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New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 17

Editors:Douglas Tudhope; Daniel Cunliffe
Publisher:Taylor & Francis
Standard No:ISSN 1361-4568 (print); ISSN 1740-7842 (online)
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HYPERMM 2011-04-01 Volume 17 Issue 1
  2. HYPERMM 2011-04-01 Volume 17 Issue 2
  3. HYPERMM 2011-12-01 Volume 17 Issue 3

HYPERMM 2011-04-01 Volume 17 Issue 1

Editors' Introduction BIBFull-Text 1
  Daniel Cunliffe; Douglas Tudhope

Exploring Produsage

Produsage: a closer look at continuing developments BIBFull-Text 3-7
  Axel Bruns; Jan-Hinrik Schmidt
Paradoxical empowerment of produsers in the context of informational capitalism BIBAFull-Text 9-29
  Serge Proulx; Lorna Heaton; Mary Jane Kwok Choon; Mélanie Millette
This article develops a critical perspective on how online contribution practices participate in the creation of economic value under informational capitalism. It discusses the theoretical relevance of the concept of empowerment for exploring online contribution practices. We argue that produsage practices are paradoxical insofar as they can be simultaneously alienating and emancipatory. This theoretical lens allows us to take a fresh look at the collective intelligence of produsers and the role of communities in the collective production of content. We illustrate the fruitfulness of this conceptual approach with two case studies: Facebook and TelaBotanica, a platform for the collaborative production of scientific knowledge.
Produsage in hybrid networks: sociotechnical skills in the case of Arduino BIBAFull-Text 31-52
  Stefano De Paoli; Cristiano Storni
In 1this paper we investigate produsage using Actor-Network Theory with a focus on (produsage) skills, their development, and transformation. We argue that produsage is not a model that determines a change in the traditional consumption/production paradigm through a series of essential preconditions (such as open participation, peer-sharing, or common ownership). Rather, we explain produsage as the open-ended result of a series of heterogeneous actor-networking strategies. In this view, the so-called preconditions do not explain produsage but have to be explained along with its establishment as an actor-network. Drawing on this approach, we discuss a case study of an open hardware project: the Arduino board, and we develop a perspective that maps the skills of human and non-human entities in produsage actor-networks, showing how skills are symmetrical, relational, and circulating.
A qualitative enquiry into OpenStreetMap making BIBAFull-Text 53-71
  Yu-Wei Lin
Based on a case study on the OpenStreetMap community, this paper provides a contextual and embodied understanding of the user-led, user-participatory and user-generated produsage phenomenon. It employs Grounded Theory, Social Worlds Theory, and qualitative methods to illuminate and explores the produsage processes of OpenStreetMap making, and how knowledge artefacts such as maps can be collectively and collaboratively produced by a community of people, who are situated in different places around the world but engaged with the same repertoire of mapping practices. The empirical data illustrate that OpenStreetMap itself acts as a boundary object that enables actors from different social worlds to co-produce the Map through interacting with each other and negotiating the meanings of mapping, the mapping data and the Map itself. The discourses also show that unlike traditional maps that black-box cartographic knowledge and offer a single dominant perspective of cities or places, OpenStreetMap is an embodied epistemic object that embraces different world views. The paper also explores how contributors build their identities as an OpenStreetMaper alongside some other identities they have. Understanding the identity-building process helps to understand mapping as an embodied activity with emotional, cognitive and social repertoires.
A crowdsourcing framework for the production and use of film and television data BIBAFull-Text 73-97
  Gary Geisler; Geoff Willard; Carlos Ovalle
This paper outlines a framework that would enable the detailed indexing of film and television media through crowdsourcing. By making it easier to generate detailed data about these media on a large scale, fans and scholars can more efficiently produce a wide range of artifacts that reflect their interests in this content. Our development of a test collection included detailed indexing of 12 feature films and 8 television programs. We describe the conditions that make crowdsourcing an ideal approach for accomplishing this work on a larger scale; present a three-level development framework; and discuss how automated indexing, crowdsourcing quality, and copyright concerns might influence continued development of the project. Our framework highlights the potential of both multimedia indexing and crowdsourcing and can serve as a model for others embarking on projects that involve indexing, annotating, or labeling large multimedia collections.
Produsage as a form of self-publication. A qualitative study of casual news produsage BIBAFull-Text 99-120
  Ike Picone
While Axel Bruns's theory of produsage offers an adequate way of looking at a variety of sites where the production of news content takes the form of collaborative, user-driven production, it seems less suited for the study of productive news use as a user experience, as a way users engage in a more productive way with content. This article gives a first impetus towards the expansion of the theory of produsage to a more user-oriented framework that is fitted to approach produsage as a social practice, rather than as a process of information production. The empirical work presented in this paper concerns the average news user, rather than the expert bloggers and citizen journalists most studies tend to focus on. Through a qualitative, semi-experimental study based on a Living Lab-approach, motivational, situational, and social factors shaping productive news use are identified. Drawing from the findings, conceptual elements as "potential public" and "social reflex" are introduced. Self-publication is proposed as a way to understand how average news users experience productive news use.
Produsage in a/synchronous learner-led e-learning BIBAFull-Text 121-139
  Michelle M. Kazmer
Creating a successful produsage environment for a required course taught via e-learning requires analyzing various factors: the learning context, learner-led education in required classes, the structure of the class, and reflections and evaluations of each semester's iteration of the course. Taking a produsage perspective, this paper analyzes the long-term development of a required graduate-level course in information organization. The course is examined closely to show how its materials, assignments, technology, instruction, and culture contribute to a learner-led produsage environment and lasting knowledge creation. The analysis leads to implications for course design and working with learners to create knowledge that may be applied in multiple settings.
Pre-produsage and the remediation of virtual products BIBAFull-Text 141-159
  Jörgen Skågeby
This paper introduces and explores cycles of pre-produsage and produsage. It reports on the results from an online ethnographical study of the Apple iPad conducted before the public release of the material product. Consequently, most users had not physically interacted with the device in question. Nevertheless, the release of the technical specifications and marketing material generated a massive amount of produsage-related online discussion. As such this paper explores the concept of pre-produsage. Pre-produsage is a form of predicted or expected use, relating to products or services that are only accessible to users as a form of representation (e.g. technical specification, virtual prototype, and design sketch), but with an added element of user-generated design suggestions, conflict coordination, and software development. Remediation -- the process by which new digital media technologies reuses qualities of previous technologies and enters an existing media ecology -- is a prevalent theme in pre-produsage and involves a tension between features that support protracted use and features that provide total innovation. The paper argues that an analysis of pre-produsage can provide insights that relate to both anticipated and actual user experience (UX). More specifically, pre-produsage analysis can trace the underlying reasons for a certain problem, intention, or concern and connect it to a specific set of features and potential solutions. Finally, the paper shows how proprietary products become subject to produsage, resulting in artifacts negotiated by cycles of produsage.

HYPERMM 2011-04-01 Volume 17 Issue 2

Editors' Introduction BIBFull-Text 161-162
  Daniel Cunliffe; Douglas Tudhope
Understanding links: Web Science and hyperlink studies at macro, meso and micro-levels BIBAFull-Text 163-198
  Suely Fragoso
Web Science has favoured macroscopic approaches which have revealed much about the Web's structural patterns. We argue that contextualised knowledge about hyperlinks on the Web has not advanced at the same rate and that complementary intermediate and micro-scale investigations are essential for a better understanding of the motivations, functions and meanings of these links. We present an investigation that attempted to overcome the shortcomings of current theoretical frameworks and methodological techniques. The focus of this article lies in the demonstration of the viability of studying the web at different scales of analysis without loss of coherence guided by the assumption of the Web as media. Results of our quali-quantitative, multi-scale and study of the international connectivity of websites registered in Brazil are presented. At the macro-scale, previous indications of high international connectivity are confirmed. Intermediate (meso) and micro-scale analyses focused on the connectivity between Brazilian and German websites and contradicted the conclusions about the meanings and functions of hyperlinks commonly associated with structural analysis. Links between Brazilian and German websites were shown to derive from a large number of formal and generic links, challenging the prevalent association that large quantities of incoming links are an indication of high relevance.
Towards adaptation in e-learning 2.0 BIBAFull-Text 199-238
  Alexandra I. Cristea; Fawaz Ghali
This paper presents several essential steps from an overall study on shaping new ways of learning and teaching, by using the synergetic merger of three different fields: Web 2.0, e-learning and adaptation (in particular, personalisation to the learner). These novel teaching and learning ways -- the latter focus of this paper -- are reflected in and finally adding to various versions of the My Online Teacher 2.0 adaptive system. In particular, this paper focuses on a study of how to more effectively use and combine the recommendation of peers and content adaptation to enhance the learning outcome in e-learning systems based on Web 2.0. In order to better isolate and examine the effects of peer recommendation and adaptive content presentation, we designed experiments inspecting collaboration between individuals based on recommendation of peers who have greater knowledge, and compare this to adaptive content recommendation, as well as to "simple" learning in a system with a minimum of Web 2.0 support. Overall, the results of adding peer recommendation and adaptive content presentation were encouraging, and are further discussed in detail in this paper.

HYPERMM 2011-12-01 Volume 17 Issue 3

Editors' Introduction BIBFull-Text 239
  Daniel Cunliffe; Douglas Tudhope

Social Linking and Hypermedia

Introduction to the Special Issue on Social Linking and Hypermedia BIBFull-Text 241-242
  Ciro Cattuto; Andreas Hotho
Comparative analysis of articulated and behavioural social networks in a social news sharing website BIBAFull-Text 243-266
  Andreas Kaltenbrunner; Gustavo Gonzalez; Ricard Ruiz De Querol; Yana Volkovich
This study analyses and contrasts the explicit (articulated) and implicit (behavioural) social networks on the Spanish Digg-like social news website meneame.net. The explicit network is given in the form of declared but not necessarily bidirectional friendship links; the behavioural network is extracted from conversations through comments to the shared links. These two directed social networks and their intersection are analysed and described in detail, which leads to some important conclusions about user behaviour on link sharing websites and online conversation habits in general. We find that reply interactions are more likely to occur between non-friends and that these interactions are (if bidirectional) also more balanced in the case of non-friends. A k-core decomposition of the networks reveals a fundamental difference in the practice of establishing behavioural and articulated links.
Tripartite community structure in social bookmarking data BIBAFull-Text 267-294
  Nicolas Neubauer; Klaus Obermayer
Community detection is a branch of network analysis concerned with identifying strongly connected subnetworks. Social bookmarking sites aggregate datasets of often hundreds of millions of triples (document, user, and tag), which, when interpreted as edges of a graph, give rise to special networks called 3-partite, 3-uniform hypergraphs. We identify challenges and opportunities of generalizing community detection and in particular modularity optimization to these structures. Two methods for community detection are introduced that preserve the hypergraph's special structure to different degrees. Their performance is compared on synthetic datasets, showing the benefits of structure preservation. Furthermore, a tool for interactive exploration of the community detection results is introduced and applied to examples from real datasets. We find additional evidence for the importance of structure preservation and, more generally, demonstrate how tripartite community detection can help understand the structure of social bookmarking data.
Synote: development of a Web-based tool for synchronized annotations BIBAFull-Text 295-312
  Yunjia Li; Mike Wald; Gary Wills; Shakeel Khoja; David Millard; Jiri Kajaba; Priyanka Singh; Lester Gilbert
This paper discusses the development of a Web-based media annotation application named Synote, which addresses the important issue that while the whole of a multimedia resource on the Web can be easily bookmarked, searched, linked to and tagged, it is still difficult to search or associate notes or other resources with a certain part of a resource. Synote supports the creation of synchronized notes, bookmarks, tags, links, images and text captions. It is a freely available application that enables any user to make annotations in and search annotations to any fragment of a continuous multimedia resource in the most used browsers and operating systems. In the implementation, Synote categorized different media resources and synchronized them via time line. The presentation of synchronized resources makes full use of Web 2.0 AJAX technology to enrich interoperability for the user experience. Positive evaluation results about the performance, efficiency and effectiveness of Synote were returned when using it with students and teachers for a number of undergraduate courses.