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New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 4

Editors:Douglas Tudhope
Publisher:Taylor & Francis
Standard No:ISSN 1361-4568 (print); ISSN 1740-7842 (online)
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HYPERMM 1998 Volume 4

HYPERMM 1998 Volume 4

Editorial BIB 1-10
  Peter Brusilovsky; Maria Milosavljevic; Douglas Tudhope; Daniel Cunliffe
Conversation in the museum: experiments in dynamic hypermedia with the intelligent labelling explorer BIBA 11-32
  Jon Oberlander; Mick O'Donnell; Chris Mellish; Alistair Knott
We outline experience with the Intelligent Labelling Explorer, a dynamic hypertext system developed at the University of Edinburgh, in collaboration with the National Museums of Scotland. First, we indicate a number of ways in which labels on museum objects ought to be tuned to take into account types of visit, the interests of visitors, and their evolving knowledge during a visit. Secondly, we sketch the general architecture of our system, and then focus on the conversational effects which the system can create. We then briefly indicate future directions of research, before critically discussing the applicability (or otherwise) of the spatial metaphor to flexible hypertexts.
Hypernavigation in the physical space: adapting presentations to the user and to the situational context (Technical Note) BIBA 33-46
  Elena Not; Daniela Petrelli; Marcello Sarini; Olivieri Stock; Carlo Strapparava; Massimo Zancanaro
This paper describes a portable system to support a new way of visiting cultural and tourist sites. The perspective is that the visitor moves in a physical space like a museum, while seeking information and guidance through the use of a hand-held electronic guide. Techniques are presented to adapt the content of the presentations to the particular visitor, place, and moment of visit (that is, taking into account the user model, knowledge of the physical location and the physical space around it and the history of previous interactions).
Con-textual navigation support BIBA 47-66
  Sabine Geldof
The exponentially increasing amount of information being made available world-wide through a basic form of hypertext technology creates problems and opportunities for advancing the state of the art in human-machine interaction. The major problem for users is to find their in this heterogeneous hyperspace and to quickly access the information they need, the major opportunity is the connectivity and interactivity between a substantial population and a considerable amount of resources and knowledge. In this paper we present, through an example application, a novel way of supporting the user of a WWW application. The approach is novel in that we generate a context-sensitive meta-text to serve as a navigation guide for an existing application (rather than to make the application itself user adaptive) and that we use a very dynamic user model, trying to capture the user's minute-to-minute evolving context. We finally discuss how the foundations of this approach fit into a radically new way of supporting humans in information-rich real-world situations, called co-habited mixed reality.
The dynamic generation of hypertext presentations of medical guidelines BIBA 67-88
  Berardina De Carolis; Fiorella de Rosis; Chiara Andreoli; Vincenzo Cavallo; M. Luisa De Cicco
We describe a project aimed at developing a tool to generate user and context-adapted textual descriptions of clinical guidelines on the World Wide Web. ARIANNA employs two knowledge sources (a decision tree and a taxonomy of concepts in the clinical domain) and schema and ATN-based NLG techniques, to dynamically generate the hypermedia. This appears to the user as a frameset with three main components: the guideline itself, an explanation of related concepts and a justification of individual steps. Each component is adapted to the user: i) the guideline is adapted to the user's goal in consulting the system (tutoring vs decision support); ii) explanations of concepts are adapted to the user knowledge and to the interaction history; iii) justifications are reserved for the tutoring consultation mode.
Toward an adaptive WWW: a case study in customised hypermedia BIBA 89-114
  Kathryn F. Gates; Pamela B. Lawhead; Dawn E. Wilkins
The widespread and rapid growth of the World Wide Web (WWW) is a clear indicator of its success as an instrument for information delivery. At the same time, significant limitations in many current Web-based applications demonstrate the need for new research. The history of hypermedia usability research predating the WWW and the relatively new area of research in Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHS) offer promising possibilities for enhancing the new medium. The problem is to design an AHS which (1) provides the integration of information from heterogeneous sources into a unified interface, (2) provides a filtering mechanism so that users see and interact with a view that is customized to their needs, (3) delivers this information through a Web interface, and (4) supports the automatic creation and validation of links between related items to help with ongoing maintenance of the application. We present a design to address this problem which makes use of object-oriented methods, information retrieval techniques (specifically, the Vector Space Model), and user modelling. A Web-based reference guide known as "SmartGuide" has been implemented using the design, and usability tests and expert reviews have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the design.
AHA! An open Adaptive Hypermedia Architecture BIBA 115-140
  Paul De Bra; Licia Calvi
Hypermedia applications generate comprehension and orientation problems due to their rich link structure. Adaptive hypermedia tries to alleviate these problems by ensuring that the links that are offered and the content of the information pages are adapted to each individual user. This is done by maintaining a user model. Most adaptive hypermedia systems are aimed at one specific application. They provide an engine for maintaining the user model and for adapting content and link structure. They use a fixed screen layout that may include windows (HTML frames) for an annotated table of contents, an overview of known or missing knowledge, etc. Such systems are typically closed and difficult to reuse for very different applications.
   We present AHA, an open Adaptive Hypermedia Architecture that is suitable for many different applications. This paper concentrates on the adaptive hypermedia engine, which maintains the user model and which filters content pages and link structures accordingly. The engine offers adaptive content through conditional inclusion of fragments. Its adaptive linking can be either link annotation or link hiding. Even link disabling can be achieved through a combination of content and link adaptation. We provide three examples of different applications that are all based on the same engine: an adaptable course text where full text and viewgraphs are integrated, a fully adaptive course on the subject of hypermedia (using a simple presentation without HTML frames) and a "kiosk" information system (with frames and JavaScript).
ACE - Adaptive Courseware Environment BIBA 141-162
  Marcus Specht; Reinhard Oppermann
The Adaptive Courseware Environment (ACE) is a WWW-based tutoring framework which combines methods of knowledge representation, instructional planning, and adaptive media generation to deliver individualized courseware via the WWW. ACE is based on a domain model of the subject matter, a pedagogical model on how to teach a curriculum, and learner modelling on different levels, e.g., preferences, interests, and knowledge. Based on these three components individualized web-content (HTML, Java, pictures) is generated and presented to the learners. Taking into account the interests and the knowledge of a learner ACE can adapt different aspects of the instructional process, e.g., adapting the curriculum by selection of content, adapting the presentation of contents by choosing appropriate media and combining them, adapting the teaching strategies for specific contents, annotating hyperlinks, and by recommending appropriate hyperlinks and contents. Currently three systems have been realized on the basis of ACE and adaptive components of each system have been evaluated in empirical studies. Additionally experimental studies of the applied adaptive methods have shown improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of learning compared to classical static hypermedia.
Adaptable and adaptive information provision for all users, including disabled and elderly people BIBA 163-188
  Josef Fink; Alfred Kobsa; Andreas Nill
Due to the rapidly increasing popularity of the World-Wide Web, hypermedia is going to be the leading online information medium for some years to come and will likely become the standard gateway for citizens to the "information highway". Today, visitors of web sites are generally heterogeneous and have different needs, and this is likely to increase in the future. The aim of the AVANTI project is to cater hypermedia information to these individual needs by adapting the content and the presentation of web pages to each individual user. The special needs of elderly and disabled users are also partly considered. A model of the characteristics of user groups, individual users and usage environments, and a domain model are exploited in the adaptation process. One aim of this research is to verify that adaptation and user modeling techniques that were hithero mostly used for catering interactive software systems to able-bodied users also prove useful for adaptation to users with special needs. Another original aspect is the development of a network-wide user modeling server that can concurrently accommodate the user modeling needs of several applications and several instances of an application within a distributed computing environment.
A system to restructure hypertext networks into valid user models BIBA 189-214
  Johan Bollen; Francis Heylighen
We have implemented an experimental system that automatically restructures hypertext networks according to their users' browsing behavior. The system applies link weights to the hyperlinks in the networks and updates these link weights according to three learning rules. The learning rules are based on how often a particular hyperlink is being traversed and operate on strictly local information of link traversals. Changes in network structure are fed back to users by dynamic link ordering according to descending link weight. The system has shown to be able to structure random hypertext networks into valid representations of their users' browsing preferences in two WWW experiments and a simulation using a mathematical model of user navigation.
On the subject of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), including copyright - a help and a hindrance to cultural heritage? BIBA 215-244
  Jeremy Rees
The incredibly rapid technical developments in digital imaging and hypermedia combined with huge public investment in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), are bringing about a much heightened awareness and concern about intellectual property rights (IPR), including copyright. While we now enjoy the possibilities of totally new levels of dissemination of cultural knowledge (including contemporary culture), the greatest barriers to investment and publication in interactive multimedia are varied and often conflicting concerns of interested parties about ability to both protect and reasonably exploit intellectual property, world-wide.
   This paper briefly outlines the framework of IPR, explores some of the principal factors relating to current concerns, practice, standards and guidelines, particularly in relation to museums and the visual arts. Any detailed consideration of other aspects of culture (e.g. Libraries, Music, Cinema or Television) would raise further (and sometimes conflicting) issues.
   This paper refers to a number of significant national and international developments and collaborations, mainly in the UK and the USA, including the two "hard fought" World Intellectual Property Organisation treaties negotiated in Geneva in December 1996 and often differing views within the European nations and in the USA of key issues that have delayed national legislations achieving international harmonisation and implementation of the WIPO Treaties.
   While no single paper can provide a simple or concise summary of such a complex and rapidly evolving field, which also gives rise to the need to compare and contrast different national laws, links are given to some of the plethora of WWW sites that report and debate issues that, nationally and internationally, increasingly impinge on everyone accessing information on culture. As in any such paper, the final word must be that in such a complex field there is often no satisfactory alternative to taking professional specialist legal advice.
Aquarelle to Z39.50: the A to Z of access to cultural heritage information (Technical Note) BIB 245-254
  David Dawson
SCRAN and its users (Technical Note) BIBA 255-260
  Ian O. Morrison
SCRAN is building a large networked multimedia resource base on the cultural heritage of Scotland. Early indications from this project, in conjunction with the results of the preceding WINDEE and Catechism projects, suggest that a general audience is interested in accessing such information. However, the information providers are unsure of how best to structure their information for these new audiences, and the enquirers are unskilled in the techniques of finding what they want. SCRAN is in the process of determining the most effective interfaces between providers and users of cultural heritage information.