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International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 8

Editors:B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
Dates:1976
Volume:8
Publisher:Academic Press
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Papers:55
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 1
  2. IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 2
  3. IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 3
  4. IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 4
  5. IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 5
  6. IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 6

IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 1

Modelling the Human Process Controller BIBA 1-11
  A. S. Baum; C. G. Drury
In many industrial tasks a complex, interactive process must be controlled by a human operator in real-time, with or without the aid of a computer. In order to allocate functions between man and machine at the design stage, a model of human behavior and performance in such tasks is required. Progress towards such a model is analyzed. Real-world studies usually use very complex processes but are designed to study specific problems rather than operator models. Laboratory studies of generally much simpler systems have produced only small effects of major system variables such as displayed information. The problem of performance criteria which are both valid and sensitive remains unsolved, and analysis of verbal protocols has been the major tool used so far in modelling. A loose, hierarchical goal-directed operator model, such as proposed by Bainbridge (1974), is supported by studies from a variety of industries and laboratories.
Using Knowledge in the Computer Interpretation of Handwritten FORTRAN Coding Sheets BIBA 13-27
  R. Bornat; J. M. Brady
This paper describes the methodology of a project to develop a computer program capable of reading casually hand-printed FORTRAN programs. A major feature of the methodology is the organization of the processes in the recognition mechanism: conventional process organization is rejected as too rigid and inflexible. The proposed process organization, developed by workers in artificial intelligence, depends upon the generation, followed by verification or rejection, of hypotheses about the program being read. An argument is advanced that this will not lead to a combinatorial explosion of search time. The ease with which items of knowledge about FORTRAN and about hand-printing can be incorporated in such a system is stressed. Some details are given about the initial direction of the project work.
Augmenting Man's Judgment with Interactive Computer Systems BIBA 29-59
  Peter R. Newsted; Bayard E. Wynne
An Interactive Decision System (AIDS) is described as a computer-based technique to rationalize the judgment process. This technique is intended to allow a typical manager to make decisions with more complete use of information available and fewer loose ends than is usually the case. It has been derived from the information processing routines used by Kepner & Tregoe (1965) in their decision training programs.
   A complete session with AIDS using a decision about nepotism is included as an example. Preliminary testing of AIDS is described.
An Experiment for the Evaluation of Language Features BIBA 61-73
  John D. Gannon
Recently a number of experiments have been performed whose aim was to compare programming language features to determine which programming language features programmers found difficult to use. This paper examines these experiments in light of the evidence that programming language designers would find most useful. A new experiment is described and applied to the problem of whether the assignment operation should be defined as an operator or a statement designator. Empirical evidence in the form of errors made by students programming solutions to two good-sized problems is presented favoring the use of assignment as a statement. Finally, the shortcomings of the new experiment are discussed.
A Dynamic Model of Man-Machine Interactions: Design and Application with an Audiographic Learning Facility BIBA 75-88
  T. C. Ting; A. N. Badre
A generalized conceptual dynamic model of man-machine interactions with its symbolic description is proposed. The model is intended to represent the man-machine interactive behaviors of interactive adaptive logic systems. A study of an online audiographic learning facility, with emphasis on a pre-selected set of interactive functions, is presented to illustrate the use of the model.
A New Mechanism for a Brain BIBA 89-119
  John H. Andreae; John G. Cleary
The new mechanism, PUSS, enables experience of any complex environment to be accumulated in a predictive model. PURR-PUSS is a teachable robot system based on the new mechanism. Cumulative learning is demonstrated by a detailed example. PURR-PUSS is taught to behave like a universal Turing machine.

Book Reviews

"Linguistics and Information Science," by Karen Sparck Jones and M. Kay BIB 121-124
  B. C. Brookes
"Communication Networks for Computers," by D. W. Davies and D. L. A. Barber BIB 121-124
  Ian H. Witten

IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 2

Steps Towards a Mathematical Theory of Perception BIBA 125-147
  D. G. Tonge
The following paper has been written with the underlying philosophy that any theory aimed at understanding the functional organization of the brain must begin with an analysis of perception and must also be firmly based on experimental evidence. A mathematical model is constructed in which the transmission of sensory signals from the environment to the receptor cells and thence along the various stages defined by the neuronal pathways is realized as a transformation of the perceived and necessarily quantized object space to an internal representative image space. The transformation is assumed to be subject to the condition that certain features of the environment, those that are essential to the accomplishment of a task or production of a response, remain invariant. Comparisons with basic properties of the perceptual process are analysed and the relationship between perception and problem solving discussed in the light of the theory.
An Application of Interactive Computer Graphics in Experimental Physics: The Analysis of Thermal Desorption Spectra BIBA 149-157
  D. H. O'Hara; E. V. Kornelsen
A modest computer graphics facility has been applied to the analysis of thermal desorption spectra. An outline is given of the procedure which permits the generation of a synthesized spectrum and its visual comparison with an experimental spectrum. Those aspects of the thermal desorption investigation which required a highly interactive analysis procedure and the essential characteristics of the interactive graphics system for this type of application are discussed. Incomplete mathematical models and the judgments and accumulated experience of the experimenter have been combined to extend the understanding of a complex phenomenon.
Allophonic Variations of Stop Consonants in a Speech Synthesis-by-Rule Program BIBA 159-168
  W. A. Ainsworth; J. B. Millar
In natural speech the acoustic form of each consonant is affected by its context, especially by the vowel which follows it. A computer program for synthesizing speech by rule from phonetic data has been modified so that the rules for generating stop consonants depend upon context. Listening tests have shown that this expedient can increase the intelligibility of stop consonants in isolated CV syllables from 68% to 92%.
A Man-Machine Investment Decision System BIBA 169-193
  Jerry Felsen
Investment analysis, i.e. stock market forecasting and security selection, is a complex judgemental decision process which primarily involves decision-making by weighing evidence. If investment decisions are to succeed, they must be based on a large amount of information. But if the number of decision parameters considered in investment analysis becomes large (e.g. greater than four), the quality of man-made investment decisions rapidly deteriorates. Thus investment performance can be improved by (at least partial) automation or programming of the investment decision process.
   We have developed a programmed investment decision system with the aid of generalized perceptron-type pattern recognition techniques. It was implemented in form of a man-machine (MM) system: The human analyst performs (1) some unstructured (heuristic) decision functions, (2) parts of identification of the decision situation, and (3) numerical encoding of some information for decision making. But much of the task of synthesizing this information into investment decisions is performed by the machine. And performance of the MM investment decision system is gradually improved through machine learning algorithms.
   This decision system was tested in actual investment analysis. The experimental results indicate that investment performance can be improved with mechanical aids to decision-making. Thus the machine may amplify intellect of the human investment analyst. And one reason for the MM decision system's superior performance seems to be its ability to handle subjectively derived inputs.
Psychophysical Techniques for Investigating the Distinctive Features of Letters BIBA 195-205
  R. J. Shillman; T. T. Kuklinski; B. A. Blesser
In an earlier paper (Blesser, Shillman, Kuklinski, Cox, Eden & Ventura, 1974) a theoretical approach for character recognition based on human perception was proposed. The approach focuses on the study of ambiguous characters rather than on archetypes.
   In this paper three experimental techniques are described for studying ambiguous characters and for investigating the relationship between physical attributes and functional attributes. In particular, the mapping from a physical LEG (formed by a line extension) to a functional LEG is examined. This attribute is important in distinguishing Y from V, F from C, H from U and a variety of other letter pairs. Within a neutral graphical context the Physical to Functional Rule (PFR) was found to be constant, independent of letter label and to be a function only of measurable physical parameters of the stimuli; in a biased context (i.e. when the stimulus set is significantly shifted toward one character) the mapping changes. These results are expected to aid in the development of automatic character recognition algorithms since they are based on human perception.
SMITH: How to Produce CAI Courses Without Programming BIBA 207-241
  Luis Osin
A computer-assisted instruction system (called SMITH), has been developed. SMITH relieves the course author of the burden of computer programming, thus greatly reducing course preparation time.
   The author writes his normal instructional text, divides it into frames (suitable for screen presentation), and describes each frame in terms of the topics it covers. He may also establish precedence and some other relations between frames. From then on SMITH structures the material and displays it to each student in a tutorial mixed-initiative mode, tailoring the presentation according to the student's characteristics, performance and requests.
   SMITH is, in fact, an instructional information-retrieval system, provided with a teaching strategy. This new type of system, which may be called IRO-CAI (for information-retrieval oriented CAI), employs special purpose algorithms in order to make intelligent use of minimal content information provided by the author. In this way it is possible to provide CAI in an efficient and adaptive manner without demanding an unrealistic time investment from the author.
Automated and Manual Intelligence Testing of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test on a Psychiatric Adolescent Population BIBA 243-246
  Valerie Klinge; Thomas Rodziewicz
The administration of individual intelligence tests has, until recently (Elwood, 1969, 1973), been almost exclusively handled in a one-to-one face situation, as Overton & Scott (1972) have pointed out. While there is much to be said for one-to-one face administration of many tests, it is also of importance that the examiner be free to observe the patient's behavior as he is being tested, a major advantage of computerized testing. A second advantage of automated testing is the increased speed with which a battery can be administered and scored via computers. As Elwood (1972) has noted, reduced costs for automated testing is a third advantage and an important reason to encourage further development and perfection of automated procedures. The present study is an exploration of the similarities and differences between the automated PPVT -- form B (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and the manually administered version of the same form.
   The PPVT is most adaptable to computerization because of its totally visual nature and the lack of necessity for the examiner to affectively and intensively interact with the subject. Further, the PPVT is a widely used instrument with demonstrated reliability (Dunn, 1965). It has been the hope of the current study that the results would support the notion that future tests be designed which could be adaptable for automated presentation.

IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 3

Editorial: Fuzzy Reasoning BIB 247
  B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
A Fuzzy-Algorithmic Approach to the Definition of Complex or Imprecise Concepts BIBA 249-291
  L. A. Zadeh
It may be argued, rather persuasively, that most of the concepts encountered in various domains of human knowledge are, in reality, much too complex to admit of simple or precise definition. This is true, for example, of the concepts of recession and utility in economics; schizophrenia and arthritis in medicine; stability and adaptivity in system theory; sparseness and stiffness in numerical analysis; grammaticality and meaning in linguistics; performance measurement and correctness in computer science; truth and causality in philosophy; intelligence and creativity in psychology; and obscenity and insanity in law.
   The approach described in this paper provides a framework for the definition of such concepts through the use of fuzzy algorithms which have the structure of a branching questionnaire. The starting point is a relational representation of the definiendum as a composite question whose constituent questions are either attributional or classificational in nature. The constituent questions as well as the answers to them are allowed to be fuzzy, e.g. the response to: "How large is x?" might be not very large, and the response to "Is x large?" might be quite true.
   By putting the relational representation into an algebraic form, one can derive a fuzzy relation which defines the meaning of the definiendum. This fuzzy relation, then, provides a basis for an interpolation of the relational representation.
   To transform a relational representation into an efficient branching questionnaire, the tableau of the relation is subjected to a process of compactification which identifies the conditionally redundant questions. From a maximally compact representation, various efficient realizations which have the structure of a branching questionnaire, with each realization corresponding to a prescribed order of asking the constituent questions, can readily be determined. Then, given the cost of constituent questions as well as the conditional probabilities of answers to them, one can compute the average cost of deducing the answer to the composite question. In this way, a relational representation of a concept leads to an efficient branching questionnaire which may serve as its operational definition.
Deductive Verbal Models of Organizations BIBA 293-311
  Fred Wenstop
The idea that loosely defined simulation models of organizational behavior can yield more significant information than conventional precisely defined ones, has been explored. Natural language has been utilized as a medium for this purpose. This has allowed for the values of the variables to be linguistic rather than numerical, and for causal relations between the variables to be formulated verbally rather than mathematically. Such models have been called verbal models. A generative grammar is presented which restricts the set of allowed linguistic values and relations in a model specification. This makes it possible to formulate a semantical model based on fuzzy set theory of the words in the vocabulary. The semantical model can be used to calculate the dynamic behavior of verbal models. Thus it becomes possible to infer future behavior of a verbal model, given its linguistically stated initial state. This process was greatly facilitated by implementing the semantical model in an APL-workspace, thus making it possible to write linguistic values and relations directly on a terminal, using a syntax very close to that of natural language. The semantical model would then be automatically activated and respond with the linguistic values of output variables.
   A simulation study is presented which shows that verbal models indeed may yield significant information based on rather general premises. This indicates that they may, under certain circumstances, be superior to corresponding conventional simulation models. It is generally concluded that the present approach towards modelling the behavior of complex organizations is not without interesting potentialities.
Lukasiewicz Logic and Fuzzy Set Theory BIBA 313-327
  R. Giles
A new form of logic is described, originally developed for the formalization of physical theories, the essential feature being a "fuzzification" of the concept of a proposition. A proposition is not regarded as being necessarily true or false; it is defined not via truth conditions but in terms of a definite commitment that is assumed by the speaker. In the case of an atomic proposition the commitment amounts to a bet on the outcome of some agreed test; for a compound proposition it leads to a dialogue between the speaker and an opponent. The resulting logic corresponds closely to the infinite-valued logic {MathsL}{inf} of Lukasiewicz. In fact, the approach provides a dialogue interpretation of {MathsL}{inf} and leads to a convenient method for establishing logical identities.
   Set theory is then developed, not by taking set as a primitive concept but by assuming each set A is determined by a property P characteristic of its members: A={x:P(x)}. When this is expressed formally the result can be read in two ways according to whether the underlying logic is classical logic or {MathsL}{inf} (with the above interpretation). If the propositions P(x) are classical we get ordinary sets; if they are propositions in the new "fuzzy" sense we get fuzzy sets (f-sets). The situation is illustrated by a number of definitions and theorems involving simple operations on f-sets. Lastly, the notion of a convex f-set is defined, and a simple theorem is stated and proved using {MathsL}{inf} and the dialogue method of proof. All statements and proofs are expressed in terms of the new logic. In particular, use if the quantitative notion of "grade of membership" in a fuzzy set is entirely avoided.
Spatial Reference and Natural-Language Machine Control BIBA 329-336
  Norman K. Sondheimer
Current research on natural-language speech-understanding provides encouragement for the development of systems for the vocal control of mechanical devices. However, the designer of such systems faces a variety of difficulties in allowing for references to the position, orientation, and direction of motion of objects and actions in space. This paper analyzes sources of these difficulties and conceivable solutions to them.
Behaviour/Structure Transformations Under Uncertainty BIBA 337-365
  B. R. Gaines
This paper analyses the problem of determining a structure for an automaton, optimal in some sense, from observations of its behaviour which are themselves uncertain. It is shown that extension of deterministic modelling techniques based on the Nerode equivalence to probabilistic sources gives meaningless results. The problem of approximate modelling with nondeterministic structures is rigorously formulated leading to the concept of a space of admissible models. The special case where the observed behaviour may be represented as a symbol string is then analysed in terms of measures of string approximation. It is shown that appropriate measures lead to the poorness-of-fit of admissible models of a probabilistic source being an entropy for that source. The formulation is consistent with a computational complexity basis for probability theory and leads to natural expressions for the surprise at each observation and the uncertainty as to the next observation. An implemented algorithm for this modelling process is then described with examples of its application to: probabilistic sources; sampled deterministic sources; grammatical inference; human behaviour; and program derivation from traces.

IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 4

Computer Acquisition of Natural Language: A Review and Prospectus BIBA 367-396
  I. McMaster; J. R. Sampson; J. E. King
A computer program which could learn to converse in natural language, in a fashion analogous to the child's acquisition of his mother tongue, would benefit theories of language acquisition and efforts toward mechanical language understanding. This paper opens with a sketch of the acquisition process as presently understood by linguists, and a discussion of models and methods.
   The "state of the art" in computer acquisition of natural language is then considered, in a critical review of four computer oriented natural language systems (Schwarcz, 1967; Kelley, 1967; Harris, 1972; Block et al., 1975) with important acquisition components
   Based in large part on what has been learned from these previous efforts, a new Comprehensive Language Acquisition Program (CLAP) is proposed. The heart of CLAP is the development of its parsing and related components through the sequential activation of five strategies: segmentation and meaning association, linear ordering, structural generalization, conflict resolution, and using discourse. The first three of these strategies are sufficiently well defined for computer implementation, using established methodologies from artificial intelligence.
A Model for Generative CAI and Concept Selection BIBA 397-410
  Elliot B. Koffman; James M. Perry
This paper describes a model for generative computer-assisted instruction. This model has served as the basis for the design of a CAI system used to teach problem-solving in an introductory course in digital systems design. The system individualizes the instruction which each student receives in accordance with its record of his past performance. In addition, a heuristic technique is used to determine the best path for each student through the tree of course concepts. The refinement of this method of concept selection is described. An evaluation of the GCAI system and results of classroom usage are also presented.
The Use of the State Space to Record the Behavioral Effects of Subproblems and Symmetries in the Tower of Hanoi Problem BIBA 411-421
  George F. Luger
This research was designed to focus on the effects of problem structure on the behavior of subjects solving that problem. The behavior of forty-five adult subjects solving the 4-ring Tower of Hanoi problem was exhibited as paths through the "state space representation" of the problem. Four hypotheses concerning the effects of the problem's structure were tested experimentally. (1) Subjects' paths were both non-random and goal-directed through the problem and its subproblems and the special role of subgoal states was identified. (2) "Episodes" were seen to occur during problem solving corresponding to the consistent solution throughout the problem of subproblems with identical or isomorphic structure, however, (3) the evidence for congruence of subjects' non-minimal solution paths through isomorphic subproblems was inconclusive. (4) The special effect on behavior of symmetries within the structure of the problem was delineated. Directions for further research are outlined.
An Educational Interface for Computer Managed Learning BIBA 423-437
  W. R. Broderick; K. F. Lovatt; Margaret E. Bryant
This paper describes the nature of the educational interface designed to allow non-computer orientated authors to design courses for use on the Havering Computer Managed Learning System. Some idea of the scope and flexibility of this author language is included together with examples of the input documents. The C.M.L. system has been fully operational in Havering since 1973.
Computer-Based Structural Analysis in the Development and Administration of Educational Materials BIBA 439-463
  R. A. Smith
Although statistical methods have been used for comparing such factors as the relative discriminating power of different questions, educational assessment techniques currently used rely heavily on subjective judgment regarding the subject matter content. This paper aims to show the potential usefulness of displaying the objective structure inherent in any factual text, for comparing the subject matter content of texts, examinations and examination results. In a teaching situation, this information can be used to diagnose the material poorly comprehended, and in an examination, to show which material is best known (or vice versa). Techniques are presented here for the generation of a structural network interrelating the concepts of importance in a subject matter area, and of using this structure for deducing which parts of this subject area are understood by the student in a learning situation and which are not. Preliminary results from this type of analysis are also presented.
The Effects of Uncertainty on Human Performance in a Multi-Stage Decision Task BIBA 465-476
  L. Laios
The aim of this study was to examine how decision performance was affected by various amounts of input uncertainty in a laboratory scheduling task. Three levels of this variable were involved (no uncertainty, medium and high amounts of uncertainty). The experimental results showed that the introduction of uncertainty resulted in a considerable decrement in decision performance but rather surprisingly performance was not largely affected by variations in the amount of uncertainty.

Book Reviews

"Tracking Skill and Manual Control," by E. C. Poulton BIB 477-480
  C. Holloway
"Control Theory in Biology and Experimental Psychology," by Frederick Toates BIB 477-480
  Neville Moray
"The Scientific Process and the Computer," by D. N. Streeter BIB 477-480
  Bob McCormick
"Social Information Processing and Statistical Systems -- Change and Reform," by E. S. Dunn BIB 477-480
  I. C. Robinson

IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 5

Editorial: Special Issue on q-Analysis BIB 481
  B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
An Algebra for Patterns on a Complex, II BIBA 483-498
  R. H. Atkin
In this paper I continue the discussion of the algebra associated with a simplicial complex KY(X;λ), defined by a relation λ{subset}Y{cross}X, where X and Y are given finite sets. In terms of the abstract geometrical representation of such a complex (in the space E2n+1, where n=dim K) this paper is concerned with its local geometry. By comparison with homotopy theory, the idea of pseudo-homotopy (associated with discrete spaces) is introduced and a group structure is established in this connexion. Finally some relevant examples are discussed.
An APL Program for q-Analysis BIBA 499-500
  E. R., Jr. Mullins
This program provides the barest essentials of a q-analysis, in Atkin's sense. It accepts an incidence matrix, A, and finds the q-connected components for all relevant q-values and for both conjugate complexes. It prints these components by referring to the rows (or cols) by number, rather than by a name (string), and lists the structure vector Q.
Notes on the Civil Applications of Mathematics BIBA 501-515
  Brian Melville
Mathematics derives its meaning from its civil applications. It enters civil-life as a response to requests for conceptual control in the domination of nature. It is incorporated in a technical cognitive interest. An interesting question arises as to whether mathematics can be related to knowledge-constitutive interests concerned with emancipation. Some of the dangers of a technical-context mathematics entering emancipatory language-games are pointed out. Atkin's contributions to mathematical sociology are examined critically. He offers a piece of mathematics suitable for modelling deprivations as objects of reflection in the social life-world. The way this can enter emancipatory language-games presupposes a consensus theory of truth and a theory of communicative competence.
Fred CHAMP, Positional-Chess Analyst BIBA 517-529
  R. H. Atkin; W. R. Hartston; I. H. Witten
In this paper we give the results of further research into the computer simulation of positional play in chess. A well-defined hierarchical approach is used to produce a vector mapping for the positional evaluation. It is illustrated by an analysis of a grandmaster game, Karpov vs. Spassky.
The q-Analysis of Road Intersections BIBA 531-548
  J. H. Johnson
There are two finite simplicial complexes associated with a road junction and there is a correspondence between the structure of these complexes and an intuitive evaluation of the junction's ability to carry flows. This intuitive feeling is made well-defined by the introduction of an order relation between junctions according to the flows they can accommodate. In comparing junction designs we find that a relatively low dimension structure q-connected only for relatively small q is associated with a superior ability to accommodate flows, and we illustrate the application of our findings to a complicated interchange and an experimental roundabout. The structural analysis was performed on the Essex PDP-1O computer using less than one minute computing time and 2K store for a complicated intersection showing there are no computing problems to be overcome.
A Study of Behcet's Disease by q-Analysis BIBA 549-565
  M. Anne Chamberlain
This paper describes how q-analysis came to be used to solve problems posed by a rare and fascinating disease. Data was collected on a total of 227 people (probands and relatives) who exhibited any or all of 71 possible disease attributes. This data was "sliced" and analysed for q-connectivities between both the subjects and/or the symptoms. The resulting structure was then used to answer some outstanding questions relating to diagnosis and aetiology.
The Computer as a Tutorial Laboratory: The Stanford BIP Project BIBA 567-596
  Avron Barr; Marian Beard; Richard C. Atkinson
The BASIC Instructional Program (BIP) was developed to investigate tutorial modes of interaction in computer-assisted instruction. BIP is an interactive problem-solving laboratory that offers tutorial assistance to students solving introductory programming problems in the BASIC language. This paper describes how the problem presentation sequence is individualized based on a representation of the structure of the curriculum and a model of the student's state of knowledge. The nature of the student-BIP interaction is captured in an annotated student dialogue illustrating a typical session.
A New Approach to Traffic Behaviour: I. Modelling of "Following-Defence" Behaviour BIBA 597-615
  Naomichi Furutani
A new type of car-following model is proposed on the basis of Proxemics (anthropological theory of man's use of space) and the catastrophe theory. It is assumed that the proxemic character of a car is similar to that of man: a car has a series of distance zones around it, with which its driving behaviour and senses are associated.
   Under this assumption, driving behaviour of a car in relation to the leading car is classified into four modes; "defence", "following", "pursuit" and "free running". Through qualitative study of the discontinuous phenomena between these modes, the sensory shift between "following" and "defence" is explained by the cusp catastrophe. In order to express the driver's psychological state, z-sense (sense of security) is introduced.
   Then, a goal of driving is defined and the growth of acceleration/deceleration desire is explained by unbalance between the goal and the current psychological state. As a result, a "following-defence" behaviour model is constructed by connecting the dynamical equations of the psychological state and the physical state.

Book Reviews

"The Thinking Computer: Mind Inside Matter," by B. Raphael BIB 617-620
  John Marcia
"The World Computer Chess Championship," by J. E. Hayes and David N. L. Levy BIB 617-620
  I. J. Good

IJMMS 1976 Volume 8 Issue 6

Editorial BIB 621-622
  B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
Foundations of Fuzzy Reasoning BIBA 623-668
  B. R. Gaines
This paper gives an overview of the theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy reasoning as proposed and developed by Lotfi Zadeh. In particular it reviews the philosophical and logical antecedents and foundation for this theory and its applications. The problem of borderline cases in set theory and the two classical approaches of precisifying them out, or admitting them as a third case, are discussed, leading to Zadeh's suggestion of continuous degrees of set membership. The extension of basic set operations to such fuzzy sets, and the relationship to other multivalued logics for set theory, are then outlined. The fuzzification of mathematical structures leads naturally to the concepts of fuzzy logics and inference, and consideration of implication suggests Lukasiewicz infinite-valued logic as a base logic for fuzzy reasoning. The paradoxes of the barber, and of sorites, are then analysed to illustrate fuzzy reasoning in action and lead naturally to Zadeh's theory of linguistic hedges and truth. Finally, the logical, model-theoretic and psychological derivations of numeric values in fuzzy reasoning are discussed, and the rationale behind interest in fuzzy reasoning is summarized.
Advances in the Linguistic Synthesis of Fuzzy Controllers BIBA 669-678
  E. H. Mamdani
The purpose of this article is to survey the field of application of fuzzy logic in the synthesis of controllers for dynamic plants. A brief tutorial on the method of approach is also included here. Several groups of workers are currently studying various aspects of fuzzy controllers. For each such group a short account is given on the area of investigation undertaken. This along with the list of references provided here should give a broad picture of ongoing research on fuzzy controllers. Although most work is conducted using pilot scale or simulated plants, there are prospects also of an eventual application to a real plant. Some of the problems underlying actual application of fuzzy controllers are mentioned. These principally amount to the use of heuristics in plant controllers and the question of how to obtain an effective set of rules for a given plant. It is proposed that adaptive techniques in linguistic controllers currently being studied may provide a useful possible approach.
Analysis of Fuzzy Control Algorithms Using the Relation Matrix BIBA 679-686
  R. M. Tong
This paper uses the relation matrix to examine the structure of fuzzy control algorithms. After introducing some basic notations and definitions, it presents a theorem which allows an arbitrary relation matrix to be translated into a set of fuzzy control rules. Using this result it is possible to show that the implementation of the algorithm does not affect its structure and that the most meaningful way of altering its performance is to change the rules themselves.
Fuzzy Sets for Man-Machine Interaction BIBA 687-697
  P. J. MacVicar-Whelan
A new type of experiment is proposed to better understand the fuzzy behaviour of a human operator in a man-machine system. The published applications of fuzzy set theory to the control of a simple steam engine are used as a convenient example to illustrate how some of the current applications of fuzzy set theory may modified to carry out this type of experiment. The rationale for this proposal is developed by reviewing studies of the classification of human height and applications of fuzzy set theory to handwritten character recognition and control system design. Based on this brief review, both the results to be expected from such an experiment and how they might be analyzed are discussed. A key result is that such experiments ought to provide a much better understanding of the operator's fuzzy algorithm for adapting his experience to the development of the fuzzy algorithm for the new task.
Representation of Functional Hierarchies of Movement in the Brain BIBA 699-709
  Ladislav J. Kohout
The article discusses the notion of a functional hierarchy of movement and the problem of segmentation of movement behaviour. It is shown that certain principles, implicitly contained in the work of N. A. Bernstein can be formalized and further developed into a consistent methodology for the identification of individual levels. In section 5 a formal development is given of some neuro-biological idea informally discussed in the preceding sections of the article. The formal apparatus used is based on generalized topologies and abstract logics. Fuzzification of models is discussed.
On Fuzziness in Information Retrieval BIBA 711-716
  C. V. Negoita; P. Flondor
The IR systems are faced with a need to manage fuzziness and not merely to react to fuzziness. The indexing process is viewed as representing the set X of information items by fuzzy subsets {MathsF}(Y) of the descriptor set Y. A fuzzy assignment is modelled as a system (X,Y,f:X→{MathsF}(Y)) where f(x)(y) is the link between the information item x and the descriptor y. The grade of importance of a subset of descriptors is expressed by a fuzzy measure μ:{MathsP}(Y)→[0,1]. In this way syntax estimation is made possible by using a fuzzy integral {int}f(x)(y){omicron}μ. The information items are ranked according to a new application X→[0,1] induced by the global measure μ. Finally, a descriptor is viewed as s fuzzy set.
"Fuzzification" of Binary and Finite Multivalued Logical Calculi BIBA 717-730
  V. Pinkava
It is shown that fuzzification of binary logics results in multivalued logics with an infinite or finite number of values. Canonic formulae in fuzzified binary logics are discussed using some previous results of the author. The case of "hybrid" logics where either the variables or the functions run through different sets of values in discussed briefly. It is shown that the generalized connectives suggested by the author are suitable for forming functionally complete systems in these hybrid logics. Further fuzzification of finite multivalued calculi is discussed briefly. It is shown that a "fuzzified" multiple-value logical function turns into an n-tuple of functions. A few simple illustrative examples are given.
A New Approach to Traffic Behaviour: II. Individual Car and Traffic Flow BIBA 731-742
  Naomichi Furutani
Characteristics of car traffic flow are explained from the interacting behaviour of individual cars. Firstly, the z-sense introduced in a preceding paper (Part I) is extensively used as a kind of distance between a car and other cars or obstacles to explain the driving modes other than "following" and "defence".
   Secondly, a backward territory of the car is introduced after the similar manner as in the case of the forward territory, to discuss the interaction between cars. Thus, the driving behaviour of an individual car is formulated by a combination of driving modes according to the interval between cars and to traffic circumstances.
   Thirdly, car platoon behaviour is simulated by a concatenation of the individual behaviour model. Finally, steady traffic flow is studied as a combination of steady states of the proper driving modes according to the traffic density.

Book Reviews

"Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgement to Calculation," by Joseph Weizenbaum BIB 743-748
  Donald Michie
"Systems Theory in the Social Sciences (ISR20)," edited by H. Bossel, S. Klaczko and N. Muller BIB 743-748
  Brian R. Gaines
"Applications of Fuzzy Sets to Systems Analysis," by C. V. Negoita and D. A. Ralescu BIB 743-748
  Ladislav J. Kohout
"Introduction to the Theory of Fuzzy Subsets (Vol. 1, Fundamental Theoretical Elements)," by A. Kaufmann BIB 743-748
  Ladislav J. Kohout