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New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 11

Editors:Douglas Tudhope
Publisher:Taylor & Francis
Standard No:ISSN 1361-4568 (print); ISSN 1740-7842 (online)
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HYPERMM 2005 Volume 11 Issue 1
  2. HYPERMM 2005 Volume 11 Issue 2

HYPERMM 2005 Volume 11 Issue 1

Editorial BIBAFull-Text 1-6
  S. J. Buckingham Shum
Editorial/Introduction to Scholarly Hypermedia
Association and argument: Hypertext in and around the writing process BIBAFull-Text 7-26
  David Kolb
While hypertext is often claimed to be a tool that especially aids associative thinking, intellectual "work" involves more than association. So, questions arise about the usefulness of hypertext tools in the more disciplined aspects of scholarly and argumentative writing. Examining the phases of scholarly writing reveals that different hypertext tools can aid different phases of intellectual work in ways other than associative thinking. Spatial hypertext is relevant at all phases, while page-and-link hypertext is more appropriate to some phases than others.
Transhyperability and argumedia BIBAFull-Text 27-32
  T. H. Nelson
Invited Commentary on D. Kolb, Association and Argument: Hypertext in and Around the Writing Process. New Rev. Hypermedia Multimedia, 11(1), pp. 7-26, this issue.
New dimensions and meta-questions BIBAFull-Text 33-37
  D. Kolb
Response to T. H. Nelson, "Transhyperability and argumedia", New Rev. Hypermedia Multimedia, 11(1), pp. 27-32 this issue.
Interaction design for scholarly writing: Hypertext representations as a means for creative knowledge work BIBAFull-Text 39-67
  K. Nakakoji; Y. Yamamoto; M. Akaishi; K. Hori
This paper presents our approach of using hypertext representations to support a scholar in the early stages of a scholarly writing process. We take D. A. Schoen's model of design as a theoretical framework. Schoen views design as a reflective conversation with the materials of a situation, where the designer interacts with the materials, such as pen and sketch on a sheet of paper, in the reflection-in-action process. The designer acts and reflects almost simultaneously; acting on external representations, interpreting emerging representations, and reacting to them. We argue that a scholar needs to engage in two different types of representations in the reflection-in-action process: external representations for thinking about the problem, and representations for expressing a solution in a publishable form. The former does not necessarily precede the latter; rather, the two representations coevolve through the reflection-in-action process. Our approach uses hypertext representations as a means to interact with in the early stages of scholarly writing both for thinking about the problem and for expressing a solution. Hypertext representations have long been studied in their relation to supporting human intellectual work; our approach, however, is unique in providing the two representations with a specific concern for supporting reflection-in-action by applying the concept called ART (Amplifying Representational Talkback) as an interaction design principle. Based on this framework, we have developed ART014, a tool for scholarly writing. ART014 simultaneously supports two types of hypertext representations: a column-based network hypertext representation and a spatial hypertext representation. The two representations are located side by side, and integrated when an interaction with one representation is reflected in the visual presentation of the other. Although a user operates on the same set of objects through the two representations, the user expresses relationships among the objects independently in the two representations. We present a scenario to illustrate in detail how the design concepts underpinning ART014 supports scholarly writing. This paper then discusses our approach from three viewpoints by using the scenario: use of the two representations, engagement in reflection-in-action, and modes of authoring. The paper concludes with a description of future directions.
The Dynamic Review Journal: a scholarly archive BIBAFull-Text 69-89
  Gary Wills; Timothy Miles-Board; Christopher Bailey; Leslie Carr; Quintin Gee; Wendy Hall; Simon Grange
A digital archive, together with its users and its contents, does not exist in isolation -- there is a cycle of activity which provides the context for the archive's existence, and which the archive supports through its various roles of information access, discovery, storage, dissemination and preservation. This paper describes an extended digital library environment that we have developed for orthopaedic surgeons which assists in collating and analysing patient data, organizing internal project discussions, and producing articles. By bridging the gap between the undertaking of experimental work (surgical trials) and the dissemination of its results through electronic publication, this work addresses the cycle of activity in which a digital archive rests.
Hypermedia as a productivity tool for doctoral research BIBAFull-Text 91-101
  A. M. Selvin; S. J. Buckingham Shum
This technical note illustrates a number of uses of a hypermedia tool that serve various dimensions of individual PhD study, such as organizing notes, generating literature reviews, performing experiments, analysing results, publishing and presenting materials, and collaborating with supervisors and colleagues.
Augmenting the mobility of profoundly blind Web travellers BIBAFull-Text 103-128
  Simon Harper; Carole Goble; Robert Stevens
Use the word 'accessibility' in the presence of any HCI1 specialist and they will immediately think of creating open interfaces that can be accessed both visually and audibly. Further, mention 'accessability' to any forward thinking group of Web developers and they will start to quote the Web Accessability Initiative Guidelines (WAI) and extol the virtues of accessability checking tools like 'Bobby'. Either way, both groups will focus on the obviously important area of 'sensory translation' but will miss one fundamental truth; profoundly blind people interact with their environment in a markedly different way from that of sighted individuals. We have realized that the ease of movement (mobility) around systems and information space (the hypertext/Web docuverse) is central to good accessibility; and that to achieve this we require additional mobility semantics within systems and information as a way of enhancing the user experience. By adding small amounts of information to existing Web pages (semi-) automatically, we can show significant improvements in the amount of information profoundly blind users are able to access in a given time; in effect 'levelling the playing field' with sighted users. This paper discusses our work and demonstrates how we can make such a claim.

HYPERMM 2005 Volume 11 Issue 2

Opening Remarks BIBFull-Text 129
Introduction to Minority Languages, Multimedia and the Web BIBFull-Text 131-137
  Daniel Cunliffe; Susan C. Herring
Digital libraries and minority languages BIBAKFull-Text 139-155
  David M. Nichols; Ian H. Witten; Te Taka Keegan; David Bainbridge; Michael Dewsnip
Digital libraries have a pivotal role to play in the preservation and maintenance of international cultures in general and minority languages in particular. This paper outlines a software tool for building digital libraries that is well adapted for creating and distributing local information collections in minority languages, and describes some contexts in which it is used. The system can make multilingual documents available in structured collections and allows them to be accessed via multilingual interfaces. It is issued under a free open-source licence, which encourages participatory design of the software, and an end-user interface allows community-based localization of the various language interfaces -- of which there are many.
Keywords: Digital libraries, Translation, Participatory design, Localization
Promoting minority-language use in a bilingual online community BIBAFull-Text 157-179
  D. Cunliffe; R. Harries
This paper explores the potential for creating online environments for bilingual communities in which minority-language use is supported and actively encouraged. It discusses the language behaviour and attitudes of Welsh-English bilingual users in Pen i Ben, a pilot online community of practice for Head Teachers in Wales. The patterns of language use and the functional roles served by the languages are described. Despite the creation of a bilingual environment and the implementation of specific strategies to encourage Welsh use, the trend indicates increasing use of English. However, it is suggested that a wider set of supporting strategies might be successful in maintaining a truly bilingual online community.
Immersion multimedia for adult Chiricahua language learners BIBAFull-Text 181-203
  M. Kalish
This study investigated effects of context versus list word presentation, and moving versus static target presentation in a 2x2 between-subjects design using Athapascan revitalization materials developed in Macromedia Flash for adult learning. The within-subjects factor was word type, presented in two randomized sets of four nouns, adjectives, and verbs. Macromedia Flash was chosen to simulate immersion learning. Twenty-three Native American adults from a local reservation and 20 adults from the University engaged 48 words for 15 min (average) of self-directed study. Macromedia Flash immersion test materials presented three target choices for each of eight text and eight spoken presentations (graphemic and phonemic association tasks), and eight words spoken in context (disambiguation task). Populations were similar enough to be combined; the total percent correct was 77.64% (SD=12.70%; range?=?50-100%). Results indicate that immersion-style, multi-media materials offer strong support for revitalization efforts, especially where learners outnumber native speakers.
Resistance to globalization: Language and Internet diffusion patterns in Uzbekistan BIBAFull-Text 205-220
  Carolyn Y. Wei; Beth E. Kolko
This paper discusses how the Internet can facilitate cultural expression that resists the homogenizing effects of globalization. It examines how local cultures adapt their linguistic behavior and language choices to the Internet and express themselves in culturally meaningful ways without being subsumed by a global agenda. The research reported in this paper is based on a survey administered in Uzbekistan, a post-Soviet, multilingual society that is experiencing the pressures of global culture as well as Russian culture. Literature about language, nationalism, and Internet use in multilingual societies is presented, and the linguistic setting of Uzbekistan is described. The results of the survey relevant to Internet use, online language choices, and perceptions of language on the Web are reported here.
Language-sensitive search behaviour and the role of domain knowledge BIBAFull-Text 221-246
  A. Kralisch; B. Berendt
While many websites aim at a large and linguistically diversified audience, they present their information mostly in the languages of larger speakers groups. Little is known about the effect on accessibility. We investigated the influence of a site's language offer on website access and search behaviour with two studies, and studied the interaction of language offers and domain knowledge. To achieve high ecological validity, we analysed data from a multilingual site's web-server logfile and from a questionnaire posted on it, and compared the behaviour of users who accessed the site in a non-native language to that of users who accessed it in their native language. Results from 277,809 user sessions and 165 international survey participants indicate that a website's languages may strongly reduce website access by users not supplied with information in their native language. Once inside a site, non-native speakers with high domain knowledge behave similarly to native speakers. However, non-native speakers' behaviour becomes language-sensitive when they have low domain knowledge.
Review of script displays of African languages by current software BIBAFull-Text 247-255
  Quintin Gee
All recorded African languages that have a writing system have orthographies which use the Roman or Arabic scripts, with a few exceptions. While Unicode successfully handles the encoding of both these scripts, current software, in particular Web browsers, take little account of users wishing to operate in a minority script. Their use for displaying African languages has been limited by the availability of facilities and the desire to communicate with the 'world' through major languages such as English and French. There is a need for more use of the indigenous languages to strengthen their language communities and the use of the local scripts in enhancing the learning, teaching, and general use of their own languages by their speaking communities.