.
Keywords: Participatory design; Teenagers; Child computer interaction; Evaluation; Tutorial

Workshops

Fostering Smart Energy Applications BIBAKFull-Text 657-658
  Masood Masoodian; Elisabeth André; Thomas Rist
There is an increasing need for smart applications with interactive visual interfaces that allow users to better manage and monitor their energy generation and consumption. This workshop will bring together researchers and practitioners from interaction design, human-computer interaction, visualization, computer games, and media technology to foster research, design, development, and deployment of energy-related applications, tools, services, games, and persuasive technologies.
Keywords: Energy usage management; Energy usage monitoring; Visualizations; Visual interfaces; Persuasive technologies; User evaluation
Human Work Interaction Design (HWID): Design for Challenging Work Environments BIBAFull-Text 659-660
  Verena Fuchsberger; Martin Murer; Manfred Tscheligi; José Abdelnour-Nocera; Pedro Campos; Frederica Gonçalves; Barbara Rita Barricelli
This one-day workshop aims to contribute to the goals of the IFIP 13.6 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) working group, i.e., to establish relationships between empirical work-domain studies and recent developments in interaction design. This goal translates to the workshop by focusing on work environments that are challenging for research and design; from physically or spatially unusual workplaces (e.g., oil platforms), mentally demanding or specifically boring work (e.g., control rooms, academics) to challenging social situations at work (e.g., in hospitals). The workshop aims to discuss resulting constraints for research and design, e.g., restricted access for research, or difficulties in articulating the specifics of the workplaces to a wider audience that is not familiar with them. Some work environments may even impede forms of design research, e.g., critical or provocative design will be hard to carry out in safety- or efficiency-critical workplaces. Thus, ways to generate knowledge addressing the design of interactive artifacts for challenging workplaces will be discussed.
IFIP WG 13.2 Workshop on User Experience and User-Centered Development Processes BIBAFull-Text 661-662
  Marco Winckler; Regina Bernhaupt; Peter Forbrig; Stefan Sauer
This workshop focusses on the interplay of user experience (UX) and user-centered development processes of interactive systems. It is organized by the IFIP Working Group 13.2 on Human-Centered Software Methodologies. It is proposed as a follow-up activity started at an interactive session organized at HCSE 2014. Our ultimate goal is bringing together researchers and practitioners to discuss real-life case studies featuring success and/or failure stories of development processes that take into account UX as an important dimension for the interactive system at concern. Based on these discussions, we expect to deepen the understanding of problems and challenges when dealing with UX in the software development process.
IFIP WG 13.5 Workshop on Resilience, Reliability, Safety and Human Error in System Development BIBAFull-Text 663-664
  Chris Johnson; Mike Feary; Célia Martinie; Phil Palanque; Regina Peldszus
This workshop focusses on the issues of bringing together several properties to interactive systems. While research in the field of HCI is mainly targeting at Usability and user experience (UX) this workshop focusses on Resilience, Reliability and Safety. It is organized by the IFIP Working Group 13.5 on Resilience, Reliability, Safety and Human Error in System Development. The goal of the workshop is to bring together researchers and practitioners from these various disciplines or their related application domains (such as nuclear, space, aeronautics, healthcare...) to discuss real-life case studies featuring success and/or failure stories of development processes that target resilient interactive systems and take into reliability, safety and human errors for interactive systems. The objective of the workshop is to produce a structured roadmap and a research agenda for the design, construction and assessment of resilient interactive systems.
Learning Beyond the Classroom: For and About Older and Disabled People BIBAKFull-Text 665-666
  Gerhard Weber; Christopher Power; Helen Petrie; Jenny Darzentas
The workshop will provide a forum for discussion for researchers, practitioners and designers interested in both the accessibility of technology-mediated learning for disabled and older learners or in the use of technology-mediated learning to teach professionals about the needs of disabled and older people. Expected outcome is a better understanding of the processes needed to raise the level of inclusion in higher education.
Keywords: Accessibility; MOOC; Elearning; Older learners; Disabled learners
Mediation and Meaning in HCI BIBAFull-Text 667-668
  Susanne Bødker; Olav W. Bertelsen; Liam Bannon; Clarisse de Souza; Simone Barbosa; Raquel Prates
This workshop is about computer mediation in human communication and action. The proponents all look at mediation from different angles, but share the view that meaning is what mediation is about. We aim to dig beneath the surface and touch on the conception, construction, negotiation and evolution of meaning in and of technology, for producers and consumers, before and after technology is deployed. Mediation and meaning will thus allow us to discuss how different segments and perspectives in HCI research can be brought together to give us new insights about how people interact with technology.
Methods for Undertaking Research on Technology with Older and Disabled People BIBAFull-Text 669-670
  Helen Petrie; Blaithin Gallagher; Jenny Darzentas
Developing interactive systems for disabled and older people is an increasingly important topic in HCI, yet there is little discussion of methods used to conduct research with these user groups. The workshop will provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to discuss research methods used in HCI when applied to working with older and disabled people for the elicitation of user needs, evaluation of technologies and understanding of the uses of technologies by these important user groups.
Social Image Research in the Age of Selfies BIBAKFull-Text 671-672
  Casey Dugan; Sven Laumer
Capturing and sharing images of ourselves and others has given rise to many applications and much human-computer interaction research. Social media has made it faster and easier than ever to share such photos, with "selfies", or photographs taken of oneself, invading popular culture. In this workshop, we will bring together researchers studying images of people in the context of HCI, whether thru mining such data, analyzing its use, or creating novel UIs for such.
Keywords: Selfies; Faces; Social media; Face detection; Self-representation
The Landscape of UX Requirements Practices BIBAKFull-Text 673-674
  Gregorio Convertino; Nancy Frishberg; Jettie Hoonhout; Rosa Lanzilotti; Marta Kristín Lárusdóttir; Effie Lai-Chong Law
Studies of development practices reveal that usability and user experience (UX) are often not addressed consistently or explicitly in current development projects. A key reason is that UX requirements are either omitted or not formalized enough for their implementation to be objectively verifiable. This workshop brings together researchers and practitioners who have faced this problem and have experimented with methods to resolve it. The expected result is a descriptive framework that will summarize the current best practices, differentiate them along key dimensions and in relation to known obstacles. Then, a set of recommendations to formalize and verify UX requirements will be provided.
Keywords: Requirements specification; Usability; UX practices
Workshop on Designing Interaction and Visualization for Mobile Applications (DIViM 2015) BIBAKFull-Text 675-676
  Shah Rukh Humayoun; Achim Ebert; Steffen Hess; Gerrit van der Veer
The DIViM 2015 workshop focuses on different issues and limitations regarding designing intuitive interaction and visualization for mobile applications and devices, as well as how to overcome these limits through novel approaches and techniques.
Keywords: Interaction design; Visualization; Mobile app development
Workshop on Interactivity in Healthcare Systems (IHS) BIBAKFull-Text 677-678
  Vicki Hanson; Gemma Webster; Matt Dennis
We are all living longer with average life expectancy increasing across the globe [1]. However, chronic conditions such as heart disease, strokes and cancer, coupled with an increasing global obesity problem still cause a growing number of premature deaths [1]. These conditions combined with an aging population cause a huge strain on healthcare provision.
Keywords: Healthcare; Interactivity; eHealth; Healthy living