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HIMI Tables of Contents: 07-107-209-109-211-111-213-113-213-314-114-215-115-2

HIMI 2014: 16th International Conference on Human Interface and the Management of Information, Symposium on Human Interface, Part II: Information and Knowledge in Applications and Services

Fullname:HIMI 2014: 16th International Conference on Human Interface and the Management of Information, Part II: Information and Knowledge in Applications and Services
Note:Volume 13 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Sakae Yamamoto
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8522
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07863-2 hcibib: HIMI14-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-07862-5 (print), 978-3-319-07863-2 (online)
Papers:61
Pages:657
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. HIMI 2014-06-22 Volume 2
    1. E-learning and E-education
    2. Decision Support
    3. Information and Interaction in Aviation and Transport
    4. Safety, Security and Reliability
    5. Communication, Expression and Emotions
    6. Art, Culture and Creativity
    7. Information and Knowledge in Business and Society

HIMI 2014-06-22 Volume 2

E-learning and E-education

The Effects of Using Kit-Build Method to Support Reading Comprehension of EFL BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Mohammad Alkhateeb; Yusuke Hayashi; Tsukasa Hirashima
In this paper, we describe the effects of using Kit-Build concept map (KB-map) method as a supportive tool for the reading comprehension of English texts as EFL reading. Reading comprehension is the ability to read text, it is intentional, active, interactive process in all the stages of study for the students and in the daily working activities. One of the most common research points in this field is the English as Foreign Language (EFL) reading comprehension. We have conducted an experiment composed of six experimental reading comprehension sessions. We found that there is no significant difference in the comprehension between the two conditions groups just after the experimental using, but there is noticed difference in the comprehension two weeks after. It shows that the using of KB-map building helps learners to keep their information for long time, and we can say that the using of KB-Map help the students to use and recall, after two weeks, most of the information that are included in their student map.
Keywords: Kit-Build; comprehension test; Delayed comprehension test; reading comprehension; Mother Language ML
Development of a Learning Support System for Source Code Reading Comprehension BIBAKFull-Text 12-19
  Tatsuya Arai; Haruki Kanamori; Takahito Tomoto; Yusuke Kometani; Takako Akakura
In this paper, we describe the development of a support system that facilitates the process of learning computer programming through the reading of computer program source code. Reading code consists of two steps: reading comprehension and meaning deduction. In this study, we developed a tool that supports the comprehension of a program's reading. The tool is equipped with an error visualization function that illustrates a learner's mistakes and makes them aware of their errors. We conducted experiments using the learning support tool and confirmed that the system is effective.
Keywords: Programming Learning; Problem Posing; Reading Program; ICT
EA Snippets: Generating Summarized View of Handwritten Documents Based on Emphasis Annotations BIBAKFull-Text 20-31
  Hiroki Asai; Hayato Yamana
Owing to the recent development of handwriting input devices such as tablets and digital pens, digital notebooks have become an alternative to traditional paper-based notebooks. Digital notebooks are available for various device types. To display a list of text documents on a device screen, we often use scaled thumbnails or text snippets summarized through natural language processing or structural analyses. However, these are ineffective in conveying summaries of handwritten documents, because informal and unstructured handwritten data are difficult to summarize using traditional methods. We therefore propose the use of emphasis-based snippets, i.e., summarized handwritten documents based on natural emphasis annotations, such as underlines and enclosures. Our proposed method places emphasized words into thumbnails or text snippets. User studies showed that the proposed method is effective for keyword-based navigation.
Keywords: Digital Ink; Annotation; Summarization; Thumbnail; Snippets
Kit-Build Concept Mapping for Being Aware of the Gap of Exchanged Information in Collaborative Reading of the Literature BIBAKFull-Text 32-41
  Yusuke Haysahi; Tsukasa Hirashima
This paper reports a result of the trial use of the kit-build method in a lesson conducted in a graduate school. The purpose of the lesson is that students understand the content of a book collaboratively. The problem to be addressed here is that it is difficult to acknowledge the discrepancies between a presentation and their own understanding. To solve it this study uses Kit-build concept mapping. Through collaborative reading of the literature with kit-build concept mapping in classroom students could find the problems in their own presentation and tried to refine it with concrete information about the others' misunderstanding.
Keywords: E-learning and e-education; concept map; collaborative knowledge building
Triplet Structure Model of Arithmetical Word Problems for Learning by Problem-Posing BIBAKFull-Text 42-50
  Tsukasa Hirashima; Sho Yamamoto; Yusuke Hayashi
We have been investigating and developing several interactive environments for learning by problem-posing targeting arithmetical word problems. In this paper, we describe "triplet structure" of an arithmetical word problem that is composed of two "single quantity sentences" and one "relative quantity sentence", as the base model of the design of these learning environments. We also report practice use of the interactive learning environments in usual class room by using tablet PCs.
Keywords: Triplet Structure Model; Learning by Problem-Posing; Arithmetical Word Problem
Training Archived Physical Skill through Immersive Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 51-58
  Taihei Kojima; Atsushi Hiyama; Takahiro Miura; Michitaka Hirose
The basic of training physical skills is to imitate instructor's motion. Observation is the very first step to copy the motion of instructor when at the beginning of learning sports of artisanship. However, beginners face difficulties in imitating at the start since they do not have somesthetic image of the movement. In order to help learning physical skills, we propose Immersive virtual environment using head mounted display that indicates 3D motion of instructor super imposed on learner's body. By using this system, learners try to match its own form to instructor's 3D model to imitate instructor's motion from first person view in virtual environment. At the early stage of this research, we tried to transfer pitching skill in baseball. We evaluated the effectiveness of proposed system by measuring throwing distance.
Keywords: Skill transfer; Augmented Reality; Immersive virtual environment; Head mounted display
An Improved Teaching Behavior Estimation Model from Student Evaluations BIBAKFull-Text 59-68
  Yusuke Kometani; Takahito Tomoto; Takehiro Furuta; Takako Akakura
Many universities conduct student evaluations. Their purpose is to encourage improvement in teaching. However, the evaluations are merely subjective assessments by students, meaning that instructors cannot necessarily easily relate evaluations to areas for improvement in teaching. To address this issue, we suggest a teaching behavior estimation model that can estimate teaching behaviors from student evaluations of each lesson. In previous research, we built a model on the assumption that teaching behaviors are not correlated with other behaviors and that student evaluation items are uncorrelated to other evaluation items. However, this assumption could not be verified. Our research suggests a new teaching behavior estimation model that represents the correlation between factors of teaching and factors of student evaluations. To analyze this, we conducted canonical correlation between two kinds of factors and obtained correlations. This result shows that it is possible to construct a teaching behavior estimation model based on factors of teaching behavior and factors of student evaluations.
Keywords: Student evaluation; Lesson improvement; Teaching behavior; Teaching behavior estimation model
A Study on Exploration of Relationships between Behaviors and Mental States of Learners for Value Co-creative Education and Learning Environment BIBAKFull-Text 69-79
  Tatsunori Matsui; Yuki Horiguchi; Kazuaki Kojima; Takako Akakura
From the view point of value co-creation in education and learning environment, it is important to cultivate competency and literacy for learning for both learners and teachers. For realizing value co-creative education and learning environment, detection of learners' mental states during their learning activities plays very important role at this environment. In this context, it is an important task to implement an e-learning system that can automatically detect changes of learners' mental states by observing their behaviors in learning activities. In this study, we conducted an experiment to explore relationships between mental states and behaviors of a learner on our experimental tools designed along with an assumption of a learning environment with an e-learning system. We focused on mouse and face movement as the behaviors. The results of the experiment revealed some features about the behaviors and the mental states.
Keywords: e-leaning system; automatic estimation; mental states; value co-creation; education and learning environment
A Music Search System for Expressive Music Performance Learning BIBAKFull-Text 80-89
  Tomoya Mikami; Kosuke Takano
In this paper, we present a music search system that focuses on performance style to cultivate a pupil's expressive performance of music. The system allows pupils to learn the performance style to be mastered by obtaining both model and non-model content. By browsing non-model content that is similar to the quality of a pupil's performance, the pupil can quickly identify his/her areas that require improvement. In addition, the pupil can improve his/her performance skill by repeatedly imitating the models. We evaluate the capabilities of our music search system regarding the extraction of performance style from a classical music source and the precision of the music search results for performance style.
Keywords: music retrieval; performance expression; musical performance learning; MIDI
The Value Improvement in Education Service by Grasping the Value Acceptance State with ICT Utilized Education Environment BIBAKFull-Text 90-98
  Yoshiki Sakurai
Value co-creation in education service with an ICT utilized environment is argued. Service provider (teacher) does data collection and analysis on learning behavior of each service receiver (students), proposes the improved service content successively based on the result of analysis, and gradually improves his competency. This paper describes some methodologies of learning behavior data collection and analysis.
Keywords: service engineering; value co-creation; learning analytics; formative evaluation; xAPI; LRS
Developing an Education Material for Robot Literacy BIBAFull-Text 99-108
  Hidetsugu Suto; Makiba Sakamoto
An education material for training regarding robot literacy has been developed. Robot literacy means an ability to have appropriate relationships with intelligent robots. It can be considered as a kind of media literacy because robots can transmit the designers' intentions to the users. People who were born on and after the Internet appearance called "digital natives." They have novel moral values and behave different way from old generation people in the Internet societies. These facts cause several troubles between the two generations. Thus, the necessity for media literacy education has increased. These days, as same as the Internet technologies, robotics technologies are also advancing rapidly. It is forecasted that the people who is growing on and after home robots have become popular, "robot native," will appear. As same as media literacy education, robot literacy education for robot native also ought to become important in the future. In this paper, a card game as a robot literacy education material for elementary/junior hi schoolers' is proposed. The players can learn critical thinking for home appliance robots during enjoying the game.
Development of Teaching Material Volume Calculations Using a Wooden Puzzle BIBAKFull-Text 109-117
  Takamitsu Tanaka; Masao Tachibana; Ichiro Hirata
This paper explains the development of a wooden puzzle containing wooden joints designed to teach elementary school students how to calculate volume. An experiment was performed with the puzzle, which is a cube with wooden joints, targeting 1st-grade students. The shape of the puzzle is known to be difficult for children to work with. Next, we introduce the results of a test of volume calculation designed for children and describe the methods used to teach volume calculation in Japan. Finally, we compare the concepts of volume calculation and how to create a three-dimensional object in 3D-CAD to reveal that the ideas are almost identical.
Keywords: Wooden Joint; Wooden Puzzle; Volume Calculation; Design
Private Cloud Collaboration Framework for e-Learning Environment for Disaster Recovery Using Smartphone Alert Notification BIBAKFull-Text 118-126
  Satoshi Togawa; Kazuhide Kanenishi
In this research, we have built a framework of disaster recovery such as against earthquake and tsunami disaster for e-Learning environment. We build a prototype system based on IaaS architecture, and this prototype system is constructed by several private cloud computing fabrics. These private cloud fabrics are constructed to operate one large private cloud fabric under the VPN connection. The distributed storage system builds on each private cloud fabric; that is handled almost like same block device such as one file system. For LMS (Learning Management System) to work, we need to boot virtual machines. The virtual machines are booted from the virtual disk images that are stored into the distributed storage system. The distributed storage system will be able to keep running as one large file system when some private cloud fabric does not work by any disasters. The disaster alert such as Earthquake Early Warning can be caught by usual smartphone. And we control virtual machines status and virtual machines positioning on the private cloud fabrics by caught disaster alert notifications. We think that our private cloud collaboration framework can continue working for e-Learning environment under the post-disaster situation. In this paper, we show our private cloud collaboration framework and the experimental results on the prototype configuration.
Keywords: private cloud collaboration; disaster recovery; smartphone application; disaster alert notification
Report on Practice of Note-Rebuilding Support System BIBAKFull-Text 127-136
  Takahito Tomoto; Tsukasa Hirashima
Lectures in recent years have increasingly incorporated presentation software. Such lectures are problematic in that effective note taking is precluded because lecture slides present content in a preformed structure, reducing the need for thought during the note taking process. In presentation-type lectures, it is therefore necessary to propose tasks that confirm student understanding. Here we propose a "note-rebuilding" method, an adaptation of a kit-build method. We also report the results of constructing a learning support system with note-rebuilding and its experimental evaluation.
Keywords: Learning of structure; presentation software; lecture; learning support system
Visualizing Mental Learning Processes with Invisible Mazes for Continuous Learning BIBAKFull-Text 137-148
  Tomohiro Yamaguchi; Kouki Takemori; Keiki Takadama
This paper presents the way to design the continuous learning process model based on general reinforcement learning framework for both a human and a learning agent. The objective of this research is to bring the learning ability of the learning agent close to that of a human. We focus on both the reinforcement learning framework for the learning agent and the continuous learning model of a human. However, there are two kinds of questions. First question is how to bridge an enormous gap between them. To fill in the missing piece of reinforcement learning whose learning process is mainly behavior change, we add two mental learning processes, awareness as pre-learning process and reflection as post-learning process. Second question is how to observe mental learning processes of a human. Previous methods of human learning researches mostly depend on observable behaviors or activities. On the other hand, a learning process of a human has a major difficulty in observing since it is a mental process. Then a human learning process is yet-to-be-defined. So it is necessary to add a new twist to observe the learning process of a human. To solve this, we propose a new method for visualizing mental learning processes with invisible mazes consisting of invisible walls which are perceived as a sign that is the number of walls in the neighborhood. Besides, we add meta-actions for expressing and summarizing something to be aware of learning from mistake or to be reflected on learning from experience. A learner can mark up his/her sign-action traces by meta-actions for future success. It turns out to visualize his/her mental learning processes. This paper reports our learning support system for a human learner to visualize his/her mental learning processes with invisible mazes for continuous learning.
Keywords: reinforcement learning; continuous learning; learning process; awareness; self-reflection; visualizing; invisible; sign; meta-action; learning goals
Association of CCR and BCC Efficiencies to Market Variables in a Retrospective Two Stage Data Envelope Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 151-159
  Denis A. Coelho
The analysis compares constant returns to scale (CRS) and varying returns to scale (VRS) measures, by modeling the performance of internet companies using a two-stage DEA process. In the DEA literature, process efficiency is widely measured by a CRS measure, CCR, and a VRS measure, BCC, which were proposed by Charnes et al. (1978) and Banker et al. (1984), respectively. Measuring the performance of Internet companies using two-stage DEA was also presented by Cao and Yang (2011). The results of the analysis reported in this paper suggest that both forms of DEA efficiency scores are relevant to measure the performance of Internet companies.
Keywords: Decision support systems; E-commerce; Evaluating information; Internet companies; Investment analysis

Decision Support

Exploring Similarity BIBAKFull-Text 160-171
  Mandy Keck; Martin Herrmann; Andreas Both; Dana Henkens; Rainer Groh
Faceted browsing is an established and well-known paradigm for product search. However, if the user is unfamiliar with the topic and the provided facets, he may not be able to sufficiently reduce the amount of results. In order to increase the understanding of the bidirectional relation between facets and result set, we present an interface concept that allows manifold approaches for product search, analysis and comparison starting with a single product or a summarizing visualization of the entire data set. Moreover, various product features can be analyzed in order to support decision-making. Even without detailed knowledge of a specific topic, the user is able to estimate the range and distribution of characteristics in relation to known or desired features. Conventional list-based search forms do not provide such a quick overview. Our concept is based on two visualization techniques that allow the representation of multi-dimensional data across a set of parallel axes: parallel coordinates and parallel sets.
Keywords: Visual Search Interfaces; Information Visualization; Parallel Coordinates; Motive-based Search; Big Data; E-commerce
ChoiceLog: Life Log System Based on Choices for Supporting Decision-Making BIBAKFull-Text 172-183
  Junpei Koyama; Keiko Yamamoto; Itaru Kuramoto; Yoshihiro Tsujino
When we are faced with choices, we often make decisions based on past experiences where we faced similar choices. If we could refer these choices, we would be able to make better decisions. In this paper, we propose a new life log system called "ChoiceLog". ChoiceLog can record the options that user choose and the options that they reject. Further, it can display recorded data via searches and notifications in order to support decision-making. We implemented ChoiceLog as an iOS application and conducted two evaluations to estimate its usefulness. From the results of the evaluations, we found that ChoiceLog could support decision-making processes in cases where there were a large number of choice selection logs. Moreover, for long-term use, we are planning to make it possible to filter notification from ChoiceLog based on date, time, and preset or user-customizable tags.
Keywords: life log; decision-making; watershed events; choice; mobile; location-base; ChoiceLog
Research on User Involvement in Automobile Design Development BIBAKFull-Text 184-192
  Noboru Koyama; Mikio Yamashita; Mizuki Nakajima
The problems of design evaluation and decision-making have been ongoing challenges since design has held a position in industry. The large amounts of development investment in the automotive industry, and the importance of design in ultimate product value, have made the development of systems for evaluation and decision-making urgent topics. However, they have yet to achieve perfection, and are still beset by many problems. In our research on these topics, we have focused our research on user-participatory product design, especially the problems of evaluation and decision-making in the midst of the design development process. This paper discusses the current state of one aspect of these, the panel evaluation system, and looks at the challenges it faces.
Keywords: User involvement; panel evaluation; and design management
Human-Centered Interfaces for Situation Awareness in Maintenance BIBAKFull-Text 193-204
  Allan Oliveira; Regina Araujo; Andrew Jardine
In Maintenance, a vital activity in industry, ineffective Situation Awareness (SAW) is responsible for 13-17% of accidents. Therefore, a successful SAW has the potential of leveraging safety and efficiency, especially in field work. Bibliographic revision shows that the main gap to develop this idea is the conflict between the structure of Maintenance (procedural) and that of SAW (dynamic). Using a holistic study to elaborate a conclusive definition of SAW in the field, our work was able to solve this dichotomy of structures by developing a conceptual framework which maintains the task-oriented nature of field operation while clustering SAW inputs into entities to outline their potential effects. This Conceptual Framework of Situation Awareness in Maintenance (CFSAM) acknowledges the link between SAW and UIs, and creates a definitive list of multiple factors/entities that supports responsiveness and improves reliability and resilience. The seven entities identified are: task, equipment, system, environment, team, enterprise and personal. To each of these entities, CFSAM assigns a role in the UI design, and analyses challenges and solutions. This new approach of considering SAW-oriented design is a multidisciplinary effort and so far the results are promising: it facilitates an efficient design of SAW in maintenance field work, increases the focus on safety and efficiency and leverages the potential of developing a coherent system with high level of adherence.
Keywords: Situation Awareness; Human Centered Computing; User Interface Design; Maintenance
Data Driven Enterprise UX: A Case Study of Enterprise Management Systems BIBAKFull-Text 205-216
  Sumit Pandey; Swati Srivastava
This paper describes and makes a case for a data driven user experience design process for Enterprise IT. The method described employs an approach that focuses on defining the key modules (objects) in an enterprise IT software and the data sets used by these modules very early in the design process. We discuss how mapping parent child relationships between key entities in the software and the linked data helps create a holistic view of the product ecosystem which in turn allows the designer to create an uncluttered information architecture and user journey that maps closely to mental construct of the system in the user's mind. We further argue that in the present age of big data, working with well-defined data sets and visible data relationships creates a valuable information repository for the designer to take decisions regarding task optimization and building business intelligence in the system itself. We also discuss the urgent need, advantages and methods of 'consumerizing' the Enterprise UI to increase users productivity and reduce the learning curve. Lastly, these ideas are exemplified through a real life case study for an enterprise server management system.
Keywords: User Experience Design; Consumerization; Design Process; Enterprise IT; User Centered Design; Data Driven Design; Design Patterns; Case Study
Decision Support Based on Time-Series Analytics: A Cluster Methodology BIBAKFull-Text 217-225
  Wanli Xing; Rui Guo; Nathan Lowrance; Thomas Kochtanek
Web analytic techniques have become increasingly popular, particularly Google Analytics time-series dashboards. But interpretations of a website's visits traffic data may be oversimplified and limited by Google Analytics existing functionalities. This means website mangers have to make estimations rather than mathematically informed decisions. In order to gain a more precise view of longitudinal website visits traffic data, the researchers mathematically transformed the existing Goggle Analytics' log data allowing the vectors of website visits per each year to be considered simultaneously. The methodology groups the data of an example website gathered over an 'x' year period into 'y' clusters of data. The results show that the transformed data is richer, more accurate and informative, potentially allowing website managers to make more informed decisions concerning promoting, developing, and maintaining their websites rather than relying on estimations.
Keywords: Temporal analytics; Google analytics; cluster analysis; decision support; website management

Information and Interaction in Aviation and Transport

"A Careful Driver is One Who Looks in Both Directions When He Passes a Red Light" -- Increased Demands in Urban Traffic BIBAKFull-Text 229-240
  Martin Götze; Florian Bißbort; Ina Petermann-Stock; Klaus Bengler
This paper summarizes the requirements of an HMI concept for urban areas including the vehicle components: Head-Up Display, the Instrument Cluster, and the Acceleration Force Feedback Pedal. The research addresses all qualitative and quantitative requirements of the aforementioned HMI components as well as urban areas and scenarios itself and warnings in general. The results contain almost 150 confirmed requirements by different sources and lay the foundation for future experiments in this field.
Keywords: HMI; HCI; urban; driving; cockpit; hud; fpk; instrument; cluster; force; feedback; pedal; affp; warnings; adas; assistance
Neural Networks for Identifying Civil Pilot's Operation Sequences BIBAKFull-Text 241-252
  Zhuoyuan Jiang; Qin Lu; Yuandong Liang; Bin Chen
"Human Error", as we all know, is inevitable during the flight process of civil aircraft. It is one of the most significant reasons for civil aircraft accidents and incidents. Therefore, to identify and avoid "Human Error" is becoming more and more urgent.
   In order to restrict the influence of "Human Error", the wrong sequence of civil pilot's operation must be detected and a warning should be provided for pilot or intelligent action to correct the wrong sequence of operations.
   A set of effective behavior coding system is developed for expressing the pilot's operations. Pilot's operation behaviors can be quantized and operation sequences can be coded. And the set of effective pilot's behavior coding system plays an important role in reducing the probability of flight accidents caused by "Human Error".
   For identifying whether the pilot's operation sequence is right, a database of codes of pilot's operation sequences should be built. By comparing with the codes in the database, a wrong operation sequence can be detected. Generally speaking, the database containing codes of all possible correct and wrong operation sequences is difficult to set up. As a matter of fact, the database we can develop is just a part of all possible codes of operation sequences. Therefore, those naturally correct operation sequences but not in the database may be detected as wrong ones by comparing with the correct codes in the database. This paper adopts neural networks to identify any codes of operation sequences (in database and not in database) accurately. The incomplete database is trained by neural networks to find the rule for identifying whether a specific operation sequence is correct. If the specific pilot's operation sequence disobeys the rule, a warning will be provided for pilot to rectify the operation, which reduces the probability of accidents caused by "Human Error" and realizes the intelligent identifying function.
Keywords: Human Error; Operation Behavior; Coding system; Neural Networks
A Study of Drivers' Blind Spot in Used of Eye Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 253-260
  Yen-Yu Kang; Yuh-Chuan Shih; Chih-Chan Cheng; Chi-Long Lin
This study employed driving simulation and eye tracking to explore the situational perception of drivers under various weather and road conditions.
   This study sampled 16 subjects, all of whom were required to hold a valid driver's license. Experimentation was based on factorial design; the independent variables were weather (sunny, foggy) and road conditions (road work, pedestrians crossing the road, and balls appearing suddenly). The dependent variables included Time to First Fixation (TFF)(sec), First Fixation Duration (FFD) (sec), Total Fixation Duration (TFD) (sec), Fixation Count (FC) (frequency). Results showed that under good weather conditions, drivers are more aware of road conditions, resulting in shorter TFF with resulting higher FC and longer TFD. The influence of road conditions on TFF, FFD, TFD and FC varied according to the situation. Overall, our results demonstrated the feasibility of using eye trackers to explore the situational perception of drivers.
Keywords: situational perception; eye tracker; gaze; weather
A Study on the Interface Design of a Functional Menu and Icons for In-Vehicle Navigation Systems BIBAKFull-Text 261-272
  Ming-Chyuan Lin; Yi-Hsien Lin; Chun-Chun Lin; Jenn-Yang Lin
The progress in computer technology and information communication for consumer electronics and related intelligent products has greatly enhanced the usability of the global positioning system (GPS) of in-vehicle navigation systems (IVNSs). However, too many functions and information can be a burden to users while driving, which could include unsuitable icons, inappropriate framework configuration, redundant functional items and an unsuitable hierarchical configuration. The objective of this study is to develop a systematic platform to design the framework of functional menu layers and the corresponding functional icons based on analyzing user requirements. This research performed a three-stage assessment and an analysis on the graphical user interface, hierarchical layers of the functional menu such that the IVNS could be re-constructed based on the data collection and the analyzed marketed IVNS. IT is expected to provide reference information and a research process for designers to help create a more humanized, intelligent human-computer interaction.
Keywords: In-Vehicle Navigation System (IVNS); Menu Layer Configuration; Icon Design; Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP); Graphical User Interface
Advancement and Application of Unmanned Aerial System Human-Machine-Interface (HMI) Technology BIBAKFull-Text 273-283
  Brent A. Terwilliger; David C. Ison; Dennis A. Vincenzi; Dahai Liu
Interface designs native to handheld control and feedback devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets) are becoming more accessible within the small unmanned aerial system (sUAS) community due to increased usage in remote control (R/C) model aircraft platforms [33], improved processing to cost [4], and increased interoperability supporting custom development and programming [2], [33]. These smaller, power efficient control systems have the potential to change the paradigm of sUAS control to be more aligned with semi-autonomous operations based on their innate ability to provide intuitive user interactions [44], low cost, reduction of latency effects on control, and improved real-time configuration and data measurement [33]. The objective of this study is to identify common themes in the advancement and application of human-machine-interface technologies in UAS control. This paper proposes to review available literature, associated technology designs, and identify how the UAS community can best leverage this technology and interaction concepts to support safe and efficient operations of UAS.
Keywords: Human-Machine Interface; HMI; Unmanned Aerial System; UAS; sUAS; UAV; Intelligent; Intuitive; Innovative (I3) design
Roma Crash Map: An Open Data Visualization Tool for the Municipalities of Rome BIBAKFull-Text 284-295
  Valentina Volpi; Andrea Ingrosso; Mariarosaria Pazzola; Antonio Opromolla; Carlo Maria Medaglia
The open data availability, promoted by the open government approach, does not correspond to an effective and organized use of them with the detriment of both citizens and PAs. We assume that a data visualization tool could help the spread of information in an easy and accessible way, even for what concerns open data. In this paper we will focus on the map, as one of the most suitable tools for the interactive representation of spatial related data. So, we will present the Roma Crash Map platform, a web application that allows to visualize the road crashes open data related to the 19 Municipalities of the city of Rome. In details, we will report the considerations about the selection and design of the visualization tools, according to the purpose to familiarize the users with participating tools integrating maps or more complex geographical systems.
Keywords: Data Visualization; Information Visualization; Road Crashes
Predictive Probability Model of Pilot Error Based on CREAM BIBAKFull-Text 296-304
  Xiaoyan Zhang; Hongjun Xue; Yingchun Chen; Lin Zhou; Gaohong Lu
Prediction of pilot error is key of human-machine interface design in the cockpit, and is also an effective way on the reduction of accident ratio caused by human error. CREAM (Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method) has been chosen to build the predictive probability model of pilot error based on investigation of various methods. The pilot error model built can be used not only to analysis the reason of accident but predict the error probability in particular scene. The model is validated through the experiment that pilots read the altitude during flight in different visibilities and time limits. The CPC (common performance conditions) including cockpit design, crew communication and other environment such as weather condition is always analyzed and calculated during the whole task analysis and then the reason of pilot error can be discovered qualitatively. The results are important for cockpit design to improve the airplane safety.
Keywords: pilot error; CREAM; error probability prediction; human-machine interface; cockpit design

Safety, Security and Reliability

Management of On-Line Registries Information for Patient Safety in Long-Term Care BIBAKFull-Text 307-316
  Fuad Abujarad; Sarah J. Swierenga; Toni A. Dennis; Lori A. Post
The Michigan Workforce Background Check (MWBC) system combine data streams from various sources and online registries showing findings of abuse, neglect, misappropriation of property and health care fraud. Employers use MWBC to have an initial determination of the suitability of person for employment in Long-Term Care facility. In this paper, we demonstrate how management of information and the optimization of the human interface positively impact the patient safety and workflow, which is essential for effective public health management.
Keywords: Background Check; Registry Check; Long-Term Care; Health Information Technology; Usability; User-Centered Design; Patient Safety
Improving Control Room State Awareness through Complex Sonification Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 317-323
  Barrett S. Caldwell; Jacob E. Viraldo
Across a number of complex control room settings, there are concerns regarding operator information overload and alarm flooding. The evolution of control room technological capabilities has accelerated in recent years, due to drastic improvements in computer processing power, speed, and sensor integration. However, aging infrastructure and retiring senior operators in legacy control room systems such as chemical and power generation plants have begun to create opportunities for once-per-generation improvements in control room interface capabilities. Additional facilities, including power grid interconnection centers and computer network security monitoring centers, have created new generations of network operations control centers (NOCs). The authors' work is emphasizing the development and application of audification and parameter mapping techniques to generate engineering-based principles for presenting state-based auditory information to plant or NOC operators. There are no current systematic engineering-based principles used to apply sonification to control rooms or engineering system states in a clearly standardized way. Our current work in this domain examines the critical parameters that control room operators recognize and monitor in order to get a "sense of the plant" in nominal, degrading, or hazardous states. Principles and parameters for implementing these sonification techniques for power plant and NOC contexts are presented and discussed.
Voice Activated Personal Assistant: Acceptability of Use in the Public Space BIBAKFull-Text 324-334
  Aarthi Easwara Moorthy; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Voice interface is becoming a common feature in mobile devices such as tablets and smartphones. Moreover, voice recognition technology is touted to mature and become the default method to control of a variety of interfaces, including mobile devices. Thus, it is critical to understand the factors that influence the use of voice activated applications in the public domain. The present study examined how the perceived acceptability of using the Voice-Activated Personal Assistant (VAPA) in smartphones influences its reported use. Participants were U.S. smartphone users recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Results showed that participants preferred using the VAPA in a private location, such as their home, but even in that environment, they were hesitant about using it to input private or personally identifying information in comparison to more general, non-private information. Participants' perceived social acceptability of using the VAPA to transmit information in different contexts could explain these preferred usage patterns.
Keywords: Voice-Activated Personal Assistants; Voice Interface; Mobile Computing; Information Privacy
A Framework of Human Reliability Analysis Method Considering Soft Control in Digital Main Control Rooms BIBAKFull-Text 335-346
  Inseok Jang; Ar Ryum Kim; Wondea Jung; Poong Hyun Seong
The operation environment of Main Control Rooms (MCRs) in Nuclear Power Plants has changed with the adoption of new human-system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies. The MCRs that include these digital and computer technologies are called Advanced MCRs. Among the many features of Advanced MCRs, soft controls are a particularly important feature because the operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. Due to the different interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional type control, different human error probabilities and a new Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) framework should be considered in the HRA for advanced MCRs. Although there are many HRA methods to assess human reliabilities, these methods do not sufficiently consider the features of advanced MCRs such as soft control execution human errors. In this paper, a framework of HRA method for evaluation of soft control execution human error in advanced MCRs is suggested.
Keywords: Advanced MCR; Soft control; Execution human error probability
A Resilient Interaction Concept for Process Management on Tabletops for Cyber-Physical Systems BIBAKFull-Text 347-358
  Ronny Seiger; Susann Struwe; Sandra Matthes; Thomas Schlegel
Using tabletop devices for controlling complex applications is rather uncommon as interaction on tabletops is still very error-prone. Especially in everyday life settings, there is a multitude of sources of distractions and input errors. The tabletop-based management of cyber-physical systems influencing both the virtual and the real world introduces new challenges with respect to reliability and fault tolerance of the user interface. In this paper, we present an interaction concept for complex management applications on tabletops introducing more resilient gestures for different stages of the interaction. The interaction concept provides more reliable interactions than the basic set of touch gestures does and proves suitable for more complex applications. A user study conducted as part of the work confirms the concept's increased accuracy without influencing the overall usability. As an example, we present a process management application for cyber-physical systems implementing the interaction concept.
Keywords: Process Management; Interaction Concept for Tabletops; Multimodal Interaction; Security and Reliability
From the Perspective of Service Engineering, The Development of Support Systems for Residents Affected by the Major Earthquake Disaster BIBAKFull-Text 359-370
  Sakae Yamamoto; Kazuo Ichihara; Naoko Nojima; Yuichi Takahashi; Kosuke Ootomo; Kenta Watanabe
In a large Earthquake, the inhabitants need to protect themselves on their own. If that is difficult, residents need to help each other in between. However, there are very difficult to help each other at after the Earthquake. The supporting systems have been developed using the service engineering. This is, using ICT, an evacuate mechanism has been proposed. Moreover focusing on evacuation behavior in particular, a support system capable of safe haven has been developed. Especially a new method for measuring the quality of the evacuation has been developed too.
Keywords: Earthquake disaster; service engineering; quality of evacuation; ICT

Communication, Expression and Emotions

Investigating the Effective Factors of Communication for Family Members Living Apart BIBAKFull-Text 373-382
  Nana Hamaguchi; Daisuke Asai; Masahiro Watanabe; Yoko Asano
Parents have difficulty in communicating with their independent children that live separately. Much research has focused on this problem and most solutions provide parents' information to the children, despite the parents' desire to understand their children. To foster communication by the parent, our proposal takes the unique approach of providing the children's information to the parent. As an initial experiment, we conduct a 15 day field study with three households to investigate whether the information of the children prompts parent into communicating with their children, and if so, how and what information should be shared. The result show that little information can prompt communication by the parent and keep a favorable attitude toward the child. We also discuss the design requirements raised by our findings with the goal of improving communication between family members living apart.
Keywords: elderly people; family communication; field study
Learning Winespeak from Mind Map of Wine Blogs BIBAFull-Text 383-393
  Sachio Hirokawa; Brendan Flanagan; Takahiko Suzuki; Chengjiu Yin
When faced with complex situations, it can often be hard to put into words and accurately express it appropriately. This becomes increasingly difficult when specialist expressions are required that are not used in everyday language. The problem is faced when trying to express in words to another person the wine that you just drank, or a wine that you want to drink to a waiter at a restaurant or shop assistant. It requires the expression in words of numerous senses including complex flavors, smells, colors, and personal emotion that is felt. These expressions are often subjective, with different people having using different expressions for the same wine. In this paper, we propose the use of wine related expressions collected from the internet and clustered to generate mind maps.
Age Difference in Recognition of Emoticons BIBAKFull-Text 394-403
  Kun-An Hsiao; Pei-Ling Hsieh
Emoticons are new visual or nonverbal communication cues used in digital interaction. Can elders recognize and discriminate emotional states from emoticons as well as young people can? This study uses emoticons to investigate recognizable emotional differences between thirty older and thirty younger adults. A total of 32 representative emoticons were used as stimuli, consisting of 24 realistic facial expressions, 8 abstract facial expressions, 11 positive emotions, 11 neutral emotions, and 10 negative emotions. Four questions, including "emotional state," "imitative level," "preference," and "understanding" of emoticons, were applied in the questionnaire. The results showed older adults to have a more positive response toward perceived emoticons than younger adults. The two age ranges have different cognition of the design appearances of realistic and abstract emoticons. Older adults showed less preference toward all emoticons than younger adults. The result also denotes older adults can analogize between realistic faces and emoticons.
Keywords: Age difference; Emoticon; Recognition
Basic Study on Personal Space while Using Mobile Devices in Public BIBAKFull-Text 404-412
  Shigeyoshi Iizuka; Kentaro Go
In recent years, smart mobile devices have come to be widely used in our life spaces. This development has the potential to create major changes in the ways people communicate in public spaces. This paper presents two studies on a user's personal space while using a device in public: the first investigated mobile device use between three people; the second examined communicating private information on large, interactive displays in public spaces. Then, we introduced the basic concept for our future research on personal space while using mobile devices in public.
Keywords: personal space; public space; mobile devices; security
Soft Interface with the Ambiguity Creation of the Action by Avatar Controller Inducing the Embodiment BIBAKFull-Text 413-422
  Shiroh Itai; Taketo Yasui; Yoshiyuki Miwa
To study about a creation of an action, we must study the mental and physical functions that create the action. Therefore, we focused on a rhythm controller that incorporated ambiguity in the relationship between the controller input and avatar motion, because determining this relationship requires the involvement of both mental and physical functions. In this study, we examined how controller manipulation methods changed when subjects performed similar avatar movements in different situations using the rhythm controller. From the results, we show that a regression plane by which the controller manipulation method (the relationship between the controller input and avatar motion) is approximated varies with the situation. Furthermore, we found that differences in intention could be expressed in the controller manipulation method. These show that the controller manipulation method of the rhythm controller flexibly changes depending on the situation, and is closely connected with the meaning of the action.
Keywords: Action; Embodiment; Ambiguity; Soft interface
Development and Application of Manga-Style Chat System Aiming to Communicate Nonverbal Expression BIBAFull-Text 423-434
  Junko Itou; Yuichi Motojin; Jun Munemori
In this research, we propose a chat system that makes it easy to convey nonverbal information by adopting the Japanese Manga style. Characters in the chat systems play roles as agents of users to express the users' emotional states. However, even if whatever the characters have faces and aspects, users are required to select the appropriate emotion of the character not to give an unexpected impression from the illustrations. It is very troublesome for users to choose manually various emotions at each message during their chat. So we focus on the the Japanese Manga style and make an attempt to reduce users' burdens.
Concepts and Applications of Human-Dependent Robots BIBAKFull-Text 435-444
  Youssef Khaoula; Naoki Ohshima; P. Ravindra S. De Silva; Michio Okada
Relational artifacts (human-dependent) should have two aspects of subjective effects: Rorschach and evocative. During interaction, a robot has to anticipate the state (relationship) of the interactive person from the emotional to cognitive level to convey its Rorschach response. Consequently, the robot should behave as an evocative object to indicate the characteristic of animacy, which should accomplished using a potentially interactive architecture to coordinate the Rorschach and evocative effects. In this paper, we present two kinds of relational artifacts -- a sociable trash box (STB) and a Talking-Ally.
Keywords: Relational artifacts; Rorschach and evocative effects; Hearership; Addressivity
Co-creative Bodily Expression through Remote Shadow Media System BIBAKFull-Text 445-454
  Yoshiyuki Miwa; Atsushi Nishide; Naruhiro Hayashi; Shiroh Itai; Hiroko Nishi
In this paper, we discuss media technology that enables the co-creation of bodily expressions between remote locations. To realize this, we designed a common background media space through bodily expressions, and by sharing this media between separate locations, we attempted to share the stages between these locations. The background media we developed was a large number of particles that flow in association with bodily movements. From our experimental results, we discovered that it is indeed possible to integrate different stages into a shared stage by enclosing the stage within background media.
Keywords: Communication; Background; Co-creation; Expression; Shadow media
Favor Information Presentation and Its Effect for Collective-Adaptive Situation BIBAKFull-Text 455-466
  Asami Mori; Tomohiro Harada; Yoshihiro Ichikawa; Keiki Takadama
This paper focuses on favor information among people as the factor to lead a group to "collective-adaptive situation" and explores its effect in "Barnga" as the cross-cultural game which aims at investigating how the players make an appropriate group decision. For this purpose, we propose the "favor marker" which appears as a favor for other players in Barnga system. The subjective experiment results with this system have been revealed that the players in both the system-based communication and face-to-face communication lead the collective-adaptive situation by using the favor markers, while being conscious on the difference of card rules which caused conflicts among players. In detail, the following implications have been found: (1) when the players meet their conflict at the first time, their intentions tend to be appear from their behaviors (e.g. gesture) without using the favor maker in the face-to-face communication, while their intentions are appeared by actively using the favor marker in the system-based communication; (2) after some conflicts, the favor marker in both types of communication showed the effect on making an aware of the difference of the card rules and facilitating behavior affected by such differences, which contributes to deriving a smooth group decision making.
Keywords: Human-agent interaction; group decision making; collective-adaptive situation; favor information; Barnga
The Effectiveness of Assistance Dogs Mounting ICT Devices: A Case Study of a Healthy Woman and Her Dog BIBAFull-Text 467-478
  Chika Oshima; Chisato Harada; Kiyoshi Yasuda; Kimie Machishima; Koichi Nakayama
Recently, various information communication technologies (ICT) devices, such as smartphones, digital voice recorders, and miniature cameras, and various types of content are effective to cope with various symptoms of dementia. However, dementia patients often forget to take their ICT devices with them and forget where they put their devices. We considered the concept that ICT devices are delivered when individuals with dementia need to do tasks instructed by the devices. In general, dogs tend to run after their owners. Therefore, we came up with assistance dogs mounting ICT devices on their back. The dogs run to their owners when smartphones on their backs emitted alarms. In this paper, we conducted to examine the effectiveness of a smartphone mounted on a dog's back compared to a fixed device. A healthy female was asked to turn off the alarm and to perform a task on a voluntary basis when the smartphone emitted the alarm. The results of the case study suggested that individuals with dementia would be willing to perform daily the tasks when instructed to do so by a smartphone mounted on the backs of their dogs.
Effects of Peer Pressure on Laughter BIBAKFull-Text 479-488
  Mamiko Sakata; Noriko Suzuki
Our study was conducted to identify and analyze specific conforming behavior. We looked at how laughter is expressed and tried to examine if the decision "to laugh" or "not to laugh" is affected by conformity and peer pressure. Our study tried to show whether or not peer pressure influenced the study subjects in expressing laughter in experimental situations where they watched comedy videos with other people. Based on the assumption that the subjects' recognition of such comedy videos to be "funny" and their actual "laughing" behavior did not necessarily coincide, we examined how the viewers' judgment was influenced by the general atmosphere or other viewers' attitudes. The results of our study proved that the subjects' behavior was largely affected by the peer pressure exerted by the other viewers even though their subjective evaluations of the comedy videos were not.
Keywords: multimodal interaction; human behavior
User Analysis and Questionnaire Survey BIBAKFull-Text 489-497
  Misaki Tanikawa; Yumi Asahi
The authors use the multivariate statistics. The authors study to clarify the type of game user. Order to clarify the user type. we conducted a survey about the game style to college students. Research method is the questionnaire. The authors was analyzed by SPSS and amos with it. As a result of using factor analysis, the user is divided into three types. Then performed a Structural Equation Modeling, it was confirmed the accuracy of the factor analysis model.
Keywords: Marketing; User Analysis; Questionnaire Survey; Japanese culture; SPSS; amos; Factor Analysis; Structural Equation Modeling

Art, Culture and Creativity

To Relive a Valuable Experience of the World at the Digital Museum BIBAKFull-Text 501-510
  Yasushi Ikei; Yujiro Okuya; Seiya Shimabukuro; Koji Abe; Tomohiro Amemiya; Koichi Hirota
This paper describes a new concept of bodily experience that may be used in the future museum exhibit. An ordinary museum exhibits objects to make themselves talk with their authenticity to visitors, however it does not provide an interaction and vivid context in which they existed. A virtual experience system which creates multisensory stimuli potentially presents the realistic state of valuable artificial objects in the original environments. We think the experience of objects in a particular space is another theme that a future museum needs to seek. A novel rendering technique of a virtual body of a visitor is introduced where multisensory displays impart the sensation of presence of an environment and objects of interest through a pseudo walking experience. This digital museum device will add a new experience to relive a trip walking around objects based on recorded data from a real tourist.
Keywords: bodily experience; virtual body; pseudo walking; experience projection; ultra reality
A Knowledge Distribution Model to Support an Author in Narrative Creation BIBAKFull-Text 511-522
  Hochang Kwon; Sukhwan Jung; Hyuk Tae Kwon; Wan Chul Yoon
Adjusting the knowledge of characters and the reader is a critical task for an author in narrative creation. Throughout a narrative, both characters and the reader experience events according to their own timelines and perspectives. They interpret information accumulated through their experience and update knowledge to the narrative-world which the author constructed. In this paper, we present a Knowledge Distribution Model which supports an author in finely controlling the knowledge of characters and the reader. Within the model, the Knowledge Structure is constructed by connecting event, information, and knowledge. The Knowledge State is evaluated as the degree of belief under the knowledge structure. We adopted a probabilistic reasoning model to calculate the knowledge state. The change in knowledge state, defined as Knowledge Flow, is visually presented to the author. We designed a GUI prototype to implement the proposed modeling process, and demonstrated the knowledge flow with an actual cinematic narrative.
Keywords: knowledge distribution; knowledge structure; knowledge flow; narrative creation; authoring tool
Digital Museums of Cultural Heritages in Kyoto: The Gion Festival in a Virtual Space BIBAFull-Text 523-534
  Liang Li; Kyoko Hasegawa; Takahiro Fukumori; Wataru Wakita; Satoshi Tanaka; Takanobu Nishiura; Kozaburo Hachimura; Hiromi T. Tanaka
We introduce studies on digital museums of cultural and artistic resources that originate primarily in Japan, conducted by Ritsumeikan University. These studies focus on digital archives of and exhibition techniques for the "objects" and "events" concerning the traditional cultural heritages in Kyoto, especially the Yamahoko Parade in the Gion Festival, using the latest technologies of high-precision 3D modeling, acoustic digital archiving, high-realistic sound filed recording and reproduction, visuo-haptic modeling, immersive display, and virtual reality.
Polyhedron Network Model to Describe Creative Processes BIBAFull-Text 535-545
  Tetsuya Maeshiro; Midori Maeshiro
This paper proposes a description of creative process as a combination of emotive thinking and explicit knowledge thinking. We analyze music composition process as a creative process. Specifically, we define five facets to describe the music composition process to capture different aspects of composition. A facet is a perspective to view the musical piece. The perspective is different for composers and performers. Two musical pieces composed by a professional composer are described using the proposed model and analyzed. Results indicate the existence of two types of decision makings.
3D CG Integral Photography Artwork Using Glittering Effects in the Post-processing of Multi-viewpoint Rendered Images BIBAFull-Text 546-554
  Nahomi Maki; Kazuhisa Yanaka
Among various 3D display technologies, integral photography (IP) is one of the ideal 3D display systems because not only horizontal but also vertical parallax can be achieved through it without requiring users to wear special 3D glasses. Another advantage of IP is its applicability in material expression. In usual CG, in which rendering is carried out from one camera position, the glittering caused by the surface material is difficult to reproduce. As for users, they can perceive glittering when they move because each tiny convex lens on a fly's eye lens emits direction-dependent light. However, glittering is usually weak because the viewing zone of the IP display is not wide enough. Therefore, we propose a new method for implementing a glittering effect in the post-processing of images rendered for IP. A user can paint a large number of rendered images simultaneously and revise them with ease. We conduct experiments using a system that comprises a tablet PC with retina display and a fly's eye lens. When this method is applied to a motif of ice floating in air, which is part of an artwork entitled "Frozen Time," a strong glittering effect is obtained, especially when the tablet PC is held and tilted in various directions.
Steps towards Enhancing the User Experience in Accessing Digital Libraries BIBAKFull-Text 555-566
  Carlo Meghini; Valentina Bartalesi
The advent of the Web has driven cultural institutions to publish digital representations of their assets online. The main problem of the cultural Web sites, and of their back-end Digital Libraries (DLs), is the limitation of the informative services offered to the user. DLs offer simple search functionalities which return a list of the information objects contained in the DL. No semantic relation among the returned objects is usually reported which can help the user in obtaining a more complete knowledge on the subject of the research. The introduction of the Semantic Web, and in particular of the Linked Data, has the potential of improving the search functionalities of DLs. Many cultural institutions have represented their metadata into formal descriptions encoded by means of formal languages such as RDF and OWL. Our study aims at exploiting the representations of the semantics of the objects contained in the new generation DLs in the in order to introduce a new search functionality. As output of a query, the new search functionality does not return just a list of objects but it presents a narrative, based on the objects of the library that are relevant to the query and on a set of semantic relations that connect these objects into something meaningful to the user. The paper presents the first theoretical achievements on a model for representing narratives.
Keywords: Narratology; Digital Libraries; Narrative; Storytelling; Semantic Networks; Ontologies
Switching the Level of Abstraction in Digital Exhibitions to Provide an Understanding of Mechanisms BIBAKFull-Text 567-576
  Takuji Narumi; Hiroshi Ohara; Ryo Kiyama; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
This paper proposes an approach for switching the level of abstraction for digital exhibition systems to provide an understanding of exhibit mechanisms. In conventional museum exhibitions, curators have tried to convey knowledge to visitors by displaying real exhibits. However, such conventional methods cannot effectively explain how a mechanism works. In contrast, digital media can be used to enhance delivery efficiency by providing interactivity to express the dynamic aspects of the exhibit. Based on this idea, we introduce the Digital Display Case system and interactive contents, whose level of abstraction can be changed at the Railway Museum (Japan). Our user study shows that switching the level of abstraction helps visitors understand the mechanisms of a rail car pendulum bogie.
Keywords: Level of Abstraction; Interactive Exhibition; Digital Museum; Digital Exhibition System; Digital Display Case

Information and Knowledge in Business and Society

Operations Research and Recommender Systems BIBAKFull-Text 579-589
  Thomas Asikis; George Lekakos
Nowadays, Recommender Systems (RS) are being widely and successfully used in online applications. A successful Recommender System can help in increasing the revenue of a web-site as well as helping it to maintain and increase its users. Until now, research in recommendation algorithms is mainly based on machine learning and AI techniques. In this article we aim to develop recommendation algorithms utilizing Operations Research (OR) methods that provide the ability to move towards an optimized set of items to be recommended. We focus on expressing the Collaborative Filtering Algorithm (CF or CFA) as a Greedy Construction Algorithm as well as implementing and testing a Collaborative Metaheuristic Algorithm (CMA) for providing recommendations. The empirical findings suggest that the recommendation problem can indeed be defined as an optimization problem, which provides new opportunities for the application of powerful and effective OR algorithms on recommendation problems.
Keywords: Recommender Systems; Personalization algorithms; Operational Research; Metaheuristic
E-Governance Transparency in Brazil -- The Lack of Usability Is Detrimental to Citizenship BIBAKFull-Text 590-601
  Cayley Guimarães; Leandro Daniel Reis Silva; Diego Roberto Antunes; Rodrigo Formighieri
Brazilian law requires that all cities with over 10.000 habitants divulge via Internet information regarding budgetary and financial information. Such information is an acquired social right that provides an arena in which to debate, demand for rights to be implemented, review policies and practices, among others, to guarantee that transparency and citizenship rights are respected. The transparency (government accountability) such mandatory e-governance (democratic, quality tools for State-Citizen interaction) information is still elusive. Only 14 percent of the cities required do so; and only 75 percent of those who divulge do it via Internet. This research surveyed the sites for availability and compliance with the law. It also analyzed the usability (both via Heuristic Evaluation -- of 15 sites; and User Testing -- with 5 users performing 4 tasks each on 3 different city sites). This research shows a direct link between the lack of usability and the lack of transparency and citizenship.
Keywords: E-Governance; Transparency; Usability; Citizenship
Qualitative Study for the Design of Assistive Technologies for Improving Quality of Life of Visually Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 602-613
  Yosuke Kinoe; Asuka Noguchi
This paper describes an effort to create a conceptual design of an assistive technology that aims to improve quality of life of people with low vision. We carried out a qualitative study including in-depth interviews with people of low vision.
   The analysis revealed several key concepts to understand people's lived experiences of low vision including the ambiguity of their self-images and burdens in the interaction with the sighted people. The importance of building 'self-confidence of managing people's appropriate appearances' of low vision was emphasized. We created a conceptual design of a total assistive solution that supported people of low vision to perform each stage of a comprehensive cycle of the arrangement of their appearances. Our challenge continues to enhance a methodology for bridging a gap between qualitative research and the design of user experience.
Keywords: qualitative study; life story; low vision; assistive technology; quality of life
Modeling Consumers with TV and Internet BIBAKFull-Text 614-621
  Akifumi Nozaki; Kenichi Yoshida
The importance of web in marketing has been emphasized and extensive studies have been carried out. On the contrary, there still exist important marketing studies which follow traditional framework. Although the importance of web marketing is undeniable, if we consider the wide spread of hard disk recorders and off-line viewing of TV shows, we have to consider the advertisement effect of off-line viewing using hard disk recorders. In this paper, we propose a framework of consumer modeling to analyze the effect of off-line viewing. It follows multi/cross-channel marketing framework. The important characteristic of the proposed framework is that the stimulation of TV advertisement is assumed to start consumer's behavior. We assume that the TV advertisements stimulate information flows in the social networks and affect purchase behavior of consumers. Although the Internet, especially social network on the Internet, is now playing important role to affect customers behavior during the process, the marketing theory still have to settle TV advertisement as the main factor. To show the adequacy of the proposed framework, this paper reports the effect of TV advertisement on the phenomenon around WWW.
Keywords: Web marketing; TV advertisement; consumer modeling
The Relationships between the Products and Affective Evaluation Concerning Uniqueness BIBAKFull-Text 622-630
  Yusuke Ohta; Keiko Kasamatsu
In this study, we focused on uniqueness of products, and it could be one of the Kansei value to increase attractiveness of products. We examined the affection and impression from characteristics of the unique products. As the result, it had a possibility that unique products could trigger positive emotion of humans, and it led to increasing with the attractiveness of the products. In addition, a product which made people feel unique was the function of products. However, it was considered that focusing on a shape in a uniqueness was effective for design of attractive product in order to makes impression of vaunty, attachment and pleasure. In the future, we will focus on more positive emotion, and examine the structure of positive emotion when user contacted with a unique product.
Keywords: Uniqueness; Affection; Product design
Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Computing by Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) BIBAFull-Text 631-642
  Shima Ramezani Tehrani; Farid Shirazi
The main objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing cloud computing adoption by Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs). Based on two dominant theories in the field of diffusion of innovation, a conceptual model is proposed. In order to test the model empirically, an online survey was designed and launched. Decision makers of 101 SMEs agreed to participate in this survey. In order to evaluate the internal, convergent, and discriminant validity of the instrument, factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. Logistic regression is employed to test our hypotheses. The results of regression reveal that decision maker's knowledge about cloud computing is the main influential factor in decision making about its adoption.
Learning Effect Evaluation of an Educational Tool for Product-Service System Design Based on Learner Viewpoints BIBAKFull-Text 643-652
  Kentaro Uei; Takashi Fujiwara; Akira Kazawa; Yutaro Nemoto; Koji Kimita; Yoshiki Shimomura
Product-Service Systems (PSSs) are regarded as an attractive business concept for manufacturing industries to increase their competitiveness. To design PSSs, it is important to have points of view different from those of product design. To teach such new viewpoints, the authors have developed a business game named "EDIPS." However, the learning effects of this game have not been analyzed sufficiently. To analyze the learning effects, this study first organizes the earning contents of the game. By using the organized learning contents as criteria, the learning effects can be analyzed by using results of pre- and post-tests for learners.
Keywords: Product-Service Systems; Business game; Education