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International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 17

Editors:B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
Publisher:Academic Press
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJMMS 1982 Volume 17 Issue 1
  2. IJMMS 1982 Volume 17 Issue 2
  3. IJMMS 1982 Volume 17 Issue 3
  4. IJMMS 1982 Volume 17 Issue 4

IJMMS 1982 Volume 17 Issue 1


Microelectronics in Education BIB 1-2
  Mildred L. G. Shaw
Microelectronics in Education: Two Types of Innovation, Two Strategies BIBA 3-14
  L. A. Gilbert
The extent to which education has adopted and made effective use of technology is not commensurate with the prospective benefits. Mounting evidence indicates that good hardware and software design and implementation in the technical sense are unlikely in themselves to ensure successful and continued use. Other factors have been identified as relevant to technological innovation. Some of these, in such fields of social psychology and sociology, may require actions outside the immediate scope of the technologist, concerned with such issues as curriculum development, teacher training, information and advice, and resource support. The United Kingdom and France, for example, have embarked upon fundamentally similar national strategies for the introduction of microelectronic technology into their educational systems. Success may depend upon the extent to which educational institutions are capable of integrating information technology, based upon microelectronics, into processes which have hitherto been dominated by the use of print for historical reasons. Adult and informal learners are increasingly using information technology outside traditional educational environments, and an extensive growth of open and distant learning networks can be foreseen, combining educational institutions with other facilities and services. A second type of innovative strategy will therefore be required, concerned largely with the development of technological systems that are suitable for use by independent learners. This calls for agencies that can identify user needs and mediate them to providers of systems which may at the moment be oriented towards non-educational users.
PRESTEL and Education: A Report of a One-Year Trial BIBA 15-22
  Vincent Thompson
The Council for Educational Technology for the United Kingdom has been active in developing the use of PRESTEL, British Telecom's public viewdata service, in education and training. The availability of PRESTEL has provided an opportunity to explore what information technology means to and for education. A trial of the system has been conducted and a number of reactions identified. While there were some reservations about the usefulness of the existing database, there was general agreement about its potential for the future. In particular, PRESTEL could contribute to the teaching of specific subject areas, encourage the development of information skills, and support the development of telesoftware.
A Pilot Telesoftware Service for Education BIBA 23-32
  Jill Coates
This paper discusses techniques for, and trials of, the distribution of educational software for microcomputers using broadcast and telephone videotex services.
   For education and training, the importance of the development of telesoftware is that it offers the basis for a national electronic system for the distribution of computer programs. Since the potential of the microcomputer as a teaching and learning resource is limited by the extent to which teachers and students can get hold of good educational materials to use with the hardware, such a system could make a powerful contribution to more rapid developments in this area.
Videotex and the Disabled BIBA 33-50
  Nancy L. Staisey; Jo W. Tombaugh; Richard F. Dillon
The potential of videotex for use by the disabled, and problems in the use of videotex by the disabled are summarized and discussed. Videotex is a system which allows users to access a powerful central computer over the telephone lines using a keypad or keyboard for input and a colour television set for output. In the home, office or hospital, the disabled will have access to information retrieval, electronic mail, teleshopping, games and computer aided instruction, as well as environmental monitoring and control using widely available, low cost equipment. The special problems of input and output of videotex by blind, deaf and motor impaired individuals are discussed. Various hardware (i.e. equipment) and software (i.e. programming) techniques to overcome these problems are described.
Microcomputers and Disabled People BIBA 51-58
  Phil Odor
Rapid growth in available technology has increased opportunities for its use both in specialized communication aids for handicapped individuals, and also in specialized computer aided learning packages. Each of these areas of development is wide, and needs comprehensive support services while, in general, the individual programs and aids each have only a limited potential number of consumers. Reasons why this is likely to be a persistent phenomenon are discussed, giving examples of current aids and computer-based teaching methods. It is argued that, to provide appropriate levels of research, development, supply and support, a different view of the development cycle and product market has to be adopted than for conventional consumer products, and a model is offered which illustrates the need for more local development initiative and centres with good inter-centre communication links.
Evaluation of Electronic Learning Aids: Texas Instruments' "Speak Spell" BIBA 59-67
  C. D. Terrell; O. Linyard
An evaluation of an electronic learning aid, the Texas Instruments "Speak Spell" is described. This machine is marketed as a spelling aid. Spelling performance was monitored for two groups of normal 12-year-old girls, a control group and a treatment group. The treatment group used the "Speak Spell" machine in their own homes for a period of 14 days. A significant increase in the spelling of words in the machine's lexicon was observed for the treatment group but this appeared to be only a transitory increase because spelling performance on these words began to drop to pre-machine exposure levels once the opportunity to use the machine was removed. No improvement was observed in the spelling of words not in the machine's lexicon.
   It is hoped that the evaluative design used, "a staggered time series design", can be generalized to provide a relatively simple and inexpensive method of evaluating other electronic learning aids.
SAKI: Twenty-Five Years of Adaptive Training into the Microprocessor Era BIBA 69-74
  Gordon Pask
SAKI is an adaptive trainer for keyboard skills, first implemented in 1956. This paper traces the development of different generations of the machine up to its most recent microprocessor implementation.
Tracking the Creativity Cycle with a Microcomputer BIBA 75-85
  Mildred L. G. Shaw; Brian R. Gaines
One of the major attractions of introducing electronic technology in education has been that of providing individualized instruction. However, it has proved very difficult to obtain a representation of each student's inferred knowledge state on which to base such individualization. In this paper we present Kelly's personal construct psychology as a framework for the analysis of the educational process and educational system, and particularly for the practical determination of relevant features of the knowledge state. His notions of constructive alternativism, and the creativity cycle in particular, are both of major theoretical significance and can also be studied through interactive microcomputer programs eliciting the construct systems of students and teachers.
The Design of a Dynamic Book for Information Search BIBA 87-107
  Stephen A. Weyer
Information-seeking skills are central to many learning tasks, from finding simple facts and comparing events in an encyclopedia, to pursuing complex research questions. Electronic document/database systems are touted as alternatives to piles of paper for accessing information, yet our current understanding of how people search for information provides few clues about how to improve the design of such systems. Dynamic books are a powerful electronic transformation of information that could potentially offer multiple paths through complex information and help us actively in searching. Within this context, this paper explores how people look for information and how the design of dynamic books interacts with the search process. It also describes a simple dynamic book, based on a world history textbook, implemented in the Smalltalk programming system, and used by students to answer questions.
A Study of TRIP: A Computer System for Animating Time-Rate-Distance Problems BIBA 109-126
  Laura Gould; William Finzer
TRIP is a system for animating various time-rate-distance problems. It employs interactive, high-resolution graphics to present the written problem along with relevant pictures (places, travellers, speedometers, odometers, clocks) that students use to construct a representative diagram. They then guess the answer, "run" the problem, and watch the diagram become an animated simulation in which travellers, clocks and odometers are all set into related motion. The final values of the distances and times for each traveller are stored in a table from which students induce algebraic expressions. TRIP was written in Smalltalk-76 and pilot-tested on an experimental personal computer (a Xerox Alto) at San Francisco State University.
An Evaluation of Micro-CAL in Schools BIBA 127-141
  J. R. Hartley; K. Bostrom
A principal aim of the study was to examine schoolteachers' evaluations of current computer-based teaching packages. The decisions which guided the utilization of this material in the classroom, the contributions it made to learning, and what teachers themselves gained from the experience, were also of significant interest. Four secondary schools were the main participants and their staff agreed to examine and use current programs, where they could, in classroom teaching. Ninety-one packages (covering Mathematics and the Physical, Biological and Social Sciences) were obtained from publishers and other sources; one, three or six microcomputers were made available for class use. Twenty-eight programs were judged to be of interest, 15 sufficiently so to be applied in teaching, and 22 lessons were observed over a 6-month period. Data were collected by interview, questionnaire, classroom observation schedules and by pupil questionnaires, worksheets and post-tests.
   In making their choices, teachers were particularly concerned with relevance of programs to their courses, flexibility in accommodating different modes of teaching and degrees of user sophistication, and presentation of feedback and data at the terminal. In planning the use of programs, teachers aimed for hand-on experience through group work, although the working methods and composition of such groups were important if less able pupils were to benefit. The programs were well received and generated interest; however, data also showed that reducing assimilation problems by using computer-based tasks in directed ways which replicate conventional teaching sequences, meant that simulation programs could become mere providers of data and learning gains could be relatively modest. An extensive comparative experiment supported these conclusions. On occasions when more open initiatives were encouraged, teachers tended to underestimate pupil preparation, particularly as current programs carry little supporting help and teaching. The implications of these results for program development, for research and for staff training are briefly discussed.
Trends and Prospects for Microcomputer-Based Education BIBA 143-148
  G. M. Mills; T. T. Stonier
The future direction in the use of microcomputers in teaching children is now becoming clearer. It is suggested that the present use of computers mainly for drill and practice is likely to play a much less significant part in future education strategies. Contrary to fears expressed by some educationalists, micros can play an important part in promoting both socialization and creativity. To take full advantage of their potential will require massive resources into the production of imaginative software. Some examples of the types of programs being developed are discussed, particularly in the context of current and probable developments in microcomputer hardware.

IJMMS 1982 Volume 17 Issue 2

Knowledge Refining for a Diagnostic Aid (An Example of Applied Epistemics) BIBA 151-164
  T. R. Addis
Epistemics is the science of communicating understanding via stored knowledge. Knowledge refining is the elimination of redundant descriptions and the exposure of contradictory or missing information, so that the essence of a structured activity can be captured for computer manipulation. The author proposes a method by which observations of experts' behaviour can be analysed, refined and subsequently performed by a computer. It is feasible that the final performance of the computer may be more efficient and reliable than that of the human experts.
   The analysis assumes the correctness of Scarrott's conjecture on Zipf's law which suggests the possibility of describing meaningful activity -- such as diagnostics -- in the form of a hierarchy of actions. This hierarchy can be constructed by the recursive application of a pattern recognition technique (RAFFLES).
   The utility of knowledge refining is that it provides a completely automatic system of knowledge maintenance for an expert system.
On the Relative Comprehensibility of Various Control Structures by Novice Fortran Programmers BIBA 165-171
  C. H. Smith; H. E. Dunsmore
Two similar experiments were conducted. In the first, subjects found Fortran programs written with IF-THEN constructs a little easier to comprehend than comparable programs using GOTOs. In the second experiment, programs written with GOTOs were found to be slightly easier to understand than similar programs with the GOTOs replaced by IF-THEN and WHILE-DO control structures.
Problem Solving as a Basis for Program Synthesis: Design and Experimentation of the BIS System BIBA 173-188
  Francesco Caio; Giovanni Guida; Marco Somalvico
The paper is devoted to assessing and motivating the central role that classical problem solving techniques can play in the development of a program synthesis system. We present a novel conceptual and methodological approach, called bidirectional synthesis, which considers the task of automatic programming as based on the cooperation between a top-down activity of problem reduction and a bottom-up activity of binding together, in a structured way, program modules. Moreover, this approach is experimentally supported by the development of the BIS (BIdirectional Synthesizer) system for interactive synthesis of LISP programs. The BIS system has been developed, within an ongoing research activity, on an UNIVAC 1100/80 computer at the Milan Polytechnic Artificial Intelligence Project. BIS is written in LISP and is devoted to the synthesis of programs in the area of list manipulation and sorting and merging algorithms.
A Computer Package for the Evaluation of Neuron Models Involving Large Uniform Networks BIBA 189-210
  M. H. Lee; A. R. Marudarajan
Many theoretical models of neuron-like systems are to be found in the cybernetic and neurophysiological literature. These are often difficult to compare on the basis of computer simulation techniques because the results of different authors involve implementation differences and the lack of published fine detail frequently prevents an exact duplication of their efforts. This paper shows how an array processing package especially developed for experiments on large uniform networks of neuron-like modules can be used for the evaluation and comparative analysis of neuron net models.
   As a demonstration, a highly informal design is used to show the formulation, implementation and testing of specific aspects of a model. Actual experiments are used to evaluate theoretical speculations and the properties of the model are examined and contrasted with other similar systems. Future experiments are identified for the completion of the process. This approach shows how theoretical alternatives and design variations can be studied within a single simulation framework where systematic experiments help to build a precise understanding of artificial neuron net mechanisms.
Human Factors in the Design and Use of Computing Languages BIBA 211-224
  Andrew Arblaster
This paper considers some linguistic factors which make the structure of programs more obvious. These factors are related to the design and use of programming languages. Evidence from a number of experiments on human factors is discussed.
Plans and Initial Progress with BLEND -- An Electronic Network Communication Experiment BIBA 225-233
  B. Shackel
BLEND (the Birmingham and Loughborough Electronic Network Development) is an experimental system supported by the Research & Development Department of the British Library as one of the projects in its programme to study the relevance and potential usage of new technology in the world of libraries and related information systems. The initial and principal aim of the project is to develop and gain experience of an "Electronic Journal" and Information Network in order to assess the cost, efficiency and subjective impact of such a system; the further aim is to explore and evaluate alternative forms of user communication through the system. The background and the plans for this experimental programme are outlined, and the progress during the first 6 months of the BLEND system usage is briefly reviewed.

Book Reviews

"Computing Skills and the User Interface," edited by M. J. Coombs and J. L. Alty BIB 235-237
  Susanne Maass
"Structures and Operations in Engineering and Management Systems," edited by O. Biorke and O. I. Franksen BIB 235-237
  T. R. Addis

IJMMS 1982 Volume 17 Issue 3


Automated Psychological Testing BIB 239-240
  B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
The Automated Pictorial Paired and Associate Learning Task BIBA 241-246
  John Wedgwood
The APALT can be considered one of the earliest Automated Psychological Testing systems. It was designed for large scale use in therapeutic trials for patients with senile or arteriosclerotic dementia.
   It provided a sophisticated test system for clinical use in this particular situation but was limited by available technology and expense. The particular clinical purpose for which it was designed caused a lack of flexibility for more generalized use in psychological test systems. It remains a prototype which recent technological knowledge might develop towards test systems specifically designed to be computer-based.
Automated Psychological Testing: Some Principles and Practice BIBA 247-263
  Alick Elithorn; Sue Mornington; Andreas Stavrou
The present paper reviews briefly the principles which should guide the development of automated psychological test systems. These are illustrated by reference to research and development studies undertaken with the Perceptual Maze Test. The possible role of these tests in assessing treatment effects in neurology and psychiatry is discussed and an example of this type of application is presented.
Some Experiences in Administering a Psychometric Test with a Light Pen and Microcomputer BIBA 265-278
  J. Ridgway; M. J. MacCulloch; H. E. Mills
A microcomputer-based machine for administering psychometric tests is described. The equipment is easy to use, portable and reliable. All instructions and test items are presented via a VDU; responses are made using a light pen. The effect of automation on the construct validity of tests was investigated by administering Forms A and B of the Eysenck Personality Inventory in both paper and machine forms to a sample of nurses. Mean scores and score variance were little affected. The advantages of the use of microcomputer-based equipment for the administration and scoring of psychometric tests are discussed.
Automated Psychological Testing BIBA 279-289
  James A. Thompson; Sarah L. Wilson
The techniques and subject populations used in the field of Automated Psychological Testing are reviewed. Early work in this field used slide-projector systems usually with elderly or mentally handicapped patients. Recent advances in portable and inexpensive microcomputers have produced a new wave of research in which a wider range of tests have been automated for use with more varied subject populations. The fresh possibilities in test construction and administration offered by these approaches are discussed.
Automated Psychological Testing for the Severely Physically Handicapped BIBA 291-296
  Sarah L. Wilson; James A. Thompson; Geoffrey Wylie
Three well-used psychological tests, presented in both automated and standard forms, were administered to a sample of 30 severely physically handicapped patients.
   It was found that when the results from the automated forms were compared with those from the standard forms the correlations between them were positive, substantial and acceptably high for clinical use.
Automated Testing of Geriatric Patients Using a Microcomputer-Based System BIBA 297-300
  A. C. Carr; Sarah L. Wilson; A. Ghosh; R. J. Ancill; R. T. Woods
This paper describes a pilot study to assess the use of a microcomputer-based system for administering psychological tests to psychogeriatric patients. The study, which used a questionnaire of a type commonly used with such patients, showed that this method of assessment was feasible. It also showed the necessity of further development of hardware and software and highlighted some of the inherent problems in testing such a population.
Pros and Cons of Tailored Testing: An Examination of Issues Highlighted by Experience with an Automated Testing System BIBA 301-304
  Pamela Jane Volans
The use of tailored testing facilities compatible with interactive automated testing systems is outlined. Psychometric and psychological issues such as adequacy of item selection, scoring of response latencies and identifying conditions of testing which contribute to useful as opposed to error variance are examined, and the practical problems of checking for human error in the design and programming of branching systems indicated.
A Comparison of Conventional and Automated Administration of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices BIBA 305-310
  E. J. Calvert; R. C. Waterfall
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of presenting automatically Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. The results were shown to be comparable with those obtained by conventional administration. Considerable savings of clinician's time were achieved without sacrificing the accuracy of test results. This paper presents data collected from North Staffordshire Health District using auto-presentation equipment developed at U.M.I.S.T.
System Requirements for Interactive Testing BIBA 311-320
  J. Graham Beaumont
The general requirements of inexpensive microcomputer systems for the administration of current psychometric procedures are reviewed. The hardware specification in terms of the type of machine, the mass storage required, the resolution of graphical displays and the provision of response media is discussed, and the availability and design of software reviewed. Attention is drawn to the need to consider the nature of the user interface, and for fundamental research on which to base the implementation of effective man-computer interaction in interactive testing situations.
Detailed Computer Analysis of Performance on a Single Psychological Test BIBA 321-330
  J. A. Weinman
This paper outlines a number of computer-based studies examining the nature of performance differences on a single cognitive test. Most of the work is concerned with the computer generation and presentation of the task in order to provide a detailed analysis of response times. With computer automation it becomes possible to fragment the total response time into component times for different phases of problem-solving. The results indicate that while overall processing speed is primarily cognitively determined, the way in which time is distributed over different phases of performance is greatly influenced by personality factors. The analysis of completed responses also revealed characteristic strategies and errors associated with level of ability. An important aspect of this approach is the demonstration of the way in which computer techniques can allow the psychologist to go beyond the traditional psychometric approach to assessment in order to gain an understanding of the nature of individual differences in performance.
Automated Tailored Testing Using Raven's Matrices and the Mill Hill Vocabulary Tests: A Comparison with Manual Administration BIBA 331-344
  Kathleen Watts; Alan Baddeley; Moyra Williams
Three studies were carried out using automated and tailored versions of the Raven's Progressive Matrices and Mill Hill Vocabulary tests. In the first study, four groups of 20 normal subjects were tested on two occasions being given either the automated version on both occasions, the standard on both occasions, or automated on one and standard on the other. Results suggested a high test-retest reliability for the automated tests, together with high levels of validity as measured by correlations between the automated and conventional versions of the tests. Time to complete the automated version was less than half that for the conventional test, but there proved to be a small but consistent discrepancy in absolute test score between the standard and automated version of Progressive Matrices. This suggests that automated tests should not use norms based upon standard versions without further validation.
   Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the automated versions of the tests were highly suitable for using with both elderly subjects and brain damaged patients. Further evidence of the validity of the automated tests was provided by the tendency for left brain-damaged patients to show impaired Mill Hill Vocabulary performance, while right hemisphere damage was reflected in impaired performance on the Matrices test.
PLANET: Some Experience in Creating an Integrated System for Repertory Grid Applications on a Microcomputer BIBA 345-360
  Mildred L. G. Shaw
Direct interaction between patients and computers has now been shown to be successful and acceptable in an experimental environment. Automated psychological testing has also been widely validated against experts administering the same test. However, there are problems in making available what are essentially computer-based research tools to a diverse community of users, geographically widespread, with a range of experience of computer systems, test procedures, analytic techniques and information presentation. This paper is concerned with the experience of transforming a set of repertory grid programs developed for research purposes on a large mainframe computer into an integrated system on a low-cost microcomputer. This had to be done in such a way that all aspects of the operation and many aspects of the application of the system would be self-evident to users issued with only a program disk and simple manual. It was also a requirement of some potential users that they be able to re-program the interactive dialogue with their clients to reflect the particular purpose for which a grid was being elicited: for example, personnel selection, career guidance or industrial training. Some users also wished to translate the dialogue from English into their native language. The paper also describes the techniques adopted to allow this without requiring programming knowledge on the part of the users and without undermining the integrity of the program suite.
A Computerized Approach to Psychological Screening -- The Bexley-Maudsley Automated Psychological Screening and The Bexley-Maudsley Category Sorting Test BIBA 361-369
  William Acker
A computerized psychological screening battery to detect non-specific dementias has been developed together with new normative data. The clinical need for such tests is discussed in the context of covert cognitive impairment in chronic alcoholics. The rationale in adapting a commercially available microcomputer to psychological testing is explained, and those adaptations and the individual tests which comprise the Bexley-Maudsley tests are described.

IJMMS 1982 Volume 17 Issue 4


Monthly Publication BIB 373-374
  B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
The Goals and Methods of Computer Users BIBA 375-399
  Kathy Lang; Robin Auld; Terry Lang
Computer users who are not professional programmers need guidance in order to make effective use of computer systems. In practice, they seek this guidance from many sources; the focus of this study is on the help users give to each other. Three groups with differing histories of guidance-seeking were studied. Their goals and methods in computing and in guidance-seeking were found to be oriented towards achieving a satisfactory (rather than an optimum) balance between the costs to them, in terms of time and personal factors, and the benefits, namely a discipline-oriented solution to their problems. Suggestions are made for decreasing the costs to users of good guidance and increasing the quality of low-lost guidance.
Semantics for Fuzzy Reasoning BIBA 401-415
  Robin Giles
In the usual approaches to fuzzy set theory the notions of grade of membership, possibility, and so on are taken as given and axioms are put forward to govern the behaviour of these quantities; by judicious choice of the axioms a mathematically satisfactory theory can be obtained. However, such an approach gives no indication of how one is to decide what particular numerical value to assign to a grade of membership (possibility, etc.) in a given situation, or of how one should use such values in (for instance) decision-making. As a result, the grounds for application of the resulting theory are, to say the least, very insecure.
   To overcome this deficiency it is necessary to attach an exact empirical meaning to the terms, possibility and grade of membership, as well as to the concepts, proposition and fuzzy set, on which they depend. A proposition is represented by a "test-procedure" which yields one of two possible outcomes, and the meaning of an assignment of a grade of membership or possibility value is defined in terms of bets on the outcome of the test-procedure. The properties of the defined concepts then follow from these definitions and from simple principles of rational betting, and axioms become unnecessary and in fact inadmissible. The same treatment is accorded to the logical connectives, and, or and not, which are defined by relating the meaning of a compound proposition to those of its components. Several approaches are considered. Although all are classically equivalent they differ greatly both in scope and in their mathematical properties. A dialogue definition, studied previously by the author, provides the widest scope.
   Finally, the possibility that some entirely different solution of the problem might exist is considered. Reasons are given for believing that the possibilities here are rather limited.
NLI: A Robust Interface for Natural Language Person-Machine Communication BIBA 417-433
  Giovanni Guida; Carlo Tasso
In this paper, a novel approach to natural language understanding, called goal oriented parsing, is presented. Such a model of comprehension is embedded in the more general frame of interpersonal communication and is applied to the person-machine interaction task. It is based on the claim that understanding imperative natural language is strongly dependent both on the goal of the speaker and on the nature of the hearer. This assumption has proved appropriate for the design of effective and robust natural language interfaces to artificial systems. This approach is supported by the development of an experimental project, called NLI, for enquiring in Italian a relational data base. NLI is to date running on a PDP 11/34 computer at the University of Udine. In this paper we illustrate the overall architecture of the system, along with the basic features of the parsing algorithm. This is based on the new concept of hierarchical parsing and is mainly directed by the semantics of the language. The role of clarification dialogue to overcome critical situations is discussed as well. The use of goal oriented parsing in dealing with full query text and anaphora is also exploited. Several meaningful examples are presented. Comparisons with related works are outlined and promising directions deserving further investigation are presented.
Data Base Interaction Using a Hand Print Terminal BIBA 435-458
  Philip G. Barker
Peripherals that are able to support direct data entry into a computer system by means of hand printed text are becoming increasingly popular. This paper briefly describes the basic structure and principles of operation of a terminal that permits this mode of machine interaction. The use of such a terminal for supporting data base transactions is then described. Any of the standard primitive operations (insertion, retrieval and update) may be selected by means of the tactile movement of a pen on a suitably designed data capture document. Some interaction protocols, security aspects and end-user applications are also outlined.
Task Taxonomies: A General Review and Evaluation BIBA 459-472
  Michael A. Companion; Gregory M. Corso
The purpose, procedures and issues involved in the development of a task taxonomy were reviewed. A consequence of that review was the development of a set of criteria by which specific task taxonomies can be evaluated and contrasted. Additionally, four general and five specific task taxonomies were reviewed. The specific task taxonomies were evaluated and contrasted using the proposed criteria. From that analysis, it was concluded that future taxonomic efforts must re-evaluate the relative importance of taxonomic development versus the integration of empirical data into a useful, predictive tool.