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New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 3

Editors:Douglas Tudhope
Publisher:Taylor & Francis
Standard No:ISSN 1361-4568 (print); ISSN 1740-7842 (online)
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HYPERMM 1997 Volume 3

HYPERMM 1997 Volume 3

Editorial BIB 1-6
  Douglas Tudhope; Daniel Cunliffe
Evaluating multimedia presentations BIBA 7-37
  Peter Faraday; Alistair Sutcliffe
The paper reports the basis for a cognitive walkthrough method to support the evaluation of multimedia (MM) expository presentations (e.g. 'how to do it' type tasks). The walkthrough is founded upon an analysis of the cognitive processes and representations formed by the comprehension of an MM presentation. Issues include evaluation of attention, topic focus and information types. The walkthrough provides a series of guidelines for evaluation based on these cognitive models, such as the use of media, scripting and presentation techniques. The value of the guidelines is validated by several empirical studies. An eye tracking study is reported, providing evidence as to how visual attention responds to MM materials. A series of comprehension studies then investigate the effectiveness of a presentation before and after our guidelines were applied. The paper is illustrated with an example evaluation and studies of a commercially produced CD-ROM MM presentation 'The Etiology of Cancer'.
A systematic method for hypermedia usability evaluation BIBA 39-65
  F. Garzotto; M. Matera
This paper will discuss a usability inspection method for hypermedia applications, that explicitly takes into account the particular features of this class of systems. The proposed technique is a specialisation for hypermedia of a general methodology for usability evaluation of interactive systems, named SUE - Systematic Usability Evaluation. Our approach aims to support a systematic evaluation process, making it well organised, fast and cheap, and is based on the use of a hypermedia model, a set of hypermedia-specific usability attributes, and a set of patterns of inspection activities, called abstract tasks. The model identifies the 'dimensions' along which hypermedia usability can be analysed, defines the application constituents that must be inspected, and allows a precise formulation of usability attributes and abstract tasks. Abstract tasks provide operational guidelines for systematically checking usability attributes throughout the application. To exemplify our approach, we will report some inspection results concerning nine commercially available hypermedia CD-ROMs.
Spatial ability and visual navigation: an Empirical Study BIBA 67-89
  Chaomei Chen; Mary Czerwinski
In this paper, we describe an empirical study of individuals' spatial navigation strategies and a number of performance and preference measures with regard to the design of a novel 3D visualisation. The underlying semantic space of the user interface consists of a collection of papers from the three most recent ACM SIGCHI conference proceedings, visualised as a virtual reality network. This network was automatically constructed based on semantic similarities derived from latent semantic analysis. We studied the search strategies and general preferences of eleven subjects who used this system to find papers on various topics. The study has led to a number of interesting findings, which should be valuable for designers and evaluators of 3D user interfaces. The results highlight the importance of structural elements in the design of a semantically based user interface, because search strategies of users relied heavily on these mechanisms in the design. The results of this study also demonstrate that we are able to characterise and learn from users' search strategies in a visual environment strongly shaped by semantic relationships of the information content. Implications for user interface design based on users' psychological models of a semantic space are described.
'It's the Journey & the Destination': shape and the emergent property of genre in evaluating digital documents BIBA 91-106
  Andrew Dillon; Misha Vaughan
Navigation is a limited metaphor for hypermedia and website use that potentially constrains our understanding of human-computer interaction. In the present paper we trace the emergence of the navigation metaphor and the empirical analysis of navigation measures in usability evaluation before suggesting an alternative concept to consider: shape. The shape concept affords, we argue, a richer analytic tool for considering humans' use of digital documents and invokes social level analyses of meaning that are shared among discourse communities who both produce and consume the information resources.
New IR - New Evaluation: the impact of interaction and multimedia on information retrieval and its evaluation BIBA 107-121
  Stephen W. Draper; Mark D. Dunlop
The field of information retrieval (IR) traditionally addressed the problem of retrieving text documents from large collections by full-text indexing of words. It has always been characterised by a strong focus on evaluation to compare the performance of alternative designs. The emergence into widespread use both of multimedia and of interactive user interfaces has extensive implications for this field and the evaluation methods on which it depends. This paper discusses what we currently understand about those implications. The "system" being measured must be expanded to include the human users, whose behaviour has a large effect on overall retrieval success, which now depends upon sessions of many retrieval cycles, rather than a single transaction. Multimedia raise issues not only of how users might specify a query in the same medium (e.g. sketch the kind of picture they want), but of cross-medium retrieval. Current explorations in IR evaluation show diversity along at least two dimensions. One is that between comprehensive models that have a place for every possible relevant factor, and lightweight methods. The other is that between highly standardised workbench tests avoiding human users vs. workplace studies.
Formal experiments in casual attire: case studies in information exploration BIBA 123-157
  Gene Golovchinsky; Mark Chignell; Nipon Charoenkitkarn
This paper addresses the issue of how research methodology can be developed for the specific needs of research into information exploration behaviour, based on a four year program of research on individual strategies in information exploration. We propose a meta-experimental framework where research is carried out through a dynamic interaction between what and why questions, and between confirmatory and exploratory analyses. This approach preserves many of the advantages of formal experimentation, while permitting a more holistic examination of phenomena that is characteristic of ethnography. The application of the meta-theoretical framework is illustrated in three case studies that examined new information exploration functionalities and interfaces and their relationship to expertise and exploration strategy.
Usability and assessments of multimodal interaction in the SPEAK! system: an experimental case study BIBA 159-180
  Adelheit Stein
This paper discusses an experimental evaluation of an adaptive, multimodal user interface which generates context-sensitive help for guiding a user's interaction with an information retrieval system. Test users were studied during their interaction with three versions of the SPEAK! system. Two versions offered active help, either in the form of spoken or written output, whereas a control version provided standard passive help texts only. The study was explorative in nature and mainly relied on qualitative data analyses. In order to evaluate the dialogue guidance/active help approach and the influence of the output modes, evaluation criteria focused on usability and subjective satisfaction of users with the interaction. The study was designed to be open for the exploration of typical usage patterns and the users' own evaluation criteria. Data from the observations, users' think-aloud comments, and an open-ended questionnaire were combined and further qualified by differential analyses considering various user characteristics. We discuss a number of specific results, some of which may productively be used to design confirmatory, larger-scaled experiments with similar types of multimodal retrieval dialogue systems.
The image retrieval task: implications for the design and evaluation of image databases BIBA 181-199
  Raya Fidel
A review of studies about searching behaviour in image retrieval suggests that retrieval tasks may affect searching behaviour. Retrieval tasks occur along a spectrum starting with the Data Pole, which involves retrieval of images for the information which the images include, and ending with the Objects Pole, which concerns the retrieval of images as objects. Each Pole generates a certain searching behaviour which has characteristics opposing those of the other Pole. These characteristics suggest that: (a) Relevance feedback may not be useful for tasks on the Objects Pole; (b) Measuring precision on the Data Pole should be replaced with another measurement of effort and time, while on the Objects Pole, the quality of browsing sets and the precision of the browsing process should be measured instead of precision; and (c) Recall is not useful for the Data Pole, and requires much exploration before it can be adopted for the Object Pole. Additional research in searching behaviour and about performance measurement will improve retrieval from image databases.
A method for the automatic indexing of colour images for effective image retrieval BIBA 201-224
  I. Gagliardi; R. Schettini
The authors propose a new colour-based indexing method for image databases. This method, integrating different approaches for describing colour information, can be more satisfactory than standard techniques in fields such as textiles, ceramics, and paintings, when the user would like to retrieve from the database those images that actually resemble the query image selected in their colour distribution characteristics. Experimental trails on a database of complex antique textile images are reported and compared with human perceptual judgements, using an innovative procedure for estimating retrieval effectiveness.
Integrating hypermedia functionality into expert systems BIBA 225-238
  Vatcharaporn Esichaikul; Saravut Maolanon
In this paper, a model for integrating hypermedia and expert systems is proposed, and an implementation is described. The proposed model consists of an expert system with a hypermedia user interface module and hypermedia output explanation module. An implementation based on the proposed model, an expert system named the Tourist Hyper-Expert Consultant (THECO) is described. The results showed that the proposed model and structure, which employ hypermedia features, can enhance the user interface and output explanation modules of expert systems. Incorporating hypermedia into the user interface module enhances the flexibility of the expert system application in acquiring inputs from the users. Hypermedia also improved the ability of the output explanation module to give more comprehensive recommendations.