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IJMMS Tables of Contents: 0102030405060708091011

International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 1

Editors:B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
Dates:1969
Volume:1
Publisher:Academic Press
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Papers:27
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJMMS 1969 Volume 1 Issue 1
  2. IJMMS 1969 Volume 1 Issue 2
  3. IJMMS 1969 Volume 1 Issue 3
  4. IJMMS 1969 Volume 1 Issue 4

IJMMS 1969 Volume 1 Issue 1

Editorial BIB i-ii
  G. B. B. Chaplin; B. R. Gaines; J. L. Gedye
A Learning Machine with Monologue BIBA 1-20
  J. H. Andreae; P. M. Cashin
The learning machine STeLLA has been developed considerably since it was first described in 1962. Although it has not been built in entirety, it has been simulated on computers in many different forms and with many different problems; special circuits have been developed for its construction.
   The need to give the machine a "monologue" ability arose because the machine cannot learn to solve problems for which the input to the machine is inadequate to distinguish successive steps made by the machine. A simple example of this is the problem of learning to perform a sequence of actions when the sequence is not related to information received by the machine from its problem environment.
   In this paper an introductory description of the STeLLA machine is given with the help of a particular problem which is then used to illustrate the generation of control policies by a dual machine. The dual STeLLA comprises two interdependent STeLLA machines or STeLLAments; one interacts directly with the problem environment, while the second STeLLAment interacts with an auxiliary "vocal" environment to provide monologue. Monologue is used to supplement the information from the problem environment with information from the vocal environment. The STeLLAment interacting directly with the vocal environment has its input supplemented by information from the control policy of the other machine. The two machines are co-ordinated further by giving reward to the dual machine as a whole.
   The procedure of counting is the kind of monologue which can be used to distinguish a sequence of steps that cannot be distinguished by successive inputs from the problem environment. This is illustrated in the paper by considering a problem that requires STeLLA "to walk across a dark courtyard". Monologue is not restricted to such counting of steps, but can take the form of more sophisticated "symbol" sequences. By allowing an operator to inject sequences into the monologue of the machine, an elementary form of dialogue could be set up. It would be a special feature of the dialogue that no predetermined language was imposed on the participants.
   Examples of the use of monologue have been worked out and more complicated situations as being programmed for computer simulation both in the monologue and dialogue form.
Motion Sickness -- Some Theoretical Considerations BIBA 21-38
  James T. Reason
The term motion sickness refers to the pattern of symptoms, principally nausea and vomiting, which can be evoked in susceptible individuals by the perception of various kinds of periodic motion. In this paper it is argued that these reactions may be usefully regarded, not as isolated phenomena, but as part of a wide range of effects that can be elicited by the experimental technique of "sensory rearrangement". On these grounds, a neural mismatch hypothesis is suggested whose essence is that the symptoms of motion sickness are triggered by a disparity between current vestibular, proprioceptive and visual inputs and those expected on the basis of previous "exposure-history". The final section discusses the implications of this hypothesis for understanding motion sickness susceptibility.
The Role of the Information Scientist BIBA 39-50
  F. T. Dolan
Information science may be defined as "the science which investigates the properties and behaviour of information, the forces governing the flow of information, and the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability".
   This paper presents an analysis of what constitutes an information system; considers the relationship between information science and computer science and discusses the current status of information retrieval, and its role in total information systems.
Some Swedish Experience in the Development of Interactive Computer Systems BIBA 51-72
  Kjell Mellberg
Since the advent of the computer data processing field has been growing at an ever-increasing rate. One part of this field -- peripheral systems permitting real-time, interactive, man-machine communication -- has started to grow in an explosive way which surpasses all expectations of a few years ago. This paper reviews the logical development of a requirement for multi-programming, multi-processor systems, in order to match the computational speed and facilities of the computer to those of man, and to enable man and machine to interact co-operatively as a decision-making team. The requirement for co-operative decision-making arose very early on in air traffic control, and the system concepts described are exemplified through a description of the CENSOR computer system developed by Standard Radio & Telefon for the Swedish Air Force. Recently one of these systems has been installed in the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm for patient monitoring in an intensive care ward. The modularity of the system, both in hardware and software, largely gained through the multi-processor approach using satellite machines, has been an important factor in enabling a variety of complex systems to be built up with experience for problems which were, initially, incompletely specified.
Programmed Learning -- A Decade of Development BIBA 73-100
  Michael Macdonald-Ross
The type of education needed in a changing world is different in kind from that required in a static society. In a static society the maintenance of excellence is the predominant theme; in an evolving world adaptation is the keynote. Rather than equip young people with a once-and-for-all set of facts and attitudes we must, in the future, evolve a subtler system whereby upon a base of carefully defined general abilities specific training can be added at intervals throughout life. Programmed learning does not offer a complete solution to these problems, but it is a significant approach towards the goal of individualized learning.
   This paper reviews the historical development of programmed learning, and exemplifies the different approaches which have been taken to the preparation of programmed material. The essential characteristics of programmed learning are analysed, within the framework of overall educational objectives, and its role is shown to be that of an individual, structured, mode of learning. Finally, the achievements, and the current status, of programmed learning are discussed.
An ESOTerIC Approach to Some Problems in Automatic Speech Recognition BIB 101-121
  David R. Hill

Book Reviews

"A Mathematical Theory of Systems Engineering," by A. Wayne Wymore BIB 123-128
  B. R. Gaines
"Sequential Machines and Automata Theory," by T. L. Booth BIB 123-128
  B. R. Gaines
"The Computer in American Education," edited by D. D. Bushnell and D. W. Allen BIB 123-128
  D. H. Sleeman
"Automaton Theory and Learning Systems," edited by D. J. Stewart BIB 123-128
  Simon Curry
"Recognizing Patterns -- Studies in Living and Automatic Systems," edited by P. A. Kolers and Murray Eden BIB 123-128
  B. R. Gaines

IJMMS 1969 Volume 1 Issue 2

Toward a Theory of Telling BIBA 129-176
  Brian N. Lewis; Jenny A. Cook
In the absence of any overall theory of teaching, a strong case can be made for attempting a theory of telling. This is so because telling is a fairly distinctive (and simpler) kind of communication, requiring only one-way contact between the transmitter of a message and its recipient. Telling is therefore a particularly suitable kind of activity for man-made information sources (books, machines) to engage in.
   In modern technological societies, a great deal of telling needs to be done. Since it is often done rather badly, there is some practical interest in enquiring how acts of telling might be improved. Such an enquiry would also be relevant to the theory and practice of teaching, since improvements in the quality of communication often enable teaching to be reduced to telling.
   A theory of telling might be equivalently described as a theory of clear communication. Ideally, it would specify the conditions under which information could be communicated, in one direction only, without ambiguity. It would spotlight the difficulties that frustrate the unambiguous transfer of information; and it would serve as a reminder that problems of communication are problems of unclear communication. This paper reviews the difficulties involved in developing such a theory, and illustrates the kinds of benefits that might be gained by overcoming such difficulties.
Instructional Models in a Computer-Based Learning System BIBA 177-188
  Derek H. Sleeman; J. R. Hartley
Many recent attempts to improve the quality of learning have concentrated upon increasing and improving the individual contact between the teacher and the student. This individual contact may be either "tutorial" (controlled by the teacher), or "Socratic" (controlled by the student).
   A computer-based system must be capable of providing both these modes of instruction, and of shifting from one mode to the other as required by a given situation.
   The problems of implementing a computer-based system are discussed. Specific attention is paid to problems of structuring material, of student interfacing and of monitoring and evaluating the student's performance.
   The Leeds system of matching the student's constructed responses is described, with particular reference to the recognition of "character strings", the problems of word- and letter-redundancy, and the use of a synonym facility. Examples are given of its use in second-language teaching and in the teaching of techniques for clinical examination and diagnosis.
Computer Analysis of Intellectual Skills BIBA 189-209
  Alick Elithorn; Alex Telford
In the majority of psychological tests the items are arranged in an empirically determined hierarchy of increasing difficulty, through which the subject works until he reaches the upper limit of his ability. Items are generally scored on a pass or fail basis, and although there is redundancy in the data collected there is relatively little information as to how the level of performance was attained. The present paper describes a process control program which overcomes some of the problems involved. In the example presented the program controls the presentation on a graphic display of a psychological test which is particularly suitable for computer analysis and design, and the advantages of this type of test are briefly described and discussed.
A Computer-Based Terminal for Radiological Reporting BIBA 211-235
  I. Brolin
MEDELA is a computer-controlled visual-display system for the preparation of radiological reports. It consists of a film-strip based terminal, the MEDELA unit, which presents, in a controlled order, every required term or phrase for radiological examinations and diagnosis. The displayed material is arranged so that, at each level, information pertinent to the current case is available to the radiologist. For this reason, MEDELA is more versatile and flexible than other input devices. Despite this, it requires less manual work by the operator than do comparable image-display systems.
   Although the system has been devised for radiological reports, it is by no means limited to radiology, but is suitable for all kinds of descriptive and narrative data.

IJMMS 1969 Volume 1 Issue 3

The Automation of Psychological Assessment BIBA 237-262
  J. L. Gedye; E. Miller
This paper describes a new approach to psychological assessment -- the use of automated testing techniques, and draws attention to the main reasons for pursuing it: the possibilities of both increases reliability and validity on the one hand, and the more efficient use of skilled manpower on the other. Some of the problems of automating psychological assessment are illustrated by reference to a particular system -- the ts 512, with which the authors have been closely involved throughout its development. Finally, some of the more general issues relating to automated psychological testing are discussed.
Pattern Recognition and a Model of the Brain BIBA 263-278
  J. J. Sparkes
The principal functions which characterize brain-like behaviour are considered, namely pattern recognition, pattern synthesis, memory and learning, and it is tentatively concluded that the brain can usefully be regarded as a pattern recognition machine. The primary features of the pattern recognition process, namely the concept of similarity, the use of context and the need for iterative signal analysis, are discussed. Finally, a model of a simple speech recognition machine which incorporates those aspects of brain processes which are relevant to such a machine is proposed.
A Model of the Vertebrate Central Command System BIBA 279-309
  W. L. Kilmer; W. S. McCulloch; J. Blum
This paper is based on the hypothesis that the reticular formation (RF) is the structure in vertebrates that commits an animal to one mode of behavior or another. Examples of modes are sleep, eat, drink, fight, flee and mate. There are never more than about 25 such modes for any given animal, and if properly interpreted, they are mutually exclusive.
   The problem of the RF is how, in a fraction of a second, its million or more neurons are able to reach a workable consensus as to the proper mode of total commitment. The RF neurology, which is essentially constant from frog to man, is reviewed on the assumption that it provides the main clues. In particular, the RF Golgi anatomy of the Scheibels, which reveals RF circuit pattern, is caricatured to produce a computer simulation model, S-RETIC.
   The design of S-RETIC and its satisfactory simulation are described. The model consists of a dozen probabilistic hybrid computer modules linked together with jumpers of different lengths to form an anastomotic array. This array is neither serial or parallel.
   An enhanced S-RETIC, STC-RETIC, has also been simulated, and in addition to rolling from mode to mode as a proper function of its 84 binary inputs, it is capable of habituation, conditioning, extinction, generalization, and limited trial-and-error discrimination.
   An enriched version of STC-RETIC is discussed which is designed to operate asynchronously and show appropriate endogenously influenced behavior.
   The place of an RF model in the functional organization of a complete android robot is outlined.
Natural Language Processing by Computer BIBA 311-329
  J. D. Beattie
This paper presents an introductory review of some aspects of the computer processing of natural language (especially English) in an orthographic form (that is, in the form of a string of alphabetic characters, rather than for example, spoken word). Applications of such processing in fields like information storage and retrieval and computer-assisted instruction are discussed, and the question of what it means for a computer to "understand" natural language is considered. Some of the problems in analysing the structure and content of English sentences are presented, along with some solutions to these problems which have been investigated experimentally.

Book Reviews

"Models of the Nervous System," by Sid Deutsch BIB 330-332
  P. I. Zorkoczy
"Experiments in Induction," by Earl B. Hunt, Janet Marin and Philip J. Stone BIB 330-332
  D. Beattie

IJMMS 1969 Volume 1 Issue 4

Linear and Nonlinear Models of the Human Controller BIBA 333-360
  B. R. Gaines
This paper presents a review of recent studies of the human controller both in psychology and in control engineering. Theoretical and technological problems in the study of skilled behaviour are first discussed, and the desirable constraints upon any "model" are outlined. The foundations of linear continuous modelling of the human controller and experimental data on the validity and utility of linear models are then reviewed. The evidence for non-linear and discontinuous behaviour in the human controller is then outlined, and studies of non-linear models based on modern optimal and sampled-data control theory are then presented.
A Notation System for Recording Observable Motion BIBA 361-386
  Valerie Preston-Dunlop
This paper outlines the problem of recoding human movement and establishes the requirements for an adequate "language" of movement based on human observation. The history of observable motion data recording (OMDR) is outlined and various movement languages are briefly described. The four divisions of OMDR -- motif writing, kinetography, effort symbols and linear effort graphs -- are then discussed in depth. Finally, applications of observable motion data recording and its further extensions are outlined.
A Clinician's Approach to Computer-Based Medical Record Systems BIBA 387-403
  J. Anderson; F. Woodroffe
The medical record is a major factor in patient care and has many functions which the clinical user accepts without thought. Analysis reveals these functions in detail and shows up the limitations of present systems.
   It is seen that, as well as the more obvious functions of storage and communication of information, the medical record has importance as a medico-legal document and that, because of this, more thought needs to be given to the problems of identification of the various contributors. Along with these problems is the whole question of confidentiality which at present, because of the number of individuals who have access to the complete record, is largely in name only. The management of a hospital ultimately derives its basic data from the medical record. At present the nursing record is kept separate from the doctor's record until the patient's discharge, but because of this much duplication takes place and interaction between the two could avoid this.
   The application of computer techniques could do much to improve the flexibility and content of the medical record. Various methods of input and of interrogation have been tried, but the most applicable and useful appears to be the computer-driven visual display unit, giving real time facility. Of the various schemes in use, that using branching display techniques gives the quickest input and allows much standardization of vocabulary, since the words and phrases the user may require are stored by the computer and presented in a logical sequence. Free text must be allowed but is used in the knowledge that future analysis will be extremely difficult, if not impossible. Careful display design should minimize the use of free text. The application of such a system to the nursing record will be very challenging and difficult.
   By the use of a computer system, the communication function of the record can be immeasurably improved.

Book Reviews

"International Library Review," edited by George Chandler BIB 405-407
  A. R. Meetham
"University Education in Computing Science," edited by A. Finerman BIB 405-407
  J. G. Laski