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New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 1

Editors:Douglas Tudhope
Publisher:Taylor & Francis
Standard No:ISSN 1361-4568 (print); ISSN 1740-7842 (online)
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HYPERMM 1995 Volume 1

HYPERMM 1995 Volume 1

Hypertext, multimedia and hypermedia BIBA 1-21
  Roy Rada
The concepts of hypertext, multimedia and hypermedia are often confused, but can be usefully distinguished with the following definitions : hypertext is text with links, multimedia is synchronized media, and hypermedia is multimedia with links. The computer storage and processing requirements for multimedia are orders of magnitude greater than those for hypertext. Nevertheless, the hypertext model can be extended to deal with hypermedia by including multimedia synchronization capabilities.
Experiments on the automatic construction of hypertexts from texts BIBA 23-39
  Alan F. Smeaton; Patrick J. Morrissey
The problem of (semi-)automatically turning text into hypertext is one that has been identified as important to the growth and development of hypertext as a way of organising information. In this paper we describe an approach we have developed to semi-automatically generate a hypertext from linear texts. This is based on initially creating nodes and composite nodes composed of 'mini-hypertexts'. Following this we then compute node-node similarity values using standard information retrieval techniques. These similarity measures are then used to selectively create node-to-node links based on the strength of similarity between nodes. What makes our process novel is that the link creation process also uses values from a dynamically computed metric which measures the topological compactness of the overall hypertext being generated. Thus link creation is a selective process based not only on node-node similarity but also on the overall layout of the hypertext. Experiments on generating a hypertext from a collection of 846 software product descriptions comprising 8.5 Mbytes of text are described. Our experiments with a variety of IR techniques and link creation approaches yield some guidelines on how the process should be automated. Finally, this text to hypertext conversion method is put into the context of an overall hypertext authoring tool currently under development.
Automatic generation and refinement of hypertext links BIBA 41-66
  Tat-Seng Chua; Chui-Har Choo
Current generation of hypertext systems suffer from the limitations that they are static in nature, and they do not support the automated process of link creation very well. Because of the efforts involved in manually creating links, the hyperbases created using these systems are seldom modified even when they were found not to fully support the requirements of the intended users. This paper studies the development of automated tools to aid in the process of link creation, browsing, and link refinement. Only relation links are considered in this study. The automated tools are developed to help in three of the major stages of developing and using hypertext applications: (a) during authoring to generate a set of relation links between pairs of nodes; (b) during browsing to recommend an optimal set of starting nodes for the users to begin browsing, and to guide the users at each stage of browsing by suggesting a set of "next" nodes to traverse; and, (c) during training to modify, remove and add links based on users' feedback data collected. The training will result in long-term changes in the hypertext structure.
   In order to test the effectiveness of the training process objectively, a navigator is built to simulate the browsing activities of the users. The effects of training have been evaluated on two text collections using a variety of objective measures. The results indicate that the training process has improved the effectiveness of the hyperbase to support browsing.
Developing hybrid intelligent tutoring and hypertext systems BIBA 67-106
  Marios C. Angelides
The objective of this paper is to present an alternative paradigm to the traditional Knowledge Based Expert Systems Paradigm for developing a full-scale Intelligent Tutoring System that has dominated for years Intelligent Tutoring Systems development. This alternative paradigm which integrates Minsky's Frames with hypertext has been successfully deployed so far in the development of PEDRO, an Intelligent Tutoring System for foreign language learning, SONATA, an intelligent Tutoring System for music theory learning and INTUITION, an Intelligent Tutoring System for Gaming-Simulation.
A new probabilistic scheme for information retrieval in hypertext BIBA 107-134
  Jacques Savoy
The aim of probabilistic models is to define a retrieval strategy within which documents can be optimally ranked according to their relevance probability, with respect to a given request. In this scheme, the underlying probabilities are estimated according to a history of past queries along with their relevance judgements. Having evolved over the last twenty years, these estimations allow us to take both document frequency and within-document frequency into account.
   In the current study, we suggest representing documents not only by index terms vectors as proposed by previous probabilistic models but also by considering relevance hypertext links. These relationships, which provide additional evidence on document content, are established according to requests and relevance judgements, and may improve the ranking of the retrieved records, in a sequence most likely to fulfil user intent. Thus, to enhance retrieval effectiveness, our learning retrieval scheme should modify: (1) the weight assigned to each indexing term, (2) the importance attached of each search term, and (3) the relationships between documents. Using a simple additive scheme applied after a ranked list of documents has been determined, with the aid of a probabilistic retrieval strategy, our proposed solution is well suited to a hypertext system. Based on the CACM test collection which includes 3,204 documents and the CISI corpus (1,490 documents), we have built a hypertext and evaluated our proposed retrieval scheme. The retrieval effectiveness of this approach presents interesting results.
'Don't forget to put the cat out' - or why collaborative authoring software and everyday writing pass one another by! BIBA 135-153
  Andrew Dillon; Sally Maynard
Hypermedia technology is seen as offering potentially innovative support for the process of writing as much as information access and reading. However authoring environments to date have had little impact in the real-world production of text. One possible reason is our poor conceptualisation of current writing practice. In the present paper, 31 adult writers kept diaries of their writing activities over the course of one week. The results indicate that for most people, real world writing is a short communicative act aimed at a limited audience and that technological support for such writing is less likely to resemble a hypermedia workstation than a portable personal communication device. Implications for work in the design of authoring tools are developed.
The electronic business card: an experiment in half-dead hypertext BIBA 155-168
  Jakob Nielsen
Half-dead hypertext has links where the user has to do some work to retrieve the destination nodes (for example mount a CD-ROM or send an email message). Also, response times may be so slow that users do not have the normal hypertext feeling of freely navigating an information space. This is in contrast to normal live hypertext where the nodes appear immediately upon activation of a link anchor and dead hypertext where the links are simple cross-references to material that is not available on the computer and thus cannot be retrieved at all. Half-dead hypertext can be used in cases where live links are technically difficult or impossible to support. One example is the electronic business card, which is a link to further information about its owner. Electronic business cards can be transmitted between personal digital assistants and will allow the recipient to link to much more extensive information than can be transmitted and stored on a PDA platform. Also, electronic business card links can be printed in brochures, research papers, and other non-electronic media from which access to the server can be made with human intervention.
Navigational behaviors in hypermedia documents in music BIBA 169-183
  William L. Berz
Hypermedia is defined as an interactive multimedia application where discrete information units of various formats can be accessed in nonlinear ways. This kind of application does differ from traditional information delivery systems in allowing the user considerable freedom in making navigational decisions; users are able to determine, at least to some extent, the media-form of presentation and the order of material presented. However given this freedom, it is possible in some situations that learners might stray from the teacher's instructional objective and become overly engaged in unrelated browsing activities. This study investigates navigational behaviors made by college undergraduate music appreciation students who used a hypermedia program as a supplement to traditional instruction. Results indicated that students accessed these materials in strikingly different ways. While some users read the screens in linear fashion not viewing any multimedia nodes, others made many nonlinear jumps and investigated multimedia nodes often. Although most students did access the musical nodes, most did not listen to the musical examples in their entirety. Overall lesson length varied considerably. Results also indicated that students acted in dynamic fashions, making many navigational actions that were not related to the established instructional objective.
Video-based hypermedia: guiding design with users' questions BIBA 185-197
  Blair Nonnecke; Richard Jacques; Diana Mckerlie; Jenny Preece
Users' questions can provide important design input. In this paper we examine the questions that users asked after viewing a series of seven video clips and then classify them into three main categories: questions relating to perception difficulties; questions concerning lack of understanding due to some form of dissonance and questions requiring more content information. There are three benefits from analyzing these questions, which will enable designers to improve their designs. First, our approach provides a breakdown of the questions that users ask which can be used by designers to determine what kind of additional information should be made available. Second, it provides a user-centered way of determining where to make links. Third, it enables designers to detect usability and pedagogic problems early in the design of video-based hypermedia.
Evaluating interactive multimedia products for the home BIBA 199-212
  Mark Gillham; Bob Kemp; Kathy Buckner
Multimedia information systems, supplied on CD-ROM, are fast becoming a popular consumer product. A huge and growing range of titles is available from high street computer, electrical goods and book shops. In an attempt to provide a compact set of evaluation criteria for these products, established methods in the fields of human-computer interaction (HCI), computer-assisted learning (CAL) and information retrieval are considered. The needs and desires of the home user are substantially different from those of the work place or education user. Observations from product use, and an interview study with home multimedia users, suggests that factors such as aesthetics, levels of interactivity and information content may be crucially important in user satisfaction. Factors such as interface clarity and consistency may be less important than in the work place systems.
The development of a sound viewer for an open hypermedia system BIBA 213-231
  Stuart Goose; Wendy Hall
While rich support for a wide variety of media such as text, video and image is common among contemporary hypermedia systems, so too is the inadequate support for audio. The primary reason that audio has not attracted as much attention as other media can be attributed to its obvious lack of visual identity. The main focus of this work was to identify a generic and meaningful visual representation of audio within a hypermedia context, and significantly promote hypermedia support for audio through the provision of a sound viewer.
   This paper describes the inherent difficulties in providing a consistent interface to audio, and discuss in some depth the issues raised during the development process. The sound viewer is then introduced and the associated concepts described. The creation and traversal of links to and from audio are facilitated by the sound viewer across formats including WAV (proprietary digital sound file format from Microsoft), CD (Compact Disc) Audio and MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). The resultant viewer provides a unified and extensible framework for interacting with audio from within an open hypermedia environment. The open hypermedia system Microcosm was used as the development platform for this work. Microcosm can be augmented to supply a hypermedia link service to additional media with minimal overhead.
The Micro Gallery: an evaluation of the hypertext system in The National Gallery, London BIBA 233-260
  Micheline Beaulieu; Victoria Mellor
The paper reports on a user evaluation of the Micro Gallery hypertext system of Western European Paintings at The National Gallery in London. A combination of data collection methods was used, including questionnaires before and after the use of the systems and direct observations with talk aloud, to examine the impact of the interface features on searching behaviour. The diagnostic analysis highlights difficulties encountered with starting off, access points, navigation, orientation and the touch screen interaction. Linear and non-linear approaches to searching are compared for the first time and experienced users and are discussed in terms of the completeness of user mental models.