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International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 7

Editors:B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
Dates:1975
Volume:7
Publisher:Academic Press
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Papers:35
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 1
  2. IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 2
  3. IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 3
  4. IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 4
  5. IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 5
  6. IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 6

IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 1

An Experiment in Linguistic Synthesis with a Fuzzy Logic Controller BIBA 1-13
  E. H. Mamdani; S. Assilian
This paper describes an experiment on the "linguistic" synthesis of a controller for a model industrial plant (a steam engine). Fuzzy logic is used to convert heuristic control rules stated by a human operator into an automatic control strategy. The experiment was initiated to investigate the possibility of human interaction with a learning controller. However, the control strategy set up linguistically proved to be far better than expected in its own right, and the basic experiment of linguistic control synthesis in a non-learning controller is reported here.
The Representation of Knowables BIBA 15-134
  G. Pask; D. Kallikourdis; B. C. E. Scott
A formal account is given of the structure of conversational domains. A procedure is described which permits the construction of representations of the domains of tutorial conversations (knowledge structures) together with an account of the use of the procedure for structuring academic subject matters. Mechanized versions of the procedure, a series of computer programs, have been developed and implemented. A description of their form is presented and interpreted for a theory of learning and teaching. The interpretation is related to empirical studies of learning style.
Interactive Command Language Design Based on Required Mental Work BIBA 135-149
  Siegfried Treu
Although the definition of "mental work" remains elusive, systematic means/methods should be considered for gaining evidence about interactive language features requiring more/less effort of the human mind. The suggested approach employs a structuring of the user's conceptual reference spaces into sets of "action primitives", peculiar to the type of computer-aided task involved. An interactive command language can then be regarded as the range of some transformation on the user's set of action primitives. The nature and efficiency of that transformation, in conjunction with the inherent number of mental association links, are hypothesized to have direct relationships to the level of required mental work. The user's delay or "think time", expended immediately preceding command utilization, is one measurable quantity that should be useful as a work level indicator.

IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 2

Some Psychological Evidence on How People Debug Computer Programs BIBA 151-182
  John D. Gould
Ten experienced programmers were each given the same 12 FORTRAN listings to debug. Each listing contained a non-syntactic error in one line. Median debug times (7 min), number of bugs not found (11% of the listings), and number of incorrect assertions about the location of the bug (less than one per listing) all replicated earlier results (Gould & Drongowski, 1974). Although subjects were given the opportunity to use the interactive debugging facilities of an on-line computer, they rarely did so. Bugs in assignment statement were about three times as hard to detect as array or interaction bugs. Debugging was about three times as efficient on programs subjects had debugged previously (although with a different bug). A number of basic concepts relating to debugging are identified and a gross theory of debugging is described.
A Problem-Solving Monitor for a Deductive Reasoning Task BIBA 183-211
  D. H. Sleeman
Much of a scientist's work is involved with making inferences and deductions from data. On analysing some of these tasks in greater detail one observes that the task is made up of a series of sub-tasks and that it is not always possible to determine a unique solution for a particular sub-task. That is, the problem-solution involves a search through a solution-space. Recently, a number of programs have been implemented which are capable of solving problems of this kind, e.g. HEURISTIC DENDRAL and SYNCHEM. In this paper we discuss the design and implementation of systems which monitor the student as he attempts to solve problems involving a search of the solution space. To pursue this broad and general problem it was necessary to choose a particular task to be investigated in some depth. The task chosen was the interpretation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra -- a task encountered in university organic chemistry courses.
   The paper discusses in some detail the design of this particular problem-solving monitor and includes an annotated student protocol and the corresponding problem-solving graph. The paper concludes with an outline of reactions to this program and a discussion of possible further developments.
Interactive Planning: A Study of Computer Aiding in the Execution of a Simulated Scheduling Task BIBA 213-231
  H. T. Smith; R. G. Crabtree
This paper examines some of the problems and possibilities of interactive decision-making within the experimental context of an industrial problem-production scheduling. An experiment is described in which subjects were required to produce items from, and generally control, a simulated job shop. A predictive facility was introduced into the simulation in order to study its effect on search strategies and, in particular, determine whether the decision horizon could be extended. One of the main themes underlying the experiment was an investigation of the extent to which subject problem-solving strategies could be formalized and incorporated into solution-seeking procedures.
   The experimental results show that the type of search was relatively unaffected by the predictive facility. An explanation of this result and a discussion of the subjects strategies is offered in the light of information obtained from the analysis of verbal protocol material.
The Effect of Language Design on Time-Sharing Operational Efficiency BIBA 233-247
  T. Brown; M. Klerer
The importance of "think time" for operational efficiency of time-sharing systems is re-emphasized. It is pointed out that think time is an experimental dependent parameter of the software-hardware programming system and may be lengthened or shortened as a function of console or programming language design. A simple computational model is used to predict the behavior of response time as a function of think time for different conditions of service loading. The economic implications are considered.
The Design of an Instructional System Based on Problem Generators BIBA 249-271
  Brian G. Palmer; Arthur E. Oldehoeft
This paper describes the design of an automated instructional system for materials which exhibits a hierarchical structure. Fundamental to the design of the system is a method for building problem generators (problem structures) through the parameterization of a problem statement. The assignment of parameters by the system results in the generation of a problem type and defines the associated set of tasks which the student must perform to solve the problem.
   Using sample material from analytic geometry, the design of the system includes the specification of problem structures along with associated behavioral tasks and performance criteria. The control structure of the system and the data base on which it operates are described for implementation on a computer.

Book Reviews

"Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics," by W. M. Newman and R. F. Sproull BIB 273-277
  Ian H. Witten
"The Design of Man-Computer Dialogues," by James Martin BIB 273-277
  John Martin

IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 3

From Automata Theory to Brain Theory BIBA 279-295
  Michael A. Arbib
Although the brain modeler can gain many useful insights from such concepts of orthodox automata theory as finite automata, network complexity theory, and Turing machines, we here stress that the best neural modelling will bear little resemblance to a straight application of such techniques.
   This general perspective is complemented by a survey of eight levels of neural modelling, coupled with an extensive bibliography. The eight levels are: form-function relations in single neurons; lateral inhibition; mode selection; statistical mechanics; adaptive neural networks; holography; control theory; and cognitive modelling.
Logic, Biology and Automata -- Some Historical Reflections BIBA 297-312
  A. W. Burks
This is a historical and philosophical survey of the relation of logic (including automata theory and inductive logic) to the biological sciences, broadly conceived.
   Aristotle and his successors formalized portions of deductive discourse, but Liebniz was the first to suggest formalizing languages as a whole. Since then many different formal languages have been constructed; they are fair models of certain aspects of language. Liebniz saw the computational possibilities of a formal language, which were later made explicit by Turing (1936-37) and Post (1936).
   In the 1880s Peirce suggested that Boolean algebra could be used to design relay computers and that evolutionary processes and inductive processes are analogous. The first well-developed applications of logic to biology were McCulloch & Pitt's (1943) idealized neuron networks and von Neumann's self-reproducing automata. While these are interesting models, this fit to actual biological phenomena is rough.
   How may the fit of logic to biology be made closer? Various ways are suggested: more detailed applications, the development of biology in the direction of automata theory, and by using formalisms that combine deduction with induction. Evolution is a statistical or inductive process, but genetic strings play a deductive role.
   Formal languages are different from natural languages in rigor and precision, yet they give fair models of deduction, induction, and grammar. Other uses of language, such as the empirical, seem basically informal. Consider, however, a computer with appropriate input and output devices which interacts with its environment and communicates in a sophisticated language. It would understand empirical concepts and would verify empirical statements, and hence would model the empirical use of language.
   The logical design and initial state of any computer, and a fortiori of this computer, can be expressed as a recursive formula of a formal language. Hence the empirical aspect of language is also formalizable.
The Organization of the Living: A Theory of the Living Organization BIBA 313-332
  Humberto R. Maturana
The fundamental feature that characterizes living systems is autonomy, and any account of their organization as systems that can exist as individual unities must show what autonomy is as a phenomenon proper to them, and how it arises in their operation as such unities. Accordingly the following is proposed.
   (1) That autonomy in living systems is a feature of self-production (autopoiesis), and that a living system is properly characterized only as a network of processes of production of components that it continuously, and recursively, generated and realized as a concrete entity (unity) in the physical space, by the interactions of the same components that is produces as such a network. This organization I call the autopoietic organization, and any system that exhibits it is an autopoietic system in the space in which its components exists; in this sense living systems are autopoietic systems in the physical space.
   (2) That the basic consequence of the autopoietic organization is that everything that takes place in an autopoietic system is subordinated to the realization of its autopoiesis, otherwise it disintegrates.
   (3) That the fundamental feature that characterizes the nervous system is that it is a closed network of interacting neurons in which every state of neuronal activity generates other states of neuronal activity. Since the nervous system is a component subsystem in an autopoietic unity, it operates by generating states of relative neuronal activity that participate in the realization of the autopoiesis of the organism which it integrates.
   (4) That the autopoietic states that an organism adopts are determined by its structure (the structure of the nervous system included), and that the structure of the organism (including its nervous system) is at any instant the result of its evolutionary and ontogenic structural coupling with the medium in which it is autopoietic, obtained while the autopoiesis is realized.
   (5) That language arises as phenomenon proper to living systems from the reciprocal structural coupling of at least two organisms with nervous systems, and that self-consciousness arises as an individual phenomenon from the recursive structural coupling of an organism with language with its own structure through recursive self-description.
Consensus versus Competition in Neural Networks: A Comparative Analysis of Three Models BIBA 333-346
  F. S. Montalvo
Three neural network models are compared in terms of underlying mechanisms. One is a visual model that segments a scene in terms of disparities. A second is one of the frog tectum designed to pick out the position of maximum "foodness" for the frog. The third is one of the reticular formation involved in the commitment of an organism to one gross mode of behavior or another. The parts that inhibition, unit coupling, network length, input features, nonlinearities, and time-varying functions play in the final results of these networks are discussed. A state-reduction scheme is proposed that enables an analysis of a network's behavior in terms of meaningful groups of units rather than single unit activity. This involves a decomposition into a dimension along which units compete vs. a dimension along which units reach consensus. Units reaching consensus tend to group themselves into aggregates that in turn compete to gain dominance in mode decisions.
Parallel Processing of Signals in Neural Sets as Manifested in the EEG BIB 347-369
  Walter J. Freeman
Statistical Simplification of Neural Nets BIBA 371-393
  B. P. Zeigler
Harth and his co-workers have investigated the so-called "neuron gas" or "netlet" models of neuron nets in which pools of neurons are represented by statistical aggregates. Employing the theory of model simplification we have previously developed, we provide conditions under which such neuron gas models validly represent the dynamic behavior of the parent neural net.
A Wave Model of Temporal Sequence Learning BIBA 395-412
  James C. Stanley; William L. Kilmer
Models of circuit action in the mammalian hippocampus have led us to a study of habituation circuits. In order to help model the process of habituation we consider here a memory network designed to learn sequences of inputs separated by various time intervals and to repeat these sequences when cued by their initial fragments. The structure of our model is based on the anatomy of the dentate gyrus region of the mammalian hippocampus, though our basic circuit theme is not unique to the hippocampus. Our model consists of a number of arrays of cells called lamellae. Each array consists of four lines of neuromimes coupled uniformly to neighbors within the array and with some randomness to neuromimes in other lamellae. All neuromimes operate according to first-order differential equations. Two of the neuromime lines in each lamella are coupled such that sufficient excitation by a system input generates a wave of activity that moves slowly along the lines away from the point of excitation. Such waves effect dynamic storage of the representation of each input, enabling association with the next input's representation via connections between lamellae. When an input is again presented to the memory, waves are excited which move through the system as before to generate the next input's representation after the proper time interval. The system thus implements a process of associative chaining. The memory circuit can be developed to allow further decisionary circuitry to react to any changes in the timing of regularly repeated inputs.
Biology of Decisionary and Learning Mechanisms in Mammalian CA3-Hippocampus: A Review BIBA 413-437
  William Kilmer
This is a review of those aspects of mammalian hippocampal biology that seem most relevant to brain modeller's questions about circuit-level decisionary and learning mechanism and general functional roles. Sections are included on hippocampal anatomy and electrophysiology, overall functions, memory processes, afferent information, pathology, and ontogeny and ethology.
Adaptive Pattern Processing in the Visual System BIBA 439-446
  Arnold Trehub
Proposed is a neuronal network capable of learning pattern discrimination. Basic characteristics of the component neurons largely reflect well-established physiological principles and their individual plastic properties are consistent with recent findings concerning visual experience and synaptic changes detected by electron-microscopy. Pattern discrimination within the network is robust under rather severe input-pattern degradation.

IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 4

A Configurational Theory of Visual Perception BIB 449-509
  D. J. H. Moore; R. A. Seidl; D. J. Parker
Perception of Depth Surfaces in Random-Dot Stereograms: A Neural Model BIBA 511-528
  Parvati Dev
A model has been presented of a neural process that segments the visual field into spatially disjoint regions, each region characterized by a specific feature such as a texture or color. The neural connectivity hypothesized to be necessary for the segmentation process has been formulated in mathematical terms and the corresponding neural network has been simulated on the digital computer. The properties of the network that result from the postulated patterns of excitatory and inhibitory connectivity have been investigated. It is shown that the required connectivity is that of excitatory connections only between neurons detecting similar features and inhibitory connections between all feature-detecting neurons. The resulting segmentation model is used to model the phenomenon of stereopsis as investigated through the use of random-dot stereograms. The process of depth perception through stereopsis can be viewed as a segmentation process with each segment, that is, each surface at a specific depth, characterized by a specific retinal disparity. It is shown that the segmentation model suffices to detect the different depth surfaces embedded in the random-dot patterns.
Computer Simulations of a Dynamic Visual Perception Model BIBA 529-546
  Peter J. Burt
The human visual system must operate in a rapidly changing environment, as objects, eyes and observer are continually moving. This fact must, to a great extent, determine how the system analyses its retinal input. We argue that perception should be regarded as a dynamic process in which patterns of neural activity are developed and change in ways which reflect changes in the visual field.
   A model is described to suggest how the visual system may keep track of perceived objects as their images move on the retina. We postulate that at some level of the visual system, the position of these objects relative to the observer is represented by a pattern of neural activity. Such a pattern of activity must move as a unit as the object it represents moves: the pattern cannot be continually regenerated during motion.
   In the model we propose, information is represented by activity in two-dimensional, homogeneous layers of neurons-like elements. A number of these layers are arranged in parallel, an activity within separate layers represents objects position and the components of retinal image velocity due to object and observer motion. Object velocity, which cannot be directly sensed at the level of the retina, is isolated and represented analogically. This representational isolation of object- and observer-related velocity allows us to explain several illusions of motion perception, including induced motion and the "waterfall effect".
Eye Movements and Visual Perception: A "Two Visual System" Model BIBA 547-569
  Richard L. Didday; Michael A. Arbib
Eye movement is one of the few externally measurable activities of visual perception, and provides a checkpoint for models of perceptual processes. Here the model of Arbib & Didday (19710 is compared with that of Noton & Stark (1970, 1971a, b), and is found to predict the same behavior but without requiring explicit storage of eye movement commands.
Natural Language Acquisition by a Robot BIBA 571-608
  H. D. Block; J. Moulton; G. M. Robinson
"...nothing reveals our ignorance about a phenomenon more clearly than an attempt to define it in constructional terms." (W. Grey Walter, The Development and Significance of Cybernetics)
   We present a model of language acquisition which demonstrates that considerable language competence can be acquired without presupposing innate linguistic factors. Vague or magical properties are avoided by describing the model as a design for a robot using clearly defined algorithms and mechanisms which can be simulated or constructed. Described first is the development of a simplified semantic system using a minimum of cognitive apparatus operating in a restricted environment. This works in conjunction with an algorithm to develop grammatical competence. No innate grammatical knowledge is needed; only interaction with an environment and a native speaker of the language is required. Grammatical competence is portrayed in terms of a new syntactic model, whose power is demonstrated by a game "simulation" in which the players make connections allowed by the syntactic rules to generate and parse English sentences. The paper closes with a second game which simulates the robot and its "parent" by a team of human players. This simulation shows how the robot develops its semantic and syntactic systems through its experience in the world.

IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 5

Mathematics Methods of Feature Selection in Pattern Recognition BIB 609-637
  Josef Kittler
Input Devices for Interactive Graphics BIBA 639-660
  G. J. Ritchie; J. A. Turner
Interactive graphic systems provide the potential for natural and efficient man-machine communication. In order to exploit fully this potential and provide a conceptually simple man-computer interface, the graphic input and output devices must be closely integrated. This paper classifies and surveys the basic peripheral hardware, in particular that relevant to graphic data entry, and relates the merits of each device to the interaction process.
An Adaptive Speech Audiometer BIBA 661-674
  P. W. Stevenson
This report outlines the operations and some applications of an automatic audio visual system for the assessment of a subject's phonemic discrimination ability based on two-alternative forced-choice response situation. As examples of its applications, data on response times and hemispheric specialization for speech in normal subjects, phonemic discrimination difficulties in the elderly, and the assessment of hearing aids are referred to.
SOPHIE: A Step Toward Creating a Reactive Learning Environment BIBA 675-696
  John Seely Brown; Richard R. Burton; Alan G. Bell
This paper describes a fully operational AI-CAI system which incorporates artificial intelligence techniques to perform question answering, hypothesis verification and theory formation activities in the domain of electronic troubleshooting. Much of its logical or inferencing capabilities are derived from uses of simulation models in conjunction with numerous procedural specialists. The system also includes a highly tuned structural parser for allowing the student to communicate in natural language. Although the system is extremely large it is sufficiently fast to be thoroughly exercised in a training or classroom environment.

Book Reviews

"Algorithmization in Learning and Instruction," by L. N. Landa BIB 697-702
  D. H. Sleeman
"Social Issues Computing," by C. C. Gotlieb and A. Borodin BIB 697-702
  A. S. Douglas

IJMMS 1975 Volume 7 Issue 6

Using Computers in a Natural Language Mode for Elementary Education BIBA 703-725
  Alan L. Tharp; Woodrow E. Robbins
This paper considers the interface between an elementary school child, specifically a fourth grade student, and a computerized fact retrieval system. One goal of the study was to transfer the communication burden from the user of a computerized system to the computer. Rather than training the student to use an artificial programming language as the communication medium, it was deemed preferable to attempt to use the child's own natural language. First, data was collected to determine what subset of English that natural language might be and to provide a grammar for it. After a grammar was constructed, a system was developed which would allow an elementary school child to query the system about history and geography. The implementation, based on augmented transition networks, is described.
   Another goal of the study was to investigate the effect of such a system on education. For this reason, the system was tested in a classroom environment. An open classroom was chosen to allow the students a reasonable amount of freedom in using the system. In addition to learning history and geography facts, the students appeared to receive other benefits. The results of the study indicate that in certain situations, it may be possible for a computer to function as a tutor.
A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Positional Chess BIBA 727-750
  R. H. Atkin; I. H. Witten
This paper describes a development of the ideas which were published in the International Journal of Man-Machine Studies (Atkin, 1972), in which the game of chess was discussed in terms of a mathematical relation between the chess pieces and the squares on the chessboard. It is shown that the structures which represent the state of play in any mode can be represented by a complex of connected polyhedra in E53. The positional features of any mode are described in terms of properties of this abstract geometry, such as eccentricity values and structure vectors. An evaluation of the relative positional strengths of possible moves, in any given mode, is built up by way of certain structural mappings on either the complex KW(S) or its conjugate KS(W)- with a corresponding scheme for Black. A simple example of these mappings, based on the traditional pieces valuation, is adopted to illustrate the positional strengths of the moves played in specific games.
   A program which implements this analysis is described briefly. It uses the sum of seven positional features as an evaluation function. Moves are ranked according to this evaluation, except that a simple material exchange calculation is made for each move to estimate its immediate tactical value, and this takes precedence in the ranking. The paper presents the program's highest-ranking move at each play of three games between expert chess players: significant correlation with the moves actually made is achieved.
From Remote Structures to Surface Structures Without the Cycle: A Computational Study BIBA 751-800
  Donald L. Smith
An alternative grammar to Burt's elementary transformational grammar of English is described and presented in a computer format, and derivations obtained employing the grammar are given. The grammar does not utilize the widely accepted transformational cycle and the rules are ordered according to their functional roles (ranking, grafting, agreement, and surface ordering). The results of the tests suggests that the emphasis on establishing arguments for rule ordering may have been unwarranted and that a grammar can be constructed in a more pragmatic format, which reflects the functional roles of the rules, with no loss in descriptive power.
Subjective Rating and Apparent Magnitude BIBA 801-816
  John Allnatt
In category-scaling studies of television impairments, the psychometric functions describing the relationship between subjective rating and stimulus magnitude generally take a simple logistic form. A similar result tends to be approximated in experiments with other kinds of stimuli described by Stevens & Galanter (1957) as prothetic. It leads to the following simple relationship between category scaling and ratio scaling: t = 1/(1+N-k). Here t is subjective rating on a contiguous scale varying from 0 to 1, which can be either inferred from the intermediary of a category grading scale or obtained by direct measurements, and N is apparent magnitude on a ratio scale, normalized to give N = 1 when t = {half}. The value of the exponent k has not been precisely determined but it is believed to be close to unity. Where unrelated impairments are rated in terms of the same type of response, the scale of apparent magnitude closely approximates a scale of summable subjective magnitude.
Some Behavioral Factors Affecting the Training of Naive Users of an Interaction Computer System BIBA 817-834
  T. C. S. Kennedy
This paper describes the design considerations underlying the development of a self-contained computer system which is to form the basis of a medical information system at Southend Hospital. A detailed trial has been conducted to examine the problems in training naive computer users in the use of such a system. The trial involved a large sample of clerical and secretarial staff and provided some 50 hr of observation and measurement of man-machine interaction. Analysis of test results has required the development of new measures of performance for recording behavioural variables, conceptualization of the system, and level of ability.
   It is shown that it is possible, with a self-teaching computer system, to train "computer-naive" clerical staff to a high degree of competence in a very small number of short training sessions. Behavioural patterns are examined with regard to their influence on the design of command structures.