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HIMI Tables of Contents: 07-107-209-109-211-111-213-113-213-314-114-215-115-2

HIMI 2011: Human Interface and the Management of Information, Symposium on Human Interface, Part II: Interacting with Information

Fullname:HIMI 2011: Human Interface and the Management of Information, Symposium on Human Interface, Part II: Interacting with Information
Note:Volume 12 of HCI International 2011
Editors:Gavriel Salvendy; Michael J. Smith
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:2011-Jul-09 to 2011-Jul-14
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6772
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-21668-8 (print), 978-3-642-21669-5 (online); hcibib: HIMI11-2
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. HIMI 2011-07-09 Volume 2
    1. Access to Information
    2. Supporting Communication
    3. Supporting Work, Collaboration, Decision-Making and Business
    4. Mobile and Ubiquitous Information
    5. Information in Aviation

HIMI 2011-07-09 Volume 2

Access to Information

Developing Optimum Interface Design for On-Screen Chinese Proofreading Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 3-10
  Alan H. S. Chan; Joey C. Y. So; Steve N. H. Tsang
This paper includes a review of some related empirical studies concerning display factors that may contribute to the on-screen Chinese proofreading performance. The effects of typeface, font size, number of text lines, text direction, and copy placement on speed, accuracy, and subjective preferences in past reading tasks are discussed. This paper, in particular, introduces the development of a Chinese Proofreading System for proofreading experiments and delineates some research ideas for identifying the optimum interface design settings for on-screen Chinese proofreading tasks. The results of this research work are expected to provide useful design recommendations to assist in determining the display factor settings and text display layout that would improve work performance and satisfaction in Chinese comparison proofreading tasks.
Keywords: Proofreading; Chinese Reading; Chinese Proofreading System; Usability Evaluation; Subjective preference
"Life Portal": An Information Access Scheme Based on Life Logs BIBAKFull-Text 11-20
  Shin'ichiro Eitoku; Manabu Motegi; Rika Mochizuki; Takashi Yagi; Shin-yo Muto; Masanobu Abe
In this paper, we propose a life log viewer that gives the users new findings from life logs in daily life, and provides seamless integration with external information. We classify life logs into two types. "Unintended life logs" are recorded automatically without the user's direct input; "intended life logs" are recorded purposefully by the user. Based on this classification, we implement a prototype that has two characteristics. First, it can visualize a user's unintended life log from long-term and multi-dimensional points of view. Second, its user interface is designed to visualize the transitions from the analysis results of the unintended life log to event data in the intended life log, and from event data in the intended life log to search results that provide information about the events. We believe that this viewer is a stepping-stone to the "Life Portal" that integrates existing portals with life log analysis to create a stimulus for search initiation.
Keywords: Life log; Visualization; Scheduler; E-mail; GPS
Proposal of the Kawaii Search System Based on the First Sight of Impression BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Kyoko Hashiguchi; Katsuhiko Ogawa
We propose a blog search engine called "Kawaii Search" (where Kawaii means pretty) to search blogs based on the impression of their text on a printing surface, considering factors such as the format and layout of text and density of words. Particularly in Japan, blogs reveal the personality characteristics of users depending on how they place their text. For example, some writers leave more space between lines or use hieroglyphics and "Gal words[1]," which consist of slang or abbreviations. Further, words can be categorized using four types of characters: kanji, hiragana, katakana, and alphabet. Each results in a different impression that reveals a writer's personality. Given this approach, blog readers can not only read blog, but also interpret each writer's personality. By focusing on impression differences, we propose a new search algorithm specialized for Japanese blogs. To show that these differences can act as the base of our search algorithm, we conducted an experiment that successfully verified the algorithm applied to the following three blog patterns: "kawaii" (pretty or lovely), "majime" (seriousness or industrious), and "futsu" (normal). The results show that in terms of the accuracy of the algorithm, our study categorized "kawaii" well; however, "majime" and "futsu" did not show good results.
Keywords: Impression; Blog search engine; text formatting; Japanese blogosphere; information retrieval
Development of a Tracking Sound Game for Exercise Support of Visually Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 31-35
  Yoshikazu Ikegami; Keita Ito; Hironaga Ishii; Michiko Ohkura
We developed an exercise support system that the visually impaired can use alone at home. Our system used the entertainment characteristics of games to encourage users to continue exercising. We focused on continuity, fun, and system usability and performed and improved our system by conducting experiments repeatedly.
Keywords: visually impaired; system; sports
From Personal to Collaborative Information Management: A Design Science's Approach BIBAKFull-Text 36-45
  Mei Lu; Philip Corriveau
This paper reports findings from evaluation of five solution concepts aimed to address challenges in managing projects, tasks, and different modes of work. Both users and Information Technology (IT) departments appeared to best resonate with the concept of "project workspace," which was conceptualized as a persistent space that allowed users to organize, track, and resume active project work. Even though users agreed that multi-tasking and interruptions were characteristics of their daily jobs, they did not desire mechanisms to block or alter information flows. Instead, users wanted information management to be streamlined in the contexts of collaboration and teamwork. The most desirable scenarios included spontaneous retrieval of information related to a customer or colleague, quick information assembly for different phases of a project, effective management of team tasks, and seamless connection from personal to team workspaces.
Keywords: Information management; search; tasks; projects; collaboration
A Classification Scheme for Characterizing Visual Mining BIBAKFull-Text 46-54
  Elaheh Mozaffari; Sudhir Mudur
Visual mining refers to the cognitive process which integrates the human in analysis of information when using interactive visualization systems. This paper presents a classification scheme which provides user-centered representation of goals and actions that a user performs during the visual mining process. The classification scheme has been developed using content-analysis of published literature containing precise descriptions of different visual mining tasks in multiple fields of study. There were two stages in the development. First, we defined all the sub-processes of visual mining process. Then we used these sub-processes as a template to develop the initial coding scheme prior to utilizing specific data from each of the publications. As analysis proceeded, additional codes were developed and the initial coding scheme was refined. The results of the analysis were represented in the form of a classification scheme of the visual mining process. The naturalistic methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba have been applied to ensure that the content analysis is credible, transferable, dependable and confirmable.
Keywords: Visual mining; large dataset analysis; human information behaviour
Transforming a Standard Lecture into a Hybrid Learning Scenario BIBAKFull-Text 55-61
  Hans-Martin Pohl; Jan-Torsten Milde; Jan Lingelbach
We describe the successful transformation of a traditional learning setting of a standard lecture into a hybrid learning arrangement. Based on the 3C-Modell of Kerres and de Witt, the lecture has been extended to integrate exercises. Students are motivated to work in smaller groups. In order to allow students to work according their own work speed and motivation, the learning material is distributed using the e-Learning platform. This material includes video recordings of the lecture in a high quality. The evaluation of this transformation process shows evidence, those students take profit from the extended hybrid learning arrangement.
Keywords: Hybrid learning scenario; interactive slide presentation; blended learning
Designing Web Sites and Interfaces to Optimize Successful User Interactions: Symposium Overview BIBAKFull-Text 62-65
  Robert W. Proctor; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Since the Web became widely available in the mid 1990s, it has come to be used by a range of people for many purposes. Effective user interactions are required for a Web site or product to accomplish its intended goals. Given the user-intensive nature of the Web and the many usability issues associated with performing tasks on the Web and with mobile devices, it is important for designers and researchers to understand issues that relate to how to optimize interfaces for the Web design and other systems involving human-computer interaction. This symposium is devoted to issues involved in the design of Web sites and interfaces to promote successful user interactions.
Keywords: Information Display; Input Devices; Mobile Devices; Organization of Information; Web Design
Petimo: Sharing Experiences through Physically Extended Social Networking BIBAFull-Text 66-74
  Nimesha Ranasinghe; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Adrian David Cheok
This paper presents an experience-sharing platform, Petimo, which consists of two modules, Petimo-World and Petimo-Robot. This system extends the traditional social networking concept into the physical world by incorporating a child friendly soft robotic toy for easy and safe social experience. It adds a new physical dimension to social computing and provides extra safety in making friends by physically touching each other's robots. Petimo system can be connected to any social network and it provides safety and security for children. Petimo-World demonstrates many basic features with traditional online social networks in order to share personal experiences. Petimo-World stands out from all other virtual worlds with its interesting and sophisticated interactions such as the visualization of friends' relationships through spatial distribution in the 3D space to clearly understand the closeness of the friendship, personalized avatars and sending of special gifts/emoticons.
Comparison Analysis for Text Data by Using FACT-Graph BIBAKFull-Text 75-83
  Ryosuke Saga; Seiko Takamizawa; Kodai Kitami; Hiroshi Tsuji; Kazunori Matsumoto
This paper describes a method to apply the Frequency and Co-occurrence Trend (FACT)-Graph to comparison analysis. FACT-Graph is the method to visualize the changes in keyword trends and relationships between terms over two time periods. The usefulness of FACT-Graph has been shown in tracking trends in politics and crime. To apply FACT-Graph to compare information, we use class transition analysis and separate analysis periods into categories that are the target of comparisons, and collate the features in each comparison target. For the comparison analysis by using 138 articles from two newspapers, we compare topics such as politics and events in them by using the relationships between terms found in the FACT-Graph results.
Keywords: Comparison Analysis; Visualization; FACT-Graph; Text Mining; Knowledge Management
A Comparison between Single and Dual Monitor Productivity and the Effects of Window Management Styles on Performance BIBAKFull-Text 84-93
  Alex Stegman; Chen Ling; Randa L. Shehab
Several research studies have been published on user opinion and productivity of using dual monitor systems. These studies found that users typically enjoy using multiple monitors, but none found a strong increase in performance and productivity. Other researchers have focused on improving multiple monitor usability, but often without any statistical framework. This study compared single and dual monitor productivity measures: task time, cursor movement, and number of window switches. Additionally, window management styles (WMS) were studied in order to help designers understand user behavior better. WMS were broken into two categories, toggler and resizer, and then compared to the WMS created by Kang and Stasko (2008). The results of the research showed a significant difference between the number of open applications and a significant difference between single and dual monitors for the number of window switches. The only significant difference between the toggler and resizer WMS was the number of window switches, which was an interaction between the styles and the tasks.
Keywords: Dual Monitors; Window Management Style; Productivity
Interface Evaluation of Web-Based e-Picture Books in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 94-102
  Pei-shiuan Tsai; Man-lai You
Web-based e-Picture books can integrate the elements of multimedia and offer the special reading experience that is different from printed picture books. The research aims to understand the development status of three e-picture book websites in Taiwan and give recommendations for improvement. Through 1) 12 adults who filled out the questionnaires about browsing e-Picture books; and 2) 10 surveyed (two teachers, two parents and six children) who were observed in their operation and given in-depth interviews, the research analyzed three interface designs of e-picture websites in Taiwan: "Guru Bear Parent-Child Common Reading Network: Dear Bear Reading Room", "Kiddo Book" and "CCA (Council for Cultural Affairs) Children Cultural Center: Picture book Garden". The results of analysis were: 1) most of them were flipping pattern; 2) primarily linear development; 3) less interactive; 4) most of them were adapted from physical printed books; 5) it is difficult for children to register additional account and install browsing software. The recommendations for future publishers and designers were: 1) increase the interaction of the story; 2) Make good use of multimedia interactive design elements; 3) Enhance user control; 4) Integrate e-Picture Book platform; and 5) create all-new e-Picture books.
Keywords: e-Picture book; e-Storybook; e-Book; Usability
A Digital Archive System for Preserving Audio and Visual Space BIBAKFull-Text 103-110
  Makoto Uesaka; Yusuke Ikegaya; Tomohito Yamamoto
A digital archive system has been widespread in various fields because it can preserve precious cultural heritage, books, pictures or videos without any deterioration. Moreover, preserving its information on the web, a digital archive system can share a lot of things between general users, and can pass them down new generation easily. In this research, we focus on spatial information of a place or an event which can provide high presence and retrieve personal memories, and develop a digital archive system which can preserve such kind of spatial information.
Keywords: Digital Archive; Omnidirectional image; Multi-channel audio; Spatial information
Experience Explorer: Context-Based Browsing of Personal Media BIBAKFull-Text 111-120
  Tuomas Vaittinen; Tuula Kärkkäinen; Kimmo Roimela
We designed and built a system for browsing digital content and activity data created and gathered with mobile phones. We evaluated the system with 13 users to study the value of the context-based visualizations in real life. In addition to supporting reminiscing, content aggregated on the map revealed life patterns supporting reflection. Aggregation of items from several people also revealed common interests among friends.
Keywords: Personal content; context; lifelogging; self reflection; user study

Supporting Communication

Service Science Method to Create Pictograms Referring to Sign Languages BIBAKFull-Text 123-130
  Naotsune Hosono; Hiromitsu Inoue; Hiroyuki Miki; Michio Suzuki; Yuji Nagashima; Yutaka Tomita; Sakae Yamamoto
This paper discusses a method to create pictograms referring to several local sign languages with applying the concept of Service Science with Multivariate Analysis (MVA). Since pictograms are universal communication tools, human centred design (HCD) and context analysis by Persona model are applied. The experiments consist of two steps.
   Through the proposed method, the relationship between selected words and local sign languages are initially explained by sensory evaluation of the subjects. Under the cycle of HCD, the pictogram designer will perform to summarize the expression of several local sign languages by this method. The acquisition of user experience is to include it as a design guideline for context of emergency and traveling situations.
   Considering the results of the second experienced phase to prove the outcome design, the proposed method is one of the guidelines to create pictograms referring to several sign languages.
Keywords: Service Sciences; Human Centred Design; Pictogram; Universal Communication; Sensory Evaluation
MoPaCo: Pseudo 3D Video Communication System BIBAKFull-Text 131-140
  Ryo Ishii; Shiro Ozawa; Takafumi Mukouchi; Norihiko Matsuura
We propose a pseudo 3D video communication system that imparts motion parallax which adjusts to the viewpoint position of a user and enables the user to view video pictures in which depth can be perceived with an ordinary equipment setup, namely a monocular camera and a 2D display. We have implemented the system and evaluation experiment results with it showed that its imparting of motion parallax allows it to represent distances that closely reflect actual face-to-face situations better than 2D video can. In addition, subjective evaluations confirmed that motion parallax gives users the feeling that the conversational partner is actually present and makes it easier for them to comprehend the positional relationship of the conversational partner in space.
Keywords: Video communication; motion parallax; depth perception; inter-personal distance
Analysis on Relationship between Smiley and Emotional Word Included in Chat Text BIBAFull-Text 141-146
  Junko Itou; Tomoyasu Ogaki; Jun Munemori
In this research, we analyze the relationships between smileys and emotional words in chat text aiming to apply these relationships to an embodied character chat system. Smileys add various meanings, especially mental information to plain chat texts to make our text communication successful. We focus on the way to use smileys and emotional words so that we can estimate the chat atmospheres. We performed an experiment to investigate the relationships between smileys and emotional words in chat dialogue.
Designing Peripheral Communication Services for Families Living-Apart: Elderly Persons and Family BIBAKFull-Text 147-156
  Yosuke Kinoe; Mihoko Noda
We developed a new augmented communications environment which aims to engender a greater sense of social proximity to geographically distributed family members and improve their emotional well-being. First, a field study was conducted to determine important peripheral communication cues for sensing presence and mood of family members as well as memory triggers. Secondly, the design principles were extracted from the study results to guide the development of a first-of-a-kind prototype, the "SharedEpisodes" that delivers visual peripheral cues along the line with the story of family episodes. Finally, an initial field evaluation was conducted. Overall responses of the participants indicated positive for this type of communications environment that supports the awareness of the presence and state of family members, and the exchange of peripheral communication cues based on family episodes. Future works involve methodological improvement and prototype enhancements including the choice of alternative modality.
Keywords: telecommunication; periphery; peripheral cues; distributed family
Visual Feedback to Reduce Influence of Delay on Video Chatting BIBAKFull-Text 157-164
  Kazuyoshi Murata; Masatsugu Hattori; Yu Shibuya
When there is a certain delay in video chatting, participants often misunderstand other partners' response and make unintended interruptions. In this paper, to overcome these problems, we present two kinds of visual feedback: Scroll Wave Indicator and Afterimage Indicator. An experiment was conducted to confirm effectiveness of these indicators. The result of experiment showed that the Scroll Wave Indicator helped participants to understand the remote participant's response timing and decreased unintended interruptions even if there was 2 [sec] round-trip delay.
Keywords: visual feedback; delay time; video chatting
Research on the Relationships between Visual Entertainment Factor and Chat Communication BIBAFull-Text 165-170
  Tomoyasu Ogaki; Junko Itou; Jun Munemori
In this article, we analyze the effects of visual entertainment factors included in visual cues on chat communication aiming to enliven exchanging chat messages. Visual cues such as smileys, avatars and pictograms are essential to make our communication successful. However, visual cues can be used as only a substitution to express user's intentions. Therefore we propose a chat system with characters which change different forms according to chat messages input bye users with visual cues and we investigate the effects on exchanging chat messages.
Multimodal Conversation Scene Analysis for Understanding People's Communicative Behaviors in Face-to-Face Meetings BIBAKFull-Text 171-179
  Kazuhiro Otsuka
This presentation overviews our recent progress in multimodal conversation scene analysis, and discusses its future in terms of designing better human-to-human communication systems. Conversation scene analysis aims to provide the automatic description of conversation scenes from the multimodal nonverbal behaviors of participants as captured by cameras and microphones. So far, the author's group has proposed a research framework based on the probabilistic modeling of conversation phenomena for solving several basic problems including speaker diarization, i.e. "who is speaking when", addressee identification, i.e. "who is talking to whom", interaction structure, i.e. "who is responding to whom", the estimation of visual focus of attention (VFOA), i.e. "who is looking at whom", and the inference of interpersonal emotion such as "who has empathy/antipathy with whom", from observed multimodal behaviors including utterances, head pose, head gestures, eye-gaze, and facial expressions. This paper overviews our approach and discusses how conversation scene analysis can be extended to enhance the design process of computer-mediated communication systems.
Keywords: Conversation scene analysis; meeting analysis; multimodal interaction; nonverbal behavior
A Virtual Audience System for Enhancing Embodied Interaction Based on Conversational Activity BIBAKFull-Text 180-189
  Yoshihiro Sejima; Yutaka Ishii; Tomio Watanabe
In this paper, we propose a model for estimating conversational activity based on the analysis of enhanced embodied interaction, and develop a virtual audience system. The proposed model is applied to a speech-driven embodied entrainment wall picture, which is a part of the virtual audience system, for promoting enhanced embodied interaction. This system generates activated movements based on the estimated value of conversational activity in enhanced interaction and provides a communication environment wherein embodied interaction is promoted by the virtual audience. The effectiveness of the system was demonstrated by means of sensory evaluations and behavioral analysis of 20 pairs of subjects involved in avatar-mediated communication.
Keywords: Human Interaction; Nonverbal Communication; Virtual Communication; Enhanced Interaction; Virtual Audience
VizKid: A Behavior Capture and Visualization System of Adult-Child Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 190-198
  Grace Shin; Taeil Choi; Agata Rozga; Mario Romero
We present VizKid, a capture and visualization system for supporting the analysis of social interactions between two individuals. The development of this system is motivated by the need for objective measures of social approach and avoidance behaviors of children with autism. VizKid visualizes the position and orientation of an adult and a child as they interact with one another over an extended period of time. We report on the design of VizKid and its rationale.
Keywords: Spatiotemporal visualization; mutual orientation; instantaneous distance; behavior analytics
Note: Best Paper Award
Interactive e-Hon as Parent-Child Communication Tool BIBAKFull-Text 199-206
  Kaoru Sumi; Mizue Nagata
In this paper, we described a media for helping children understand content, called Interactive e-Hon. It works by transforming text into an easily understandable storybook style with animation and dialogue. In this system, easy-to-understand content is created by a semantic tag generator through natural language processing, an animation generator using an animation archive and animation tables, a dialogue generator using semantic tag information, and a story generator. Through our experiment, we have shown that this method of transmitting visual images with verbal information is effective for promoting understanding.
Keywords: Understanding; animation
SAM: A Spatial Interactive Platform for Studying Family Communication Problem BIBAKFull-Text 207-216
  Guo-Jhen Yu; Teng-Wen Chang; Ying-Chong Wang
Communication among nuclear family is a complex but immediate problem due to the small number of family members and the diverse daily schedule of modern society. Because family members have to live together every day, so they must consider and coordinate mutually in communication to avoid estranging by over indifference. With the ambient environment and sensible space technology mentioned above in place, the aim of this study is to explore the possible calm interface. While with nuclear family context in mind, how to build such interface and its implication to the family communication is the problem. For building up an interface using plant-as-media, this study is using the property of plant phototropism. According the above concept, we build up the wall-formed plant interface and two perceptible family spaces practically. Starting with studying on family communication, and this research implements an ambient environment (Spatial Ambient environment, SAM) utilizing sensible space technology and calm interface.
Keywords: Interactive Behavior; Spatial Interface

Supporting Work, Collaboration, Decision-Making and Business

The Effects Visual Feedback on Social Behavior during Decision Making Meetings BIBAKFull-Text 219-228
  Merel Brandon; Simon Epskamp; Thomas de Groot; Tim Franssen; Bart van Gennep; Thomas Visser
This paper describes the design and evaluation of a visualization that provides feedback for meeting participants on their social behavior (Social Mirror). Our Social Mirror provides feedback on participation level, interactivity level, and level of agreement. For the evaluation we conducted an experiment where two groups of four participants each took part in a meeting with and in a meeting without the Social Mirror. The results showed that the participants could easily extract information from the Social Mirror without being distracted from the topic of discussion during the meeting. Our results further suggest that the Social Mirror leads to changes in the social behavior of the participant; in particularly due to the agreement visualization. Moreover most participants prefer meetings with the presence of the Social Mirror.
Keywords: Meeting; collaboration; decision making process; social mirror; social visualization; social behavior; social feedback
Co-Creation of Value through Social Network Marketing: A Field Experiment Using a Facebook Campaign to Increase Conversion Rate BIBAKFull-Text 229-235
  Asle Fagerstrøm; Gheorghita Ghinea
The concept of social network marketing has gained much interest in both applied and academic marketing. While several studies have demonstrated the use of social network marketing, research on the actual effect on business value is scarce. A field experiment was prepared where applicants for IT bachelor studies were invited to join a Facebook group related to the subject of interest. Each Facebook group was assigned a contact person who received training in answering questions from the applicants and to create activities on the social network site. The results showed that the conversion rate for applicants who apply for a Facebook group was 88.8%, which is significant higher than for those who did not apply for a Facebook group (43.3%). We suggest that social network sites, such as Facebook, can be used as an arena for co-creation of value.
Keywords: Social Network Marketing; Co-Creation of Value; Facebook Campaign; Field experiment
Towards Argument Representational Tools for Hybrid Argumentation Systems BIBAKFull-Text 236-245
  María Paula González; Sebastian Gottifredi; Alejandro Javier García; Guillermo Ricardo Simari
Argumentation Systems are reasoning systems that provide automatic computation of arguments. "Argument Assistant Systems" are graphic-oriented tools for supporting end-users to manipulate arguments. Recently, the novel family of "Hybrid Argumentation Systems" (HAS) has emerged, combining these two approaches. Even when some HAS have been presented, either they show in the interface only final results of the computation of the dispute situation under consideration, or have not explicit considered usability features focused on real final users. Besides, current semantic goes from the definition of theoretical considerations to the graphical representation of the dispute situation under consideration, avoiding the direct manipulation of arguments is a graphical fashion. This paper discusses lessons learned at the development of DeLP Client, a particular HAS software oriented towards end-users where main goals include going beyond the above limitations. To achieve usability goals, some usability-oriented design guidelines recently proposed for the argumentation systems domain are considered.
Keywords: Knowledge Representation; Defensible Argumentation; Hybrid Argumentation Systems; Usability Guideline
Development of a Price Promotion Model for Online Store Selection BIBAKFull-Text 246-252
  Shintaro Hotta; Syohei Ishizu; Yoshimitsu Nagai
There are many customer concerns related to online shopping, such as the inability to view actual products and the possibility of dishonesty. Online shopping nevertheless has the advantage of generally low prices. Effective price promotion that considers both customer concerns and price advantage is important for online stores. We developed a store selection model for both online stores and brick-and-mortar stores. We also conducted a survey to test the store selection model. Finally, we propose an effective price promotion method for each type of store.
Keywords: store selection model; price promotion; brand selection model; maximum likelihood estimation; multinomial logit model
Design Effective Voluntary Medical Incident Reporting Systems: A Literature Review BIBAKFull-Text 253-261
  Lei Hua; Yang Gong
Voluntary medical incident reporting systems (VMIR) are an application of information technology to support medical errors reporting for health professionals and thus ultimately improve healthcare quality and patient safety. The overall goal of this paper was to investigate the usage and effective design of VMIR by literature review. We expected to uncover design potentials from prior studies by examining on both incident reports analysis and system design, by which to establish a user-centered design framework that integrates identified factors for advancing VMIR effectiveness and efficiency. All papers regarding voluntary reporting system were identified through systematic electronic database searches. Three eligibility criteria were applied: 1) voluntary programs; 2) information system; 3) medical incident/error reporting. Of 8 eligible articles identified, the main themes are about current systems' shortcomings on underreporting, report quality, standardized nomenclature/ taxonomy, communication, usability as well as reporting culture and environment. Eventually, all of identified concerns in the study will be addressed in a VMIR system prototyping process to attack the shortcomings aforementioned.
Keywords: Medical Incident Reporting; User-centered Design; Information System
Technology-Based Decision-Making Support System BIBAKFull-Text 262-267
  Hanmin Jung; Mikyoung Lee; Pyung Kim; Won-Kyung Sung
This paper describes a decision-making support system focused on technologies, R&D agents, and R&D results. To deal with heterogeneous literatures and metadata, we introduce text mining and Semantic Web-based service platforms. InSciTe, a decision-making support system developed by us, provides a through process including analysis as well as ETL, verifies search and analysis results, connects its information with Semantic Web open sources in the level of RDF, and generates automatic summary reports. This system is significant in the sense that it has been implemented about a year earlier than similar projects such as CUBIST and FUSE.
Keywords: Decision-Making Support; Text Mining; Semantic Web; Technology Intelligence Service
Economic Analysis of SON-Enabled Mobile WiMAX BIBAKFull-Text 268-277
  Seungjin Kwack; Jahwan Koo; Jinwook Chung
Even though mobile communication traffic continues to grow fast, its revenue does not increase sufficiently. Hence, mobile communication network operators are seeking technologies and strategies to maintain qualitative network services and reduce the Operational Expenditure (OpEx). Self Organization Network (SON) technology is one of the effective solutions to reduce OpEx. This paper presents the economic analysis of SON-enabled Mobile WiMAX. We define Network Propagation Models (NPM), introduce feasible SON use cases that can reduce the OpEx efficiently, select OpEx factors that can be reduced by deploying SON use cases, and propose mathematical expressions for revenue, CapEx, OpEx, CF, DCF and NPV. For the analysis, we consider a sample site and perform its cost and financial analysis through comparisons before and after SON deployment. As a result, 69% and 89% of total OpEx are decreased at newly added sites and traditional sites, respectively. Moreover, profits are increased earlier. Finally, SON technology can be achieved substantial OpEx reductions in network operational tasks.
Keywords: Mobile WiMAX; Capital Expenditure (CapEx); Operational Expenditure (OpEx); Net Present Value (NPV); Self Organization Network (SON)
ICT-Enabled Business Process Re-engineering: International Comparison BIBAKFull-Text 278-284
  Ya-Ching Lee; Pin-Yu Chu; Hsien-Lee Tseng
The purpose of this study is to investigate ICT impacts on BPR. By comparing the data in the United and Chile, it is found that ICT adoption affects BPR, and, BPR influences business performance. There are differences of ICT adoption impacts on BPR and differences of BPR influences on the profit among countries.
Keywords: Business process reengineering; Structural equation modeling
A Methodology to Develop a Clinical Ontology for Healthcare Business BIBAKFull-Text 285-291
  Mario Macedo; Pedro T. Isaías
The development of clinical ontologies using common clinical data is a very important issue to record healthcare patient history, to use medical guidelines and to services accountability. The usage of terminologies already developed and available like SNOMED is a benefit. However many doctors argue that they prefer to continue using natural language and unstructured text to record patient data. Their point of view is that natural language is much more complete and flexible than standardized terminologies. This study intends to prove that it is possible to recognize patterns from natural language and identify the clinical procedures as they would be written with a normalized language. Another delivery of this study would be a precisely accountability of healthcare services.
Keywords: Ontology; Medical Guideline; Clinical Natural Language; SNOMED
Advances in E-commerce User Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 292-300
  Lawrence J. Najjar
To remain competitive, e-commerce user interfaces need to evolve as customer behaviors and technologies change. This paper describes several new user interface features that designers may want to add to their e-commerce offerings. The features include social media connections, storefronts on social media sites, automated product recommendations, dynamic product customization, dynamic product contextual simulation, flash sales, and mobile commerce.
Keywords: E-commerce; user interface design; social media; automated product recommendations; dynamic product customization; dynamic product contextual simulation; flash sales; mobile commerce; m-commerce
Information Technology Services Industry and Job Design BIBAKFull-Text 301-304
  Yoshihiko Saitoh
Service businesses produce over 70 percent of the gross domestic product in developed nations and there has been an increasing dependency on information technology to deliver services. Over the last few decades, many large companies that provide IT-based products have transformed their businesses into service oriented businesses. For those organizational changes, the job design must also be considered because the distinctive characteristics of service businesses require different skills than what was found in manufacturing.
   In reality, however, while the proportion of service businesses is increasing in such work organizations, service businesses produce job stress that can lead to health problems. Although stress perception appears to be the major factor of discomfort in IT services industry, studies about effective ways to design a job or avoid job stress are not so many. In this paper, several factors that produce job stress are discussed based on a conceptual model.
Keywords: Information Technology; Services Industry; Job Stress; Job Design
Dodging Window Interference to Freely Share Any Off-the-Shelf Application among Multiple Users in Co-located Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 305-314
  Shinichiro Sakamoto; Makoto Nakashima; Tetsuro Ito
A method of dodging window interference is described for allowing multiple users to freely share any off-the-shelf single-user application in co-located collaboration utilizing a shared device. This method is indispensable for transparently realizing application sharing in light effort with a centralized architecture by using a surrogate window which is a mimic of the original application's window. Although the original application should process any event on the surrogate window, window interference could be caused by overlapping the location of an event with the surrogate window and then the event cannot be processed. To avoid window interference we formulate the method based on quadrant-based window positioning, in which the original application's window is dynamically repositioned for displaying only one quadrant of this window in one corner of the screen area. The availability of the proposed method was certified and the usability was clarified in co-located collaboration in a university laboratory.
Keywords: Dodging window interference; window positioning; collaboration; application sharing; CSCW; centralized architecture; screen-sharing system
Process in Establishing Communication in Collaborative Creation BIBAKFull-Text 315-324
  Mamiko Sakata; Keita Miyamoto
We try to quantify the communication in collaborative activities in terms of verbal and non-verbal processes, using collaborators of a creative activity as the study subjects. This study set up a production task using LEGO® blocks. Our study subjects consisted of 5 groups of 3 males. They were asked to use their imagination freely to build a "castle" using the LEGO blocks. We recorded their activities with video cameras, while measuring their bodily movements three dimensionally using a motion capture system. Our experiment showed that the works created by groups with many illustrators (gestures for spatially expressing inner ideas and images) rated high both in perfection level and favorability rating. In a collaborative creation, it was shown that direct visual expressions of mental representations through nonverbal, rather than verbal, communication among the collaborators increased perfection level of the end product.
Keywords: Collaborative Creation; Nonverbal Behavior; Bodily Movements
Real-World User-Centered Design: The Michigan Workforce Background Check System BIBAKFull-Text 325-334
  Sarah J. Swierenga; Fuad Abujarad; Toni A. Dennis; Lori A. Post
The Michigan Workforce Background Check system demonstrates how an iterative user-centered design (UCD) process enhances organizational level communication practices and efficiency. Well-designed information communication technology is an essential component of effective public health management. Usability and accessibility testing informed subsequent design and development. The iterative improvement in the background check application demonstrates that UCD should be a component of public health management projects in particular, and online project development in general.
Keywords: User-centered design; usability; accessibility; information technology; criminal background checks
What Kinds of Human Negotiation Skill Can Be Acquired by Changing Negotiation Order of Bargaining Agents? BIBAKFull-Text 335-344
  Keiki Takadama; Atsushi Otaki; Keiji Sato; Hiroyasu Matsushima; Masayuki Otani; Yoshihiro Ichikawa; Kiyohiko Hattori; Hiroyuki Sato
This paper focuses on developing human negotiation skills through interactions between a human player and a computer agent, and explores its strategic method towards a human skill improvement in enterprise. For this purpose, we investigate the negotiation skill development through bargaining game played by the player and an agent. Since the acquired negotiation strategy of the players is affected by the negotiation order of the different types of agents, this paper aims at investigating what kind of the negotiation strategies can be learned by negotiating with different kinds of agents in order. Through an intensive human subject experiment, the following implications have been revealed: (1) human players, negotiating with the human-like behavior agent firstly and the strong/weak attitude agent secondly, can neither obtain the large payoff nor win many games, while (2) human players, negotiating with the strong/weak attitude agent firstly and the human-like behavior agent secondly, can obtain the large payoff and win many games.
Keywords: human skill development; agents; interaction; subject experiment; bargaining game
An Efficient and Scalable Meeting Minutes Generation and Presentation Technique BIBAKFull-Text 345-352
  Berk Taner; Can Yildizli; Ahmet Ozcan Nergiz; Selim Balcisoy
Meetings are essential for a group of individuals to work together. An important output of meetings is minutes. Taking and distributing minutes is a time consuming task. Also, any new member of a meeting series will not be able to easily refer to old minutes if they are in written or e-mail format. Our contribution to this problem is to propose a new approach for taking meeting minutes that will allow dynamic and cooperative note taking. In addition, resulting minutes will allow any new participant to spend a smaller integration time.
Keywords: dynamic meeting minutes; storytelling interfaces

Mobile and Ubiquitous Information

Object and Scene Recognition Using Color Descriptors and Adaptive Color KLT BIBAKFull-Text 355-363
  Volkan H. Bagci; Mariofanna G. Milanova; Roumen Kountchev; Roumiana Kountcheva; Vladimir Todorov
With the emergence and explosion of huge image databases there is an increasing necessity for effective methods to assess visual information on the level of objects and scene types. A wide variety of Content -- Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems already exists. As a key issue in CBIR, similarity measure quantifies the resemblance in contents between a pair of images. Depending on the type of features, the formulation of the similarity measure varies greatly. The primary goal of our study is to reduce the computation time and user interaction. The secondary goal is to reduce the semantic gap between high level concepts and low level features. A third goal is to evaluate system performance with regard to speed and accuracy. In the proposed study transform color after statistical transform, such as the Adaptive Color Karhunen Loeve Transform (ACKLT) is used as a color descriptor. The results are showing the advantage of the new algorithm for ACKLT in comparison with the YCrCb color model. Based on the experimental results, we concluded that correct selection of descriptors invariant to light intensity and light color changes affects object and scene category recognition.
Keywords: content-based image retrieval; Adaptive Color Karhunen Loeve Transform
What Maps and What Displays for Remote Situation Awareness and ROV Localization? BIBAKFull-Text 364-372
  Ryad Chellali; Khelifa Baizid
When exploring environments remotely, the knowledge of the tele-operated vehicle location is a key element for operators' situational awareness. Given visual information provided by the ROV, we aimed at finding the best combination between the maps used by operators, visual feedbacks provided by the ROV and the displays to show the previous information. In our system, tele-operators use 2D top-view or 3D immersive representation of the remote world as maps. From the remote site, they receive a live video stream provided by a remotely controlled pan-tilt camera. Maps and video streams are displayed on PC screens or HMD's. We give and we discuss here, the results of the performed experiments. As expected, the 3D maps give more accurate estimation but are time consuming. On the other hand, we found that the use of simple PC-screens leads to better results than HMDs.
Keywords: Degrees of Autonomy and Teleoperation; Human Factors and Ergonomics; Motion Planning and Navigation in Human-Centered Environments
Evaluation of Disaster Information Management System Using Tabletop User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 373-380
  Hidemi Fukada; Kazue Kobayashi; Aki Katsuki; Naotake Hirasawa
Most traditional disaster management systems in Japan employ input devices such as keyboards or mice, and it was necessary to post expert staff with high computer literacy to operate the system quickly and correctly in the tense situation when a disaster had occurred. In this research, a disaster information management system is proposed which can be easily operated, even under the disorderly conditions of a disaster, by the local government's person in charge of disaster management. This system achieves usability enabling easy input of damage information, even by local government staff with no expertise, by using a digital pen and tabletop user interface. Evaluation was conducted by prospective users using a prototype, and the evaluation results are satisfactory with regard to the function and operationality of the proposed system.
Keywords: disaster information management system; tabletop user interfaces; geographic information system (GIS); digital pen
Relationality-Oriented Systems Design for Emergence, Growth, and Operation of Relationality BIBAFull-Text 381-387
  Takuya Kajio; Manami Watanabe; Ivan Tanev; Katsunori Shimohara
Relationality-oriented system science introduced here is a new research field where we try to understand and grasp systems as substance in which humans, tangible and intangible artifacts are interdependent and function together. This paper proposes a research framework for a social network system that elicits relationality from people's daily life, grows relationality with self-propagation and self-proliferation mechanisms, and enables to promote, manage and operate reproduction of relationality.
Real-time and Interactive Rendering for Translucent Materials such as Human Skin BIBAKFull-Text 388-395
  Hiroyuki Kubo; Yoshinori Dobashi; Shigeo Morishima
To synthesize a realistic human animation using computer graphics, it is necessary to simulate subsurface scattering inside a human skin. We have developed a curvature-dependent reflectance functions (CDRF) which mimics the presence of a subsurface scattering effect. In this approach, we provide only a single parameter that represents the intensity of incident light scattering in a translucent material. We implemented our algorithm as a hardware-accelerated real-time renderer with a HLSL pixel shader. This approach is easily implementable on the GPU and does not require any complicated pre-processing and multi-pass rendering as is often the case in this area of research.
Keywords: computer graphics; real-time rendering; subsurface scattering
Local Communication Media Based on Concept of Media Biotope BIBAKFull-Text 396-402
  Hidetsugu Suto; Makiba Sakamoto
The media biotope concept considers media communication structures to be analogous to an eco biotope. Communities created by local media are connected and mutually influence each other. First, the properties of communication media suitable for creating media biotopes are discussed in order to define the concept of media biotope. Two novel communication mediums based on the media biotope concept were identified: one would strengthen communication among residents in a regions and the other would help travellers learn about sightseeing spots and communicate with residents. These mediums are designed to increase residents' enthusiasm for their region by promoting awareness among others.
Keywords: Media Biotope; communication medium; community; society
Big Fat Wand: A Laser Projection System for Information Sharing in a Workspace BIBAKFull-Text 403-410
  Toru Takahashi; Takao Terano
This paper proposes the method to solve a problem of a triad relation thorough an augmented reality system in cooperative works. It enables us to explain shortly, because it utilize spatial information without translation it to verbal ones. This paper realizes it with the laser projection AR system, Big Fat Wand (BFW). It meets requirement for a real workspace. From experimental results, the AR method with BFW is effective to decrease the explanation time.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Cooperative Work; Laser Projection System
Disaster Information Collecting/Providing Service for Local Residents BIBAKFull-Text 411-418
  Yuichi Takahashi; Daiji Kobayashi; Sakae Yamamoto
It has been pointed out that when people lack the information needed in the event of a disaster, such as a disastrous earthquake, this could lead to social chaos, including unwanted rumors and outrages, or could disrupt rescue and relief activities1, 2. In Japan, by law in principle, self-help or mutual assistance is required immediately after a disaster, and local residents are required to make judgments for action on their own. Although disaster information systems are gradually being organized at the municipal level, actual emergency evacuation areas and essential information for local citizens are still not sufficiently ready for provision at this stage.3 In this study, we established and evaluated a service infrastructure with an autonomous wireless network, aiming at providing services to collect and deliver disaster information, which will be required by local residents.
Keywords: earthquake; disaster victims; distributed autonomous system; wireless network
Comfortable Design of Task-Related Information Displayed Using Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display BIBAKFull-Text 419-429
  Kazuhiro Tanuma; Tomohiro Sato; Makoto Nomura; Miwa Nakanishi
Optical see-through head-mounted displays (OSDs) enable users to view digital images overlaid on the real world. Their most prospective application is as media that display instruction manuals in industrial fields. This study elucidates requirements for comfortable design depending on the complexity of workers' sight, particularly focusing on OSDs' perfect see-through feature. Our goal is to provide design guidelines for task-related information displayed using OSDs. Based on experimental results, requirements for the comfortable design of elements of the task-related information provided by OSDs are summarized. We suggest the content should be designed when OSDs are put to practical use. Complete examination revealed that users who repeatedly shifted their gaze from the OSD to the real object felt more comfortable because their eyes were subjected to lesser variation in brightness. Accordingly, we suggest that design elements of the information items should be designed to control the brightness difference between the information displayed on OSDs and real sight.
Keywords: Optical see-through head-mounted display; Information design; Task-related information
Usability Issues in Introducing Capacitive Interaction into Mobile Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 430-439
  Shuang Xu; Keith Bradburn
Capacitive sensing technology has become a promising solution to alleviating the hardware constraints of mobile interaction methods. However, little is known about users' perception and satisfaction of the integrated capacitive touch interaction and conventional inputs on mobile devices. This study examined users' performance of using a traditional 4-way navigation control enhanced with capacitive touch interaction. Findings from this investigation indicate that the additional capacitive interaction mode does not necessarily improve users' performance or perception of mobile navigation tasks. Although users welcome the innovative interaction techniques supported by the traditional cell phone keypad, it is crucial that the touch-based interaction is easy to discover, easy to maneuver, and does not impede users' conventional interactivity on mobile devices.
Keywords: Mobile interaction; capacitive; touch-based input; navigation; target selection
Balance Ball Interface for Performing Arts BIBAKFull-Text 440-445
  Tomoyuki Yamaguchi; Tsukasa Kobayashi; Shuji Hashimoto
This paper introduces a novel balance ball-shaped interface to translate human body expression to sound. Although a variety of mobile interfaces have been introduced for musical performance, most of them are small not to disturb performer's action. On the other hand the proposed interface is visible and large enough to act with human performer. All the sensors are equipped in a large balance ball which moves, rolls and deforms according to the performer's actions such as pushing and kicking.
Keywords: Balance ball interface; Musical performance; body expression
Study on Accessibility of Urgent Message Transmission Service in a Disaster BIBAKFull-Text 446-450
  Shunichi Yonemura; Kazuo Kamata
In this paper, the layer model of urgent message transmission service is proposed and the semantic level channels of communication inescapable when considering the accessibility of an urgent message are discussed.
Keywords: accessibility; urgent message; sign language

Information in Aviation

Is ACARS and FANS-1A Just Another Data Link to the Controller? BIBAFull-Text 453-462
  Vernol Battiste; Joel Lachter; Sarah V. Ligda; Jimmy H. Nguyen; L. Paige Bacon; Robert W. Koteskey; Walter W. Johnson
This report investigates issues surrounding TBO procedures for the current aircraft fleet when requesting deviations around weather. Air and ground procedures were developed to stringently follow TBO principles using three types of communication: Voice, ACARS, and FANS. ACARS and FANS are both text-based communication systems, but FANS allows uplinked flight plans to be automatically loaded into the FMS, while ACARS does not. From the controller perspective, though, all flight plan modifications were completed using a trial planner and delivered via voice or data comm, making FANS and ACARS similar. The controller processed pilots' request and approved or modified them based on traffic management constraints. In this context, the rate of non-conformance across all conditions was higher than anticipated, with off path errors being in excess of 20%. Controllers did not differentiate between the ACARS and FANS data comm, and showed mixed preferences for Voice vs data comm (ACARS and FANS).
Flight Deck Workload and Acceptability of Verbal and Digital Communication Protocols BIBAKFull-Text 463-472
  Summer L. Brandt; Joel Lachter; Arik-Quang V. Dao; Vernol Battiste; Walter W. Johnson
The Federal Aviation Administration hopes to convert air traffic management to Trajectory Based Operations (TBO), under which aircraft flight plans are known to computer systems which aid in scheduling and separation. However, few aircraft flying today have equipment designed to support TBO. We conducted a human-in-the-loop simulation of TBO using current fleet equipage. Three aircraft equipage levels were explored: Voice (the equipment currently used), FANS (the Future Aircraft Navigation System datacom designed for use in TBO), and ACARS (a datacom system widely used for communication with Airline Operation Centers). FANS uplinked flight plans can be automatically loaded into the Flight Management System, while ACARS delivers text that must be entered manually. Pilots rated various aspects of the procedures. Voice was preferred to FANS, with ACARS rated worst, apparently because of slow response times for requests with datacom. Using a mixture of Voice and datacom may provide the benefits of both.
Keywords: Trajectory Based Operations (TBO); Datacom; NextGen; Human-in-the-Loop simulation
Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 473-482
  Arik-Quang V. Dao; Summer L. Brandt; L. Paige Bacon; Joshua M. Kraut; Jimmy H. Nguyen; Katsumi Minakata; Hamzah Raza; Walter W. Johnson
This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts that varied traffic separation responsibility between the pilots, air-traffic controllers, and an automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to perform the tasks of weather avoidance and self-separation from surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, air-traffic controllers were responsible for traffic separation, but pilots were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, a ground based automation was used for conflict detection and resolution, and the flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but not detect conflicts. Results showed that pilot situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that pilot situation awareness on conflict resolution tasks can be improved by keeping them in the decision-making loop.
Keywords: situation awareness; flight deck; automation; NextGen; SAGAT; SPAM
Effect of ATC Training with NextGen Tools and Online Situation Awareness and Workload Probes on Operator Performance BIBAKFull-Text 483-492
  Ariana Kiken; R. Conrad Rorie; L. Paige Bacon; Sabrina Billinghurst; Joshua M. Kraut; Thomas Z. Strybel; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Vernol Battiste
The purpose of the present study was to examine (a) how controller performance changes with the introduction of NextGen tools and (b) how much training is needed for controllers to achieve a performance criterion after the tools have been introduced. Seven retired controllers were trained on an enroute sector in three phases: voice, Data Comm, and online probe. The voice phase trained current-day air traffic management techniques, the Data Comm phase trained NextGen tools, including Data Comm, conflict alerting, and conflict probes, and the probe phase trained controllers on an online probing technique. Although safety was not affected by the introduction of NextGen tools, the tools disrupted operator sector efficiency performance.
Keywords: Training; NextGen; Air Traffic Control
Effects of Data Communications Failure on Air Traffic Controller Sector Management Effectiveness, Situation Awareness, and Workload BIBAKFull-Text 493-499
  Joshua M. Kraut; Ariana Kiken; Sabrina Billinghurst; Corey A. Morgan; Thomas Z. Strybel; Dan Chiappe; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Data communications (Data Comm) is a tool needed to implement future concepts of air traffic management envisioned by NextGen. A combination of voice and pilot-controller data communications will allow the National Airspace System to handle 2-3X current day traffic by 2025. The performance, situation awareness, and workload of seven air traffic controllers was analyzed in a medium fidelity, human-in-the-loop simulation where a discrete Data Comm failure occurred after several trials with completely reliable Data Comm tools. We found that the Data Comm failure resulted in increased controller workload and decreased sector efficiency performance. However, the controllers were able to maintain safety in their sectors despite the Data Comm failure.
Keywords: data communications failure; aviation; air traffic controllers; NextGen
Pilot Information Presentation on the Flight Deck: An Application of Synthetic Speech and Visual Digital Displays BIBAKFull-Text 500-506
  Nickolas D. Macchiarella; Jason P. Kring; Michael S. Coman; Tom Haritos; Zoubair Entezari
Integration of synthetic speech for Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) communicative purposes is in its infancy. Integration of synthetic speech on the flight deck has the potential to improve air traffic control (ATC) and pilot communications through a multimodal presentation of critical information. In a synthesized speech system, digital-data traffic from ATC is converted into a synthetic, or computer-generated, voice for presentation to the pilot. Parameters to implement a synthetic speech system on the flight deck, as a means of optimizing communications between ATC and pilots, are under study at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in conjunction with the FAA- Human Factors Research and Engineering Group for NextGen (AJP-61) and John A. Volpe National Transportation Center.
Keywords: Synthetic Speech; NextGen; Data Comm; Air Traffic Control; Flight Training Device
How Data Comm Methods and Multi-dimensional Traffic Displays Influence Pilot Workload under Trajectory Based Operations BIBAKFull-Text 507-515
  Jimmy H. Nguyen; L. Paige Bacon; R. Conrad Rorie; Meghann Herron; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Thomas Z. Strybel; Vernol Battiste
The goal of the present study was to examine the impact of different data-communication (Data Comm) methods and use of multi-dimensional displays (2-D or 3-D) on pilot workload when Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) are employed. Eight pilots flew simulated enroute flights using an integrated (FANS-1A) or non-integrated (ACARS) Data Comm method. Pilots were also asked to rate the workload and acceptability of a route modification with the different Data Comm methods. Online assessments during the flight simulation showed no difference in pilot ratings of workload and route acceptability. However, in post trial questionnaires, pilots reported an overall preference for FANS as a Data Comm method compared to ACARS. The display type did not change pilots' positive ratings for the FANS method, but 3-D displays increase the operator's ability to understand the proposed flight plan changes when they used ACARS.
Keywords: Data Comm; 2-D displays; 3-D display; ACARS; FANS-1A; Trajectory Based Operations; Workload; NASA CSD
Macroergonomics in Air Traffic Control -- The Approach of a New System BIBAKFull-Text 516-525
  Luiza Helena Boueri Rebello
This paper aims to make a presentation of a study in order to obtain solutions for a better adequacy of a complex production system, where the system of air traffic control, and the Brazilian system that is in phase of modifications to a human-machine relationships over the working procedures in the light of the constant innovations in information systems in order to improve flight safety.
Keywords: Macroergonomics; Air Traffic Control; Flight Safety
A Preliminary Investigation of Training Order for Introducing NextGen Tools BIBAKFull-Text 526-533
  R. Conrad Rorie; Ariana Kiken; Corey A. Morgan; Sabrina Billinghurst; Gregory Morales; Kevin Monk; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Thomas Z. Strybel; Vernol Battiste
Eleven students enrolled in a 16-week radar simulation course were trained on current-day and NextGen tools. The order of the training was manipulated so that half of the students received current-day training first, followed by the training on NextGen tools, while the remaining students received training on the NextGen tools first, followed by current-day training. This paper reports data from the debriefing sessions following the conclusion of the course, with the intent of determining students' reaction to the training order and their comments and suggestions for future training schedules. Results indicated that future training should start with current-day procedures and delay the introduction of NextGen tools until trainees have established fundamental air traffic management skills.
Keywords: ATC; training; part-task; NextGen