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IJMMS Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213

International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 3

Editors:B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
Publisher:Academic Press
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJMMS 1971 Volume 3 Issue 1
  2. IJMMS 1971 Volume 3 Issue 2
  3. IJMMS 1971 Volume 3 Issue 3
  4. IJMMS 1971 Volume 3 Issue 4

IJMMS 1971 Volume 3 Issue 1

Man-Machine Interaction in Creative Applications BIBA 1-11
  J. K. Pulfer
Some aspects of creative activity are reviewed, and means by which the processes involved may be augmented with the help of a digital computer are discussed. A computer aided facility for writing, arranging and producing simple musical compositions is described to illustrate these concepts.
Changes in the Mental Content of Work Exemplified by Lumber Sorting Operations BIBA 13-29
  John P. van Gigch
Jobs in the Forest Products Industry, and in particular those associated with the process of lumber sorting, are used to illustrate the effects of technological change on the physical and mental contribution required from operators on their job. The mental effort of men sorting lumber by hand is compared to that of other workers operating mechanical sorting equipment. The measures used for this purpose are derived from a model which calculates the amount of information, in the Information Theory sense, which is transmitted in the human communication channel during the performance of processes of various degrees of complexity called "mental therbligs". In order to evaluate the effects of technological change on the requirements of work, comparisons are made in terms of information processing rates, cycle repetition rates and other entropic measures. It is concluded that the changes brought about by mechanization and automation must be considered in the context of the total worker's contribution to his job, that is, in terms of physical as well as the mental demands made upon him. Otherwise, only a partial view of the impact of the redesign of work is obtained.
A Theory of Form BIBA 31-59
  D. J. H. Moore
A general theory of form, based on geometric probabilities, is presented.
   The theory solves the problem of perceiving, detecting and extracting "interesting" visual shapes from an "uninteresting" background. The criteria for "interesting" shapes are not subjective ones, but appear to be fundamental objective criteria upon which a general analytic theory of form can be based.
   The theory leads to the design of a two-dimensional, retinal type computer which can be readily programmed to exhibit elementary, but fundamental, aspects of form perception. The computer has obvious applications in the field of pattern recognition.
   A pattern function theory is advanced to explain the α-rhythm of natural automata.
   An example of a cybernetic control system, based on pattern function theory, is also presented.
Toward Balanced Man-Machine Systems BIBA 61-73
  Larry Press
This paper begins with a simple classification scheme for man-machine systems in which the question used for classification is: Which partner is giving instructions and which one is executing them? A brief survey of current systems and development work shows that little is being done with "balanced" systems, that is those where both partners are active, where either may suggest operations or execute them, and where the order of the steps in the problem-solving process is jointly determined.
   One strategy for developing a balanced system is to extend a machine-only system to allow for interaction with and participation by a man, who must be enabled to input decisions and to request information to help him make those decisions.
   This strategy is useful for problems which can be automated, but where all of the information known to the investigator cannot be represented explicitly or where routines to process it economically cannot be invented. I have used this strategy in extending the "Concept Learning System" of Hunt, Marin & Stone (1966), and the resulting balanced man-machine system has been shown to be useful for the analysis of multivariate data. Examples are given of the potential application of the approach to simulation studies.

Book Reviews

"Methodologies of Pattern Recognition," edited by Satosi Watanabe BIB 75-80
  J. J. Sparkes
"Abstrakte Automaten," by Peter H. Starke BIB 75-80
  Michael A. Arbib
"Theory of Automata," by Arto Salomaa BIB 75-80
  Michael A. Arbib
"File Structures for On-Line Systems," by D. Lefkovitz BIB 75-80
  Simon Curry

IJMMS 1971 Volume 3 Issue 2

A Logical Model of Some Schizophrenic Thought Impairments BIBA 81-97
  V. Pinkava
A simple logical model of some schizophrenic thought impairments is presented. These impairments are viewed as due to irregularities in classifying systems. At first an elementary theory of classifications is exposed. It is shown that once a classifying system is impaired in a given way, phenomena arise which might be described in terms of negativism, indiscriminability, ambivalence, incorrect generalization, etc. Thus a quite large area of known schizophrenic thinking phenomena may be covered using a single general principle of modelling.
Simulating Distributed Computation in Nervous Systems BIBA 99-126
  R. L. Didday
Both a point of view of the nervous system as a collection of computation units and a method for digital computer simulation of such networks are discussed in this paper. Some arguments intending to show the advantages of layered parallel collections of cells which share the information entering the system are given. A simple example is used to clarify the simulation technique.
A Quantitative Approach to Performance Evaluation of Man-Machine Systems having a Stochastic Environment BIBA 127-140
  C. L. Proctor; T. M. Khalid; C. C. Stueve
Many industrial problems, such as the one studied here, can be classified into the category of a man-machine system having a stochastic environment. Problems of this nature lend themselves to digital simulation as an expedient means of solution.
   This study demonstrates how knowledge from the engineering, biological, mathematical and psychological fields may be combined to quantify some aspects of human behavior. Such quantification serves not only to provide a solution, but also to provide mathematical insight into how the operating procedures of a man-machine system can be modified to improve its overall performance.
   The simulation algorithm developed and studied was based on quantitative data collected during tests in a jet-engine test facility. One feature of the model is its ability to predict the time expected to complete a particular job such as the completion of a jet-engine test.
   The authors support the view that simulation algorithms are currently one of the most effective means of performance measurement for time varying occurrence factors.
Algorithms for a Minimal Chess Player: A Blitz Player BIBA 141-165
  Edward W. Kozdrowicki; John S. Licwinko; Dennis W. Cooper
The blitz player plays at a rate of under 1 sec/move on most machines. This paper describes a basic chess environment representation along with corresponding Lasker regions and over 14 algorithms or chess predicates and functions. Those predicates and functions are used as a "chess language" to create the blitz player. Standard look-ahead procedure is not used in the blitz mode although specialized tree searches are used to look for specific features. The well-known alpha beta algorithm is used for one specific search and in this mode alpha-beta procedure precisely simulates human thought processes. In addition a tree searching language (TSL) is used to construct a MATER tree to attempt to discover mating combinations by a series of checks and mate threats.
A Man-Machine Synergistic Approach to Planning and Creative Problem Solving. Part 1 BIBA 167-184
  Aiko M. Hormann
This paper describes an attempt to couple the complementary capabilities of man and machine in the context of planning and creative problem solving.
   In this paper, some real-world problems to which man-machine techniques can be fruitfully applied are characterized, and the types of decision dynamics influenced by these characteristics are identified. Then, how man tends to handle complexity and uncertainty is discussed in terms of the concept of "cognitive economy". An attempt is made to identify the interdependencies of man's capabilities and limitations and the machine's potential capabilities and limitations. Descriptions are given of several guidelines and techniques for developing a man-machine system that promotes effective intermeshing of these capabilities. Next, the compelling need for man-machine synergism is presented in terms of the serious consequences of decisions in real-world problem situations.
   Part II will describe a proposed system, Gaku, as a step toward man-machine synergism.

Book Reviews

"Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Book of Readings," edited by Richard C. Atkinson and H. A. Wilson BIB 185-187
  G. B. Cook
"System Simulation," by G. Gordon BIB 185-187
  M. T. Hills
"Sequential Methods in Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning," by K. S. Fu BIB 185-187
  Igor Aleksander

IJMMS 1971 Volume 3 Issue 3

Character Recognition and Visual Processing BIBA 189-200
  B. Rosenberg
An optical recognition system has been developed which simulates some of the functions of visual physiology and psychology. Neurophysiology has recently demonstrated that lateral inhibition occurs throughout the visual system and produces operators for feature extraction. Psychological evidence suggests that the visual features are used in a hypothesis generation and test procedure. The model for these processes is presented within a linguistic framework. A learning procedure is also described which constructs structured descriptions of distinctive features for co-classed characters.
A Process Computer's Contribution to the Reduction of Mental Effort and to the Handling of Systems Malfunctions BIBA 201-218
  John P. Van Gigch
The information functions performed by an operator in charge of a continuous process operation are compared for conditions with and without computer assistance. The operator's mental contribution is studied in the context of a model of integrative behavior which considers the information functions which take place in the individual's communication channel. The amount of information, in the Information Theory sense, which is transmitted in the performance of mental therbligs, is compared for two modes of operation -- automatic control with and without computer assistance. The comparison entails a consideration of the total entropy displayed by the system and the operator's information processing rates for various operating conditions.
   The role of the computer is discussed when information surges due to systems malfunctions occur. Response times are proposed as important measures of system's worth. In certain instances, response times are shown to increase with system's complexity and the case is made for adding auxiliary systems, including process control computers, which would be designed in such a way so as to handle the information overloads which occur during emergencies.
Some Principles for the Human Use of Computers in Education BIBA 219-239
  Thomas A. Dwyer
There are two recurring themes found in recent proposals for educational innovation. The first speaks to the importance of a humanistic approach to education; to the futility of imposing subject content on the student who does not perceive its acquisition as important; to the unlimited potential, on the other hand, of learners who elect to make the pursuit of some educational goal their own private crusade. The second theme is concerned with the potential of computing and information processing systems as instructional devices. This paper argues the importance of communication between these two views. Five principles for relating computer technology to a humanistic view of education are given, and an experimental program in the Pittsburgh public school system which is based on these principles is briefly described. A software system called NEW-BASIC/CATALYST has been developed as a result of this undertaking. Several examples derived from this work are shown.
A Man-Machine Synergistic Approach to Planning and Creative Problem Solving: Part II BIBA 241-267
  Aiko M. Hormann
This paper describes a proposed system, Gaku, as a step toward man-machine synergism. Characteristics of planning processes are described in terms of the levels of planning (conceptual, definitional, developmental, and operational) and the stages of problem solving (goal setting, alternative generation, consequence estimation, and evaluation and alternative selection). Structural attributes extracted from these characteristics constitute the basic framework and guiding mechanism for man's interaction with Gaku.
   An example of man-machine interaction is presented, suggesting desirable capabilities of Gaku. Features of Gaku are then described in terms of both built-in capabilities that are relatively problem independent, and man-machine actions for dynamic extension of these capabilities that are problem dependent and user oriented. The latter can be seen to make the system increasingly useful and powerful as a "co-evolving" man-machine team.

Book Reviews

"Management Information Systems," by S. C. Blumenthal BIB 269-277
  Stafford Beer
"Theory of Hierarchical, Multilevel Systems," by M. D. Mesarovic, D. Macko and Y. Takahara BIB 269-277
  Stafford Beer
"Adaptive, Learning and Pattern Recognition Systems," edited by J. M. Mendel and K. S. Fu BIB 269-277
  P. C. Young
"Picture Processing and Psychopictorics," edited by B. S. Lipkin and A. Rosenfeld BIB 269-277
  J. R. Ullmann

IJMMS 1971 Volume 3 Issue 4

A Cybernetic Experimental Method and its Underlying Philosophy BIB 279-337
  Gordon Pask
A Method of Estimating Speech Synthesizer Parameters by Temporal Analysis of Waveforms BIBA 339-349
  W. A. Ainsworth
A speech analysis system based on temporal measurements of the waveform has been developed. The output of this system is a set of signals suitable for controlling a formant synthesizer. The analyser has been evaluated by coupling it to a synthesizer, and determining the intelligibility of spoken words after analysis and resynthesis. The results indicate that the system is superior to some systems based on frequency analysis.
Logical Models of Sexual Deviations BIBA 351-374
  V. Pinkava
The objective of this paper is to show that sexual deviations in the object may be viewed from a standpoint quite different from the traditional ones. Existing biological theories are usually too simple and vague. Alternating learning theories are either too global or, like the theory of conditioning, not in keeping with empirical facts. Psychodynamic theories are fantastic and, again, not in accordance with empirical findings. The present paper proposes a new theoretical approach to the problem of deviations which is based on ethology and the theory of automata.
On Man-Computer Dialogue BIBA 375-383
  Denise Ambrozy
Every Man-computer interaction involves some kind of dialogue; however it is not yet fully clear what kind of activity can be called a dialogue and how to calculate its simpler parameters.
   This paper surveys some aspects of the seemingly simple problem and presents a formulation of the dialogue and of the basic human factor influencing its course: the specific fatigue associated with the information processing work of the human nervous system.

Book Reviews

"Molecular Approaches to Learning and Memory," edited by W. I. Byrne BIB 385-393
  Steven P. R. Rose
"Visual Perception," by Tom N. Cornsweet BIB 385-393
  A. M. Andrew
"Picture Language Machines," edited by S. Kaneff BIB 385-393
  H. G. Barrow