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International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 6

Editors:B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
Dates:1974
Volume:6
Publisher:Academic Press
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Papers:45
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 1
  2. IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 2
  3. IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 3
  4. IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 4
  5. IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 5
  6. IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 6

IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 1

Computing Dominant Points on Simple Shapes BIBA 1-12
  B. Rosenberg
Gestalt psychologists have given many examples to demonstrate that laws of visual organization cause one view of a scene to dominate others. This is also true for simple shapes. A figure can be articulated into many fragments but only a few will be perceptually dominant. The analysis of shape requires that the computations underlying the articulation be made explicit. Possible computations have been investigated on convex blobs, the dominant units being corner-like regions. Each regions is considered to have a point which perceptually dominates other points in that region. The problem, then, is how to attribute a set of points to some point so that the set is perceived as a meaningful fragment of the blob.
A Theory for the Neural Basis of Language. Part 1: A Neural Network Model BIBA 13-48
  Robert J. Baron
This report describes a theory and corresponding model for the neural basis of language. A detailed functional description will be given for the following elementary visual-linguistic processes: (1) the selection and neural encoding of patterns from the visual field; (2) the representation of visual experience in memory; (3) the mechanisms of association between different types of visual and verbal information including (a) naming of visual images, (b) naming of positional relationships between objects, (c) naming of size and shape attributes of objects, and (d) imaging of pictorial information which was previously stored in memory; (4) the neural representation of phrases and simple sentences; (5) the recognition of simple sentences and the concept of meaning; and (b) verbally-directed recall of visual experience. Strengths and weaknesses of the model are discussed.
   Part 1 of this paper contains a complete set of operational definitions. The neural networks are described, and several alternate control strategies for these networks are considered. Part 2 gives a detailed description of computer-simulation studies of the proposed model. Processes demonstrated by the computer simulations are: (1) verbally directed recall of visual experience; (2) understanding of verbal information; (3) aspects of learning and forgetting; (4) the dependence of, recognition and understanding on, contextual information; and (5) elementary concepts of sentence generation. The simulation studies are based on one particular choice of control functions.
Design and Test of a Cognitive Model BIB 49-104
  Michael A. Cunningham; Harry J. Gray
Design and Tests of Computer-Furthered Instruction BIBA 105-124
  Lawrence A. Sherr; Francis D. Tuggle; H. Gordon Fitch
This paper discusses the philosophy of computer-furthered instruction (CFI), the design of a particular CFI system used in the required undergraduate course in probability theory and statistics taught in the School of Business at the University of Kansas, and performance and process tests of the effects of introducing the CFI system. The purpose of CFI systems is not to replace traditional methods used in teaching (i.e. lectures, discussions, reading assignments, homework exercises, etc.) but rather to take advantage of some of the unique attributes of real time computing to allow the students to see and perform assignments otherwise impossible. After contrasting CFI and CAI systems, we discuss the course in its standard format, the traditional problems usually encountered in teaching this course, and the package of programs used. Some sample CFI conversations are included. Statistical tests of performance and process changes induced by the CFI system are presented; their significance and implications are examined.
Describing Music to a Computer BIBA 125-134
  B. C. Styles
This paper reviews previous attempts at devising methods of encoding music for input to a computer. As models for implementation, these are usually inadequately specified or developed. A practicable standard is defined and illustrated.

Book Reviews

"Man-Machine Systems Experiments," by H. M. Parsons BIB 135-139
  W. T. Singleton
"Feedback Mechanisms in Animal Behaviour," by D. J. McFarland BIB 135-139
  N. R. Chalmers
"Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data for Scientists and Engineers," by C. Daniel and F. S. Wood BIB 135-139
  J. N. R. Jeffers

IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 2

Heuristic Strategies for Using Computers to Enrich Education BIBA 137-154
  T. A. Dwyer
Computers differ from other technology in an important way -- they are part and parcel of a growing body of insights bout human problem-solvers. The accomplishments of young students, in particular, suggest that certain aspects of computing are directly related to a deep view of education. This paper examines the basis for such a relationship, and proposes a heuristic methodology for bringing it about. The methodology is derived from the view that the primary function of education is to liberate human potential. Four heuristic strategies for using student-controlled computing to support this view are given. The relation of such a use of technology to the role of human teachers, and to the technology of CAI are also discussed. An example of how the heuristic methodology has been used to design a new approach to math education (Soloworks) is described.
A Theory for the Neural Basis of Language: Part 2. Simulation Studies of the Model BIBA 155-204
  Robert J. Baron
A theory and corresponding model for the neural basis of language was presented in part 1 of this paper. Computer simulation studies of the proposed model are presented here. Processes demonstrated are (1) verbally directed recall of visual experience; (2) understanding of verbal information; (3) aspects of learning and forgetting; (4) the dependence of recognition and understanding on context; and (5) elementary concepts of sentence production. A particular choice of control functions for the model are described, and algorithms for all major computational processes are given. All programming was done in FORTRAN IV and executed on an IBM 360/65 computer.
Natural Information Processing BIBA 205-235
  D. P. Partridge; E. B. James
This paper describes a method of analysing information based on theories about the way in which human beings tackle this problem. The method has been realized as a computer program and applied to the analysis of statements in a particular programming language. The application of an "intelligence modelling" approach to statement analysis leads to interesting possibilities particularly in connection with the correction of inaccuracies, and it is suggested that such an "error-tolerant" interface could lead to more effective man-machine communication in the future.
Programming by Non-Programmers BIBA 237-260
  Lance A. Miller
Non-programmers were asked to organize natural English commands of a laboratory programming language into programs for solving name-sorting problems. The problems differed in the sort concept to be programmed (conjunction vs. disjunction) and in the form of expression of the letter tests to be made on the names (affirmation vs. negation.)
   Programming performance was found to be impaired with disjunctive concepts and with letter tests involving negation. Different classes of program structure were identified and were associated with certain problem conditions and error measures. An influence of prior experience with procedures on performance was suggested. Program debugging and testing performance was characterized.
Student Models in Computer-Aided Instruction BIBA 261-276
  John A. Self
In order to individualize instruction, a computer-aided instruction (CAI) program must maintain a "student model", i.e. a representation of the hypothesized knowledge state of the student. We propose a student model consisting of a set of programs to represent the student's knowledge state. Teaching proceeds after a comparative evaluation of student and teacher programs, and learning is represented by direct modification of the student model. The advantages of an explicit procedural model are illustrated by considering a program which maintains such a model. Theoretical and practical difficulties facing such an approach are also discussed.

Book Reviews

"Computer Simulation of Human Behaviour," edited by J. M. Dutton and W. H. Starbuck BIB 277-284
  L. M. Jones
"Understanding Natural Language," by T. Winograd BIB 277-284
  Karen Sparck Jones
"Mathematical Models in Linguistics," by M. Gross BIB 277-284
  A. F. Parker-Rhodes
"The Psychology of Computer Programming," by Gerald M. Weinberg BIB 277-284
  I. J. Blain

IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 3

An Algebra for Patterns on a Complex, I BIBA 285-307
  R. H. Atkin
This is a first paper on the development of an algebraic representation of a simplicial complex K. In the first instance this representation is found in an exterior algebra ΛV and this allows pattern π on K to be represented by polynomials in the algebra. The connectivity structure of K is studied by defining a face-operator f on the graded ring of polynomials Π and the coface operator &Delta}, dual to f, then introduced so as to act as an homomorphism of index +1 on this graded Π. When K is extended, in a complementary sense, to become an OAC-complex the algebra ΛV needs to be extended to a new structure Ex(V ∪ ¬V) and this contains sub-algebras ΛV and Λ¬V.
   The patterns on a complex K can be studied as being generated by an operator Θ(K), which embodies the geometrical constraints in K, and this operator is shown to be defined by the structure vector Q(K) which was introduced in an earlier paper in this Journal (Atkin, 1972).
The Design of Interactive Procedures for Man-Machine Communication BIBA 309-334
  T. C. S. Kennedy
This paper analyses experience in the design of effective interactive communication procedures for computer systems in the light of established research on human verbal skills. The process of normal communication between individuals is examined for principles which may be usefully applied to the design of a man-machine communication language. The stresses imposed by social factors and time/cost constraints are often inadequately comprehended by system designers with the result that systems do not operate as effectively as predicted on technical grounds. Practical experience in the design of data entry procedures is examined and it is suggested that the system, as perceived by the user, should be made very simple and natural in its structure, even though this may involve extensive programming to match efficient internal data structures to the required external model. Finally, a set of ground rules for the design of a "well-behaved" system is proposed.
An Easily-Implemented Language for Computer Control of Complex Experiments BIBA 335-359
  T. R. G. Green; D. J. Guest
The main features of a general-purpose experimental language are described followed by an account of its implementation. The nature of the language allows the implementation to proceed in three stages, of which only the first requires assembly-code programming, so that it is cheap and easy to set up. The aim of the paper is to provide a guide for those wishing to create similar systems, and the techniques required are therefore referred to clear published accounts or are described in detail. A concluding example demonstrates the programming of an algorithm for parsing with respect to context-free phrase-structure grammars.
Human Errors in Programming BIBA 361-376
  Edward A. Youngs
This study attempts to systematize the description of the errors that programmers make. By collecting protocol data from 42 programmers, some insights concerning the relative importance of various programming errors are achieved. These insights are interpreted in terms of programmer experience and the design and redesign of general purpose, compiler-type programming languages.

Book Reviews

"Structured Programming," by O.-J. Dahl, E. W. Dijkstra and C. A. R. Hoare BIB 377-380
  F. R. A. Hopgood
"Mathematical Model Techniques for Learning Theories," by G. Levine and C. J. Burke BIB 377-380
  D. R. J. Laming
"Frontiers of Pattern Recognition," edited by S. Watanabe BIB 377-380
  I. Aleksander; M. C. Fairhurst

IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 4

Requirements for Effective Authoring Systems and Assistance BIBA 381-400
  K. L. Zinn
In this paper the present state of the art in authoring systems is surveyed and the other papers in this special issue are introduced.
Easy Author-Entry Systems: A Review and a Prototype BIBA 401-419
  M. W. Dowsey
Since CAI was introduced, the course author has been faced with a new problem. Not only must he have a thorough knowledge of the subject content and the student objectives for the course but he must also learn an instructional programming language. This paper discusses the various types of easy author entry systems that have been developed, describing the salient features of particular systems, and suggests where each type might be used. It also describes a prototype system whose design aims have concentrated particularly on the problems of ease of use, documentation and standardization.
An Interrogative Authoring System BIBA 421-444
  A. Y. Paloian
The hardware and software capabilities of computers today allow their use in a timesharing and interactive mode. This on-line usage has made possible some rather unique applications.
   The field of education, in particular, has drawn upon the resources of computer technology in the development of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). In CAI, the author interacts with an authoring system to produce a course which is later administered to students using a computer. The authoring system generally consists of an authoring language and several computer programs necessary to support the language.
   An investigation was made of the authoring problems posed by present systems. In this paper, some requirements for a desirable authoring system have been reviewed and a proposal for an interrogative authoring system presented.
   The major objectives of this study were the following: (a) to design an authoring system that facilitates course authoring for the instructor; (b) to develop an authoring language composed of natural language words that are semantically compatible with the teacher's occupational vocabulary; (c) to create a list structural representation of each language element as opposed to compiling each statement and generating code; and (d) to use the list structural representation in the generation of a course in machine code. The system has been designed to facilitate the generation of any number of suitable machine code representations from the list structure.
PLATO IV Authoring BIBA 445-463
 
This paper is an introduction to the main features of TUTOR, the language in which instructional material is prepared for the PLATO Computer-based Education System.
A Concept for a Primary Author's Language (PAL) BIBA 465-478
  Peter Ripota
This paper considers the problem of multiple languages in the transfer of computer-based curriculum materials and proposes a Primary Author Language which acts as a medium for translating from one language to another.
The Design and Production of Learner-Controlled Courseware for the TICCIT System: A Progress Report BIBA 479-491
  C. Victor Bunderson
The magnitude of the task of courseware development in the TICCIT project has required the development of well-defined and manageable techniques for courseware preparation. This paper reviews the problems involved and the team production techniques developed to overcome them.

IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 5

Performance of a Speech Synthesis System BIBA 493-511
  W. A. Ainsworth
A system for synthesizing speech from a phonetic input is described. A string of phonetic symbols representing the sentence to be uttered is transformed into the control signals required by a parametric speech synthesizer using a small digital computer.
   The performance of the system was investigated by listening tests. In the first set of experiments consonant-vowel syllables were synthesized, and presented to listeners for identification. The vowels were readily identified, but the fricatives less so. In the second set of experiments the intelligibility of synthesized sentences was examined. It was found that after about an hour of transcribing the sentences, listeners identified about 90% of the words correctly.
Concept Representation in Natural and Artificial Languages: Axioms, Extensions and Applications for Fuzzy Sets BIBA 513-561
  Joseph A., Jr. Goguen
This paper reports research related to mathematics, philosophy, computer science and linguistics. It gives a system of axioms for a relatively simple form of fuzzy set theory, and uses these axioms to consider the accuracy of representing concepts in various ways by fuzzy sets. By-products of this approach include a number of new operations and laws for fuzzy sets, parallel to those for ordinary sets, and a demonstration that all the basic operations are intrinsically determined. In addition, the paper explores both hierarchical and algorithmic extensions of fuzzy sets, and then applications to problems in natural language semantics and combinatorics. Finally, the paper returns to the problem of representing concepts, and discusses some implications for artificial intelligence.
A Step Toward Automatic Analysis of Student Programming Errors in a Batch Environment BIBA 563-578
  G. Nagy; M. Carlson Pennebaker
The object of this investigation is to develop a method for the automatic collection of meaningful statistical information about the causes of program resubmittal in a batch-processing environment. Successive versions of a given program are compared statement-by-statement in order to isolate minor changes made in the program. All statements inserted, substituted, or deleted are examined in terms of (1) the type of statement (i.e. DO, IF, etc.), (2) the number of consecutive statements involved in the change, and (3) how many times the program has already been submitted (the number of "tries"). One thousand and one hundred and ten programs are analyzed in this manner. The method is intended to be used, in conjunction with detailed study of selected cases and with further experimentation in completely controlled situations, to improve programming instruction and manuals, to produce better diagnostic messages, to aid in the design of new compilers, and eventually, to provide means for automatic correction of trivial mistakes.
The Effects of 10 Communication Modes on the Behavior of Teams During Co-Operative Problem-Solving BIBA 579-619
  Robert B. Ochsman; Alphonse Chapanis
Sixty teams of two college students each solved credible "real world" problems co-operatively. Conversations were carried on in one of 10 modes of communication: (1) typewriting only, (2) handwriting only, (3) handwriting and typewriting, (4) typewriting and video, (5) handwriting and video, (6) voice only, (7) voice and typewriting, (8) voice and handwriting, (9) voice and video, and (10) a "communication-rich mode." Performance was assessed on three classes of dependent measures: time to solution, behavioral measures of activity, and linguistic measures. Significant and meaningful differences among the communication modes were found in each of the three classes of dependent variable. This paper is concerned mainly with the results of the activity analyses. Behavior was recorded in 21 different categories from which three additional composite categories were formed. The analyses of the behavioral data yielded 51 statistically significant terms. The data support the conclusion that the single most important decision in the design of a telecommunications link should center around the inclusion of a voice channel.

Book Reviews

"Intelligence: Its Organization and Development," by Michael Cunningham BIB 621-626
  J. Annett
"Psychotechnology -- Electronic Control of Mind and Behaviour," edited by R. L. Schwitzgebel and R. K. Schwitzgebel BIB 621-626
  A. M. Andrew
"Human and Artificial Thinking," edited by A. Elithorn and D. Jones BIB 621-626
  M. J. B. Duff
"Pattern Recognition Techniques," by J. R. Ullman BIB 621-626
  K. Paton

IJMMS 1974 Volume 6 Issue 6

COKO III: The Cooper-Kozdrowicki Chess Program BIBA 627-699
  Edward W. Kozdrowicki; Dennis W. Cooper
The performance capabilities of the best computer chess programs are compared with their human counterparts with emphasis being placed on machine behavior limits. A grandmaster usually spends a lifetime collecting knowledge or information about the game. Some of this knowledge is given to COKO in the form of a 12000-line FORTRAN program. Using this knowledge COKO plays very poorly but at a super rate of approximately one move/sec. The use of a brute-force selective tree-searching procedure yields an order of magnitude improvement in performance at the standard rate of 3 min/move. Perhaps three orders of magnitude additional improvement is needed to defeat the world champion, a gap which must be bridged, if ever, by programming more chess knowledge into the machine. This paper discusses the "tree-searching catastrophe" as a natural phenomenon that plagues selective tree searching for both man and machine. In addition so-called "interminimal-game communication" is considered as a natural, powerful procedure frequently used by humans to guide their selective search and as a point of emphasis for future development. It is concluded that COKO's development is just beginning, with no immediate barriers to progress, and no lack of ideas for improvement. At present COKO combines brilliant solutions to individual board position puzzles with unimaginable blunders.
A Theoretical Approach for Character Recognition Based on Phenomenological Attributes BIBA 701-714
  B. Blesser; R. Shillman; T. Kuklinksi; C. Cox; M. Eden; J. Ventura
The importance of using a theory of characters in the designing of automatic computer character recognition algorithms for hand-printed letters is demonstrated. Ambiguously shaped characters or "difficult cases" constitute the basis for the theory. It is argued that a theory based on ambiguities, rather than on the classical archetypal shape of letters, leads to algorithms which will perform more accurately. Letters are described in terms of an abstract set of functional attributes, each of which can be related to a type of ambiguity between two letters. The relations between the functional attributes, which specify the letter's identity, and the physical attributes, which are derived from the physical image, are called graphical context rules. These rules can be determined from psychological experimentation.
Logical Properties of the Perceived Behaviour Patterns of a Dynamical System BIBA 715-728
  D. G. Tonge
In studies of machine perception and learning, and in the simulation of the adaptive control aspects of human behaviour one of the basic problems is that of obtaining suitable representations of the environment. The signal sources in the external world are essentially continuous in time and space, while their internal representations are generally discontinuous, being both sampled and quantized. The relationship, for example, between the continuous world of physics and the perceived world of discrete objects is not a simple one psychologically and an investigation of this relationship is important both to human and artificial intelligence theory. In this paper certain basic invariance requirements on the trajectories of a dynamical system in a quantized state space are analysed to obtained relationships between the dynamical and logical properties of the system, and a method for generating integral representations is presented.

Book Reviews

"The Metaphorical Brain: An Introduction to Cybernetics as Artificial Intelligence and Brain Theory," by Michael A. Arbib BIB 729-736
  R. L. Gregory
"Computers, Management and Information," by David Firnberg BIB 729-736
  John Naughton
"Foundations of the Theory of Learning Systems," by Ya. Z. Tsypkin BIB 729-736
  P. Young; J. Kittler
"Pattern Recognition Learning and Thought," by Leonard Uhr BIB 729-736
  I. Aleksander