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HIMI Tables of Contents: 07-107-209-109-211-111-213-113-213-314-114-215-115-2

HIMI 2009: Human Interface and the Management of Information, Symposium on Human Interface, Part II: Information and Interaction

Fullname:HIMI 2009: Human Interface and the Management of Information, Symposium on Human Interface, Part II: Information and Interaction
Note:Volume 9 of HCI International 2009
Editors:Gavriel Salvendy; Michael J. Smith
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5618
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02558-7 (print), 978-3-642-02559-4 (online); hcibib: HIMI09-2
Papers:93
Pages:874
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. HIMI 2009-07-19 Volume 2
    1. Interacting with the World Wide Web
    2. Intelligent Techniques for Access to Information and Personalization
    3. Visual Interfaces, Visualization and Images
    4. Mobile Devices and Services
    5. eHealth Applications and Services
    6. Education, Learning and Entertainment
    7. Information Systems in Safety-Critical Domains

HIMI 2009-07-19 Volume 2

Interacting with the World Wide Web

Development of a Coloration Support Tool for Making Web Page Screens User-Friendly for Color Blind BIBAKFull-Text 3-9
  Michiko Anse; Tsutomu Tabe
Websites are providing more and more information because of their convenience. Information is often discriminated by color vision ability between individuals. Some people cannot discriminate information depending on the coloration. In these cases, information cannot be correctly discerned. Therefore, the development of a supporting tool for configuring screens is needed.
Keywords: color blind; web page; coloration support tool
The Persuasive Effects from Web 2.0 Marketing: A Case Study Investigating the Persuasive Effect from an Online Design Competition BIBAKFull-Text 10-16
  Asle Fagerstrøm; Gheorghita Ghinea
This case study investigates the effect from a Web 2.0 campaign, an online design competition, accomplished by a company that produces and marketed feminine care products (sanitary towels). The target segment for the campaign was girls in four Nordic countries, in the age between 14 and 25. The main characteristic for the target segment is that they are not much interested in the product category. Our interpretation is that the online design competition had a persuasive effect towards the target segment. By using the internet in an interactive and social way, companies can achieve brand awareness and create a positive attitude towards a brand in low-involvement segments. Suggestions for further research are given.
Keywords: Web 2.0; Interactivity; Persuasion; Involvement; Interactive marketing
Formalizing Design Guidelines of Legibility on Web Pages BIBAKFull-Text 17-25
  Fong-Ling Fu; Chiu Hung Su
Screen design of web pages is challenging because web pages contain lot of icons, consisting not only of texts with various fonts but also graphics with different sizes and content. The objectives for screen design of a web page can be either to provide aesthetic beauty, to convey complex information, to improve legibility, or some combination of the above. This study chooses to formalize design guidelines of legibility because information is becoming more and more complicated in web pages and hampering the efficiency of information searching. This study proposes six measurements of screen legibility: screen ratio of navigator to content, font size variety, variety of icon types, color contrast between background and foreground, content density, and number of alignment points. These six factors were then use to measure the legibility effectiveness of the startup page on four different yahoo.com sites. Combined with the results from a survey study, we concluded that all six factors were validated to be attributes with a significant and measurable impact on web site legibility.
Keywords: Guidelines of Web pages; Web pages design; Screen layout design; Legibility design; Complexity measurement
The Assessment of Credibility of e-Government: Users' Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 26-35
  Zhao Huang; Laurence Brooks; Sherry Y. Chen
Electronic government is increasing worldwide; however there are still some problems which influence users' interaction with them. One of these problems is trustworthiness, which appears to be affected by whether e-government websites demonstrate their credibility. This study uses an empirical approach to evaluate credibility of e-government websites, especially at the local level in the UK. The evaluation consists of three steps: free interaction, task-based interaction and questionnaire. The results indicate that the majority of credibility problems are related to "site easy use", "site looks professional" and "site update". The value of the study is that it provides guidance for designers to improve the credibility of e-government websites.
Keywords: e-government website; credibility; web-based online systems
Auto-complete for Improving Reliability on Semantic Web Service Framework BIBAKFull-Text 36-44
  Hanmin Jung; Mikyoung Lee; Won-Kyung Sung; Beom-Jong You
This paper presents two methods for enhancing auto-complete which providing search keywords that the user wants. The first is to display only search keywords that can guarantee a successful search result in real time regardless of document's insertion, deletion, and update. The second is to display search keywords with their entity types such as person, institution, and topic. To accomplish them, we introduce an auto-complete table that stores the entities extracted and indexed from input documents and their document frequency (DF). An auto-complete manager checks whether each entity in the table can guarantee a successful search result or not by considering its DF, and provides proper entities with their types to the user. To verify the effect of the auto-complete, we are designing a comparative experiment. OntoFrame 2007 without the functions will be compared with OntoFrame 2008 with the functions for discovering the effect of our auto-complete on the reliability of Semantic Web services.
Keywords: Auto-complete; Semantic Web; Semantic Web Framework; OntoFrame; Reliability; Document Indexing
Effects of AJAX Technology on the Usability of Blogs BIBAKFull-Text 45-54
  Sumonta Kasemvilas; Daniel Firpo
AJAX can enhance Web applications by updating a part of the Web page instead of the whole page. This change of technology relates to a usability issue. We used WordPress 2.3 to create two versions of blogs: non-AJAX and AJAX. Then we conducted an experiment by giving a task scenario to eight participants. We collected performance data by recording users' mouse movements during the experiment and collected preference data by providing a questionnaire after the tasks. Finally, we conducted post-experiment interviews to gather participants' experiences. The quantitative results show that AJAX did not improve users' performances the first time they used it, while qualitative interviews demonstrate participants' satisfaction with AJAX blogs.
Keywords: AJAX; Blog; Ease of Learning; Efficiency of Use; Error Frequency and Severity; Experiment; Satisfaction; Usability; WordPress
Usability Evaluation of Dynamic RSVP Interface on Web Page BIBAKFull-Text 55-64
  Ya-Li Lin; Darcy Lin
The usability of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) interface was evaluated using subjective preference questionnaire and performance measurement methods. Forty-two students voluntarily participated in this study. The results indicated the shelf interface moving from bottom-left to upper-right along a linear trajectory with moving speed of 20~30 frame per second (FPS) are most preferable. The carousel interface following circular trajectory in clockwise with moving speed of 10~15 FPS are most preferable. "Meets user experience", "aesthetic and simple design", "effective to use", and "easy to learn" all conform to the usability goals. In addition, the results based on performance measurement showed a logistic regression model with RSVP mode and moving speed are fitted very well. There is the highest probability estimation of correct recognition for the carousel interface and moving speed of 30 FPS, however, the shelf interface and 15 FPS has the lowest probability estimation of correct recognition.
Keywords: Dynamic Interface; Subjective Preference; Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP); Usability Evaluation
"Online Legitimacy": Defining Institutional Symbolisms for the Design of Information Artifact in the Web Mediated Information Environment (W-MIE) BIBAKFull-Text 65-73
  Emma Nuraihan Mior Ibrahim; Nor Laila Md. Noor
The global nature of the Internet raises questions about variety of ways, whether and how trust is established that guide people's behavior and beliefs. This study explores on the understanding of trust from the non technical perspectives in the context of web mediated information environment (W-MIE); conceptualized within the notion of online legitimacy [1]. We take up the problem of how to enhance the trustworthiness of information on the web through the design deployment that can be rationalized and understood by the ordinary users. The paper highlights four dimensions of design elements that make up the Institutional Trust Inducing Features framework [2] which warrants increased attention. This paper is merely situating our comments in designing information artifact within a sensitive context that is culturally imbued beyond the typical security scope but rather the conceptual understanding on how user's engage with information interactions.
Keywords: information artifact; culturally sensitive design; online legitimacy; web mediated information environment (W-MIE); institutional symbolisms
Evaluation of Web User Interfaces for the Online Retail of Apparel BIBAKFull-Text 74-83
  Dominik Rupprecht; Rainer Blum; Karim Khakzar
In this paper we present intermediate findings of the ongoing research project SiMaKon. It presents results of user tests, on how to design a web-based user interface for the online retail of apparel. The aim was to increase both the usability and the shopping experience. The study focuses on the manner of the product catalogue navigation and presentation in relation to different "modalities of needs". The results indicate that not only one approach for an interface is to be chosen, but that a combination of several concepts should be combined.
Keywords: E-Commerce; Evaluation; Web-Based User Interface; Apparel; Rapid Prototyping; Modalities of Need
A Coauthoring Method of Keyword Dictionaries for Knowledge Combination on Corporate Discussion Web Sites BIBAKFull-Text 84-93
  Shinji Takao; Tadashi Iijima; Akito Sakurai
This paper states the issues faced, and the role played by keyword dictionaries with regard to discussion based web sites which aim to achieve a 'collective knowledge' through the voluntary participation of corporate employees, and proposes a corrective strategy. A keyword dictionary is valuable in that it helps to integrate fragmented accumulated knowledge with generalized knowledge. However, this necessitates a method that allows for coauthoring, and Wiki, BBS and other existing tools are still insufficient in this respect. As well as offering a method for expanding BBS, this paper shows a method for assessing use within an actual corporation.
Keywords: coauthoring; collective knowledge; wiki; bulletin board system
An Empirical Study the Effects of Language Factors on Web Site Use Intention BIBAKFull-Text 94-102
  Hui-Jen Yang; Yun-Long Lay
Based on the research model, language anxiety, prior non-native language experience, Internet self-efficacy and language self-efficacy are analyzed for the intention to use non-native language commercial web sites, respectively. Prior non-native language experience has affected language anxiety, language self-efficacy and intention to use non-native language commercial web sites, respectively. By the same token, whether or not Internet self-efficacy and language self-efficacy affected by language anxiety is also examined. A valid sample of 418 undergraduates was tested in this study. Path analysis results fully supported the model tested. These results suggest that language anxiety, prior non-native language experience, language self-efficacy and Internet self-efficacy have an effect on the intention to use non-native language commercial web sites. Prior non-native language experience has significantly affected language anxiety, language self-efficacy and the intention to use the non-native language commercial web sites, respectively. Furthermore, language anxiety has significantly affected language self-efficacy and Internet self-efficacy, respectively. Educational research and practitioner implications are provided at the end of the paper.
Keywords: non-native language commercial web site; prior non-native language experience; language anxiety; language self-efficacy; Internet self-efficacy

Intelligent Techniques for Access to Information and Personalization

Enhancing Document Clustering through Heuristics and Summary-Based Pre-processing BIBAKFull-Text 105-113
  Sri Harsha Allamraju; Robert Chun
Knowledge workers are burdened with information overload. The information they need might be scattered in many places, buried in a file system, in their email, or on the web. Traditional Clustering algorithms help in assimilating these wide sources of information and generating meaningful relationships amongst them. A typical clustering preprocessing involves tokenization, removal of stop words, stemming, pruning etc. In this paper, we propose the use of summary and heuristics of a document as a pre-processing technique. This technique preserves the formatting of a document and uses this information for producing better clusters. In addition, only a summary of a document is used as the basis for clustering instead of the whole document. Clustering algorithms using the proposed pre-processing technique on formatted documents resulted in improved and more meaningful clusters.
Keywords: document clustering; clustering; summarization; heuristics
Email Reply Prediction: A Machine Learning Approach BIBAKFull-Text 114-123
  Taiwo Ayodele; Shikun Zhou; Rinat Khusainov
Email has now become the most-used communication tool in the world and has also become the primary business productivity applications for most organizations and individuals. With the ever increasing popularity of emails, email over-load and prioritization becomes a major problem for many email users. Users spend a lot of time reading, replying and organizing their emails. To help users organize and prioritize their email messages, we propose a new framework; email reply prediction with unsupervised learning. The goal is to provide concise, highly structured and prioritized emails, thus saving the user from browsing through each email one by one and help to save time. In this paper, we discuss the features used to differentiate emails, show promising initial results with unsupervised machine learning model, and outline future directions for this work.
Keywords: Email reply prediction; machine learning; email messages; interrogative words; need reply; do not need reply; email headers; unsupervised learning
An End-to-End Proactive TCP Based on Available Bandwidth Estimation with Congestion Level Index BIBAKFull-Text 124-130
  Sangtae Bae; Doohyung Lee; Chihoon Lee; Jinwook Chung; Jahwan Koo; Suman Banerjee
Transmission control protocol (TCP) is one of the core communication protocols of the Internet protocol suite. For this reason, significant enhancements on TCP have been made in both wired and wireless networks. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end proactive TCP based on available bandwidth estimation with congestion level index (CLI), called CLI-based TCP. From the previous TCP schemes, we have found that the TCP sender does not know how much the network is congested because network congestion is represented by only two status, congestion exists or not. Therefore, we define the concept of CLI, outline the procedure of the CLI algorithm, and describe how to realize the CLI-based TCP. In addition, we have shown that CLI-based TCP can handle network congestion more minutely and improve overall TCP performance. Simulation results show that under 90% traffic load, the CLI-based TCP outperforms TCP New Jersey by 49.8% improvement in goodput.
Keywords: Transmission control protocol; end-to-end proactive approach; available bandwidth estimation; congestion level index
Smart Privacy Management in Ubiquitous Computing Environments BIBAFull-Text 131-139
  Christian Bünnig
Privacy in ubiquitous computing environments is primarily considered as a problem of protecting personal information from unauthorized access and misuse. Additionally it can also be seen as a process of interpersonal communication where not hiding but selective disclosure of personal information is the central issue, i.e. how users can practice privacy intuitively and dynamically in computerized environments similar to the analog world. In this work we discuss the management of private information concerning interpersonal privacy implications in smart environments. Existing work mostly does not match the intuitive and dynamic aspects of privacy in context of interpersonal communication. As an alternative we suggest an ad hoc approach to privacy management which uses learning techniques for an in situ disclosure assistance and present user interaction models for this disclosure assistance.
A Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making Model for Selecting the Distribution Center Location in China: A Taiwanese Manufacturer's Perspective BIBAFull-Text 140-148
  Chien-Chang Chou; Pei-Chann Chang
The purpose of this paper is to propose a fuzzy multiple criteria decision making model for evaluating the distribution center alternative locations in China and selecting the best one for investing distribution center from a Taiwanese manufacturer's perspective. Although a lot of papers focus on the subject of location selection, few discuss the subject of distribution center location selection in China. Thus this paper summarizes the criteria for evaluating the candidate distribution center locations, and then develops a fuzzy multiple criteria decision making model. Finally, the proposed fuzzy multiple criteria decision making model is tested by a Taiwanese manufacturer's case. The results show that the fuzzy multiple criteria decision making model can be used to explain the procedures for distribution center location selection decision making.
A Hierarchical Data Dissemination Protocol Using Probability-Based Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks BIBAKFull-Text 149-158
  Moonseong Kim; Matt W. Mutka; Hyunseung Choo
A major challenge for designing a dissemination protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is energy efficiency. Recently, researchers have studied this issue, and SPMS, a representative protocol, outperforms the well-known protocol SPIN. One of the characteristics of SPMS uses the shortest path to minimize energy consumption. However, since it repeatedly uses the same shortest path, maximizing network lifetime is impossible, although it reduces the energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a Hierarchical data dissemination protocol using Probability-based clustering, called HiProc. It guarantees energy-efficient data transmission and maximizes network lifetime. HiProc solves the network lifetime problem by a novel probability function, which is related to the residual energy and the distance to a neighbor. The simulation results show that HiProc guarantees energy-efficient transmission and moreover increases the network lifetime by approximately 78% than that of SPMS.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs); Data Dissemination Protocol; Energy Efficiency; Network Lifetime; SPIN; SPMS
An OWL-Based Knowledge Model for Combined-Process-and-Location Aware Service BIBAKFull-Text 159-167
  Gunhee Kim; Manchul Han; Jukyung Park; Hyunchul Park; Se Hyung Park; Laehyun Kim; Sungdo Ha
This paper presents a knowledge model for spatiotemporal context awareness. The knowledge model is designed to understand user goals and to guide users who perform complicated tasks involving several routes, such as tasks at a hospital. An information system should be able to consider both the location and process context to provide relevant guidance regarding tasks, their location, and their process, as location and process information are collaboratively associated. A service that is both process- and location-aware is considered, and a knowledge model that represents the semantics of the proposed process- and- location-aware service is given.
Keywords: spatiotemporal context; process; location; knowledge model; OWL (Web Ontology Language)
Human-Biometric Sensor Interaction: Impact of Training on Biometric System and User Performance BIBAKFull-Text 168-177
  Eric P. Kukula; Robert W. Proctor
Increasingly sophisticated biometric methods are being used for a variety of applications in which accurate authentication of people is necessary. Because all biometric methods require humans to interact with a device of some type, effective implementation requires consideration of human factors issues. One such issue is the training needed to use a particular device appropriately. In this paper, we review human factors issues in general that are associated with biometric devices and focus more specifically on the role of training.
Keywords: biometrics; human-biometric sensor interaction (HBSI); human performance; instruction; training
Representing Logical Inference Steps with Digital Circuits BIBAKFull-Text 178-184
  Erika Matsak
The use of inference steps in natural language reasoning is observed. An algorithm is presented for representing logically correct inference steps with digital circuits. New foundations for creating decision making systems are studied.
Keywords: Logical inference steps; logic gates; digital circuits representing logical inference steps
An Interactive-Content Technique Based Approach to Generating Personalized Advertisement for Privacy Protection BIBAKFull-Text 185-191
  Wook-Hee Min; Yun-Gyung Cheong
Personalized contents have been getting more attention from industry and academia due to its effective communicative role in product advertisements. However, there exist potential threats to the customer's privacy in conventional approaches where a data server containing customer profiles is employed or the customer profiles is required to be sent over the public network. To address this, this paper describes a framework that employs a script-based interactive content technique for privacy protection. We illustrate our approach by a sample scenario.
Keywords: Privacy; Interactive content; Personalized advertising
Loopo: Integrated Text Miner for FACT-Graph-Based Trend Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 192-200
  Ryosuke Saga; Hiroshi Tsuji; Kuniaki Tabata
This paper proposes an integrated tool to analyze trend visualization graph called "FACT-Graph". FACT-Graph is generated from text data with time stamp and is useful for trend analysis. However, it faces three key problems: First, it is difficult to configure parameters (such as analysis span, exceptive keywords and thresholds) to generate FACT-Graph; Second, a FACT-Graph does not provide the required information and interface for trend analysis because the process of generating the FACT-Graph eliminates that information; and third, it cannot reflect a user's awareness in a FACT-Graph. In order to solve these problems, the authors have developed a tool called "Loopo". Loopo integrates a term database, analysis components, and a graph-drawing function and provides users (i.e., analyzers) with information for trend analysis. Loopo also provides an interactive GUI for configuring parameters at ease and to reflect a user's awareness in a FACT-Graph instantly.
Keywords: Keyword Visualization; Trend Analysis; Co-occurrence graph; Analysis Tool
Using Graphical Models for an Intelligent Mixed-Initiative Dialog Management System BIBAKFull-Text 201-209
  Stefan Schwärzler; Günther Ruske; Frank Wallhoff; Gerhard Rigoll
The main goal of dialog management is to provide all information needed to perform e. g. a SQL-query, a navigation task, etc. Two principal approaches for dialog management systems exist: system directed ones and mixed-initiative ones. In this paper, we combine both approaches mentioned above in a novel way, and address the problem of natural intuitive dialog management. The objective of our approach is to provide a natural dialog flow. The whole dialog is therefore represented in a finite state machine: the information gathered during the dialog is represented in the states of the finite state machine; the transitions within the state machine denote the dialog steps into which the dialog is separated. The information is obtained from each natural spoken sentence by hierarchical decoding into tags, e. g. the name-tag and the address-tag. These information tags are gathered during the dialog; either by human initiative or by distinct questioning by the dialog manager. The models use information from the semantic information tags, the dialog history, and the training corpus. From all these integrated parts we achieve the best path to the end of the dialog by Viterbi decoding through the transition network after each information step. From the Air Travel Information System (ATIS) database, we extract all 21650 naturally spoken questions and the SQL-queries as answers for the trainings phase. The experiments have been realized on 200 automatically generated dialog sentences. The system obtains the semantic information in all test-sentences and leads the dialogs successfully to the end. In 66.5% of the sample dialogs we achieve the minimum of the required dialog steps. Hence, 33.5% of the dialogs have over-length.
Keywords: dialog management; learning; knowledge management; intelligent systems
Input Text Repairing for Multi-lingual Chat System BIBAKFull-Text 210-217
  Kenichi Yoshida; Fumio Hattori
Even though various communication tools have resulted in a remarkable increase of global communications, language barriers remain high and complicate communication across languages. Although the multi-lingual chat system allows users to chat with each other in different language using machine translation. the quality of translation is not so high when the input sentence reflects spoken language. In this paper we propose a method that repairs the input sentences in spoken language by retrieving similar sentences using keywords.
Keywords: Language Grid; multi-lingual chat; cross-cultural communication; machine translation

Visual Interfaces, Visualization and Images

Interactive Object Segmentation System from a Video Sequence BIBAKFull-Text 221-228
  Guntae Bae; Soo Yeong Kwak; Hyeran Byun
In this paper, we present an interactive object segmentation system form video, such as TV products and films, for converting 2D to 3D contents. It is focused on reducing the processing time for the object segmentation, increasing the usability. The proposed system is consist of three steps which are trimap generation based on polygon and object segmentation using Graph Cut algorithm and refinement by a user interfaces (UI) based on rectangle and local features. It makes it easy to get object segmentation rapidly. It is also helpful to create 3D contents.
Keywords: Object Segmentation; interactive System; trimap generation; trimap estimation; Graph Cut
COBRA -- A Visualization Solution to Monitor and Analyze Consumer Generated Medias BIBAKFull-Text 229-238
  Amit Behal; Julia Grace; Linda Kato; Ying Chen; Shixia Liu; Weijia Cai; Weihong Qian
Consumer Generated Medias (CGMs) -- such as blogs, news forums, message boards, and web pages -- are emerging as locations where consumers trade, discuss and influence each other's purchasing patterns. Leveraging such CGMs to provide valuable insight into consumer opinions and trends is becoming increasingly attractive to corporations. This paper describes COBRA (COrporate Brand and Reputation Analysis), a visual analytics solution that surfaces the text mining and statistical analysis capabilities described in our earlier COBRA papers. Our interaction technique of search, visualization, and monitor enables detailed analysis of many CGMs without overwhelming the user. A suite of visualization solutions expose a variety of embedded COBRA visual analytics capabilities. Real world client engagements and user studies demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Keywords: visual analytics; text mining; semi structured search
Visual String of Reformulation BIBAKFull-Text 239-248
  Arne Berger; Jens Kürsten; Maximilian Eibl
An interface for query reformulation based on multimedial search widgets is proposed. It allows the co-existence of widgets for unambiguous intellectual metadata and vague, automatically annotated metadata.
Keywords: customization; interface; multimodal; query reformulation
Industrial E-Commerce and Visualization of Products: 3D Rotation versus 2D Metamorphosis BIBAKFull-Text 249-258
  Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra; Miguel Cipolla-Ficarra; Daniel Alberto Giulianelli
In this current work we make a study of communicability in industrial websites designed for the on-line sale of products, bearing in mind two kinds of 3D rotational animations, and 2D transformations. A table will be presented for the assessment of the communicability of the objects within e-commerce, in particular those which use mobile phones and the Internet. Also presented will be guidelines for qualitative design that may be employed without the need for a usability lab. The universe of study consists of 20 websites, randomly chosen from a total of 200. The contents of these websites is related to electronics, mechanics and renewable energy.
Keywords: Visualization; Rotation; Metamorphosis; Computer Animation; Communicability; User-Centered Design; Quality; E-commerce
Evaluating the Effectiveness and the Efficiency of a Vector Image Search Tool BIBAFull-Text 259-268
  Patrizia Di Marco; Tania Di Mascio; Daniele Frigioni; Massimo Gastaldi
In this paper we develop VISTO (Vector Images Search TOol), along two directions: (1) we present a new interface for VISTO which is more sophisticated than the original one, since it has been developed having in mind the users and their retrieval requests; (2) we provide a much deeper evaluation of the effectiveness and the efficiency of VISTO in the specific domain of the Blissymbolic images.
Building and Browsing Tropos Models: The AVI Design BIBAFull-Text 269-276
  Tania Di Mascio; Anna Perini; Luca Sabatucci; Angelo Susi
This paper proposes the use of the HCI paradigm and techniques to support software system designers in building and browsing visual models during the development of complex distributed systems. In particular, we adopt Usability Evaluation Methods (UEMs) to analyse the first version of the interface of TAOM4E, the tool supporting the Tropos Agent-Oriented methodology. Using the results of this usability study, we collect different requirements to design an Advanced Visual Interface (AVI) of TAOM4E taking into account requirements of supporting software designers during Tropos models design process browsing.
A Multiple-Aspects Visualization Tool for Exploring Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 277-286
  Jie Gao; Kazuo Misue; Jiro Tanaka
Social network analysis (SNA) has been used to study the relationships between actors in social networks, revealing their features and patterns. In most cases, nodes and edges in graph theory are used to represent actors and relationships, and graph representations are used to visually analyze social networks. However, many visualization tools using network diagrams tend to depict most information about social networks by using the properties of nodes, which result in a visual burden when identifying actors or relationships according to certain properties. There is a lack of tools to support work by investigators to provide insights into multiple-aspect networks. We considered actors, relationships, and communities to be three important elements, and developed a tool called MixVis that integrates a tagcloud, network diagrams, and a list to show the elements. Our tool allows users to explore social networks from elements of interest, and acquire details through links with the three different viewpoints.
Keywords: Social network analysis; visualization; human interface
Multi-hierarchy Information Visualization Research Based on Three-Dimensional Display of Products System BIBAKFull-Text 287-294
  Hui Zhou; Wenjun Hou
Currently, the information on the Web is countless, which is throughout tens of thousands of Web sites all over the world. And the Web site intertwined with each other through hyperlinks between documents. Regardless of such a big scale of the Web information, it will continue expanding. How to access to the information on the Web easily has become a problem needed to be solved urgently. However, the way of accessing to the information is far from satisfactory. Information visualization will play an increasingly important role in helping people understand the structure of the information space, finding information needed quickly and preventing the lost in the information ocean effectively. The paper used the Multi-hierarchy information visualization on a specific e-commerce web site, and established a three-dimensional products display system. According to the analysis of users on business web site, the establishment of a representative user model was established. In accordance with the user model, system function was analyzed and integrated, and task analysis was hierarchical. Based on the user's demand, the paper confirmed the content and the way of the showing. Finally the paper designed the system according to the information structure, interaction and information visualization.
Keywords: user experience; Information architecture; visualization; mapping; Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method
Efficient Annotation Visualization Using Distinctive Features BIBAKFull-Text 295-303
  Seok Kyoo Kim; Sung Hyun Moon; Jun Park; Sang Yong Han
Annotation is often used for supplement real objects in Augmented Reality. Previous researches on the annotation have been focused on optimal label placement, where annotations are placed close to the objects while avoiding overlapping. However, optimally placed annotations are still hard to recognize when the number of annotations is large. Human eyes may easily perceive an object by seeing its distinctive features. In this paper, we proposed visualization methods for easily perceivable annotations using distinctive features. The proposed methods are based on studies of effects of colors, depth, style, and transparency of the annotations.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Mixed Reality; Annotation; Usability; Human Factors; Visualization; View Management
Content Based Image Retrieval Using Adaptive Inverse Pyramid Representation BIBAKFull-Text 304-314
  Mariofanna G. Milanova; Roumen Kountchev; Stuart Harvey Rubin; Vladimir Todorov; Roumiana Kountcheva
This paper presents a new approach for content-based image retrieval using cognitive representation with pyramidal decomposition. This approach corresponds to the hypothesis of the human way for object recognition based on consecutive approximations with increased resolution for the selected regions of interest. The method is based on object model creation with Inverse Difference Pyramid controlled by neural network. The method's basic advantages are the high flexibility and the ability to create general models for various views and scaling with relatively low computational complexity. The method is suitable for great number of applications -- medicine, digital libraries, electronic galleries, geographic information systems, documents archiving, digital communication systems, etc.
Keywords: content-based image retrieval; multi-layer representation; IDP decomposition
Event Extraction and Visualization for Obtaining Personal Experiences from Blogs BIBAKFull-Text 315-324
  Yoko Nishihara; Keita Sato; Wataru Sunayama
Internet users write blogs related to their personal experience, daily news, and so on. Though we can obtain blogs about personal experience using search engines on the Web, the search engines also output blogs about other topics unrelated to personal experiences. Therefore, we need to take too much time to read all blogs for obtaining those about personal experiences. This paper proposes a support system for obtaining blogs about personal experience efficiently. The system extracts three keywords that denote place, object, and action from a blog. The three keywords describe an event that leads a person to write a blog about personal experience. The system expresses the event with three pictures related to the extracted keywords. The pictures help users to judge whether personal experiences are written in the blog or not. We experimented with the system, and verified that it supports users to obtain personal experiences efficiently.
Keywords: personal experience; pictures expressing an event; place keyword; object keyword; action keyword
Minato: Integrated Visualization Environment for Embedded Systems Learning BIBAKFull-Text 325-333
  Yosuke Nishino; Eiichi Hayakawa
This paper describes the modeling, the development and the evaluation of embedded system study environment using robot and a note on experiment at technical high school. This paper discusses about the following points: (1) visualizing the behavior of embedded system in synchronization with the robot's behavior, (2) integrating environment from concept based learning to implementation based learning, and (3) validating the efficiency of the system through the lecture and the evaluation at technical high school. This report is a summary of this environment, learning courseware of embedded system and research result at study of a technical high school.
Keywords: Educations; Robot; Programming
Batik KR Semantic Network: Visualizations of Creative Process and Design Knowledge for the Malaysian Batik Designers' Community BIBAKFull-Text 334-341
  Ariza Nordin; Nor Laila Md. Noor; Ahmad Zainuddin
Designing batik, a decorative textile is guided by insights acquired from the confluence of design and heritage knowledge accompanied by cultural and aesthetic constraints, resulting in the preservation of the designer's and regional identity embedded in the design artifact. Insights and inspiration are gained from stories, non-textual references of images and photographs from repositories of knowledge such as books and the Web, objects of nature, environmental phenomena, fashion trend and human events. In addition evaluating existing products may lead to the possibility of inspired innovation or repetition of successful design solutions. With surplus on inspirational data available today, batik designers requires knowledge visualization to gain insights for designing task. Reporting a qualitative approach, this paper described our findings as the Batik Knowledge Repository (KR) semantic network to enable knowledge visualization of creative process (task) and design (domain) knowledge for batik textile designers' community.
Keywords: aesthetic; design knowledge; semantic network; storytelling; creative process
A Tool for Analyzing Categorical Data Visually with Granular Representation BIBAKFull-Text 342-351
  Kousuke Shiraishi; Kazuo Misue; Jiro Tanaka
Categorical data appears in various places, and dealing with it has been a major concern in analysis fields. However, representing not only global trends but also local trends of data simultaneously by conventional techniques is difficult. We propose a visualization method called "granular representation" for analyzing categorical data visually. Our approach visually represents data as a set of objects and allows intuitive analysis instead of the traditional way with tables of numbers. We developed a tool by integrating granular representation and bar charts. The effectiveness of the tool is demonstrated using real data about media consumption.
Keywords: categorical data; visualization; multi-dimensional analysis

Mobile Devices and Services

Understanding Key Attributes in Mobile Service: Kano Model Approach BIBAKFull-Text 355-364
  Seung Ik Baek; Seung Kuk Paik; Weon Sang Yoo
This study investigated how customers perceive currently available 3G mobile services. More specifically, by using the Kano model, it tried to categorize them into five quality attributes: Attractive, One-Dimensional, Must-Be, Indifferent, and Reverse. The results showed that picture messaging, instant messaging, navigational aid, and mobile internet are considered as "one-dimensional quality attributes". That is, the higher the level of fulfillment of these mobile services, the higher the customer's satisfaction, and vice versa.
Keywords: Multimedia Mobile Service; 3G Technology; Kano Model
Discovering User Interface Requirements of Search Results for Mobile Clients by Contextual Inquiry BIBAKFull-Text 365-374
  David L. Chan; Robert W. P. Luk; Hong Va Leong; Edward Kei Shiu Ho
This paper reports our in situ study using contextual inquiry (CI). It solicits user requirements of hierarchically organized search results for mobile access. In our experiment, search activities of our subjects are recorded in the video, and the interviewer solicits the interface requirements, during and after the experiment. An affinity diagram is built as a summary of our findings in the experiment, and the major issues are discussed in this paper. The search behavior of our subjects is summarized into a flow chart. In this study, we report mobile interface features that are desired by our users in addition to those found in an earlier survey.
Keywords: Hierarchical access; mobile search; interface design
Evaluation of Pointing Efficiency on Small Screen Touch User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 375-384
  Ryosuke Fujioka; Takayuki Akiba; Hidehiko Okada
Researchers have been investigating screen designs for small screen touch user interfaces (UIs), but further research is still required for smaller-screen devices including current smart phones. This paper reports on our evaluation of pointing efficiency on devices with touch-by-stylus small screen UIs. User performances were measured by experiments with three devices: a mobile phone, a PDA and a tablet PC. The size of pointing targets was designed so that the target index of difficulty (ID) by Fitts' law ranged in a consistent interval among the three devices. Users' pointing speed and accuracy were compared in terms of throughput and error rate respectively. It is found that the throughput and the error rate for the mobile phone were significantly smaller than those for the PDA and the tablet PC. It is also found that the error rate was not significantly larger in the case where users performed tasks with the mobile phone held by their hands than in the case where they did with the mobile phone put on desktop, although it was in the case of the PDA.
Keywords: usability; touch user interface; small screen; throughput; error rate; Fitts' law
An Integrated Approach towards the Homogeneous Provision of Geographically Dispersed Info-Mobility Services to Mobile Users BIBAKFull-Text 385-394
  Dimitrios Giakoumis; Dimitrios Tzovaras; Dionisis Kehagias; Evangelos Bekiaris; George Hassapis
In this paper we introduce a mechanism enabling applications to present information retrieved from different services, thus delivered with different structure, in a homogeneous and seamless fashion. This mechanism was an outcome of the research that took place within the European Integrated Project ASK-IT. The project developed an ambient intelligence framework which supports mobility impaired people on the move to access context-sensitive information dependant on user geographic location and the use case under consideration. The information derives from geographically dispersed web services and is rendered on mobile devices. The ASK-IT framework enables the presentation of information that covers a wide variety of domains which belong to the info-mobility scope (Points of Interest, Route Guidance etc.). Our approach deals with the integration of information-providing services, in order to facilitate the homogeneity of the final presentation of the content, through the end-user application.
Keywords: Info-Mobility Services; Service Integration; Information provision; Web Services; Ontologies
Legible Character Size on Mobile Terminal Screens: Estimation Using Pinch-in/Out on the iPod Touch Panel BIBAKFull-Text 395-402
  Satoshi Hasegawa; Masako Omori; Tomoyuki Watanabe; Shohei Matsunuma; Masaru Miyao
Using a multi-touch display on an iPod touch mobile multimedia player, an evaluation experiment was conducted to determine the most legible size for characters displayed on screens of mobile terminals. Subjects enlarged the characters by pinch-out (pinch opening) and/or reduced them by pinch-in (pinch closing) on a multi-touch display with more than one finger, and adjusted to the sizes of alphanumeric or Japanese characters to be the most legible. The characters were displayed positively (black characters on a white background) or negatively (white characters on a black background) using graphic text on the iPod touch. The adjusted sizes of characters and viewing distances were measured and visual angles were calculated. The influence of the positive or negative image display mode and the age of subjects on these legibility parameters is described.
Keywords: Readability; Visibility; Small Display; Character; Aging Effects
Location-Based Mixed-Map Application Development for Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 403-412
  Hyo-Haeng Lee; Kil-Ram Ha; Kwang-Seok Hong
This study proposes a Mixed-Map based on a mobile device. The proposed mobile Mixed-Map is designed to download 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional data provided by Google maps and Yahoo maps. It then controls the map data independently. A variety of applications can be implemented. Transferring geographical data from a web geographical information system can improve efficiency by reducing response time. It adopts a tile cache method to provide continuous service when a wireless internet cannot be connected. As an example of the proposed system, we implemented a real-time location tracking system application between mobile devices that obtains current location and GPS information in real-time using GPS. The Mixed-Map can be easily applied to different technologies as the application does not simply rely on API in the ubiquitous environment. The study develops and suggests basic technologies necessary for a ubiquitous geographic information system.
Keywords: Mixed-Map; Mobile; GPS; Map
A Comparison of Artifact Reduction Methods for Real-Time Analysis of fNIRS Data BIBAFull-Text 413-422
  Takayuki Nozawa; Toshiyuki Kondo
Due to its convenient, low physical restraint, and electric noise tolerant features, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is expected to be a useful tool in monitoring users' brain activity in HCI. However, fNIRS measurement suffers from various kinds of artifacts, and no standardized method for artifact reduction has been established so far. In this study, we compared high-pass/band-pass filtering, global and local average references, independent component analysis (ICA) based method, and their combinations. Their effectiveness for artifact reduction was evaluated by a cognitive task recognition experiment. The results showed all the methods have artifact reduction capability, but their effectiveness depends on subjects and tasks. This suggests that it can be more practical to try various artifact reduction methods and chose the best one for each task and subject, instead of pursuing a single standardized method.
Investigation on Relation between Index of Difficulty in Fitts' Law and Device Screen Sizes BIBAKFull-Text 423-429
  Hidehiko Okada; Takayuki Akiba; Ryosuke Fujioka
It is well-known as Fitts' law that the time for a user to point a target on a GUI screen can be modeled as a linear function of "index of difficulty (ID)". The authors investigate whether the ID formulation is appropriate independently of device screen sizes. Result of our experiment revealed that the ID formulation may not consistently capture actual difficulty: users' pointing performances were not consistent among pointing target variations of which index of difficulty are consistent. The term A/W may not be appropriate because the term causes the observed inconsistency.
Keywords: usability; Fitts' law; touch user interface; small screen; smart phone; throughput; error rate
Influence of Vertical Length of Characters on Readability in Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 430-438
  Masako Omori; Satoshi Hasegawa; Tomoyuki Watanabe; Shohei Matsunuma; Masaru Miyao
The visibility of Japanese characters on the liquid crystal displays in mobile phones was studied by measurements of reading time and visual distance, and subjective evaluations. Graphic text was used to prepare various samples with various character heights of 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2 and 2.25 times greater than the width of the characters. The vertical length of the characters had a significant effect on the parameters of reading speed and subjective evaluation of legibility. Characters with a height of between 1.5 and 2 times greater than the width showed the highest visibility in this experiment.
Keywords: readability; character size; cataract cloudiness; mobile phone e-mail and graphical characters
Intelligent Photo Management System Enhancing Browsing Experience BIBAFull-Text 439-447
  Yuki Orii; Takayuki Nozawa; Toshiyuki Kondo
We developed a web-based intelligent photo management system which enables automatic clustering of unstructured personal digital photo collections. We conducted a user study to assess the usability of the developed photo management system (automatic photo classifier, APC) compared with ones with limited functions. The user task adopted here was finding some of target photographs indicated by an experimenter from the subject's personal or somebody else's photo collections. The results show that APC is better in the case of the personal photographs while it does not have a significant advantage for somebody else's photo collections. It was suggested that the look-and-feel of a photo management system should be considered according to whether the photographs had been taken by the user him/herself or not.
Freeze TCPv2: An Enhancement of Freeze TCP for Efficient Handoff in Heterogeneous Networks BIBAKFull-Text 448-457
  Minu Park; Jaehyung Lee; Jahwan Koo; Hyunseung Choo
The advancement of mobile communications for the last few years has accompanied an increasingly extensive and diverse array of environments for TCP applications, which has led to a host of wireless TCP approaches that may provide more stability and ensure higher performance. In a heterogeneous network, as opposed to conventional wireless networks, a mobile node performs a handoff to another network cells with a different bandwidth and latency. Conventional wireless TCP schemes, however, are not capable of properly addressing sudden changes in round trip time (RTT) and packet loss resulting from handoffs within a heterogeneous network and do experience such problems as the waste of available bandwidth and frequent packet loss. As a solution to these problems, this paper proposes Freeze TCP version 2 (v2), an enhancement of Freeze TCP designed to dynamically obtain the available bandwidth in a new network cell. Comprehensive simulation study is conducted by using a network simulator, ns-2, to compare the proposed scheme to a few other schemes, such as Freeze TCP, DEMO-Vegas, and TCP Vegas, in a heterogeneous network environment with vertical handoffs in terms of throughput per speed of the mobile node and per bit error rate of the wireless link.
Keywords: TCP; Congestion control; Heterogeneous Networks; Vertical Handoff
Expanding SNS Features with CE Devices: Space, Profile, Communication BIBAKFull-Text 458-467
  Youngho Rhee; Hyunjoo Kang; Yeojin Kim; Juyeon Lee; IlKu Chang
A social network service (SNS) beginning in online increasingly penetrates everyday life deeper and represents new business opportunity with expanded network. Indeed, many SNSs are being served with mobile devices via broadband network. However, there are enormous challenges that must be overcome to provide seamless experience on these mobile devices because of context of use. In the present paper, new definition of SNS is proposed with focus on CE devices building on general features and definition. Accordingly the novel concept and scenarios are presented to compensate users' needs and service & business insights.
Keywords: SNS (Social Network Service); Scenarios; CE devices; Context; Profile; Space; Communication
Empirical Evaluation of Throwing Method to Move Object for Long Distance in 3D Information Space on Mobile Device BIBAKFull-Text 468-475
  Yu Shibuya; Keiichiro Nagatomo; Kazuyoshi Murata; Itaru Kuramoto; Yoshihiro Tsujino
In our previous work, a throwing method to move an object for long distance in 3D information space on a mobile device was proposed. With the method, as we throw the object to move it far away in the real world, we can throw the virtual object in 3D information space. This simple throwing method was improved by adding following three functions. They were real time adjusting the direction of moving object, moving viewpoint to follow the thrown object, and initializing viewpoint after the movement. The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of the improved throwing method to move the object for long distance in 3D information space. From the experiment, it is found that the improved throwing method is efficient to move the object for long distance in 3D information space on mobile devices.
Keywords: mobile interaction; 3D information space; throwing method; human computer interaction
Usefulness of Mobile Information Provision Systems Using Graphic Text -Visibility of Graphic Text on Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 476-485
  Tomoyuki Watanabe; Masako Omori; Satoshi Hasegawa; Shohei Matsunuma; Masaru Miyao
Textual information can be sent as graphic images without being coded in the broadband digital network. By using graphic text, characters or symbols with unsupported fonts can be displayed. Graphical e-mail systems in mobile phones for sending digital photographs are useful in sending graphic text. We researched the visibility of graphic text on the liquid crystal displays in mobile phones comparing with that of font in the mobile phones, by measuring the variables of reading time and visual distance. We also recorded the number of errors, and subjects evaluated the visibility. Graphic text prepared in the JPEG format had nearly the same visibility of the original font. However, it must be noted that visibility deteriorates as the character size become smaller, and as the user become older. We also mention about the possibility of multilingual disaster information system with mobile phones as an application of the graphic text. Graphic text enables easy display of multilingual information by ordinary types of mobile phones which does not support multilingual characters.
Keywords: graphical character; digital photo e-mail; size of character; disaster information; multilingual text

eHealth Applications and Services

The Importance of Information in the Process of Acquisition and Usage of a Medicine for Patient Safety: A Study of the Brazilian Context BIBAKFull-Text 489-496
  Patricia Lopes Fujita; Carla Galvão Spinillo
Considering the importance of oral and visual information on acquisition and use of medication, this paper discusses the outcomes of an analytical study on the cognitive load in performing the task "take a medicine" during a health treatment process (acquisition, usage and disposal of medicine) in Brazil. The task was described in a flowchart according to the steps/actions, decision points and expected outcomes to a successful performance. This allowed finding out the task informational structure during the process of taking a medicine. Then, the cognitive activities in each moment of the process were identified. The outcomes indicate the highest cognitive load occurs in the acquisition of information by patients during a health treatment process, what would affect task performance. The findings ratify the relevance of information on the process of acquisition and usage of medicines by Brazilian patients.
Keywords: Medicines; information; task analysis
A Proposal of Collection and Analysis System of Near Miss Incident in Nursing Duties BIBAKFull-Text 497-502
  Akihisa Furukawa; Yusaku Okada
In this study, we proposed collection and analysis system of near miss incident (CASN) as a support tool of safe activity at the medical institutions. CASN is consists of supporting software and reference list which helps risk managers who don't have special knowledge and skill do factor analysis easily and nurses write good reports for analysis. CASN accumulates the data of PSF of near miss incidents and gives the tendency of PSF at each post and analyzer. As a result, diverse factors are found by the analysis of the risk managers and we expect the diversity promotes the growth of the risk managers.
Keywords: Human error; Accident prevention; Knowledge management
Effects of Information Displays for Hyperlipidemia BIBAKFull-Text 503-512
  Yang Gong; Jiajie Zhang
How information is distributed between internal and external representations significantly affects information search performance. For a distributed information search task, data representation and cognitive distribution jointly affect the user search performance in terms of response time and accuracy. Guided by UFuRT (User, Function, Representation, Task), a human-centered framework, we propose a search model and task taxonomy. The model defines its application in the context of healthcare setting. The taxonomy clarifies the legitimate operations for each type of search task of relation data. We then developed experimental prototypes of hyperlipidemia data displays. Based on the displays, we tested the search tasks performance through two experiments. The experiments are of a within-subject design with a sample of 24 participants. The results in general support our hypotheses and validate the prediction of the model and task taxonomy.
Keywords: Relational Data Display; Taxonomy; Hyperlipidemia
Clinical Usefulness of Human-Computer Interface for Training Targeted Facial Expression: Application to Patients with Cleft Lip and/or Palate BIBAKFull-Text 513-521
  Kyoko Ito; Ai Takami; Shumpei Hanibuchi; Shogo Nishida; Masakazu Yagi; Setsuko Uematsu; Naoko Sigenaga; Kenji Takada
This study is toward introducing a treatment modality into clinical practice to manage facial expression. In particular, it focused on facial expression training, which has recently attracted attention. Facial expression training teaches the patient to move the facial muscles on his or her own initiative. The experiment was for patients with cleft lip and/or palate and the intent was to introduce facial expression training into clinical practice in order to determine the possibility of using the support interface. The study was planned and conducted in 2 phases. Phase 1 results demonstrated the possibility of introducing facial expression training using the method proposed in this study. In the future, by analyzing the results of the Phase 2 experiment, the usefulness of the support interface for facial expression training proposed in this study will be further examined.
Keywords: Clinical Usefulness; Facial Expression Training; Cleft Lip and/or Palate; Interface; Medical Practice
The Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Package Designs for the Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 522-528
  Akira Izumiya; Michiko Ohkura; Fumito Tsuchiya
In recent years, many medical accidents have been caused by the confusing designs of pharmaceutical packages and displays. For osteoporosis treatment, a common disorder of elderly females, improving display visibility and operability is especially important. However, since the osteoporosis drugs to be taken once a week are sold in various package designs, differences of viewability, understandability, and operability must be clarified from the differences of package design. We performed experiments as follows.
Keywords: drug labels; drug of osteoporosis; medical accident; package design
Implications for Developing Information System on Nursing Administration -- Case Study on Nurse Scheduling System -- BIBAKFull-Text 529-538
  Mitsuhiko Karashima; Naotake Hirasawa
This research was focused on the nurse scheduling system as the supporting system for the nursing administration. In this research as a case study, the nurse scheduling system was developed by applying the human centered design process. The head nurses claimed that it was a higher workload for them to rearrange the imperfect roster of the first automated scheduling system than to make the roster from the beginning because the mathematical solution for the system cannot always propose the roster which has no violation. The nurse required the scheduling support system which supported her heuristic scheduling instead of the automated system. The nurse scheduling support system was developed and the other nurses were more satisfied with the system than with the conventional popular automated scheduling system. From the results of this research, the approach of the development of the supporting system for administration was discussed.
Keywords: nurse scheduling; human centered design; usability; administration system
Analysis on Descriptions of Dosage Regimens in Package Inserts of Medicines BIBAKFull-Text 539-548
  Masaomi Kimura; Kazuhiro Okada; Keita Nabeta; Michiko Ohkura; Fumito Tsuchiya
To prevent medical accidents caused by mix-up, the confirmation of usage should be the key to determining error. If a computerized order entry system for medicines shows information concerning therapeutic indications to doctors, they can subsequently avoid mix-ups of medicines such as the case in question. To investigate data which can be utilized for a database in such an entry system, we study the description patterns of the sentences in the dosage regimen portion of the SGML formatted package inserts data via a method based on the text mining technique. Based on this result, we also propose the data structure of dosage regimen information, which will be the basis of a drug information database to ensure safe usage.
Keywords: medical safety; text mining; data structure
Non-intrusive Human Behavior Monitoring Sensor for Health Care System BIBAFull-Text 549-558
  Noriyuki Kushiro; Makoto Katsukura; Masanori Nakata; Yoshiaki Ito
This paper presents a non-intrusive human behavior-monitoring sensor for health care system, especially for elderly person. The sensor detects operation of appliances with thorn like peak of electrical current generated by their working, and identifies patterns of daily residents' behavior based on the correlation of operating appliances. The sensor reduces the system cost by avoiding installation of massive sensors and keeps residents' privacy without intrusion of their private space. The human behavior-monitoring sensor is implemented by utilizing an algorithm with a wavelet transform method and is installed in five real residences for a couple of weeks. Accuracy of detecting operations of appliances and identifying life patterns are estimated through the field test.
Impact of Healthcare Information Technology Systems on Patient Safety BIBAKFull-Text 559-565
  Byung Cheol Lee; Vincent G. Duffy
Even though healthcare information systems have been introduced as a viable solution for reducing adverse drug events or medical errors, the current adoption rate is low and impact of system on patient safety and quality of care is not established well. To solve this problem, a new research framework with interdisciplinary approaches is suggested. The framework is based on two major characteristics of a healthcare IT system: effectiveness and efficiency. The former connects to patient safety and quality of care, and the latter is related with resources and design of the system. The framework is mainly grounded in human factors engineering, and includes psychology, systems and safety engineering, and an information systems approach.
Keywords: Healthcare information system; Patient safety; Interdisciplinary approach; Healthcare Research framework
Patient Standardization Identification as a Healthcare Issue BIBAKFull-Text 566-575
  Mario Macedo; Pedro T. Isaías
Healthcare organizations use information systems with several different types of data and user interfaces. The lack of standardization means loss of efficiency and effectiveness. It limits the expected quality of Healthcare services. Some difficulties for this standardization are known. However there are models that can respond to the complexity of this area of science and evolve with the development of knowledge. A problem which is common to several organizations is the lack of automatic identification of patients. Another one is how to solve the problem of having information duplicated in different databases.
   The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the standardization of clinical data and the development of unique models of identification that will enable setting unique access keys and the interconnection between all the clinical data.
   The empowerment of systems that support clinical decision and the use of workflows for treatment plans that involve more than an organization of Healthcare will only be possible if they use standard models, open technologies and unique patient identification.
Keywords: HER; Medical Guidelines; Healthcare Plan Workflow
A Proposal of a Method to Extract Active Ingredient Names from Package Inserts BIBAKFull-Text 576-585
  Keita Nabeta; Masaomi Kimura; Michiko Ohkura; Fumito Tsuchiya
Recently, medical accidents caused by drugs have attracted attention in Japan. To prevent this from affecting medical experts, it is effective to improve the 'safety of drug usage' via information systems. Although package insert information in SGML format is provided by PMDA, it is not easy to utilize this information for such systems because they lack a suitable structure to provide direct access to the required information. In this study, we propose certain methods to extract the active ingredient name from such unstructured SGML data.
Keywords: Medical safety; Package inserts; Keyword extraction; Edit distance
Examination of Evaluation Method for Appearance Similarity of PTP Sheets BIBAKFull-Text 586-593
  Yoshitaka Ootsuki; Akira Izumiya; Michiko Ohkura; Fumito Tsuchiya
In recent years, many accidents concerned with medicine have been caused by the confusing design of pharmaceutical packages and displays. We concentrate on the appearance similarity of PTP sheets, which are most commonly used for wrapping tablets in Japan, to clarify the factors and the degrees of their effects on appearance similarity. This paper describes our experiments that examined evaluation methods of the appearance similarity of PTP sheets.
Keywords: appearance similarity; evaluation method; medical accident; PTP sheet
Identifying Latent Similarities among Near-Miss Incident Records Using a Text-Mining Method and a Scenario-Based Approach BIBAKFull-Text 594-603
  Tetsuo Sawaragi; Kouichi Ito; Yukio Horiguchi; Hiroaki Nakanishi
This research focuses on supporting an analyst's activity of interpreting the contents of existing incident reports. During this activity, analysts are always predicting expected scenarios of the incidents at hand in comparing that with the actual development of the incidents reported therein. In order to learn lessons from a particular prior experience, analysts should be aware of the latent similarities among the incidents and should experience a breakdown called "expectation-failure" to let that incident be surely printed in their memory. To let the human analysts experience this breakdown, our system introduces a theory of Memory Organization Packets (MOPs) as a framework for explaining the dynamic memory structure of the human. By utilizing this idea as a basis for scenario-based expectation of human analysts and by integrating this idea with a text-mining method, a system for supporting an incident analysis is developed for a domain of medical incidents. Results of the experiments using our proposing system are presented, where the subjects are nurses working for a hospital. Based on those results, effectiveness of the system is discussed from various viewpoints by investigating into the protocols gathered from the subjects of the experiments.
Keywords: Text-mining; knowledge management for safety; learning by failure; knowledge creation; semiosis
Patient Safety: Contributions from a Task Analysis Study on Medicine Usage by Brazilians BIBAKFull-Text 604-608
  Carla Spinillo; Stephania Padovani; Cristine Lanzoni
Medicine misuse in Brazil is one of the most relevant health issues affecting millions of people. This paper discusses the results of a study on usage of five different medicines by 60 adult Brazilians. Problems in task performance occurred with all medicines, especially those requiring measuring doses and object manipulation. Deficiencies in the design of the medicine inserts were also found. The outcomes enable to conclude that improvements in the design of instructions for patients and of medicine inserts, as well as of medicine bottles/containers are necessary to facilitate their use by Brazilians.
Keywords: Medicine usage; Medicine inserts; Task analysis; Brazil
Remote Consultation System Using Hierarchically Structured Agents BIBAKFull-Text 609-618
  Hiroshi Yajima; Jun Sawamoto; Kazuo Matsuda
In fields of technological innovation the speed of advance is fast, and while it is difficult for some people to keep up, there are few experts in new technologies. Since consultation is focused on a small number of experts, phenomena such as being unable to obtain sufficient information in a timely manner occur, and are one of the major reasons for the increasing social-technological divide. This paper proposes a 2-level hierarchical remote consultation system using two types of agent. The system possesses the features that through the responses to consultation made in advance by multiple agents, experts can focus on only complex questions, and in addition, consultees' waiting times are reduced. Its effectiveness is demonstrated experimentally.
Keywords: remote consultation system; agent; remote communication; expert; TV conferencing

Education, Learning and Entertainment

How Mobile Interaction Motivates Students in a Class? BIBAKFull-Text 621-631
  Akinobu Ando; Kazunari Morimoto
The purpose of this study is to show a way that students can become more active in the classroom. We tried to use a mobile phone as a teaching and learning tool. A mobile phone is a familiar device to Japanese students. Most of them have one and use it everyday. They write many e-mails, browse web pages, take pictures and make calls. This study showed statistically how the use of mobile phones as a teaching and learning tool affected motivation of students. As the result, we found that students' communication-charge plan did not affect the evaluation of this method. The most effective factors were "The effect on checking attendance" and "Remembering what students learned at the end of lecture". Thus, it is helps a teacher with two things -- this method allows better use of lecture time by shortening attendance checking and allowing students to write comments during the lecture on their mobile phones. This saves time, as the teacher doesn't have to use lecture time for feedback. So not only traditional paper and pencil should be regarded as a school tool, but also a mobile phone.
Keywords: mobile phone; motivational model; anonymity; picture and LMS (Learning Management System)
Sensation Seeking, Self Forgetfulness, and Computer Game Enjoyment BIBAKFull-Text 632-641
  Xiaowen Fang; Fan Zhao
This paper investigates the relationship between enjoyment of computer game play and two personality traits (sensation seeking and self-forgetfulness). Hypotheses were proposed based on a review of computer game enjoyment, game characteristics, personality theories, and effects of computer game play. A survey is conducted in two US universities. Results and implications are discussed.
Keywords: Sensation seeking; self forgetfulness; personality; computer game; enjoyment
Development of an Annotation-Based Classroom Activities Support Environment Using Digital Appliance, Mobile Device and PC BIBAKFull-Text 642-649
  Yoshiaki Hada; Masanori Shinohara
An annotation-based classroom activities support environment with home network technology is proposed. The environment includes digital appliances, mobile devices, and PCs to facilitate a face-to-face class. The resulting system enables the sharing and playing of learning contents among the teacher and students in the class. The teacher and students can annotate the learning contents without file operation to share. In addition, the system operates devices on a network to support a class and has a user management feature. The system design and the prototype under development are described.
Keywords: ubiquitous learning; home networking; pen-based interface; blended e-learning; face-to-face class
An Empirical Investigation on the Effectiveness of Virtual Learning Environment in Supporting Collaborative Learning: A System Design Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 650-659
  Na Liu; Yingqin Zhong; John Lim
This study theoretically develops and empirically tests a model that explains how virtual learning environment (VLE) characteristics can ultimately influence learning effectiveness by directly affecting leaner's control over the learning material and leaner's communication and interaction with peers and instructor. The findings of the empirical study shows that system accessibility, ease of navigation, system interactivity and system support serve different roles in achieving effective learning outcomes. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating different learning theories into VLE design and how they would inform different perspective of learning.
Keywords: Virtual learning environment (VLE); system characteristics; self-controlled learning; communication-based learning
Personalization for Specific Users: Designing Decision Support Systems to Support Stimulating Learning Environments BIBAFull-Text 660-668
  Laura Maruster; Niels R. Faber; Rob J. F. van Haren
Creating adaptive systems becomes increasingly attractive in the context of specific groups of users, such as agricultural users. This group of users seems to differ with respect to information processing, knowledge management and learning styles. In this work we aim to offer directions toward increasing decision support systems usability, by tailoring toward user learning styles. The results show that decision support systems need to be redesigned toward providing agricultural users with a more efficient time management and study environment, and facilitating group interaction.
Construction of Systematic Learning Support System of Business Theory and Method BIBAKFull-Text 669-678
  Yoshiki Nakamura; Katsuhiro Sakamoto
Business administration and industrial engineering expect their students to understand a lot of theories and technique and to be able to utilize their acquired knowledge in the workplace after entering business. However, the current educational system prevents these expectations from becoming a reality. The purpose of this research is designed to develop an educational simulator that teaches theories and methods and changes the effects and results generated by business decisions according to the degree of understanding. To confirm the validity, the developed simulator is tested against students to confirm its efficiency.
Keywords: Supply chain management; educational simulator; business theory and technique; decision making
Learning by Design in a Digital World: Students' Attitudes towards a New Pedagogical Model for Online Academic Learning BIBAKFull-Text 679-688
  Karen Precel; Yoram Eshet-Alkalai; Yael Alberton
Despite the fact that the blended learning model is considered today the preferred model for online course design, there is still ambiguity regarding its implementation in educational systems and regarding the optimal proportions between online learning and F2F meetings in various learning scenarios. The present research examined students' perceptions of pedagogical and design issues of a fully-online course at the Open University of Israel, which offers a new model for blended online learning. Fifty-eight of the course's students completed a questionnaire regarding three major aspects of the course's design: (1) pedagogy, (2) textbook format (print vs. digital) and (3) usability issues in designing the course's learning environment. Results illustrate the importance of a particular in-advance pedagogical and visual design of online learning and the potential of the course's model in creating meaningful learning, which takes into account the state-of-the-art knowledge on the major pedagogical considerations in online learning.
Keywords: online learning; blended-learning model; usability; pedagogical model
Promoting a Central Learning Management System by Encouraging Its Use for Other Purposes Than Teaching BIBAKFull-Text 689-698
  Franz Reichl; Andreas Hruska
Vienna University of Technology's E-Learning Centre introduced Moodle in 2006 as the university's central learning management system. Custom interfaces to existing IT infrastructure as well as modules developed and deployed according to user's needs provide for a seamless digital workflow in the university's teaching, learning and organisational processes. Encouraging the use of the LMS as a multi-purpose tool to support all kinds of co-operation and communication activities in addition to curricular teaching led to a rapid and significant increase in user numbers and encouraged university teachers to deal with educational questions and to develop innovative learning and teaching solutions, based on the LMS.
Keywords: e-learning; learning management systems; Moodle; learning communities; communities of practice; collaborative work; business integration
Framework for Supporting Decision Making in Learning Management System Selection BIBAKFull-Text 699-707
  Yuki Terawaki
When introducing computer systems as well as the e-Learning systems such as Learning Management System (LMS), requirements analysis is very important. In recent years, it has been noted that most of the people who introduce e-Learning systems in Japan are non-professionals of information technology. Generally, requirements analysis is well known for being very difficult for the information technology professional, and even more difficult for the non-professional. Therefore, this paper proposes a framework for supporting decision-making in Learning Management Systems selection for the non-professional. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD), this framework recommends a LMS based on the priority of requirements.
Keywords: Requirements Engineering; RE; decision making; Analytic Hierarchy Process; AHP; Quality Function Deployment; QFD; Learning Management System; LMS
Statistics-Based Cognitive Human-Robot Interfaces for Board Games -- Let's Play! BIBAFull-Text 708-715
  Frank Wallhoff; Alexander Bannat; Jürgen Gast; Tobias Rehrl; Moritz Dausinger; Gerhard Rigoll
The archetype of many novel research activities is called cognition. Although separate definitions exist to define a technical cognitive system, it is typically characterized by the (mental) process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment. This especially includes the question of how to deal with previously unknown events.
   In order to further improve today's human-machine interfaces, which often suffer from deficient flexibilities, we present a cognitive human-robot interface using speech and vision. The advancements against regular rule-based approaches will become obvious by its new interaction strategies that will be explained in the use case of a board-game and a robot manipulator.
   The motivation behind the use of cognition for human-machine interfaces is to learn from and adapt to the user leading to an increased level of comfort. For our approach, it showed proof that it is effective to separate the entire process into three steps: the perception of external events, the cognition including understanding and the execution of an appropriate action.
The Design and Development of an Adaptive Web-Based Learning System BIBAKFull-Text 716-725
  Chian Wang
Currently, most web-based learning systems do not differentiate the content materials presented to the various types of learners. Content adaptation is a concept inspired by enabling dynamic presentation generation based on the learner's preferences, e.g. knowledge level, gender, age, language, or past visits. The goal of content adaption is to take the heterogeneous and changing needs of the learners into account and thus to provide the most appropriate contents and the best learning satisfaction. To handle content adaptation and dynamic presentation generation, an XML-based content description mechanism called ADAM is proposed in this paper. ADAM's goal is to enhance learning effectiveness through providing the most appropriate materials under changing learners' requirements and preferences while simplifying the process of presentation composition.
Keywords: content description; multimedia; web-based learning; XML

Information Systems in Safety-Critical Domains

Human-System Interface (HSI) Challenges in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms BIBAKFull-Text 729-737
  Jo-Ling Chang; Huafei Liao; Liang Zeng
This study uses factor analysis to examine 30 errors due to human-system interface (HSI) in nuclear power plant control rooms. The results are used to validate the factor structure and the Decision-Action Model developed in this paper. Ten U.S. commercial operating nuclear plants, total of 18 units, participated in this study at the time this paper was written. The result is a five-factor structure: Operations Uncertainties, Design Improvements, Misoperations, Equipment Control, and Human Factors Redesign. The completed Decision-Action Model provides current operating plants with suggested corrective actions for each type of potential HSI errors.
Keywords: Human error; human-system interface; control room; human performance; factor analysis; corrective action
The Impact of Automation Assisted Aircraft Separation on Situation Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 738-747
  Arik-Quang V. Dao; Summer L. Brandt; Vernol Battiste; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Thomas Z. Strybel; Walter W. Johnson
This study compared situation awareness across three flight deck decision aiding modes. Pilots resolved air traffic conflicts using a click and drag software tool. In the automated aiding condition, pilots executed all resolutions generated by the automation. In the interactive condition, automation suggested a maneuver, but pilots had the choice of accepting or modifying the provided resolution. In the manual condition pilots generated resolutions independently. A technique that combines both Situation Global Assessment Technique and Situation Present Awareness Method was used to assess situation awareness. Results showed that situation awareness was better in the Manual and Interactive conditions when compared to the Automated condition. The finding suggests that pilots are able to maintain greater situation awareness when they are actively engaged in the conflict resolution process.
Keywords: automation; conflict resolution; situation awareness; cockpit display of traffic information; CDTI; cockpit situation display; CSD
Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance Concepts for the Next Generation Air Transportation System BIBAKFull-Text 748-757
  John P. Dwyer; Steven J. Landry
A review was conducted of separation assurance and collision avoidance operational concepts for the next generation air transportation system. The concepts can be distributed along two axes: the degree to which responsibility for separation assurance and collision avoidance is assigned to the controller verses the pilot(s), and the degree to which automation augments or replaces controller and pilot functions. Based on an analysis of the implications of these concepts from a human factors standpoint, as well as the technological readiness of the concepts, it appears that some form of supervisory control of separation by controllers is the most viable concept.
Keywords: Air traffic control; separation assurance; automation; roles and responsibilities
Analysis of Team Communication and Collaboration in En-Route Air Traffic Control BIBAKFull-Text 758-765
  Kazuo Furuta; Yusuke Soraji; Taro Kanno; Hisae Aoyama; Daisuke Karikawa; Makoto Takahashi
Ethnographic field observation was carried out at the Tokyo Air Traffic Control Center to obtain video, radio communication, verbal conversation, and journal records. Having analyzed these data based on the cognitive model of a radar controller of our previous work and a notion of Team Situation Awareness (TSA), a cognitive model of an ATC team has been established. It was revealed that instantiation of TSA heavily owes to verbal communication but that role assignment among team members is implicitly and smoothly determined once TSA has been established. Team cognitive process of ATC controllers is therefore well described by TSA development and Naturalistic Decision-Making (NDM).
Keywords: Aviation safety; air traffic control; human factors; team cognitive model; task analysis
Comparison of Pilot Recovery and Response Times in Two Types of Cockpits BIBAKFull-Text 766-775
  Vishal Hiremath; Robert W. Proctor; Richard O. Fanjoy; Robert G. Feyen; John P. Young
According to general aviation manufacturers, all aircraft rolling off the assembly line are or will be equipped with next-generation electronic flight instrument cockpits, called 'glass' cockpits. Because most pilots were trained with older analog displays, it becomes imperative to find out what human factors issues the pilots will encounter when they transition to glass displays. A comparative study was carried out in a general aviation aircraft simulator between instrumentation of the type used in conventional and glass cockpits for recovery from unusual attitudes. Glass displays showed longer recovery time than round-dial displays. Low-time pilots judged analog displays as more usable than glass displays. Suggestions are made to design a hybrid display of round dial and vertical tapes as well as examine unusual attitude training methods more closely.
Keywords: glass cockpits; displays; digital displays; aviation; analog displays
Information Requirements and Sharing for NGATS Function Allocation Concepts BIBAKFull-Text 776-785
  Nhut Tan Ho; Patrick Martin; Joseph Bellissimo; Barry Berson
To support the evaluation of feasible function allocation concepts for separation assurance systems, and to develop a better understanding of the specific information requirements for key tasks (resolving conflicts, avoiding weather, and merging and spacing), air traffic controllers and commercial pilots were interviewed for their goals, sub-goals, and the individual and shared information needed to perform the tasks. The key information requirements obtained can be used as input to ascertain which information is most needed for probing when measuring individual and shared situation awareness. The elicitation also provided insights into the interaction among the controllers, pilots, and automation, and their perception of the concepts' feasibility.
Keywords: information requirements; NGATS; allocation function; shared situation awareness; automation interaction
HILAS: Human Interaction in the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems -- Collaboration, Innovation and Learning BIBAKFull-Text 786-796
  David Jacobson; Nick McDonald; Bernard Musyck
The aims of the paper are to describe a particular network in the European aviation sector, to explain what is innovative about this network and to describe ways in which the network may evolve in the future. The paper describes the current state of the literature on human factors in aviation and shows how HILAS partners collaborate to innovate in the field of human factors. The paper highlights to what extent the HILAS partnership is novel, and wherein specifically lies that novelty. The network is sectoral rather than locational. It is an inter-organisational, cross-national, intra-sectoral, virtual cluster of actors, brought together for the purpose of a particular innovative project. The paper is about both the network and the nature of its innovation.
Keywords: Innovation; networks; human factors; risk management system
Redefining Interoperability: Understanding Police Communication Task Environments BIBAKFull-Text 797-805
  Gyu Hyun Kwon; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson; Charles W. Bostian
The goal of this research is to understand the concept of police communication environments related to interoperable issues. Interoperability is critical to both inter- and intra- organizational communication. Especially in the emergency operations with multiple groups at the same place, the importance of interoperability has been much appreciated. This study used semi-structured interviews to examine the police communication issues and reconceptualize interoperability in the police communication domain. Based on the interview, we identified three important concepts to specify interoperable groups. First, highly distributed decision making processes are problematic for multiple communication needs. Second, a police team is self-organized at the scene. Finally, their operational boundaries are tentative based on contextual information. Based on these main concepts, we provided high-level suggestions to design a police communication system based on cognitive radio technology.
Keywords: Interoperability; Emergency Communication; Police; Cognitive Radio; Public Safety; Distributed decision making; Self organization; Contextual Information
Unique Reporting Form: Flight Crew Auditing of Everyday Performance in an Airline Safety Management System BIBAKFull-Text 806-815
  Maria Chiara Leva; Alison Kay; Joan Cahill; Gabriel Losa; Sharon Keating; Diogo Serradas; Nick McDonald
This paper presents the proposed prototype for a Unique report form, which will constitute the basis for all operational and safety related reports completed by Flight Crew. This reporting form provides an opportunity for operational personnel to audit their own company's processes and procedures and has been developed in collaboration with a major Spanish Airline as part of the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems (HILAS) project. This research involved extensive fieldwork, including process workshops, task analysis and collaborative prototyping of new concepts. Traditionally airlines use performance monitoring tools to evaluate human performance and by implication their organizational/system safety. Feedback from these tools is used to direct improvements (re-design procedures, enhance training etc.). The Line Operation Safety Audit (LOSA) methodology constitutes the current state of the art in terms of performance monitoring. Building on this concept, end user requirements elicited were the main focus for the design of this reporting form.
Keywords: Human Factors; performance monitoring; threat & error management; task support; safety management systems
Pilot Confidence with ATC Automation Using Cockpit Situation Display Tools in a Distributed Traffic Management Environment BIBAKFull-Text 816-825
  Sarah V. Ligda; Nancy H. Johnson; Joel Lachter; Walter W. Johnson
NASA's Flight Deck Display Research Laboratory recently investigated air traffic automation designed to alleviate groundside workload in high traffic environments. This paper examines the data from post-experiment debriefings. We found that pilots are comfortable reviewing automated conflict resolutions, as well as modifying those resolutions before execution. The pilots were less comfortable with an automated system that had no pilot or controller human-in-the-loop review process. This traffic management concept will not be optimally achieved if pilots do not trust automation without a human review process in every conflict situation. While initial development of these systems should focus on ways to effectively enable such reviews of the automation, confidence can be expected to increase as pilots develop first-hand experience with the system.
Keywords: automation; conflict resolution; cockpit display of traffic information; CDTI; cockpit situation display; CSD
A Study of Auditory Warning Signals for the Design Guidelines of Man-Machine Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 826-834
  Mie Nakatani; Daisuke Suzuki; Nobuchika Sakata; Shogo Nishida
This paper presents an experimental study of the effects of respective sound parameters on human behavior in an emergency. In recent years, there are many natural disasters. The evacuation procedure is one of the pressing problems. Some audible alerts are entrenched in our daily life, such as police siren, ambulance siren, emergency bell, fire alarm and so on. Most people, however, don't escape by hearing the alert. People have a cry-wolf syndrome. Some researches have been studied for people to take appropriate action. One is going in the direction of education or training for people. Another is going in the direction of improved evacuation call. We have studied about auditory warning signals to assist the design of the warning systems. In this paper, the dynamic change of the sound parameters due to a degree of danger is focused. First, the reference values of parameters are settled by the reaction time experiment. Then the effect of dynamically change in parameters is subjectively evaluated.
Keywords: auditory warning signal; response time; pitch; frequency; waveform; psychological experiment
Computer-Aided Collaborative Work into War Rooms: A New Approach of Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 835-844
  Jeremy Ringard; Samuel Degrande; Stéphane Louis Dit Picard; Christophe Chaillou
This paper presents the realization of a new software and hardware platform for collocated collaborative work. Our objective is to take the most of the various competences of the teammates. We have created an architecture named MVT (model, view, tool) for supporting collaborative interaction in war-room-like environments. This software distribution offers various interactions modalities, allowing multi-skilled teams to collaborate using different input devices, thanks to multiple visualization and interaction channels.
Keywords: collocation; collaboration; CVE; war room; teamwork
Optimizing Online Situation Awareness Probes in Air Traffic Management Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 845-854
  Thomas Z. Strybel; Katsumi Minakata; Jimmy H. Nguyen; Russell Pierce; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
We examined the effectiveness of situation awareness probe questions in predicting sector performance and behavior in a human-in-the-loop simulation air traffic management (ATM) simulation with low (50%) and high (75%) traffic densities. Probes were presented online during the performance of the air traffic management task, and the accuracy and response latencies were measured. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the predictive power of each category type. Response latencies for conflict probe questions predicted performance metrics associated with separation assurance.
Keywords: situation awareness measurement; air traffic management; NextGen
A Development of Information System for Disaster Victims with Autonomous Wireless Network BIBAKFull-Text 855-864
  Yuichi Takahashi; Daiji Kobayashi; Sakae Yamamoto
In times of huge disaster such as earthquake, information needs increase among victims and rescuers. Social ferment rises within afflicted area and the damage is spread, if the needs of information are not satisfied. In this research we developed an information system for disaster victims as a distributed autonomous system using a wireless network. This system consists of many sub systems. These sub systems are robust for collecting disaster information because they are small and simple. An authorized user can register information using one of the sub systems that is working correctly. Asynchronously, they search another sub system via wireless network, and then they communicate to each other in order to exchange information they have. As a result, the information will be shared within a wide area by those processes like a bucket brigade.
Keywords: earthquake; disaster victims; distributed autonomous system; wireless network
Situation Awareness and Performance of Student versus Experienced Air Traffic Controllers BIBAKFull-Text 865-874
  Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Katsumi Minakata; Jimmy H. Nguyen; Joshua M. Kraut; Hamzah Raza; Vernol Battiste; Thomas Z. Strybel
A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to examine performance, workload, and situation awareness of students and retired air traffic controllers using an on-line situation awareness probe technique. Performance of the students did not differ from the controllers on many of the performance variables examined, a finding attributed to extensive sector-specific simulation training provided to the students. Both students and controllers indicated that workload was higher and situation awareness was lower in scenarios where the traffic density was high. However, the subjective workload and situation awareness scores indicate that students were more negatively affected by traffic density. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: situation awareness; air traffic controllers; NextGen